The Past and Present Society

AIIion's FalaI FIavs
AulIov|s)· JoIn H. LangIein
Bevieved vovI|s)·
Souvce· Fasl & Fvesenl, No. 98 |FeI., 1983), pp. 96-120
FuIIisIed I¸· Oxford University Press on IeIaIJ oJ The Past and Present Society
SlaIIe UBL· http://www.jstor.org/stable/650689 .
Accessed· 30/11/2012 02·19
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .
http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
.
Oxford University Press and The Past and Present Society are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve
and extend access to Past &Present.
http://www.jstor.org
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS*
BOUOLAS HAY'S
ESSAY, ¨FBOFEBTY,
AUTHOBITY ANB THE CBIMINAL
Lav¨,
vIicI sounds lIe
opening
sIol Jov lIe coIIeclion lilIed AIIion's
FalaI
Tvee,
Ias allvacled a
Iuge JoIIoving, especiaII¸
oulside
speciaIisl
IegaI Iislov¸
civcIes.'
Ha¸'s
nain lIesis is lIal sone oJ lIe nosl
cIavaclevislic Jealuves oJ
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸ EngIisI
cvininaI
pvo-
ceduve Jov cases oJ sevious cvine
vequive
lo Ie undevslood as ¨a
vuIing-cIass conspivac¸¨ againsl
lIe Iovev
ovdevs.2 In lIe
pvesenl
avlicIe I sIaII sIov lIal vIen lesled
againsl
delaiIed evidence oJ lIe
vovI oJ lIe
JeIon¸ couvls, Ha¸'s
lIesis
appeavs JundanenlaII¸
nis-
laIen.
|I
sIaII nol Ie
discussing
lIe olIev
essa¸s
in lIe AIIion voI-
une.)
AIlIougI
lIe
Ha¸ essa¸
Ias sevevaI
slvands,
in ils nosl
inpovlanl
dinension il
puvpovls
lo
expIain
a ceIeIvaled
pecuIiavil¸
oJ lIe cvini-
naI
juslice s¸slen
oJ lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸, naneI¸
lIe
Iavge
nunIev
oJ oJJences
punisIaIIe I¸
dealI. TIe Iisl oJ
noninaII¸ capilaI
oJJences
gvev lIvougIoul
lIe
cenluv¸:3
vavious aulIovs vecIon il al
upvavds
oJ 200

lIe
eavI¸
nineleenlI
cenluv¸, aIlIougI
lIal
Jiguve
is IIoaled
in
va¸s
lIal I sIaII discuss Ialev. In lIe acluaI adninislvalion oJ lIe
cvininaI
Iav, Iovevev, capilaI punisInenl
Iad Ieen on lIe vane
since lIe sixleenlI
cenluv¸,
in lIe sense lIal a
decIining pvopovlion
oJ
pevsons
convicled oJ
JeIon¸
veve execuled. TIe
puzzIe is, vI¸
did
lIe
¨penaI
dealI vale¨4 decIine vIiIe lIe
IegisIaluve
vas
lIvealening
evev nove
capilaI punisInenl?
TIe convenlionaI accounl oJ lIis
pavadox
is
Badzinovicz's.s
I Iave
aIva¸s
Jound il
JundanenlaII¸ pevsuasive.
I sliII
do,
and I sIaII veluvn
lo il al lIe end oJ lIis avlicIe.
Ha¸
oJJevs
quile
a diJJevenl
expIanalion.
TIe
videning gap
Ielveen lIe
expanding
lIveals oJ dealI on one
*
An eavIiev vevsion oJ lIis
papev
vas
pvesenled
lo lIe OcloIev
198
I1
neeling
oJ lIe
Anevican
Sociel¸
Jov
LegaI Hislov¸. Suggeslions
and veJevences Jvon
JoIn Beallie,
J.
S.
CocIIuvn,
O. B.
EIlon,
Oven
Fiss, Oeovge FIelcIev,
Lavvence
Fviednan,
CIavIes
Ova¸,
TIonas
Oveen, BougIas Ha¸,
B. H.
HeInIoIz,
Bennis
HulcIinson,
OavelI
Jones,
F.
J.
B.
King,
MavI
KisIIansI¸,
Bavid
Langun,
NovvaI
Movvis,
BicIavd
Fosnev,
A. W. B.
Sinpson,
Lavvence Slone and
JoIn Sl¸Ies
ave
gvaleJuII¸
acInovIedged.
I
BougIas Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨,
in
BougIas Ha¸,
Felev
LineIaugI, JoIn
O.
BuIe,
E. F.
TIonpson
and CaI
WinsIov,
AIIion's FalaI
Tvee· Cvine and
Sociel¸
in
EigIleenlI-Cenluv¸ EngIand |London, 1975), FF. 17-63.
2
IIid., p. 52
3
Fov vavious
counls,
see Leon
Badzinovicz,
A
Hislov¸ oJ EngIisI
CvininaI Lav and
ils Adninislvalion
Jvon 1750, 4
voIs. |London, 1948-68), i, pp. 3-4:
Iul see
p. 118
IeIov.
4 TIe Janous
pIvase
oJ
J.
C.
JeaJJveson,
MiddIesex
Counl¸ Becovds, 4
voIs. |London,
I886-92), iii, p.
xvii.
s
Biscussed on
pp.
I
15-16
IeIov.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS
97
Iand and
veIaliveI¸ inJvequenl inposilion
oJ lIe dealI
penaIl¸
on lIe
olIev Iand enIanced lIe discvelion oJ lIe eIile lo decide vIon lo
execule and vIon lo
spave.
Il vas ¨a
vuIing-cIass conspivac¸¨
lo use
lIe cvininaI Iav in ovdev lo exlvacl deJevence Jvon lIe Iovev ovdevs.
Ha¸
delecls lIis
seIJ-sevving
discvelion
lIvougIoul
lIe nain
pIases
oJ lIe cvininaI
pvocess
-
pvoseculion, lviaI, senlencing
and execulive
cIenenc¸.6
Ha¸
does nol
seviousI¸
cIain lo Iave idenliJied a
conspivac¸
in lIe
convenlionaI sense oJ lIe
levn,
lIal
is,
an
agveenenl
lo
pvonole
unIavJuI ov vicIed ends.
BalIev,
Ie
sa¸s,
lIe
pIol
vas one in vIicI
¨lIe connon
assunplions
oJ lIe
conspivalovs Ia¸
so
deep
lIal
lIe¸
veve nevev
queslioned,
and
vaveI¸
nade
expIicil¨.7
TIis
va¸
oJ
speaI-
ing
divecls allenlion
ava¸
Jvon lIe necIanisn oJ cIass
concevl,
vIicI
lIe
essa¸ IavdI¸ cIaviJies,
and lovavds lIe
supposed oIjecl, enpIas-
ized
incessanlI¸,
oJ cIass doninalion and
oppvession |¨lIe
Iav
.
..
aIIoved lIe vuIevs oJ
EngIand
lo naIe lIe couvls a seIeclive inslvu-
nenl oJ cIass
juslice
..
.¨).8
I lIinI lIal a cvilic inlevesled in Ivoad
queslions
oJ Mavxisl Iis-
lovicaI nelIod
nigIl
laIe a slevn viev oJ so
anIiguous
a nolion oJ
conspivac¸,
Iul lIal is nol

nission. SliII Iess do I visI lo
Iving
lIe
genevaI
lenels oJ Mavxisl
lIeov¸
inlo
queslion.
Il is lvue lIal I an
cvilicizing
a Mavxisl
vovI,
and lIal

ovn
pvediIeclions
ave non-
Mavxisl,
Iul
n¸ cvilique
vouId Ie
IavgeI¸
unaJJecled iJ I veve lo
assune lIal Mavx and Iis JoIIovevs Iave
covveclI¸
cIavaclevized lIe
nain novenenls in Weslevn sociaI and
poIilicaI Iislov¸.
Even lIe
nosl dedicaled Mavxisl vouId concede lIal lIeve is a
vaviel¸
oJ suI-
jecls
on vIicI Mavxisl IislovicaI nelIod does nol lIvov nucI
IigIl
-
lIe
Iislov¸
oJ cIinalic
cIanges,
lIe invenlion oJ lIe JIusI
loiIel,
ov vIal Iave
¸ou.
In lIis avlicIe I sIaII Ie
sa¸ing
lIal lIe
aspecls
oJ
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸ EngIisI
cvininaI
pvoceduve enpIasized
in lIe
Ha¸ essa¸ IeIong
on lIal Iisl oJ
suIjecls.
TIe cvininaI Iav and ils
pvoceduves
exisled lo sevve and
pvolecl
lIe inlevesls oJ lIe
peopIe
vIo suJJeved as viclins oJ
cvine, peopIe
vIo veve
ovevvIeIningI¸
non-eIile.
I
SOUBCES
I sIaII
deveIop
lIis viev
I¸ dvaving
on dala Jvon a
gvoup
oJ
171
cases conducled al Jouv sessions oJ lIe OId
BaiIe¸ duving
lIe
¸eavs
6
Fvoseculion· ¨il vas in lIe Iands oJ lIe
genlIenan
vIo venl lo Iav lo evoIe
gvalilude
as veII as Jeav in lIe nainlenance oJ deJevence¨
|Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, p. 41).
TviaI· ¨TIe naluve oJ lIe cvininaI lviaI
gave
enovnous
discvelion lo nen oJ
pvopevl¸
. . .
[in
addilion
lo]
lIe
pvoseculov¨ |iIid., p. 42).
Senlencing·
cIavaclev evidence Jvon
¨enpIo¸evs, vespeclaIIe
Javnevs and
neigIIouving
genlIenen¨ nigIl
¨induce lIe
judge
lo
pass
a Iessev
senlence,
ov veconnend a
pavdon¨
|iIid., p. 42). CIenenc¸·
lIe
pavdon pvocess ¨epilonizes
lIe
discvelionav¸
eIenenl oJ
lIe Iav
. . .¨
|iIid., p. 43).
7 IIid., p. 52
8
IIid., p. 48.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
98
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
Jvon
1754
lo
1756.
TIe dala cones Jvon a
slud¸ Ieing puIIisIed
eIsevIeve,
vIicI is devoled lo
veconslvucling
and
eslaIIisIing
lIe
veIiaIiIil¸
oJ a
paiv
oJ souvces lIal
suppI¸
navvalive accounls oJ vIal
vas
Iappening
al lIese cvininaI lviaIs.9 One souvce is a sel oJ
judge's
noles
-
lIal
is,
couvlvoon ninules oJ evidence and
juv¸
inslvuclions
-
laIen dovn

Siv
BudIe¸ B¸dev,
cIieJ
juslice
oJ
King's BencI,
vIo sal al lIe OId
BaiIe¸
Jov lIese Jouv sessions and
acluaII¸ pvesided
ovev lIe lviaI
oJ
44
oJ lIe
171
cases. LiIe Iis IvelIven on lIe connon
Iav
IencI, B¸dev
sevved
inlevnillenlI¸
as a lviaI
judge
al lIe OId
BaiIe¸.
His noles ave
exceplionaII¸
delaiIed
I¸ conpavison
vilI olIevs
lIal suvvive Jov lIe
peviod,
Jov lIe
sinpIe
veason lIal
B¸dev
Inev
sIovlIand. As a
¸oulI
Ie Iad nasleved one oJ lIe slandavd sIovlIand
s¸slens
oJ lIe
da¸.
His OId
BaiIe¸ noles,
as veII as a
diav¸
oJ Iis
assize noles lIal
Ha¸
used in Iis
essa¸'0
and lIal I sIaII aIso dvav
upon,
Iave Ieen lvanscviIed inlo
l¸pescvipl I¸
a
cipIev expevl.
TIe Jouv OId
BaiIe¸
sessions al vIicI
B¸dev
sal
duving
Iis IvieJ
judiciaI
caveev veve aIso lIe
suIjecl
oJ a sevies oJ
conlenpovav¸ pan-
pIIel vepovls,
nov caIIed lIe OId
BaiIe¸
Sessions
Fapevs.
1
TIe
pan-
pIIels
veve
pvepaved
Jov a
Ia¸ veadevsIip
and soId on lIe slveels oJ
London
innedialeI¸
aJlev lIe lviaIs. I Iave vvillen aIoul lIeiv
ovigins
and cIavaclevislics in an avlicIe
puIIisIed
a Jev
¸eavs ago.12
TIe
panpIIels
conlinue lo Ie lIe nain souvce Jov lIe delaiI oJ lIe cvininaI
lviaIs lIal I sIaII Ie
discussing
Jov lIe
B¸dev ¸eavs.
TIe
B¸dev
noles
IolI conJivn lIe
veIiaIiIil¸
oJ vIal lIe
panpIIels vepovl
and add
delaiI, especiaII¸ IegaI delaiI,
lIal lIe
panpIIels
IIeacIed oul.
In
enpIasizing
a
lvo-¸eav peviod
Jvon
nid-cenluv¸
I vun lIe usuaI
visI oJ
sanpIing evvov,
and I sIaII Ie unaIIe lo covvecl
adequaleI¸
Jov
deveIopnenls
Ialev in lIe
cenluv¸. |TIe Ha¸ essa¸
aIso veIies
IeaviI¸
Iul nol
enliveI¸
on
nid-cenluv¸ souvces.)
TIe nain
oIjeclion
lo
Iasing
a
cvilique
oJ
Ha¸'s essa¸
on OId
BaiIe¸
souvces is lIal London
vas
uniqueI¸ uvIan,
vIeveas
Ha¸'s essa¸
IIends
pvovinciaI
and Lon-
don souvces. To Ie
suve,
ve do see Iess
sIeep-sleaIing
and nove
sIop-IiJling
in London lIan ve vouId Jind in LancasIive. Fovlu-
9 JoIn
H.
LangIein, ¨SIaping
lIe
EigIleenlI-Cenluv¸
CvininaI
TviaI·
A Viev Jvon
lIe
B¸dev Souvces¨,
Univ.
oJ CIicago
Lav
Bev., 1
|1983).
TIe
B¸dev
OId
BaiIe¸
Noles
appeav
as Bocunenl no.
14
oJ lIe lvanscviIed noleIooIs. TIe
nanuscvipl
and a
cop¸
oJ lIe
l¸pescvipl
ave
deposiled
in LincoIn's Inn. TIe
nanuscvipl diav¸ |IeveaJlev B¸dev
Assize
Biav¸)
is lvanscviIed as Bocunenl no.
I9|J),
voIune
I1129
oJ lIe
HavvovI¸
Manuscvipls,
Sandon HaII.
Copies
oJ IolI
l¸pescvipls
Iave aIso Ieen
deposiled
al lIe
Univevsil¸
oJ
CIicago
Lav ScIooI
LiIvav¸.
1o
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, pp. 28-9.
1
Buving
lIe
B¸dev ¸eavs
lIe
panpIIels
veve
puIIisIed
in London
eigIl
lines a
¸eav, usuaII¸
in lvo
pavls,
and Ieav lIe lilIe TIe
Fvoceedings
on lIe
King's
Connissions
oJ
lIe
Feace, O¸ev
and
Tevninev,
and OaoI
BeIivev¸ Jov
lIe
Cil¸ oJ London:
and aIso lIe
OaoI
BeIivev¸ Jov
lIe
Counl¸ oJ MiddIesex,
HeId al
Juslice-HaII
in lIe
OId-BaiIe¸ |Ieve-
aJlev OId
BaiIe¸
Sessions
Fapevs).
12
JoIn
H.
LangIein,
¨TIe CvininaI TviaI IeJove lIe
Lav¸evs¨,
Univ.
oJ CIicago
Lav
Bev., xIv |1978), pp. 263, 267-72.
Fov JuvlIev
discussion,
see
LangIein, ¨SIaping
lIe
EigIleenlI-Cenluv¸
CvininaI TviaI¨.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS
99
naleI¸,
vIen sucI issues avise in lIis
papev,
I sIaII Ie aIIe lo veJev lo
lIe
Jindings
Jov
pvovinciaI
Essex conlained in a
spIendid papev I¸
F.
J.
B.
King.13
Il sIouId aIso Ie oIsevved lIal
EngIisI
cvininaI
pvoceduve
vas
vev¸
nucI a nalionaI
s¸slen. AIlIougI
a Jev delaiIs
oJ OId
BaiIe¸ pvaclice
veve
pecuIiav,14
lIe JundanenlaI
pvincipIes
appIied equaII¸
in lIe
nelvopoIis
and in lIe
pvovinces.
Hovevev
nucI lIe cIienleIe
diJJeved,
lIe
pvoceduvaI
inslilulions veve sIaved.
So veve lIe
vo¸aI judges
vIo sal in luvns al lIe OId
BaiIe¸
and vode
lIe assize civcuils. In
1755,
Jov
exanpIe, BudIe¸ B¸dev pvesided
on
lIe NovlIevn Civcuil in
MavcI,
al lIe OId
BaiIe¸
in
ApviI,
on lIe
Hone Civcuil in
Augusl,
and IacI al lIe OId
BaiIe¸
in OcloIev.
II
OFFENCES ANB OFFENBEBS
Fvoseculions Jov
JeIon¸
in lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸
veve Jov oJJences
lIal Iad Ieen
JeIon¸
Jov cenluvies IeJove. TIe Iav lIal lIe couvls Iad
occasion lo enJovce in lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸
vas nol Jov lIe nosl
pavl
lIe Iav lIal lIe
conlenpovav¸ IegisIaluve
vas
enacling.
An ilen-
izalion oJ lIe oJJences in
n¸ sanpIe
Jov
1754-6, vepvesenling
Jouv
nonlIs' vovlI oJ aII lIe cases oJ sevious cvine
pvoseculed
in lIe
nelvopoIis,
viII
pvovide
a convenienl iIIuslvalion oJ lIe acluaI Iusi-
ness in lIe couvl oJ
capilaI juvisdiclion. |See TaIIe.)
TIe
pvosaic
naluve oJ lIese oJJences viII cone as a
suvpvise
lo
veadevs vIo Iave laIen
seviousI¸ Ha¸'s pveoccupalion
vilI sucI
IegisIalion
as lIal
againsl
Jood viols and
vovI-pIace insuvveclions.is
In

dala ve do nol see oJJences lIal
exenpIiJ¸
lIe advance oJ
pve-induslviaI capilaIisn. VivluaII¸
aII oJ lIe oJJences Iad Ieen JeI-
onious IacI inlo lIe niddIe
ages,
a
poinl Ha¸
Ias
IaleI¸ acInovIedged
in anolIev conlexl in an avlicIe in lIis
jouvnaI.16
Mosl
oJ lIe oJJences
13
F.
J.
B.
King,
¨Becision-MaIevs and
Becision-MaIing
in lIe
I8lI
Cenluv¸
CvininaI Lav· TIe SociaI
Ovoups
InvoIved in lIe FunisInenl oJ
Fvopevl¸
OJJendevs
and lIe Cvilevia on WIicI TIeiv Becisions Weve Based¨
|l¸pescvipl,
MavcI
1981).
King's papev,
sliII
unpuIIisIed,
vas
pvesenled
lo a conJevence al lIe
Univevsil¸
oJ
Kenl, CanlevIuv¸,
in
ApviI 1981.
14
Fov
exanpIe, |I)
lIe OId
BaiIe¸
sal
eigIl
lines a
¸eav, pvovinciaI
assizes
lvice:
|2)
lIe OId
BaiIe¸
Iad a
pevnanenl judge,
lIe Becovdev oJ
London,
as veII as
volaling
connon Iav
judges
IiIe
B¸dev:
lIe vecovdev
pvonounced
senlence and
conve¸ed
veconnendalions Jov
cIenenc¸
lo lIe nonavcI on IeIaIJ oJ lIe
couvl: |3)
lIe
pve-lviaI
pvocess
lIal cuIninaled in lviaI IeJove lIe OId
BaiIe¸
vas nove
s¸slenalic,
on accounl
oJ lIe vovI oJ lIe
quasi-oJJiciaI
¨couvl
juslice¨ |J.F.)
Jov MiddIesex and lIe inslilulion
oJ ¨lIe
silling
AIdevnan¨ in lIe
Cil¸.
Is
See
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, pp.
20-1·
¨lIe cIass lIal
conlvoIIed FavIianenl vas
using
lIe cvininaI sanclion lo enJovce lvo oJ lIe vadicaI
vedeJinilions oJ
pvopevl¸
vIicI
genlIenen
veve
naIing
in lIeiv ovn inlevesls
duving
lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸¨.
16
BougIas Ha¸, ¨Wav,
BeavlI and TIeJl in lIe
EigIleenlI Cenluv¸·
TIe Becovd
oJ lIe
EngIisI Couvls¨,
Fasl and
Fvesenl,
no.
95 |Ma¸ 1982), p. 146·
¨In
spile
oJ lIe
JIood oJ nev
capilaI
slalules lIal JoIIoved lIe
Beslovalion,
nosl
capilaI pvoseculions
conlinued lo Ie nade undev Tudov
IegisIalion.
In lIe
¸eavs
consideved
Ieve, 1742
lo
|conl.
on
p.
ioo)
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
I00
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
veve
onI¸ noninaII¸ capilaI,
as IeneJil oJ
cIevg¸ pevlained
and ve-
duced lIe sanclion Jvon dealI lo lvanspovlalion.17
TABLE
OFFENCES FBOSECUTEB AT BUBLEY BYBEB'S FOUB OLB BAILEY
SESSIONS
I754-I756*
Honicide
3
BuvgIav¸, IveaIing
and
enleving 7
HigIva¸ voIIev¸ 4
LiveslocI lIeJl 6
FocIel-picIing 13
SIop-IiJling
20
TIeJl Jvon
Iodgings, inns, puIs 15
Boneslic lIeJl Io
TIeJl Jvon
vovI-pIaces
ov
enpIo¸evs 13
OlIev
lIeJl, 40s.
ov ovev
15
OlIev
lIeJl,
undev
40s. 53
Beceiving
sloIen
goods 13
Fovging
a viII
I
Aiding
a
gaoI-IveaI
I
AssauIl and
voIIev¸
2
Fevjuv¸
and aIuse oJ
IegaI pvocess 3
*
Noles and souvces· OJJences
pvoseculed
OcloIev
1754, ApviI
and OcloIev
1755,
and
ApviI 1756,
lIe Jouv sessions al vIicI
BudIe¸ B¸dev
vas
anong
lIe lviaI con-
nissionevs. OJJences ave
calegovized
in lIe TaIIe in
Ia¸ levns:
eacI Ias Ieen laIuIaled
as
oviginaII¸ cIavged, aIlIougI juvies
veluvned Iessev oJJences ov
acquilled oulvigIl
in
nan¸.
WIen a case invoIves
nuIlipIe cIavges, onI¸
lIe nosl sevious Ias Ieen
laIuIaled,
in ovdev lo avoid douIIe
counling.
In
eigIl
cases
invoIving nuIlipIe
deJendanls lIe
couvl lvied
sepavale
indiclnenls Jov
veceiving
sloIen
goods sinuIlaneousI¸
vilI lIe
veIaled
Iavcen¸ cases,
vIicI accounls Jov lIe
discvepanc¸
Ielveen
171
lviaIs and
179
oJJences.
B¸dev
OId
BaiIe¸ Noles, pp. 1-62:
OId
BaiIe¸
Sessions
Fapevs |Ocl. 1754,
Apv.,
Ocl.
1755, Apv. 1756).
See nn.
9, II
aIove.
Il is
vev¸
Iavd lo Jind
Jiguves vovlI¸
oJ
vonance,
even sociaI vo-
nance, anong
lIe
sIop-IiJlevs, picIpocIels, piIJeving
Iousenaids
and disIonesl
appvenlices
vIo
popuIaled
lIe OId
BaiIe¸
docI. To Ie
suve,
nosl oJ lIen veve
poov,
as cvininaIs lend lo Ie. AnaloIe Fvance
nade lIe nosl oJ lIal in a Janous ullevance. ¨TIe Iav
[oJ Fvance]¨,
Ie
said,
¨in ils
najeslic equaIil¸,
JovIids lIe vicI as veII as lIe
poov
lo
sIeep
undev
Ividges,
lo
Ieg
in lIe
slveels,
and lo sleaI
Ivead¨.'is
AcluaII¸,
lo lIe exlenl lIal ouv souvces Iel us see
an¸lIing
aIoul lIe
econonic civcunslances oJ lIe
pevsons accused,
ve can
sa¸
lIal lIe
cuIpvils
lvied al lIe OId
BaiIe¸
ave seIdon deslilule. Sone
pIead
Iungev
ov
sa¸ lIe¸
ave
unenpIo¸ed,
Iul in lIe nain ve see
enpIo¸ed
pevsons
vIo Iave
¸ieIded
lo
lenplalion
valIev lIan
necessil¸.
To
|n.
16
conl.)
1802,
al Ieasl
95 pev
cenl oJ lIe
450 capilaI cIavges
lvied al SlaJJovdsIive assizes veve
Iased on slalules enacled IeJove
1742¨. |TIe
nain Tudov
IegisIalion
lIal
Ha¸
Ias in
nind
suppIied slalulov¸
Iasis Jov oJJences lIal Iad Ieen connon Iav JeIonies Jvon
nedievaI lines.
BeveIopnenls
in IeneJil oJ
cIevg¸,
discussed on
p. I117 IeIov, pve-
cipilaled
nucI oJ lIe Tudov
IegisIalion.)
17 Biscussed on
p. I117
IeIov.
18 AnaloIe
Fvance,
Le
I¸s vouge |Favis, 1894), quoled
in
JoIn BavlIell,
FaniIiav
Quolalions,
I5lI
edn.
|Boslon,
I980),
p.
655.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS IOI
luvn lIese IillIe cvooIs inlo cIass vavviovs one nusl veav vose-
coIouved gIasses oJ lIe deepesl Iue.
III
FBOSECUTION
IJ lIe cvininaIs veve oJlen
poov,
lIeiv viclins
|vIon
ve see
sevving
as
pvivale pvoseculovs
in lIe OId
BaiIe¸ lviaIs)
veve nol nucI Iellev
oJJ
-
a
poinl
lIal is
pIa¸ed
dovn in
Ha¸'s essa¸.19
In lIe OId
BaiIe¸
cases ve oJlen cvoss a cIass Iine vIen ve nove Jvon lIe oJJendev lo
Iis
viclin,
Iul nol a cIass
guIJ.
TIe viclin is
usuaII¸
nove
pvopevlied
lIan lIe
pevson
vIo viclinized
Iin, aIlIougI
oJlen
onI¸ sIigIlI¸.
I
Iave nol Iil
upon
a
va¸
oJ
quanliJ¸ing lIis,
in
pavl
Iecause inJov-
nalion aIoul lIe sociaI slalus oJ lIe viclin is so
IapIazavd
in lIe OId
BaiIe¸ souvces,
Iul I lIinI lIal
an¸one
vIo sludies a voIune oJ lIe
OId
BaiIe¸
Sessions
Fapevs
viII concIude lIal lIe viclins seIdon
cone Jvon lIe
pvopevlied
61ile.
TIe¸
ave
l¸picaII¸
snaII
sIopIeepevs,
avlisans, Iodging-Iouse Ieepevs, innIeepevs
and so JovlI. IncIuded
on lIe Iisl oJ
viclin-pvoseculovs
Jov lIe Jivsl dozen cases in lIe Oclo-
Iev
1754 sessions,
Jov
exanpIe,
ave a Ioon
naIev,
a Ivass
Joundev,
a vine
nevcIanl,
and a
pevlevev,
eacI
pvoseculing piIJeving enpIo¸-
ees:
a IaIev's sevvanl and a
jouvne¸nan
laiIov
pvoseculing lIieving
pvoslilules:
a
Iodging-Iouse Ieepev
and a Jovnev voon-nale
pvose-
culing
Jov lIe lIeJl oJ Juvniluve and doneslic
goods
Jvon
Iodgings:
and a caIico
pvinlev
vIo Iad Ieen
nugged
on lIe slveel.
OnI¸
one
-
a
najov
vIo
pvoseculed
a slaIIeIand Jov
Iovse-sleaIing
-
Jils
Ha¸'s inage
vilI
an¸
ease.
King's
dala covvoIovales lIe OId
BaiIe¸
souvces in a
IeIpJuI va¸.
He Ias vovIed vilI Essex
quavlev
sessions
vecovds, noslI¸ vecogni-
zances in vIicI
descviplions
oJ lIe viclins
appeav JaivI¸ veguIavI¸.
I
slvess,
as
King does,
lIal lIeve ave
inpovlanl
diJJevences Ielveen
cases lviaIIe al
quavlev
sessions on lIe one Iand and al assizes ov lIe
OId
BaiIe¸
on lIe olIev
Iand:
in
pavlicuIav,
lIe JeIonies lvied al
quavlev
sessions veve
non-capilaI,
lIal
is, pell¸ Iavcen¸.
NevevlIe-
Iess,
il is
vev¸ leIIing
lIal
King's
laIuIalions oJ lIe
occupalionaI
slalus
oJ
pvoseculovs
Jov lIe
peviod 1760-I8oo
sIov lIal ¨Avound
90%
oJ
lIese
pvoseculovs
cane Jvon lIvee
gvoups
-
lIe
Javnevs,
lIe lvades-
nen and
avlisans,
and lIe
IaIouvevs¨.20
King
JuvlIev
poinls
lo lIe
vovIs oJ Bvevev and
Sl¸Ies
and oJ Bavid
FIiIips,
IolI
puIIisIed
19
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, p. 37·
¨TIe
poov
suJJev Jvon
lIeJl as veII as lIe
vicI,
and in
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸ EngIand pvoIaII¸
Jav nove
poov
nen Iosl
goods
lo
lIieves,
iJ
onI¸
Iecause lIe vicI veve Jev and lIeiv
pvopevl¸
nove
secuve¨
20
King,
¨Becision-MaIevs and
Becision-MaIing
in lIe 18lI
Cenluv¸
CvininaI
Lav¨, p. 9
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
102
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
aJlev lIe
Ha¸ essa¸,
vIicI veacI siniIav
concIusions.21
Fvoseculion
vas nol a
pvesevve
oJ lIe
vuIing
cIass.
Indeed,
one oJ lIe nain lIenes in lIe
Iislov¸
oJ lIe adninislvalion
oJ lIe cvininaI Iav in lIe second IaIJ oJ lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸
vas
lIe eJJovl lo
encouvage pvoseculoviaI aclivil¸ I¸
lIe Iovev ovdevs. In
one sense lIis is a
deveIopnenl
lIal lvaces IacI lo lIe
169os,
vIen
pavIianenl Iegan
lo enacl lIe slalules lIal oJJeved vevavds Jov suc-
cessJuI
pvoseculion
oJ cevlain Ieinous
JeIonies, incIuding IigIva¸
voIIev¸, IuvgIav¸, IouseIveaIing
and
Iovse-sleaIing.22
In lIe
1750s
lIe
canpaign vaged I¸ Henv¸ FieIding
lo oIlain a
suIsid¸
Jov ex-
penses
Jov
poov pvoseculovs
and vilnesses cane lo Jvuilion in
Iegis-
Ialion
oJ
I752
and
1754,23
and ve Inov Jvon
BudIe¸ B¸dev's
assize
diav¸
lIal lIe slalules veve
Ieing pul
lo use. He leIIs us lIal il Iad
Iecone lIe convenlion lo avavd Jive
sIiIIings pev da¸
in
expenses,
and in one case Ie
vepovls
lIal Ie veJused an avavd lo an
innIeepev
vIo seened loo
pvospevous.24
In
dispuling Ha¸'s
vevsion oJ lIe
pvoseculoviaI pvocess
-
lIal ¨il
vas in lIe Iands oJ lIe
genlIenan
vIo venl lo Iav lo evoIe
gvalilude
as veII as Jeav in lIe nainlenance oJ deJevence¨
-
I Iave Ieen
avguing
lIal
genlIenen pvoseculovs
veve Jev and Jav Ielveen. I vanl aIso lo
laIe nodesl
exceplion
lo lIe nolion lIal since
pvoseculion
vas
pvi-
vale,
a
polenliaI pvoseculov
Iad lIe discvelion lo lIvealen il in seIJ-
sevving va¸s.
In
Jacl,
vavious Jaclovs vovIed lo civcunscviIe lIe
pvoseculov's
discvelion.
TIe nosl endenic
aspecl
oJ vIal one
nigIl
caII
pvoseculoviaI
dis-
cvelion is lIe
pIenonenon
oJ
non-vepovling
oJ cvine. We ave aII
JaniIiav vilI lIe vecenl discussion aIoul vIelIev incveases in ve-
povled
inslances oJ
vape
veJIecl incveased incidence oJ lIe
oJJence,
ov
Iessened avevsion lo
vepovling
il. WIen ve deaI vilI
gvand Iavcen¸,
vIicI in aII ils Jovns vas lIe
pvedoninanl eigIleenlI-cenluv¸ JeIon¸,
ve can Ie suve lIal a viclin vIo cIose lo
Jovgive
an oJJendev

nol
vepovling
lIe cvine couId seIdon Ie
slopped.
Bul lIis vas
IavdI¸
a
21
IIid., pp. 3, 12, ciling JoIn
Bvevev and
JoIn Sl¸Ies,
An
UngovevnaIIe FeopIe·
TIe
EngIisI
and lIeiv Lav in lIe SevenleenlI and
EigIleenlI
Cenluvies
|London, 1980),
Inlvoduclion, pp. 18-19:
Bavid
FIiIips,
Cvine and
AulIovil¸
in Viclovian
EngIand·
TIe
BIacI
Counlv¸,
i835-i860
|London, 1977), FF. 123-9.
22
See lIe convenienl
sunnav¸
in FalvicI
CoIquIoun,
A Tvealise on lIe FoIice
oJ
lIe
MelvopoIis, 7lI
edn.
|London, 18o6), pp. 390-2.
23
25 Oeovge II,
c.
36,
s.
I I
|1752): 27 Oeovge II,
c.
3,
s.
3 |1754). Ha¸
Ias venavIed
upon
lIese and
suIsequenl
acls in Iis vecenl
avlicIe, ¨Wav,
BeavlI and TIeJl in lIe
EigIleenlI Cenluv¸¨, pp. 147-8,
Iul vilIoul
allenpl
lo veconciIe lIe eavIiev
essa¸.
24
B¸dev
Assize
Biav¸, pp. 7, 13.
Beallie
vepovls
lIal Iis ¨exaninalion oJ aIoul len
¸eavs
in lIe
Suvve¸
and Sussex assizes Ielveen lIe
1750os
and
1780s
veveaIs a
vange
oJ
avavds Jvon aIoul a
pound |lIougI
one ov lvo veve as IillIe as JiJleen
sIiIIings)
lo as
nucI as len
pounds.
A
vev¸ Iavge
nunIev veve Ielveen one and lvo
pounds, lIougI
nosl veve
pvoIaII¸
Ielveen lvo and lIvee
pounds¨· JoIn
M.
Beallie, ¨JudiciaI
Becovds and lIe Measuvenenl oJ Cvine in
EigIleenlI-Cenluv¸ EngIand¨,
in L. A.
KnaJIa
|ed.),
Cvine and CvininaI
Juslice
in
Euvope
and Canada
|WalevIoo, Onl., 1980),
pp. 127, I30.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS
103
pecuIiavil¸
oJ
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸ EngIisI
sociaI slvucluve. Il is lvue
in
loda¸'s AngIo-Anevican IegaI s¸slens and, indeed,
in
conlenpov-
av¸
sociaIisl
IegaI s¸slens.
TIe viclin oJ lIe
pvopevl¸
cvine Ias a
pvaclicaI nonopoI¸
ovev discIosuve oJ lIe oJJence.
Evev¸
cvininaI
juslice s¸slen
nusl
depend upon
lIe seIJ-inlevesl oJ ovnevs Jov lIe
enJovcenenl oJ lIe Iavs
pvolecling pvopevl¸.
Bespile
lIe
noninaII¸ pvivale
cIavaclev oJ
pvoseculion
in
EngIisI
Iav,
lIeve veve Jovces al vovI lIal Iiniled
pvoseculoviaI
discvelion.
In
Ionicide,
oJ
couvse,
lIe covonev
s¸slen IavgeI¸
eIininaled
il,
Ie-
cause lIe covonev
invesligaled evev¸ suspicious
dealI. TIeve vas no
equaII¸ conpveIensive appvoacI
lo
Iavcen¸.
As a nallev oJ
slalulov¸
design,
lIe
pve-lviaI Iinding-ovev s¸slen
adninisleved

lIe
juslices
oJ lIe
peace puvpovled
lo Iinil
pvoseculoviaI
discvelion
I¸ vequiving
lIe
J.F.
lo Iind ovev lo lviaI ¨aII sucI . . . as do decIave
an¸lIing
naleviaI lo
pvove
lIe . . .
FeIon¸
..
.¨.25
Yel lIis scIene
assuned,
in lIe
Ianguage
oJ lIe
slalule,
a viclin
viIIing
lo
¨Iving¨
lIe accu-
salion lo lIe allenlion oJ lIe
J.F.
TIeve is
good
veason lo lIinI lIal
nan¸ polenliaI pvoseculovs
did nol
Iving cIavges.
In Iis Janous
essa¸
oJ
1751, Henv¸ FieIding,
vIo vas
canpaigning
lo incvease lIe IeveIs
oJ
pvoseculion,
slvesses lIal
polenliaI pvoseculovs
veve eilIev loo
Jovgiving
ov eIse loo necessilous lo laIe lIe line and incuv lIe
expense
and nuisance oJ
pvoseculing.26 Anong
Iis
conpIainls FieIding
did
nol Jind voon Jov lIe aIuse lIal
Ha¸
lveals as cenlvaI· aJJIuenl viclins
supposedI¸ nanipuIaling
lIe
pvoseculoviaI povev
in a
seIJ-sevving
nannev.
TIeve veve
aspecls
oJ lIe
pve-lviaI s¸slen
lIal Iiniled lIe discve-
lion oJ a viclin in nol
vepovling
lo lIe
J.F.
WIenevev lIe viclin
needed lIe
J.F.
lo
IeIp
Iin vecovev sloIen
goods
-
Jov
exanpIe, I¸
issuing
seavcI ov avvesl
vavvanls,
ov
I¸ gvanling innunil¸
Jvon
pvos-
eculion in ovdev lo oIlain
acconpIice
discIosuves
-
lIe
J.F.
Iad
nolice and vas aIIe lo Iind ovev. TIese
pve-lviaI invesligalive sleps
ave
JvequenlI¸
evidenced in lIe OId
BaiIe¸
cases in
n¸ sanpIe,
aI-
lIougI
oJ couvse I Iave no
va¸
oJ
idenliJ¸ing
lIe davI
Jiguve
oJ
unvepovled
evenls.
WIen lIe
J.F.
did Iind
ovev,
il vas
usuaII¸
on
pain
oJ a
IeJl¸
Jine
Jov lIe
pvoseculov's non-appeavance.
SucI
vecognizances
suvvive Jov
nosl oJ lIe OId
BaiIe¸
lviaIs oJ lIe
nid-1750s: l¸picaII¸
lIe
penaI
sun
lIe¸ inpose
is
lvenl¸ pounds.
In lIe London Becovd OJJice
papevs
Jov lIe
ApviI 1754
sessions lIeve is a
piliJuI deposilion
Jvon
a
sIopIeepev,
Moses
SnilI,
vIo Iad Ieen ¨Iound
[ovev]
lo
pvose-
cule and
give
Evidence¨
againsl
an accused Jov
JeIoniousI¸ sleaIing
a IandIevcIieJ oul oJ SnilI's
sIop.
SnilI
expIains
¨lIal Ie vas
25
2 &
3 FIiIip
&
Mav¸,
c.
Io
|I555).
26
Henv¸ FieIding,
An
Enquiv¸
inlo lIe Causes
oJ
lIe Lale Incvease
oJ
BoIIevs
|London,
1751), p.
o106.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
Io4
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
laIen iII aIoul a
JovlnigIl
IeJove lIe
[lviaI, vilI]
a vioIenl Fevev
vIicI conlinued Jov sevevaI veeIs¨. SnilI senl lvo oJ Iis suvelies
lo lIe Iovd
na¸ov's
cIevI lo
vepovl
lIe
pvoIIen:
lIe cIevI
vepIied
lIal
SnilI sIouId Iave Iis viJe allend lIe lviaI in Iis
pIace. ¨Bul¨,
lIe
deposilion conlinues,
¨lIe said SnilI
Ieing
lIen so
dangevousI¸
iII
and
Ieeping
no Sevvanl
[n]ov Iaving an¸ pevson
lo allend Iis
SIop
Iul Iis
WiJe,
. . . sIe couId nol Ieave Iev IusIand al lIal line vilI-
oul
suIjecling
Iin lo
gveal Bangev¨.
TIe docunenl concIudes vilI
a vecilaI lIal SnilI ¨did nol
negIecl allending
lIe Sessions vilI
an¸
design
lo Iel lIe
[accused] escape an¸ punisInenl
vIicI
nigIl
Iave
Ieen inJIicled on Iin Iad Ie Ieen
pvoseculed ..
.,,.27
TIis
picluve
oJ a vvelcIed IillIe
sIopIeepev
and Iis
viJe,
loo
poov
lo Ie aIIe lo
Iive soneone lo veIieve lIen on lIe
da¸
oJ lIe
lviaI,
and nov levviJied
oJ lIe Jine Jov
non-pvoseculion,
conlvasls
slvongI¸
vilI lIe nolion oJ
unIounded
pvoseculoviaI
discvelion.
FinaII¸,
I sIouId advevl lo anolIev dinension oJ
pvoseculoviaI
dis-
cvelion,
vIicI concevns lIe decision nol oJ vIelIev lo
pvosecule,
Iul
on vIal
cIavge. Ovdinav¸ gvand Iavcen¸
vas
suIjecl
lo IeneJil oJ
cIevg¸, neaning
in
pvaclice
lIal Jivsl-line oJJendevs vouId Ie lvans-
povled
valIev lIan execuled.
Hovevev, nan¸ |pevIaps nosl) pvop-
evl¸
oJJences couId Ie cIavaclevized as
sonelIing
nove lIan
ovdinav¸
gvand Iavcen¸.
A
vaviel¸
oJ slalules
deaIing
vilI lIeJls Jvon lIe
pev-
son,
Jvon
dveIIing
Iouses and
sIops,
and on lIe
IigIva¸,
vilIdvev
IeneJil oJ
cIevg¸
vIen lIese Iavcenies invoIved
goods
aIove
pavlicuIav
anounls. TIe issue lIal I do nol
¸el
undevsland is Iov
pvoseculovs
avvived al lIe decision oJ vIelIev lo invoIe lIese
speciaI
slalules
vIen lIe Jacls
pevnilled.
In sone oJ lIe OId
BaiIe¸
cases il is cIeav
lIal lIe indiclnenl ilseIJ dovn-vaIues lIe
goods,
ov
negIecls
lo
cIavge
an
aggvavaling
civcunslance
-
Jov
exanpIe,
lIal lIe oJJence vas
connilled in a
dveIIing
Iouse ov a
sIop.
In olIev cases vIen sucI
nallevs ave
cIavged,
ov
JuII¸ cIavged,
ve see
juvies dovn-vaIuing
lIe
goods
ov
veJusing
lo Jind lIe
aggvavaling civcunslance,
in ovdev lo
naIe lIe oJJence
cIevg¸aIIe
and
spave
lIe
cuIpvil
Jvon lIe
capilaI
sanclion. TIe
pallevns
oJ indiclnenl
dovn-cIavging
seen
suJJicienlI¸
vecuvvenl lIal ve
na¸
douIl vIelIev lIeve vas nucI voon Jov
pvos-
eculoviaI
capvice.
I
suspecl
lIal lIe
J.F.s
and lIe cIevIs oJ assize and
lIeiv OId
BaiIe¸ counlevpavls
Iad an
inpovlanl
Iand in
advising pvos-
eculovs Iov lo
cIavge,28
and lIal
lIe¸
veve
guided pvinaviI¸ I¸
lIeiv
sense oJ vIal vevdicls
juvies
veve
cuslonaviI¸ pvepaved
lo veluvn in
vavious civcunslances.
27
Covpovalion
oJ London Becovd
OJJice,
Sessions
Fapevs, ApviI 1754 Sessions,
Ioose
docunenl, unnunIeved, connencing
¨Moses SnilI oJ
AIdevsgale..
28 In lIe case oJ TIonas
BoIJ,
discussed on
pp. III-I2 IeIov,
lIe
pvoseculvix
lesliJied lIal sIe
lIougIl
lIe
none¸
sloIen Jvon Iev anounled lo nove lIan
eigIl
sIiIIings,
Iul sIe vaIued lIe sun al Jive
sIiIIings
on lIe advice oJ lIe couvl
juslice,
JoIn FieIding,
vIo loId Iev ¨Bo il valIev undev lIan ovev¨·
B¸dev
OId
BaiIe¸ Noles,
p. 30.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS
105
I
concede, aIlIougI
lIe acluaI evidence Jov il is
lIin,
lIal eIile
viclins nusl Iave Ieen lvealed vilI
gvealev couvles¸,
and aIIoved
gvealev pvoseculoviaI
discvelion,
lIan viclins IiIe Moses SnilI vIo
cane Jvon Iovev sociaI ovdevs.
Ha¸ poinls
lo a
singIe case,
evidenced
in lIe
diav¸
oJ a LancasIive
squive,
in vIicI IolI lIe accused lIieJ
and lIe
squive-pvoseculov
IeIave as
lIougI
lIe
pvoseculov
velains a
povev
oJ
non-pvoseculion,
even
lIougI
lIe
pvoseculov
Iad used lIe
J.F.s
oJ
LivevpooI
lo oIlain a seavcI vavvanl and lo conducl a
pve-
lviaI exaninalion oJ lIe accused.29 IJ ve assune lIal lIis vas nol an
aIevvalion,
il sIovs us
onI¸
lIal lIe
pvoseculoviaI s¸slen
vas nol an
engine
oJ
egaIilavianisn.
OJ
couvse,
lIe
pvoseculoviaI s¸slen
oJ so
slvaliJied a
sociel¸
viII Ie sensilive lo lIe
pallevns
oJ deJevence lIal
olIevvise
pevvade
lIe
sociel¸.
WIal I vesisl is lIe idea lIal sucI
pvaclices jusliJ¸ lvealing
lIe
pvoseculoviaI s¸slen
as
Iaving
Ieen con-
slvucled Jov lIe
puvpose
oJ
JuvlIeving
lIe cIass inlevesls oJ lIe
dIile.
Il is one
lIing
lo avoid conJIicl vilI lIe
pviviIeged ovdevs,
anolIev
lIing
lo
pvonole
cIass ains.
TIe vIoIe oJ lIe cvininaI
juslice s¸slen, especiaII¸
lIe
pvosecu-
loviaI s¸slen,
vas
pvinaviI¸ designed
lo
pvolecl
lIe
peopIe,
ovev-
vIeIningI¸ non-eIile,
vIo suJJeved Jvon cvine. One can
avgue,
as
I an
pvepaved lo,
lIal il vas a
gveal
evvov on lIe
pavl
oJ lIe
EngIisI
lo
allenpl
lo
pevpeluale
a
s¸slen
oJ
pvivale pvoseculion
and
pvivale
poIicing
Jvon a nedievaI
selling,
vIeve il
na¸
Iave nade
sense,
lo
lIe
cIanged
civcunslances oJ a nove uvIan and
inpevsonaI
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸ sociel¸.
TIal vas
pavl
oJ a sel oJ conslilulionaI
conviclions lIal
conlenpovavies
IeId
deepI¸,
even
lIougI
in velvo-
specl
lIeiv concevn IooIs lo Iave Ieen
nispIaced.
WilIin lIe conJines
oJ a
s¸slen
lIal IacIed
pvoJessionaI pvoseculion, sleps
veve laIen lo
naIe lIe
s¸slen
sevve lIe inlevesls oJ lIe
non-eIile
pvoseculovs
vIo
pvedoninaled. TIe¸
veve aided and aJJovced

lIe
J.F.s,
and in
sone cases suIsidized and vevavded Jov
pvoseculoviaI
eJJovls. Ac-
covdingI¸,
I vouId venluve lo
pvedicl
lIal vIen ve
JinaII¸
oIlain a
salisJaclov¸ Iislov¸
oJ lIe
pvoseculoviaI s¸slen
oJ lIe
eigIleenlI
cenl-
uv¸, seIJ-sevving genlIenen
viII Ie seen lo Iave
pIa¸ed
an inconse-
quenliaI
voIe.
IV
JUBIES
WIeveas
Ha¸
Ias
exaggevaled
lIe exlenl oJ
pvoseculoviaI
discve-
lion,
Ie Ias
undevenpIasized
lIe
inpovlance
oJ
juv¸
discvelion. I
Iad occasion aIove lo veJev lo lIe voIe oJ
juvies
in
dovn-vaIuing goods
ov
veluvning
vIal ve
loda¸
caII a ¨Iessev incIuded oJJence¨. I sIaII
29
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, p. 41
n.
2, ciling
BIundeII's
Biav¸
and Lellev
BooI, 1702-1728,
ed. M. BIundeII
|LivevpooI, 1952), pp.
Io9-11.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
Io6
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
JoIIov
JoIn
Beallie in
caIIing
IolI
pIenonena I¸
lIe IaIeI oJ
¨pavliaI
vevdicl¨.
AcquillaIs
and
pavliaI
vevdicls veceive sIovl sIviJl in
Ha¸'s
essa¸.
I sIaII dveII on lIen Iecause I lIinI lIal Iis
lIeov¸
oJ
vuIing-cIass conspivac¸
is
inpossiIIe
lo veconciIe vilI lIe
veaIil¸
oJ
juv¸
discvelion.
Beallie Ias
conpuled
Jov lIe
peviod 1736-53
lIal aIoul
Io pev
cenl
oJ lIe IiIIs suInilled lo lIe
Suvve¸ gvand juv¸
in uvIan cases oJ
capilaI
cvine veve disnissed.30
I
an concevned vilI lIe second
juv¸,
lIe
lviaI ov
pell¸ juv¸.
Beallie Ias
conpuled
lIal lIe
pell¸ juvies acquilled
in a lIivd oJ lIe
capilaI
cases in vIicI lIe
Suvve¸ gvand juvies
Iad
indicled:
in anolIev
30 pev
cenl lIe
pell¸ juvies
veluvned
pavliaI
vev-
dicls.31
M¸ Jiguves
Jov lIe OId
BaiIe¸
ave in accovd. TIe
171
cases
pvoduced 203 accused,
oJ vIon
84
veve
acquilled.
I Iave nol laIu-
Ialed lIe
Jvequenc¸
vilI vIicI
juvies
dovn-vaIued ov convicled oJ
Iessev oJJences Jov lIe vIoIe oJ
n¸ sanpIe:
in lIe OcloIev
1754
ses-
sions,
Jov vIicI I do Iave lIe
Jiguves,
oJ
31 guiIl¸
vevdicls
14
invoIved
lIese lvo
l¸pes
oJ
pavliaI
vevdicl.
BolI lIe
acquillaIs
and lIe
pavliaI
vevdicls JoIIov
pallevns
lIal ave
pvincipIed
and
pvediclaIIe.
WIen ouv souvces
give
us navvalive ac-
counls oJ lIe lviaIs ve see lIal
acquillaIs
ave
usuaII¸
veluvned in cases
in vIicI lIe evidence JaIIs sIovl oJ lIe slandavd oJ
pvooJ
lIal vas
undevslood lo Ie
appvopviale
in cvininaI cases.
VivluaII¸
aII cases in
vIicI lIeve vas
onI¸
a
singIe accusing
vilness vesuIled in
acquillaI,
as did cases in vIicI lIe idenliJicalion oJ lIe accused vas
pul
in
an¸
sevious douIl.
TIe
pavliaI
vevdicls ave
especiaII¸ inlevesling,
Iecause
lIe¸
veve
in lvulI
senlencing
decisions.
TIe¸ usuaII¸
Iad lIe eJJecl oJ
veducing
lIe senlence Jvon dealI lo
lvanspovlalion:
in lIe
veIaliveI¸
Jev cases
in vIicI lIe
goods
veve vaIued IeIov a
sIiIIing,
lIe eJJecl vas lo
veduce lIe senlence Jvon
lvanspovlalion
lo
vIipping.
TIe
slviIing
aspecl
oJ lIe
pavliaI
vevdicl
pvaclice
in lIe cases in
n¸ sanpIe
is ils
veguIavil¸,
Ience
pvediclaIiIil¸.
In aII cases oJ
IigIva¸ voIIev¸
and
IiveslocI lIeJl in vIicI
juvies convicled, lIe¸
convicled
capilaII¸.
TIe¸
veluvned
capilaI
vevdicls in nosl cases oJ
IuvgIav¸. OlIevvise,
juvies appIied
vIal sIouId Ie caIIed a
slvong pvesunplion againsl
capilaI vevdicls,
a
pvesunplion
lIal vouId Ie ovevcone vIen lIe
civcunslances veve
especiaII¸
audacious. OId
BaiIe¸ juvies
veve IavsI
on
pvoJessionaI
ov
gang cvininaIs,
vIicI is
scavceI¸ suvpvising
in lIe
selling
oJ London's analeuvisI Iav enJovcenenl.
CapilaI
vevdicls Jov
sIop-IiJling
and Jov lIeJl Jvon a
dveIIing
Iouse
usuaII¸
occuvved in
cases vilI
gang ovevlones,
oJlen
invoIving nuIlipIe
oJJences and ve-
quiving
lIe evidence oJ an
acconpIice-luvned-cvovn-vilness.
30
JoIn M.
Beallie,
¨Cvine and lIe Couvls in
Suvve¸, 1736-1753¨,
in
J.
S. CocIIuvn
|ed.), Cvine
in
EngIand,
I55o-I8oo
|Fvincelon, 1977), FF. 155, 163.
31
IIid., p. 176.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS
IO7
IJ I veve
going
lo
ovganize
a
vuIing-cIass conspivac¸
lo use lIe
cvininaI Iav lo levvovize lIe Iovev
ovdevs,
I vouId nol
inlevpose
aulononous Iodies oJ
non-conspivalovs
IiIe lIe
pell¸ juvies. IJ,
on
lIe olIev
Iand,
I veve
going
lo vecIon lIe
juvovs anong n¸
con-
spivalovs,
I vouId Ie lvouIIed lIal
lIe¸
veve so
pvediclaII¸
Iunane

lIe slandavds oJ lIe
da¸.
I Jind
Ha¸'s
accounl oJ lIe
juv¸ IaJJIing.
He vanls lo naIe lIe
juvovs co-conspivalovs.
He
sa¸s·
¨AII nen oJ
pvopevl¸
Inev lIal
judges, juslices [oJ
lIe
peace]
and
juvies
Iad lo Ie dvavn Jvon lIeiv
ovn
vanIs¨.32
TIis is nol a consideved
slalenenl,
Iecause il assini-
Iales nen oJ
gveal
veaIlI and slalion lo lIe sane ¨vanIs¨ as lIose
vIo salisJied lIe
len-pound-a-¸eav
nininun
juvov
quaIiJicalion.3
In
lIe Bevevend Mavlin Madan's
TIougIls
on
Execulive
Juslice,
a souvce
sevevaI lines ciled
I¸ Ha¸,
lIe aulIov vovvies lIal
pell¸ juvovs
al
assizes ave
veceiving inadequale
inslvuclion Jvon lIe
judge,
¨as
lIe¸
usuaII¸
consisl oJ Iov and
ignovanl counlv¸ peopIe!¨.34
In Iis
papev
on lIe enJovcenenl oJ lIe
gane Iavs, Ha¸ poinls
oul lIal lIe Javnevs
and lvadesnen vIo veve lIe
l¸picaI juvovs
Iad inlevesls diJJevenl
Jvon lIose oJ lIe
pvopevlied 6Iile.35
Fvon an EIizaIelIan
sanpIe
SanaIa Ias
vepovled Jinding ¨ovdinav¸ peopIe
in lIe lovn -
pell¸
lvadesnen sucI as aIeIouse
Ieepevs
and
occasionaII¸
even
da¸
IaIouvevs¨
silling
on lviaI
juvies
al CoIcIeslev
assizes,
and Ie con-
cIudes· ¨To send a
suspecl
lo lIe
gaIIovs
. .
vequived
lIe concuv-
vence oJ
evev¸ segnenl
in lIe
connunil¸,
since
lIe¸
veve aII
vepve-
senled al vavious
slages
oJ lIe cvininaI
pvocess ..
.,.36
Il
IavdI¸
seens lenaIIe Jov
Ha¸
lo
aIign pell¸ juvovs
vilI lIe
EngIisI
sociaI
eIile.
Ha¸
is aIso on veaI
gvound
vIen Ie
conjecluves·
¨A
paneI
oJ lIe
poov
vouId nol convicl a IaIouvev vIo sloIe vood Jvon a Iovd's
pavI,
a
sIeep
Jvon a Javnev's
JoId,
ov covn Jvon a nevcIanl's
¸avd¨.
AI-
lIougI Ha¸
is caveJuI lo
sa¸
lIal Ie does nol lIinI lIal lIe
juvies
oJ
32
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, p. 38.
33
TIe acl
oJ
4
&
5
WiIIian &
Mav¸, c. 24, s. 15 |1692)
Jixed lIe
juvov quaIiJicalion
al len
pounds
a
¸eav
Jov
EngIand,
six
pounds
Jov
WaIes:
ss.
18-19
sel lIe sun Jov
laIesnan al Jive
pounds
Jov
EngIand
and lIvee Jov WaIes. Fov lIe
cil¸
oJ London lIe
acl
oJ 3 Oeovge II, c. 25,
ss.
19-20 |1730) inposed
a
Iundved-pound quaIiJicalion.
An
acl
oJ 4 Oeovge II,
c.
7, s. 3 |1731) quaIiJied
Jov
juv¸
sevvice in MiddIesex nen
possessed
oJ IeaseIoIds oJ
JiJl¸ pounds pev ¸eav, appavenlI¸
in
vecognilion
oJ lIe
pvevaIence
oJ
IeaseIoId
conve¸ancing.
TIese acls ave lvealed as
govevning
in lIe
1766
edilion oJ OiIes
BunconI,
TviaIs
pev Fais· ov,
TIe Lav
oJ EngIand Concevning Juvies I¸
Nisi
Fvius,
8lI
edn.
|London, 1766), pp.
11o,
162-4.
34
Mavlin
Madan, TIougIls
on Execulive
Juslice,
vilI
Bespecl
lo lIe CvininaI
Lavs,
FavlicuIavI¸
on lIe
Civcuils,
2nd edn.
|London, 1785),
p.
148.
In Iis vecenl
¨Wav,
BeavlI and TIeJl in lIe
EigIleenlI Cenluv¸¨, p. 154
and n.
Ioo,
Ha¸
slales lIe
poinl
sonevIal nove
soJlI¸, sa¸ing
lIal ¨al
quavlev
sessions and assizes lviaI
juvovs
veve
dvavn Jvon a nucI
IigIev
sociaI cIass lIan nosl oJ lIose indicled Jov lIeJl¨.
3s BougIas Ha¸, ¨FoacIing
and lIe Oane Lavs on CannocI
CIase¨,
in
Ha¸
el
aI.,
AIIion's FalaI
Tvee, pp. 189, 211.
36
JoeI
B.
SanaIa, ¨Hanging
Jov
FeIon¸·
TIe BuIe oJ Lav in EIizaIelIan CoIcIes-
lev¨,
Hisl.
JI.,
xxi
|1978), pp. 763, 781-2.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
Io8
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
lIe
da¸
¨convicled
againsl
lIe
evidence¨,
Ie
specuIales
lIal ¨a nove
denocvalic
juv¸ nigIl
nol Iave convicled al
aII¨.37
I douIl vIelIev
lIe
EngIisI poov
oJ lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸ genevaII¸
condoned lIe
lIeJl oJ IiveslocI and
vicluaIs,
and
Ha¸
does nol
pvoduce
evidence
lIal
lIe¸
did.
EnpivicaI slud¸
oJ
lvenlielI-cenluv¸ juvies
in lIe
Uniled Slales
-
juvies Iong
since denocvalized and Jveed oJ
pvopevl¸
quaIiJicalions
-
squaveI¸
conlvadicls lIe nolion lIal
lIe¸
ave IosliIe
lo lIe Iav oJ
Iavcen¸.38
We
na¸
cone cIose lo
undevslanding
Iov
Ha¸
venl
aslva¸
iJ ve
veJIecl
upon
a
passage
sucI as
lIis,
in vIicI
Ha¸
laIes il Jov
gvanled
lIal lIe cvininaI Iav IacIed lIe adIevence oJ lIe Iovev ovdevs. To Ie
suve,
lIeve veve covnevs oJ lIe cvininaI Iav lIal did nol connand
univevsaI
vegavd.
TIe souvce oJ
Ha¸'s undoing,
I
suspecl,
is lIal lIe
onI¸ pavl
oJ lIe suIslanlive cvininaI Iav vilI vIicI Ie vas
deepI¸
acquainled
vIen Ie vvole Iis
essa¸
vas lIe
uniqueI¸
cIass-Iased and
avIilvav¸ gane
Iav. TIeve
cevlainI¸
vas
popuIav
dissalisJaclion vilI
lIe
gane
Iav
|and
nol conJined lo lIe
poov),39
Iul lo
exlvapoIale
Jvon
lIal Iizavve scIene
|nosl
oJ il
nisdeneanouv)
lo lIe vIoIe oJ lIe
Iav oJ
JeIon¸
vouId Ie a
gvievous evvov, jusl
as il vouId Ie
JoII¸
in
ouv ovn
da¸
lo
equale puIIic
alliludes lovavds
navijuana
oJJences
and, sa¸,
aulonoIiIe lIeJl. WIen
Ha¸ speaIs indiJJevenlI¸
oJ
sleaIing
vood Jvon a Iovd's
pavI
and
sIeep
Jvon a Javnev's
JoId,
Ie is
naIing
lIal sovl oJ evvov. TIe
pvopevl¸
cvines lIal veve oJ
najov
conse-
quence
in lIe vovIIoad oJ
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸
cvininaI couvls - in
pavlicuIav
lIe lIeJl oJ
IiveslocI, sIop goods,
and
pevsonaI
and Iouse-
IoId
IeIongings
-
veve lIose aIoul vIose IIanevovlIiness lIeve
vas a novaI consensus lIal Inev no cIass Iines. TIal is
vI¸
nen oJ
lIe
non-61ile
couId
pvedoninale |as pvoseculovs
and
juvovs)
in con-
vicling pevsons
vIo connilled
pvopevl¸
cvines.
V
JUBOES
TIe
vo¸aI judges
vIo
pvesided
al assize and OId
BaiIe¸
lviaIs Jov
JeIon¸
veve
cevlainI¸
61ile
Jiguves.
TIe lviaI
judge
Iad a
vaviel¸
oJ
neans oJ
inJIuencing
lIe vevdicl oJ lIe
juv¸, especiaII¸ lIvougI
Iis
povevs
lo connenl on lIe evidence and lo inslvucl lIe
juvovs
on lIe
¨7 Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, pp. 38-9.
38 Havv¸ KaIven
Jv.
and Hans
ZeiseI,
TIe
Anevican
Juv¸
|Boslon, 1966), pp. 76-7.
39
Il vouId Ie a nislaIe lo lIinI lIal
IosliIil¸
lo lIe
gane
Iavs JoIIoved
an¸
Iine
Ielveen
eIile
and
non-eIile. BIacIslone,
Jov
exanpIe,
vIo
lIougIl
lIe
gane
Iavs ¨oJ
so
queslionaIIe
a
naluve¨, inpIied devisiveI¸
lIal lIe ¨JaIse
gvannav¨
oJ one oJ lIe
slalules veJIecled on lIose vIo
pvonoled
lIe cause· WiIIian
BIacIslone,
Connenlavies
on lIe Lavs
oJEngIand, 4
voIs. |OxJovd, 1765-9), iv, FF. 174-5.
See aIso F. B.
MunscIe,
OenlIenen and FoacIevs· TIe
EngIisI
Oane
Lavs, 1671-1831 |CanIvidge, 1981):
F. B.
MunscIe,
¨TIe Oane Lavs in
WiIlsIive, 1750-1800¨,
in CocIIuvn
|ed.),
Cvine in
EngIand, pp.
210-28.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS
109
Iav.40 TIe Iinils on
judiciaI
inJIuence
nusl, Iovevev,
Ie undevslood.
Since lIeve vas as
¸el vivluaII¸
no divevsion oJ
JeIon¸
cases
ava¸
Jvon
lviaI
I¸ juv¸,
aII lIose
open-and-sIul
cases venl lo
juv¸
lviaI lIal
vouId
loda¸
Ie
pvocessed
in sIovl-Jovn
pvoceduves
sucI as
pIea
Iav-
gaining
ov lviaI
¨I¸
lIe IencI¨
|lIal is, I¸ judges silling
vilIoul
juvies).41 AccovdingI¸,
nosl cases lIal venl lo
juv¸
lviaI in lIe
eigIl-
eenlI
cenluv¸
invoIved evidence so
ovevvIeIning
lIal conviclion vas
a
cevlainl¸,
lIeve vas no voon Jov inJIuence.
FuvlIev,
vIen
juvovs
deJevved lo
judges,
il vas Iecause
juvovs
undevslood lIal
judges spoIe
Jvon visdon and
expevience
aIoul nallevs oJ
IegaI pvincipIe.
IJ lIe
juvovs
Iad
suspecled
lIe
judges
oJ
aIusing
lIeiv
aulIovil¸
in ovdev lo
pvonole
eIile
inlevesls, juvovs
vouId nol Iave Ieen so
vead¸
lo JoIIov
lIe
judges'
Iead. TIe
Iislov¸
oJ Iillev
judge/juv¸ anlagonisn
in lIe
sedilious IiIeI cases Ialev in lIe
cenluv¸
sIouId sland as
vavning
enougI againsl
lIe nolion lIal
judges
couId connand
juv¸
vevdicls

Jial.42 WIen lIe souvces Jov lIe OId
BaiIe¸
cases
pevnil
us lo see
vIal lIe
judges
veve
sa¸ing
lo lIe
juvies,
il seens
IavgeI¸
diclaled

lIe slale oJ lIe Jacls ov lIe Iav.
Ha¸'s
IoIdesl lIene concevns lIe
supposed
discvelion oJ lIe
judges
in
posl-vevdicl pvoceedings,
lIal
is,
in
senlencing
and
cIenenc¸
nal-
levs. In lIe nodevn vovId ve ave accusloned lo
judges Iaving
a
Ivoad, expIicil
discvelion lo Jix
senlences,
Iul lIal vas a nine-
leenlI-cenluv¸ deveIopnenl.
In lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸
lIe
EngIisI
judge
Iad no divecl
povev
lo cIoose Ielveen dealI and lvans-
povlalion
Jov
JeIon¸
convicls.43 TIe
juv¸, Iovevev,
did -
lIvougI
lIe
povev
lIal il exevcised so
vigovousI¸
oJ
veluvning
a
pavliaI
vevdicl
lIal veduced a
non-cIevg¸aIIe
oJJence lo a
cIevg¸aIIe
one.
Ha¸
is
covvecl lo slvess lIal lIe lviaI
judge
Iad considevaIIe inJIuence ovev
lIe
pvocess I¸
vIicI convicls
nigIl
veceive execulive
cIenenc¸
aJlev
senlencing.
TIe
pavdon pvocess
is Iesl undevslood as an
adjuncl
lo
lIe
senlencing s¸slen, conpensaling
Jov lIe IacI oJ divecl
judiciaI
discvelion. TIe secvelavies oJ slale and lIe nonavcI
veguIavI¸
de-
Jevved lo lIe
judges
on
pavdon
nallevs.44
40
LangIein,
¨CvininaI TviaI IeJove lIe
Lav¸evs¨, pp. 284-300.
41
See
JoIn
H.
LangIein, ¨Undevslanding
lIe SIovl
Hislov¸
oJ FIea
Bavgaining¨,
Lav and
Sociel¸ Bev.,
xiii
|1979),
p. 261.
42
See TIonas A.
Oveen,
TIe
Juv¸,
Sedilious
LiIeI,
and lIe CvininaI Lav
|JovlIcon-
ing
WiIIian Andvevs CIavI MenoviaI
LiI. sev.,
Univ. oJ CaIiJovnia al Los
AngeIes).
43
TIe slalule
oJ 4 Oeovge I,
c. I
|1717)
lIal Iad nade
lvanspovlalion
lIe
veguIav
sanclion Jov
cIevg¸aIIe
oJJences did
pvesevve
lo lIe
judge
lIe
oplion
lo
inpose
lIe
Iessev sanclion oJ
Ivanding,
and lIeve ave a
coupIe
oJ cases in vIicI lIal
Iappens
in
lIe
BudIe¸ B¸dev
souvces undev discussion. I sIouId
sa¸
lIal I do nol undevsland
vIal convenlions
na¸
Iave Ieen
pvevaiIing
in
vespecl
oJ lIal seIdon-used
oplion.
I
suspecl
lIal a
Iavgev sanpIe
vouId sIov lIal a
dispvopovlionale
nunIev oJ lIese cases
invoIved navvied vonen ov
gainJuII¸ enpIo¸ed
JalIevs
-
cases in vIicI
lvanspovlalion
vouId Iave vovIed
IavdsIip
on lIe
JaniI¸ |and, pevIaps,
on lIe
valepa¸evs
as
veII).
44 WIen lIe lviaI
judges
inilialed
pavdon vequesls,
lIe nonavcI
gvanled
lIen
voulineI¸.
CIieJ Bavon MacdonaId descviIed lIe
Iong-eslaIIisIed pvaclice
lo a
pavIia-
|conl. on
p. I0o)
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
IIO
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
¨BougII¸
IaIJ oJ lIose condenned lo dealI
duving
lIe
eigIleenlI
cenluv¸
did nol
go
lo lIe
gaIIovs¨, Ha¸ vviles,
¨Iul veve
lvanspovled
lo lIe coIonies ov
inpvisoned¨.45
Bala
puIIisIed
in
1772 I¸
TIeodove
SlepIen Janssen,
vIo Iad sevved as
na¸ov
oJ London in
1755,
dis-
cIoses lIal Jov lIe
23 na¸ovaI ¸eavs 1749-71
sone
443 capilaI
convicls
veve
vepvieved |ov
died in
gaoI)
oul oJ a lolaI
oJ
1,121
senlenced lo
dealI al lIe OId
BaiIe¸.
OJ lIese
443
vIo
escaped execulion, 401
veve
pavdoned
Jov
lvanspovlalion.
One indicalion lIal lIese
pavdons
veve nol avavded
capviciousI¸,
Iul vilI a viev lo considevalions oJ
pvincipIe,
is lIal
pavdon
vales vavied vilI lIe
gvavil¸
oJ lIe oJJence.
OJ lIe
81
pevsons
convicled oJ nuvdev in
Janssen's Jiguves, 72
veve
execuled:
oJ
17
Jov
allenpled nuvdev, 15
veve
execuled: oJ
362
Jov
IigIva¸ voIIev¸, 251
veve
execuled: oJ 208
Jov
Iouse-IveaIing,
I 18
veve execuled.
B¸ conlvasl, onI¸
6 oJ lIe
23 pevsons
convicled oJ
sIop-IiJling
aIove lIe
cIevg¸aIIe
Iinil veve aIIoved lo
Iang:
22 oJ
90
Jov IiveslocI
lIeJls: 27
oJ
80
Jov
sleaIing pvivaleI¸ |picIing pocIels):
27
oJ
63
Jov
sleaIing
Jvon a
dveIIing
Iouse in an anounl aIove lIe
cIevg¸aIIe sun:
and neilIev oJ lIe lvo condenned sodoniles.46
WIal Jaclovs veve
nolivaling
lIe connulalions and
pavdons? Ha¸
nolices lIal ¨TIe
gvounds
Jov
nevc¸
veve
oslensiII¸
lIal lIe oJJence
vas
ninov,
ov lIal lIe convicl vas oJ
good cIavaclev,
ov lIal lIe cvine
Ie Iad connilled vas nol connon
enougI
in lIal
counl¸
lo
vequive
|n. 44 conl.)
nenlav¸
connillee in
1819·
¨TIe
judges
send vIal ave caIIed 'civcuil Iellevs' lo lIe
secvelav¸
oJ
slale, slaling
lIe
pIaces
vIeve
pvisonevs
Iave Ieen
convicled,
lIeiv oJ-
Jences,
and in
genevaI
lIe JavouvaIIe civcunslances lIal Iave
appeaved,
lIal vouId
naIe a case
pvopev
lo Ie veconnended lo His
Majesl¸,
Jov Iis
pavdon:
and I do nol
venenIev
an¸
case in vIicI sucI
pavdon
vas veJused vIen veconnended¨·
Bepovl
Jvon
lIe SeIecl Connillee
Appoinled
lo Considev
oJ
So MucI
oJ
lIe CvininaI Lav as
BeIales lo
CapilaI
FunisInenl in
FeIonies, FavIianenlav¸ Fapevs |1819), viii,
p. 48.
TIe
Becovdev oJ London
pvepaved
an
equivaIenl
docunenl Jov eacI OId
BaiIe¸ sessions:
Jov an
exanpIe
Jvon one oJ lIe Jouv sessions al vIicI
BudIe¸ B¸dev sal,
see FuIIic
Becovd
OJJice,
London
|IeveaJlev F.B.O.),
S.F.
36/132/296 |Apv. 1755 sessions).
WIen lIe convicl ov a
suppovlev pelilioned
Jov
cIenenc¸,
as in lIe case oJ BicIavd
TicInev discussed on
p. 112
and
n.
54 IeIov,
lIe secvelavies oJ slale and oJlen lIe
nonavcI vevieved lIe nevils oJ lIe case.
45
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, p. 43.
46
SlepIen
TIeodove
Janssen,
TIis SIeel Conlains TIvee
TaIIes, Jvon 1749
lo
1771
|London, 1772:
OuiIdIaII
LiI., London,
B'side
27.15).
TIe Ivoadside is
vepvinled
as
a JoIdoul
appendix
in lIe
endpapevs
oJ
JoIn Hovavd,
An Accounl
oJ
lIe
FvincipaI
Lazavellos in
Euvope,
2nd edn.
|London, 1791).
Il is
inlevesling
lo nole lIal
Janssen enpIasizes
in lIis
conpiIalion
lIe lIene lo
vIicI
JoIn
Beallie and nov
Ha¸,
in Iis
¨Wav,
BeavlI and TIeJl in lIe
EigIleenlI
Cenluv¸¨,
Iave Ieen
divecling
vecenl
scIoIavI¸ allenlion, naneI¸
lIe
seening
con-
neclion Ielveen
vising
cvine vales and denoIiIizalion oJ lIe Jovces
JoIIoving peviods
oJ vav.
Janssen sa¸s·
¨Il is vovlI
oIsevving lIal,
as a
gveal nan¸
idIe Men and Lads
ave laIen inlo lIe Sea & Land Sevvice
duving
a
vav:
so ve lIen Jind lIe
Oangs
oJ
BoIIevs soon IvoIen & lIal lIe Business al lIe OId
BaiIe¸ gvaduaII¸
dininisIed lo
IaIJ ils duvalion in line oJ
Feace,
nov ave IaIJ lIe nunIev oJ CvininaIs condenned.
Fov in sone Yeavs oJ vav
lIe¸
Iave nol anounled lo
20,
vIeveas in Feace
lIe¸
Iave
avisen lo
70, 80,
and
90.
Il is JavlIev oIsevvaIIe lIal al lIe concIusion oJ a
Wav, lIvougI
vev¸
Iad
FoIic¸,
vIen ve luvn adviJl so
nan¸
lIousand
Men, gveal
nunIevs JaII
IeedIessI¸
lo
lIieving
as soon as lIeiv FocIels ave
enpl¸,
and ave al once
IvougIl
lo
lIe OaIIovs¨.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS III
an
exenpIav¸ Ianging¨,47
Iul
Ha¸
lIinIs lIal lIese
gvounds
Jovned
a neve snoIe-scveen. TIe
judges
¨veve nol
usuaII¸ viIIing
lo
anlag-
onize a
Iod¸
oJ
vespeclaIIe [IocaI] JeeIing¨,
Ie vviles. TIe
pavdon
s¸slen
vas
¨capvicious¨: indeed,
¨lIe cIains oJ cIass saved Jav nove
nen vIo Iad Ieen IeJl lo
Iang I¸
lIe assize
judge
lIan did lIe cIains
oJ
Iunanil¸¨.48
In
suppovl
oJ lIis viev
Ha¸
oJJevs lIe evidence oJ a
Jev cases in vIicI
eI1ile
pelilionevs
veJevved lo lIe
pvevious good
cIavaclev oJ lIe accused and
especiaII¸
lo lIe
good vepule
oJ Iis
JaniI¸.
AIlIougI n¸
nain
oIjeclion
lo lIis Iine oJ
avgunenl
is lIal il is
unvepvesenlalive,
I vanl lo
sa¸
in
passing
lIal I vouId nol
accepl
lIe
inpIicalion
lIal sucI Jaclovs
ougIl
lo Iave Ieen exlvaneous lo vIal
veve in eJJecl
senlencing
decisions. In an
age
IeJove
pvoIalion
and
Iavge-scaIe penaI inpvisonnenl,
lIe exislence oJ
JaniI¸
and
enpIo¸-
nenl
veIalionsIips
vas
IigII¸
veIevanl lo lIe decision vIelIev ov nol
lo veIease an oJJendev inlo lIe
connunil¸ |ov, IiIevise,
vIelIev ov
nol lo luvn Iin Ioose on lIe inIaIilanls oJ
Vivginia
and
Mav¸Iand I¸
lvanspovling Iin).
Even
loda¸,
iJ a convicl can
gel vespeclaIIe peopIe
lo
suppovl Iin, senlencing
oJJicevs ave incIined lo
give veigIl
lo lIal
evidence on lIe
gvound
lIal il Ias
pvediclive
vaIue on lIe
queslion
oJ lIe IiIeIiIood oJ successJuI vesociaIizalion.
Ha¸'s
accounl oJ lIe
cIenenc¸ s¸slen IigIIigIls
lIe
pevipIevaI
issue oJ sociaI cIass and
negIecls
lo
expIove
lIe Jaclovs lIal veve oJ
cenlvaI
inpovlance.
TIe
B¸dev
noleIooIs
give
us a
good
vindov on
lIis
queslion,
and lIe
picluve
ve see Ieavs no vesenIIance lo
Ha¸'s.
B¸dev
is
pveoccupied
vilI lIe nevils in
cIenenc¸ queslions,
and Ie
vesisls veconnendalions lIal invoIve
onI¸
61ile
conneclions.
In lIe OId
BaiIe¸
noleIooI lIeve is one
slviIing exanpIe,
lIe case
oJ TIonas
BoIJ,
convicled oJ
IigIva¸ voIIev¸
al lIe OcloIev
1754
sessions and senlenced lo dealI. TIe evidence indicaled lIal
BoIJ,
vIo Iad Ieen
appveIended
al lIe
scene,
Iad IeIaved
poIileI¸
and
apoIogelicaII¸
lo Iis viclin as Ie voIIed Iev. He loId Iev lIal desli-
lulion Ied Iin lo Iis cvine. He vas unaIIe lo Jind vovI and Iis viJe
vas aIoul lo deIivev lIeiv lIivd cIiId.49
B¸dev
vecovds in Iis noles
lIal Ie
uvged
lIe
juv¸
lo
convicl,
since
¨conpassion
couId nol
jusliJ¸
Jinding conlvav¸
lo
lvulI¨,
Iul aJlev
lIe¸
Ieeded lIis inslvuclion and
Jound Iin
guiIl¸,
lIe
juvovs
¨desived I vouId inlevcede Jov Iin. I
said lIe Becovdev
[oJ London]
vouId Iave an
oppovlunil¸
oJ
vepve-
senling
il
JuII¸
lo His
Majesl¸. [TIis
is a veJevence lo lIe vecovdev's
veguIav vepovl
lo lIe nonavcI aJlev eacI OId
BaiIe¸ sessions.]
And
indeed I nevev in aII

IiJe nel vilI a
voIIev¸
on lIe
IigIva¸
so
cIeavI¸ pvoved
lo Ie lIe eJJecl oJ neve
necessil¸
and connilled Jov
4
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, p. 43 |n¸ ilaIics).
48
IIid., pp. 43-4.
49 OId
BaiIe¸
Sessions
Fapevs |Ocl. 1754),
Case no.
504, p. 326.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
112
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
vanl oJ necessavies lo nainlain
IinseIJ,
viJe
Iig
vilI
cIiId,
and lvo
inJanls¨.50
B¸dev
nade lIis nolalion vilI a viev lovavds
advising
lIe
vecovdev,
and BoIJ lIeveaJlev veceived a Jvee
pavdon,5s
lIal is one
nol condilioned on
lvanspovlalion
ov sone olIev
sanclion,
even
lIougI
lIe cvovn Iad lo
pa¸
lIe
pvoseculvix
lIe
slalulov¸ Jovl¸-
pound
vevavd Jov
appveIending
and
convicling
Iin.52
B¸dev's
assize
diav¸
Jov lIe sunnev
1754 sillings
on lIe Hone
Civcuil conlains considevaIIe nenlion oJ Iis
pvaclice vegavding ju-
diciaI
vepvieve, vepvieve Ieing
lIe decisive Jivsl
slep
lovavds execulive
connulalion. Al OuiIdJovd assizes Ie noled lIal Ie Iel lvo
IuvgIavs
Iang
Iecause ¨Il vas a
vev¸ pIain
and Iad
case¨,
Iul Ie
vepvieved
a
IovselIieJ ¨Iecause lIe evidence
douIlJuI¨,
a
sIeeplIieJ
¨Iecause
lIe evidence nol
cIeav¨,
and a
picIpocIel againsl
vIon lIe evidence
anounled in
B¸dev's
viev ¨nol
quile [lo]
a cIeav
case¨.53
Al lIe sane assizes
B¸dev
vesisled
61ile
inlevvenlion Jov
cIenenc¸
in lvo cases oJ
IigIva¸ voIIev¸.
BicIavd OiIIevl ¨vas veconnended
lo
vepvieve I¸
CvesvicI and Andvevs Iis
naslev, Ieing
Iul 20
¸eavs
oId,
Iul
Ieing
Jov
IigIva¸ [voIIev¸,
and OiIIevl
Iaving
Ieen con-
vicled oJ lvo oJJences connilled lIe sane
da¸, I]
did nol
vepvieve
Iin¨. In lIe case oJ BicIavd
TicInev, B¸dev
veJused lo
vepvieve
aIlIougI vequesled
lo do so

AvlIuv OnsIov lIe
SpeaIev
oJ lIe
House oJ
Connons,
BicIavd OnsIov lIe Iovd Iieulenanl oJ
Suvve¸,
and
Henv¸
TaIIol lIe
IigI
sIeviJJ oJ
Suvve¸.
AvlIuv OnsIov venl lo
lIe
Iing: B¸dev's opinion
vas
sougIl,
and Ie vecovds il lIus· since
¨lIeve vas no veason lo douIl
[lIal
TicInev Iad connilled lIe
cvine]
and lIeve veve no civcunslances oJ
aIIevialion,
I couId nol laIe on
n¸seIJ
lo
sa¸
Ie vas an
oIjecl
oJ
nevc¸
.
..¨.54
TIe
Iing
Iel Iin
50
B¸dev OId
BaiIe¸ Noles, pp.
21-2.
51
OId
BaiIe¸
Sessions
Fapevs |Jan. 1755), p. 80.
52
F.B.O., T.53/45, Mone¸ BooI, p. 353.
53 B¸dev
Assize
Biav¸, pp. 17-18.
54 IIid. BolI OnsIov's Iellev and
B¸dev's vepI¸
suvvive in lIe Slale
Fapevs.
OnsIov
vvole lIal
TicInev,
condenned ¨Jov a
BoIIev¸
on lIe
IigIva¸
oJ sone Jev
sIiIIings¨,
vas ¨a
¸oung
Man oJ a
vev¸
Ionesl
FaniI¸
vilI
us,
and Jov lIe
saving
oJ vIose IiJe
I an so nucI
inpovluned,
lIal I cannol avoid
lvouIIing ¸ouv LovdsIip [lIe secvelav¸
oJ
slale]
vilI an IunIIe
vequesl
Jov
¸ouv
assislance in
oIlaining
a
vepvieve
Jov
Iin,
in ovdev lo Iis
lvanspovlalion
Jov
an¸ line,
Ie lIe
IenglI
oJ il vIal il viII¨·
F.B.O.,
S.F.
36/128/67 |3 Sepl. 1754). B¸dev's vepI¸
veciles lIal a
cop¸
oJ OnsIov's Iellev Iad
Ieen lvansnilled lo Iin.
B¸dev vepovls
on lIe evidence lIal Iad Ieen adduced al
TicInev's
lviaI, venavIing
lIal lIe viclin lesliJied lIal TicInev ¨cane
up
lo
Iin,
pvesenled
a FisloI lo Iis Bveasl & denanded Iis
Mone¸
vilI a
Cuvse,
vIicI on lIe
Second IiIe denand Ie deIiveved Iin lo lIe anounl
oJ
14 SIiIIings¨. B¸dev
aIso
vepovls
lIal lIvee
pisloIs
veve Jound on TicInev vIen Ie vas
laIen,
and lIal Ie
iniliaII¸
veJused lo
idenliJ¸
IinseIJ. He concIudes· ¨On lIe
WIoIe,
as I see no Beason
lo douIl oJ lIe TvulI oJ lIe
Facl,
& no civcunslances
appeaved
lo aIIeviale lIe
guiIl
oJ
il,
I cannol laIe on

SeIJ lo
vepvesenl
Iin as an
oIjecl
oJ
¸ouv Majesl¸'s Mevc¸.
Bul iJ
¸ouv Majesl¸
oul oJ
¸ouv gveal cIenenc¸
sIaII Ie
gvaciousI¸ pIeased
lo exlend
¸ouv Bo¸aI Mevc¸
lo
Iin,
I
IunII¸
SuInil il lo
¸ouv Majesl¸'s
visdon vIelIev il
na¸
nol Ie on lIe Tevns oJ
Tvanspovlalion
Jov LiJe
[as opposed
lo lIe seven ov
Jouvleen
¸eav
levns olIevvise
cuvvenl]¨· F.B.O., S.F. 36/128/77-8 |7 Sepl. 1754).
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS I
13
Iang.
Al HovsIan assizes a Jev
da¸s
eavIiev
B¸dev
senlenced lo dealI
a nan naned MiIIel Jov
Iovse-sleaIing.
His
diav¸
vecovds· ¨TIe cIevI
oJ assizes
pvessed
ne nucI lo
lvanspovl MiIIel,
lIe
IosleIIev,
Iul I
veJused il Iecause il seens lo Iave Ieen Iis
pvaclice [lIal is,
Ie vas
a
nuIlipIe oJJendev],
and
noIod¸ spoIe
lo Iis cIavaclev¨.55
B¸dev's
IandIing
oJ
vepvieve
and
pavdon
nallevs vas
pvincipIed.
He vas
lv¸ing
lo laIe inlo accounl Jaclovs lIal elIicaI
senlencing
oJJicevs sliII
consuIl.
King
JauIls
Ha¸
Jov
using
¨a snaII nunIev oJ
quolalions
Jvon
[lIe
judges' vepovls
lo lIe
nonavcI]
lo iIIuslvale lIe
inpovlance
oJ one
pavlicuIav
Jaclov
-
lIe voIe oJ
vespeclaIiIil¸
ov
vespeclaIIe
connec-
lions
..
.¨.56
To covvecl Jov
lIal, King
undevlooI lo
calegovize
aII
lIe Jaclovs nenlioned in aII lIe cases in lIe slale
papevs
Jov lIe
peviod
Jvon
1784
lo
1787.
He idenliJies ¨Jive Ivoad
gvoups
oJ
Jaclovs¨,
oJ
vIicI lIe
vespeclaIiIil¸
oJ lIe convicl luvned oul lo Ie lIe Ieasl
inpovlanl.
TIe nosl
Jvequenl
vas
good cIavaclev, incIuding pvevious
good
conducl.
AIlIougI
nen oJ
veIaliveI¸ IigI
sociaI
slanding sup-
pIied
sone oJ lIese
veJevences, King
Jound lIal ¨lIe
gveal najovil¸
oJ cIavaclev vilnesses veve dvavn Jvon lIe
niddIing
sovl ov Jvon lIe
poovev
Iul
vespeclaIIe
seclions oJ lIe IocaI
connunil¸¨.
Nexl in ovdev oJ
Jvequenc¸,
Ie
Jound,
vas lIe
¸oulI
oJ lIe oJ-
Jendev,
vIicI veJIecled IolI
s¸npalI¸
and a IeIieJ in
veJovnaIiIil¸.
TIivd, King sa¸s,
cane lIe civcunslances oJ lIe
cvine, especiaII¸
vIelIev vioIenl. TIe JouvlI nosl
connonI¸
nenlioned Jaclov vas
lIe
povevl¸
oJ lIe
cuIpvil
and Iis
JaniI¸.
A IillIe oJ lIis
na¸
Iave Iad
lo do vilI lIe desive lo
spave
lIe
valepa¸evs
Jvon
Iaving
lo
suppovl
an execuled convicl's
JaniI¸,
Iul lIe nove usuaI concevn vas lo
vecog-
nize lIe Iessev
cuIpaIiIil¸
oJ soneone vIo acled in dislvess
|and
ve
venenIev
BudIe¸ B¸dev's s¸npalI¸
Jov lIe deslilule
IigIva¸
voI-
Iev TIonas
BoIJ). FuvlIevnove, King sa¸s,
veaIlI Iuvl.
Judges
veve
¨vev¸
Iavd on
pvisonevs
vIo veve
veIaliveI¸
veII oJJ and couId
nol lIeveJove
pIead povevl¸
al lIe line oJ lIe cvine¨. He
quoles
a
judge's vepovl
Jvon a case in
1764,
vIicI
sa¸s
lIal il is Iellev ¨lIal
one nan in
good
civcunslances sIouId suJJev lIan 20 nisevaIIe
vvelcIes¨. FiJlI and Iasl in
King's sanpIe
cones lIe Jaclov
Ha¸
slvesses,
lIe
vespeclaIiIil¸
oJ lIe convicl ov Iis
pavenls. King's
lolaIs
Jov lIe Jive
calegovies· |a)
cIavaclev and
pvevious conducl, 126: |I)
¸oulI,
oId
age
and
inJivnil¸, 61: |c)
civcunslances oJ lIe
cvine, 56:
|d)
deslilulion ov
JaniI¸ povevl¸, 33: |e) vespeclaIiIil¸, 13.
Badzi-
novicz divecled allenlion sevevaI decades
ago
lo lIe
pvevaIence
oJ a
Ivoad
vange
oJ
senlencing-l¸pe
Jaclovs in lIe
pavdon pvocess,'57
and
55
B¸dev Assize Biav¸, p. 13.
56
King,
¨Becision-MaIevs and
Becision-MaIing
in lIe 18lI
Cenluv¸
CvininaI
Lav¨, p.
22. TIe dala
quoled
in lexl is Jvon
iIid., pp.
22-8.
57 Badzinovicz, Hislov¸ oJ EngIisI
CvininaI
Lav, i, pp. 115-16.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
I14
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
King
Ias nov done a
gveal
sevvice in
Ivinging
nev
pvecision
lo lIe
suIjecl.
VI
LEOITIMATION
A
slapIe
oJ Mavxisl
avgunenlalion
Jov
deaIing
vilI
conlvav¸
evi-
dence is vIal I caII lIe
Iegilinalion
lvicI. Evidence lIal culs
againsl
lIe lIesis is disnissed as
pavl
oJ a
suI-pIol
lo naIe lIe
conspivac¸
nove
paIalaIIe
lo ils
viclins,
lo
Iegilinale
il. TIe
Ha¸ essa¸
conlains
sone
spIendid exanpIes. Ha¸
nolices lIe
pevvasive IegaIisn
oJ
Eng-
IisI cvininaI
pvoceduve, incIuding
¨lIe exlvene soIicilude oJ
judges
Jov lIe
vigIls
oJ lIe
accused, [in
vIicI
conlenpovav¸
visilovs Jvon
Euvope
sav
sucI]
a
sIavp
dislinclion Jvon lIe usuaI
pvaclice
oJ con-
linenlaI IencIes¨.58
Ha¸
aIso nenlions lIe lvadilion oJ slvicl con-
slvuclion
againsl penaI
slalules and lIe vecuvvenl
quasIing
oJ
slvong
pvoseculion
cases Jov lecInicaI JIavs. Bul
Ha¸
undevlaIes lo veconciIe
lIis allenlion lo
saJeguavd
vilI Iis lIesis
I¸ avguing·
¨WIen lIe
vuIing
cIass
acquilled
nen on lecInicaIilies
lIe¸ IeIped
insliI a IeIieJ
in lIe disenIodied
juslice
oJ lIe Iav in lIe ninds oJ aII vIo valcIed.
In
sIovl,
ils
vev¸ ineJJicienc¸,
ils aIsuvd
JovnaIisn,
vas
pavl
oJ ils
slvenglI
as
ideoIog¸¨.59
Nov lIe
queslion
lIal cones lo nind
is, sinpI¸,
Iov does one lesl
lIal
pvoposilion?
A
veveaIing nannev,
I
lIinI,
is lo
I¸polIesize
lIe
exacl
opposile
Jacls.
Suppose
lIal lIe vuIevs oJ
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸
EngIand
Iad Ieen
opevaling Ianana-vepuIIic couvls, coevcing
conJes-
sions ov
I¸ncIing paupevs
vilIoul lviaI.
OIviousI¸,
lIe
vuIing-cIass
conspivac¸
vouId Ie
equaII¸
veII evidenced. I Iave lo
asI, lIeveJove,
vIal Iind oJ lIesis il is lIal can Ie salisJied
I¸ an¸
slale oJ lIe
evidence,
and

ansvev is lIal il is nol a lIesis aIoul lIe
evidence,
vIicI neans lIal il is nol a lIesis aIoul
Iislov¸
as I undevsland lIe
discipIine.
Considev anolIev
exanpIe,
lIe ceIeIvaled case oJ Lovd
Fevvevs,
vIo as
Ha¸
leIIs us ¨IiIIed Iis
slevavd,
vas
capluved I¸
Iis
lenanlv¸,
lvied in lIe House oJ
Lovds,
senlenced lo
dealI,
execuled al
T¸Iuvn,
and dissecled 'IiIe a connon cvininaI' as lIe
puIIicisls
nevev lived
oJ
vepealing¨.60 Ha¸
disnisses sucI evenls as
¨pavl
oJ lIe Iove oJ
poIilics
lIal in
EngIand
sociaI cIass did nol
pvesevve
a nan even Jvon
lIe exlvene sanclion oJ dealI¨.61 Bul
suppose
inslead lIal Lovd
Fevvevs Iad Ieen
pviviIeged
lo
sIa¸
as
nan¸
sociaI inJeviovs as Ie
pIeased, suppose,
lIal
is,
lIal lIe
EngIisI
Iad innunized lIe
61ile
Jvon
capilaI punisInenl. WeII,
oJ
couvse,
lIal vouId Jil lIe lIesis
58
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, p. 32.
59 IIid., p. 33.
60
IIid., p. 34.
61
IIid., p. 33.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS
II15
jusl
as
convenienlI¸. ConsequenlI¸,
lIe lIesis is
sinpI¸
nol leslaIIe.
Il JIoals aIove lIe
evidence,
il is
seIJ-pvoving.
I an veninded oJ lIe
va¸
lIal sone adIevenls oJ anolIev econonic-delevninisl
scIooI,
lIe
nodevn Iav-and-econonics
novenenl,
ave aIIe lo disniss
conlvav¸
evidence· lIe navIel naIes
evev¸lIing eJJicienl,
and
an¸lIing
lIal
is nol is a
consunplion
cIoice.
VII
THE STATUTES
La¸ing
aside
Ha¸'s vuIing-cIass conspivac¸,
vIal does
expIain
lIe
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸ pavadox
-
lIe
pvoJusion
oJ
capilaI
slalules in an
eva oJ
decIining capilaI punisInenl?
I do nol Iave a JuII
ansvev,
nucI
Iess a lIesis vilI lIe
eIegance
oJ
Ha¸'s.
I
can, Iovevev, poinl
lo sone
Jaclovs lIal I IeIieve Ieav on lIis
gveal queslion.
M¸ slavling poinl
is voIune one oJ Badzinovicz's
Hislov¸ oJ EngIisI
CvininaI Lav
puIIisIed
in
1948.62
TIis vovI is nol in JasIion
loda¸,
Jov veasons lIal I do nol undevsland. In
n¸ opinion
lIe Iuvsl oJ
vecenl
scIoIavsIip
on
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸
cvininaI
pvoceduve
Ias
done IillIe lo delvacl Jvon Badzinovicz's avesone IooI. Badzino-
vicz devived Iis accounl Jvon lIe
conlenpovav¸
lvacls and
IegaI
Iilevaluve,
as veII as Jvon lIe
pavIianenlav¸
naleviaIs
pvoduced
duv-
ing
lIe couvse oJ lIe veJovn novenenl lIal Iecane
pvoninenl
in lIe
1770s
and van inlo lIe niddIe oJ lIe nineleenlI
cenluv¸.
Badzinovicz
oIsevves lIal Eden and
BoniII¸,
lIe
Iegendav¸ pvoponenls
oJ
veJovn,
JoIIoved lIe
leacIing
oJ Beccavia and
avgued
lIal
punisInenl
sIouId
Ie
pvopovlioned
lo lIe
gvavil¸
oJ lIe
cvine.63
|BIacIslone
advanced
siniIav ideas in lIe
1760s.64) EngIisI
Iav vas
vvong, lIe¸ said,
lo
invoIe lIe dealI
penaIl¸
Jov oJJences oJ
vaslI¸
diJJevenl seviousness.
Excessive
sevevil¸
vas
counlev-pvoduclive,
il veaIened delevvence
I¸ discouvaging
viclins Jvon
pvoseculing
and
I¸ encouvaging juvies
lo
dovn-cIavge
ov
acquil. NevevlIeIess,
adIevenls oJ vIal Badzi-
novicz caIIs lIe
lIeov¸
oJ naxinun
sevevil¸
vesisled lIe veJovnevs'
naniJeslI¸
sensiIIe
posilion
veII inlo lIe nineleenlI
cenluv¸.
TIese
peopIe
vIo
suppovled
lIe
Ieav¸ EngIisI
veIiance on lIe lIveal oJ
capilaI punisInenl
veve
pveoccupied
vilI lIe delevvenl
poIic¸
oJ lIe
cvininaI
Iav, vivluaII¸
lo lIe excIusion oJ
conpeling
considevalions
sucI as
pvopovlionaIil¸. WI¸? TIe¸ avgued
-
and I lIinI
lIe¸
Ie-
Iieved - lIal
EngIand
vas
uniqueI¸ dependenl upon
lIe delevvenl
eJJecl oJ lIe
capilaI
lIveal
Iecause,
aIone oJ lIe
gveal
slales oJ lIe
da¸, EngIand
Iad neilIev a
pvoJessionaI poIice
Jovce nov lIe
s¸slen
oJ
non-capilaI
sanclions Inovn as
penaI
sevvilude lIal Iad so
videI¸
dispIaced
lIe dealI
penaIl¸
on lIe Conlinenl.
62
Badzinovicz, Hislov¸ oJ EngIisI CvininaI Lav,
i.
63
IIid., pp. 231
JJ.
64
BIacIslone,
Connenlavies on lIe Lavs
oJ EngIand, iv, pp.
16-I9.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
I i6
FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
A
Iavge cIaplev
oJ
EngIisI
conslilulionaI and adninislvalive
Iislov¸
undevIies lIe
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸
avevsion lo
pvoJessionaI poIice
Jovces
and covveclion
s¸slens. Jusl
as lIe
pvospecl
oJ a
slanding avn¸
evoIed sIivevs in lIose vIo
lIougIl
IacI lo lIe
da¸s
oJ
Janes II,
lIe
suggeslion
lIal lIe
poIice povev
in lIe IocaIilies Ie luvned ovev
lo a
covps
oJ
IiveIings
vaised aIavn. A
l¸vanl nigIl
use lIis Jovce lo
undevcul ov
vepvess
lIe IiIevlies oJ lIe
poIilicaI connunil¸.
TIe
adninislvalive
cIaIIenge
oJ
ovganizing poIice
and covveclion
s¸slens
vas aIso
daunling
lo
conlenpovavies.
TIe
EngIisI
Iad scanl
expevi-
ence in
deaIing
vilI lIe
pvoIIens
oJ
vecvuiling, lvaining, Jinancing,
Ieading
and
conlvoIIing
sucI Jovces.
UIlinaleI¸,
oJ
couvse,
as lIe
uvIan-induslviaI
age unJoIded,
lIe
EngIisI
Iad lo aIandon lIeiv al-
lacInenl lo analeuv Iav
enJovcenenl,
Iul lIal vas lIe vovI oJ lIe
nexl
cenluv¸: scavceI¸ an¸one
Jovesav il in lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸
vIen lIe
capilaI IegisIalion
vas
expanding
so
gvealI¸.
Badzinovicz
enpIasizes
lIe sense oJ
insecuvil¸
lIal vesuIled Jvon
lIe vanl oJ eJJeclive
poIicing.6¨ Conlenpovavies
JeIl lIal
lIe¸
needed
evev¸
ounce oJ delevvence lIal
lIe¸
couId
gel. TIe¸
Iad lo
pul
so
nucI
veigIl
on delevvence Iecause
lIe¸
Iad so IillIe cIance oJ calcI-
ing
and
convicling
lIe undelevved. IJ lIe Jeav oJ
Ianging
delevved
sone
polenliaI cvininaIs,
as nosl
peopIe lIougIl
il
did,
lIen lIe
capilaI
lIveal vas vovlI
naIing. LiIevise,
lIe vanl oJ
an¸
aIlevna-
live lo lIe
capilaI
sanclion Iellev lIan
lvanspovlalion
Iad a
gveal
Ieaving
on lIe exlension oJ
capilaI punisInenl
lo oJJences cvealed in
lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸.
I lIinI lIal Badzinovicz's accounl oJ lIe
expIosion
oJ
capilaI
slal-
ules in an
age
oJ
decIining capilaI punisInenl
Ias lvo
najov
vivlues
vIen conlvasled vilI
Ha¸'s.66 Fivsl,
Badzinovicz laIes
seviousI¸
lIe
evidence oJ lIe
peopIe
vIo veve
neav,
and in sone cases
quile
inJIu-
enliaI
in,
lIe
IegisIalive
evenls.
Conlenpovavies slvuggIed
Jov decades
ovev lIe veIalive nevils oJ naxinun
sevevil¸
vevsus
pvopovlionaIil¸,
and I an
pevsuaded
lIal ve sIouId Iislen lo lIen.
Second,
Badzi-
novicz Ias veIaled Iis
expIanalion
lo
olIev,
JundanenlaI Jealuves oJ
lIe
IegaI s¸slen
-
lIal
is,
lo lIe veaInesses in deleclion and cov-
veclions. In lIal
vespecl
lIe
conpavalive
dinension veinJovces Bad-
zinovicz. A nolaIIe veaIness oJ
Ha¸'s
accounl is lIal Ie
poinls
lo
vuIing-cIass
seIJ-inlevesl lo
expIain
a
pIenonenon
lIal vas dislinc-
liveI¸ EngIisI.
OlIev slales oJ lIe
da¸
Iad
conpavaIIe vuIing cIasses,
¸el
lIe
Iuvgeoning
oJ
capilaI IegisIalion
in lIe Ialev
eigIleenlI cenluv¸
vas an
EngIisI pecuIiavil¸.
65
Badzinovicz, Hislov¸ oJ EngIisI
CvininaI
Lav, i, pp. 23-35, 248 JJ., 410.
66
I sIouId
sa¸, Iovevev,
lIal I
pveJev Ha¸
lo Badzinovicz on lIe
queslion
oJ
vIelIev,
as Badzinovicz
conlends,
lIe
decIining penaI
dealI vale oJ lIe Ialev
eigIl-
eenlI
cenluv¸
vas
Jvuslvaling
a
IegisIalive pveJevence
Jov
IigIev
IeveIs oJ enJovcenenl.
CJ.
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, p. 23,
vilI
Badzinovicz,
Hislov¸ oJ EngIisI
CvininaI
Lav, i, pp. 158-64, esp. p. 164.
BeIieJ in lIe delevvenl
eJJicac¸
oJ
capilaI punisInenl
need nol
pvesuppose IigI
IeveIs oJ acluaI execulion.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS
117
I visI lo
poinl
lo lvo olIev
pecuIiavilies
oJ lIe
EngIisI
cvininaI
juslice s¸slen
lIal
IeIp expIain
lIe Iuvsl oJ
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸ capi-
laI
IegisIalion
- IeneJil oJ
cIevg¸
and lIe
concepluaI inpovevisInenl
oJ lIe suIslanlive Iav.
Fvon lIe niddIe
ages
inlo lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸,
lIe venavIaIIe
inslilulion oJ IeneJil oJ
cIevg¸
undevvenl an incessanl and conlovled
lvansnulalion.67
OviginaII¸
a device Jov
pvesevving
eccIesiaslicaI
cvininaI
juvisdiclion
ovev
cIevics,
il Iecane
I¸ 1706
a
pviviIege
lIal
an¸one
convicled oJ a connon Iav
JeIon¸
couId cIain in ovdev lo
oIlain
exenplion
Jvon lIe
inposilion
oJ lIe dealI
penaIl¸.
Fuvsuanl
lo
IegisIalion
oJ
1717,
aInosl aII convicls vIo
pIeaded cIevg¸
aJlev
lIal dale veve
lvanspovled
lo lIe BvilisI coIonies in Anevica Jov a
seven-¸eav
levn oJ indenluved sevvilude.

lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸,
lIeveJove,
IeneJil oJ
cIevg¸
Iad dvained nosl oJ lIe IIood Jvon lIe
connon Iav oJ cvine. In ovdev lo
pvesevve
lIe
capilaI
lIveal Jov a
cvine lIal Iad Ieen ov vouId Iave Ieen
capilaI
undev lIe connon
Iav, speciaI IegisIalion
Iad lo Ie enacled
naIing
lIe oJJence non-
cIevg¸aIIe.
Sone sucI slalules dale Jvon lIe sixleenlI
cenluv¸,
and
a
gvoup
oJ
inpovlanl
ones
appeaved
in lIe
veigns
oJ WiIIian and
Anne,
Iul nosl veve
Oeovgian.68 AccovdingI¸,
lIe so-caIIed
expan-
sion oJ lIe
capilaI
sanclion in lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸
vas lo sone
considevaIIe exlenl
onI¸
a veslovalion. TIis
pvocess
oJ
pieceneaI
ves-
lovalion vas a
najov
Jovce in lIe lvansJovnalion oJ lIe Iav oJ cvine
Jvon a connon Iav JieId lo a
pvedoninanlI¸ slalulov¸
one.69
TIis novenenl Jvon connon Iav inlo slalule Iav occuvved in a
IegaI s¸slen
lIal vas
iII-equipped
lo IandIe il.
MiIson, speaIing
oJ
lIe Iale nedievaI
peviod,
ovevslales lIis
poinl,
Iul Iel ne
quole
Iin
Jov lIe JIavouv oJ a nolion lIal I lIinI vouId
vepa¸
caveJuI
slud¸.
¨TIe nisevaIIe
Iislov¸
oJ
[lIe
Iav
oJ]
cvine in
EngIand
can Ie
sIovlI¸
loId.
NolIing
vovlIvIiIe vas cvealed¨.70
Man¸ aspecls
oJ lIe
Eng-
IisI nedievaI
Ievilage
Iad lIe eJJecl oJ
veducing
lIe
IegaI-scienliJic
dinension oJ lIe cvininaI Iav
I¸ conpavison
vilI ConlinenlaI Iav
-
ve
nigIl
nenlion lIe
Ieav¸
use oJ
Ia¸nen
lo decide and lo
pvos-
ecule cvininaI
cases,
lIe vivluaI aIsence oJ
Iav¸evs
Jov
pvoseculion
and
deJence,
lIe
lin¸
nunIev oJ
vo¸aI judges,
lIe decenlvaIizalion oJ
lIe assize
s¸slen,
and lIe
opacil¸
oJ lIe
genevaI
vevdicl.
EngIisI
cvininaI Iav vas
pvinilive
in nallevs oJ oJJence
deJinilion, especiaII¸
67
See
genevaII¸
TIe
Bepovls oJ
Siv
JoIn SpeInan,
ed.
J.
H.
BaIev,
2
voIs. |SeIden
Soc., xciii-xciv, London, 1977-8), ii, Inlvoduclion, pp. 327-34: Janes
F.
SlepIen,
A
Hislov¸ oJ
lIe CvininaI Lav
oJ EngIand, 3 voIs. |London, 1883), i,
pp. 458
JJ.
Ha¸
disnisses IeneJil oJ
cIevg¸
in a Joolnole·
Ha¸, ¨Fvopevl¸, AulIovil¸
and lIe CvininaI
Lav¨, p.
22 n. 2.
68 See lIe convenienl Iisl oJ lIese slalules in
Jevone HaII, TIeJl,
Lav and
Sociel¸,
2nd edn.
|IndianapoIis, 1952), pp. 356-63.
69 See JoIn Sl¸Ies,
¨CvininaI
Becovds¨,
Hisl.
JI.,
xx
|1977), FF. 977, 980.
70
S. F. C.
MiIson,
HislovicaI Foundalions
oJ
lIe Connon
Lav,
2nd edn.
|London,
1981), p. 403.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
I 18 FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
lIe
genevaI pavl,
lIal sel oJ nolions aIoul cvininaI
vesponsiIiIil¸
lIal
culs acvoss aII cvininaI oJJences
|Jov exanpIe, degvees
oJ
cuIpaIiIil¸,
lIe Iav oJ
allenpls, aiding
and
aIelling, capacil¸,
and nosl oJ lIe
aJJivnalive
deJences).
TIis
undevdeveIopnenl
oJ lIe scienliJic side
oJ
EngIisI
Iav
gvealI¸
aJJecled lIe
nuIlipIicalion
oJ
capilaI
slalules.
TIe
EngIisI
did nol Iave
200
sepavale
cvines in lIe nodevn sense
lIal couId Ie
punisIed
vilI dealI.
BalIev, lIe¸
IacIed
genevaI
deJi-
nilions, especiaII¸
Jov
Iavcen¸
and
enIezzIenenl,
vilI lIe vesuIl lIal
lIe¸
veve
conslanlI¸ Iaving
lo add
pavlicuIavs
in ovdev lo
conpensale
Jov lIe vanl oJ
genevaIil¸.71
TIe consoIidalion novenenl oJ lIe nine-
leenlI
cenluv¸
iIIuslvales lIis
poinl veII:
Jev oJJences veve
vepeaIed,
valIev deJinilions veve
inpvoved
so lIal lIe nunIev oJ
sepavale
oJ-
Jences couId Ie veduced.
SlepIen, vviling neavI¸
a
cenluv¸ ago,
nade
lIe
poinl
lIal lIe
I6o
capilaI
oJJences lIal BIacIslone
conpIained
veve in Jovce in lIe
1760s ¨nigIl pvoIaII¸
Ie veduced

caveJuI
cIassiJicalion lo a
conpavaliveI¸
snaII nunIev¨.72
Nol
onI¸
did
EngIisI
cvininaI Iav IacI scienliJic
sopIislicalion,
on
lIe
IegisIalive
side il Iad no cenlvaI diveclion. No ninislev oJ
juslice
ovevsav lIe adninislvalion and anendnenl oJ lIe cvininaI
jus-
lice
s¸slen.
Mosl oJ lIe
capilaI slalules,
IiIe nosl oJ lIe vesl oJ
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸
IegisIalion,73
oviginaled
as nenIevs' IiIIs. In
sucI civcunslances lIe exlension oJ
capilaI
sanclions lo nev Jovns
oJ
pvopevl¸
vas naluvaI
enougI, I¸
sIeev Jovce oJ
anaIog¸.
IJ lIe
capilaI
sanclion suiled oJJences
againsl sIeep
undev
EIizaIelI,
lIen
vI¸
nol Jaclovies undev
Oeovge
III? ¨Fov once lIe dealI
penaIl¸
is
eslaIIisIed as lIe nosl eJJeclive inslvunenl oJ
cvine-pvevenlion¨,
Badzinovicz
venavIs,
¨lIeve can Ie no vaIid veason Jov
invoIing
il
lo
suppvess
one oJJence and nol anolIev¨.74 Sone
Iavgev
veJovn oJ
pvincipIe
is needed lo
inlevvvupl
lIal
pvocess. LegisIaluves
incIine lo
evv on lIe side oJ
sevevil¸
vIen
consideving pavlicuIav
oJJences. Fav-
licuIavs ave
inJIalionav¸,
Iecause lIeve is no
counlev-consliluenc¸
lo
vesisl lIe
anaIog¸
lIal exlends
penaI
sanclions Jvon one
lIing
lo lIe
nexl.
Lenienc¸
and
pvopovlionaIil¸
ave considevalions lIal cone lo
lIe Jove vIen a
IegisIaluve
Ias occasion lo
conpave
oJJences and
sanclions
-
vIen,
Jov
exanpIe,
il
pvoduces
a
penaI code,
ov
|as
in
nineleenlI-cenluv¸ EngIand)
vevises
najov segnenls
oJ lIe Iav.
71
See, Jov
exanpIe,
Badzinovicz's succincl accounl oJ lIe succession oJ
Iavcen¸
slalules·
Badzinovicz, Hislov¸ oJ EngIisI
CvininaI
Lav, i, pp. 41-9.
72
SlepIen, Hislov¸ oJ
lIe CvininaI Lav
oJ EngIand, i, p. 470.
7
¨In lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸, IegisIalion
vas nol . . .
especiaII¸
a nallev Jov lIe
ninislevs oJ lIe Cvovn. TIeve vas IillIe
govevnnenl IegisIalion apavl
Jvon vouline
JinanciaI neasuves
. .
.¨· F. B. O.
TIonas,
TIe House
oJ
Connons in lIe
EigIleenlI
Cenluv¸ |OxJovd, 1971),
p.
45.
On lIe
Tveasuv¸'s ovevsigIl
oJ vevenue
IiIIs,
see SIeiIa
LanIevl,
BiIIs and Acls·
LegisIalive
Fvoceduve in
EigIleenlI-Cenluv¸ EngIand |Can-
Ividge, 1971), FF. 71-4.
See aIso
HugI Anov¸, ¨Henv¸ FieIding
and lIe CvininaI
LegisIalion
oJ
1751-2¨,
FIiIoI.
Quavl.,
1
|1971), FF. 175, 191-2.
74
Badzinovicz, Hislov¸ oJ EngIisI
CvininaI
Lav, i, p. 49.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
ALBION'S FATAL FLAWS
I19
We
can,
oJ
couvse,
lvace lIe Iand oJ connevciaI inlevesls
|vIo
veve oJlen nove
pell¸ Iouvgeois
lIan
6Iile,
as I Iave said
IeJove)
in
a considevaIIe Jvaclion oJ lIe
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸
cvininaI
IegisIalion,
IolI
capilaI
and
non-capilaI.
I douIl vIelIev
an¸one
vouId
avgue
vilI
Jevone
HaII's assessnenl lIal ¨il is in lIis
cenluv¸
lIal one
cones
upon
lIe Iav oJ
veceiving
sloIen
pvopevl¸, Iavcen¸ I¸ lvicI,
oIlaining goods I¸
JaIse
pvelences,
and enIezzIenenl.
Heve,
Jov lIe
Jivsl
line,
lIe nodevn
Iav¸ev
Jinds IinseIJ in conlacl vilI a
Iod¸
oJ
suIslanlive cvininaI Iav vIicI Ie JeeIs is
essenliaII¸
Iis
ovn¨.7¨
Nev
Jovns oJ econonic
aclivil¸
and connevciaI
ovganizalion gave
vise lo
nev issues oJ deJinilion. Yel lIe
vev¸
Jacl lIal lIe soIulions lIal veve
veacIed in lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸
slviIe us as
essenliaII¸
nodevn
|on
issues oJ
cuIpaIiIil¸,
lIal
is,
valIev lIan
sanclion) suggesls
lIal lIese
neasuves veve enacled Iecause
lIe¸
veve veasonaIIe valIev lIan Ie-
cause a
vuIing
cIass vvesled
advanlage
Jvon olIevs. TIeve is no sociaI
inlevesl in
JaiIing
lo cvininaIize
veceiving
sloIen
pvopevl¸, Iavcen¸ I¸
lvicI, oIlaining goods I¸
JaIse
pvelences,
and enIezzIenenl. TIese
oJJences
pevsisl
vilI
onI¸
lecInicaI veJinenenl in nodevn
EngIisI
Iav,
and
conpavaIIe pvovisions gvace
lIe codes oJ nodevn sociaIisl
slales.76
VIII
THE BULEBS
In a vecenl
essa¸
BicIavd
SpavIs
naIes a
poinl
lIal
IeIps
us undev-
sland
vI¸
lIe
Ha¸
lIesis is so
inpvoIaIIe.¨
TIe cvininaI
Iav, sa¸s
SpavIs,
is
onI¸ inpovlanl
¨al lIe
navgins
oJ sociaI
IiJe:
. . . in
da¸-
lo-da¸
aJJaivs il is nol aII lIal
inpovlanl
lo lIe nainlenance oJ Iale
induslviaI
capilaIisn's
sociaI ovdev . . .
give
ne lIe Iav oJ conlvacls
|incIuding
conlvacls oJ
enpIo¸nenl),
and
¸ou
can Iave aII lIe vesl oJ
lIe slalule IooI . . . lIe nosl
genevaII¸
useJuI Iavs ave
IiIeI¸
lo Ie
lIe ones lIal deJine . . .
ovnevsIip
and conlvoI
[oJ
lIe neans oJ
pvoduclion],
and nol sone
anciIIav¸
Iavs lIal
pvonise
lo
lIunp
individuaIs Jov valIev lviviaI Iinds oJ
lanpeving
vilI lIose
neans¨.78
TIe cvininaI Iav is
sinpI¸
lIe
vvong pIace
lo IooI Jov lIe aclive Iand
oJ lIe
vuIing
cIasses. Fvon lIe
slandpoinl
oJ lIe
vuIevs,
I vouId
suggesl,
lIe cvininaI
juslice s¸slen occupies
a
pIace
nol nucI nove
cenlvaI lIan lIe
gavIage
coIIeclion
s¸slen. Tvue,
iJ lIe
gavIage
is nol
coIIecled lIe
sociel¸
cannol
opevale
and
vuIing-cIass goaIs
viII Ie
Jvuslvaled,
Iul lIal does nol luvn
gavIage
coIIeclion inlo a
vuIing-
75 HaII, TIeJl, Lav and Sociel¸, pp. 34-5.
76
Fov
exanpIe,
CvininaI Code
oJ
lIe
Hungavian FeopIe's BepuIIic,
lvans. F.
LanIevg
|Budapesl, 1962), pp.
Io8,
110, ss. 292 |enIezzIenenl), 293 |cvininaI Jvaud), 301
|veceiving goods unIavJuII¸ oIlained).
77
BicIavd F.
SpavIs,
¨A
Cvilique
oJ Mavxisl
CvininoIog¸¨,
Cvine and
Juslice·
An
AnnuaI Beviev
oJ BeseavcI,
ii
|1980), p. 159.
78
IIid., pp. 193-4.
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
120 FAST ANB FBESENT NUMBEB
98
cIass
conspivac¸.
TIe
Ha¸ lIesis,
in a siniIav
JasIion,
conJuses neces-
sav¸
and suJJicienl condilions.
In lIis
papev
I Iave Ieen
nainlaining
lvo lIenes aIoul lIe ad-
ninislvalion oJ lIe cvininaI Iav in lIe
eigIleenlI cenluv¸. Fivsl,
nosl
oJ lIe discvelion vas exevcised
I¸ peopIe
nol
JaivI¸
lo Ie descviIed as
lIe
vuIing cIass, especiaII¸
lIe
pvoseculovs
and lIe
juvovs. SecondI¸,
lIe discvelion lIal cIavaclevized lIis
s¸slen
vas nol
avIilvav¸
and
seIJ-inlevesled,
Iul valIev luvned on lIe
good-JailI
considevalion oJ
Jaclovs vilI vIicI elIicaI decision-naIevs
ougIl
lo Iave Ieen con-
cevned. TIe Iislovian does nol need a
conspivac¸ lIeov¸
lo
expIain
lIe
discvelion,
and lIe discvelion does nol Jil lIe
lIeov¸.
I concede
JuII¸
lIal vIen nen oJ lIe sociaI
61ile
cane inlo conlacl vilI lIe
cvininaI
juslice s¸slen
in
an¸ capacil¸, lIe¸
veve lvealed vilI
speciaI
couvles¸
and
vegavd, jusl
as
lIe¸
veve eIsevIeve in lIis slvaliJied
sociel¸.
To seize
upon
lIal as lIe
vaison d'elve
oJ lIe cvininaI
juslice
s¸slen is, Iovevev,
lo nislaIe lIe IavnacIes Jov lIe Ioal.
Univevsil¸ oJ CIicago JoIn
H.
LangIein
This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.228 on Fri, 30 Nov 2012 02:19:53 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful