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189-197

Comparative study of automatic generation control in traditional and deregulated power environment

Prabhat Kumar , Saa A Kazmi, Nazish Yasmeen Department of Electrical Engineering, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India (Received March 6 2009, Revised July 19 2009, Accepted November 12 2009) Abstract. An optimal/sub-optimal load frequency controller design based on a gradient based iterative technique is discussed in the present work. The feasibility of the design technique is shown by considering a 2-identical area power system consisting of non-reheat/reheat thermal plants. With the regulators designed for different cases discussed in the present work, the study is carried out in wake of 1% step load disturbance in area-1, area-2 and both the areas. The study is carried out for Automatic Generation Control strategies in traditional and deregulated environment. Keywords: AGC, p.s. deregulation, optimal/suboptimal load frequency controller

Introduction

In an interconnected power system, the load variations are initially accommodated in a random fashion by the governor regulated machines which are in operation at that instant. The operating objectives require that the load changes must be allocated to the specic areas in accordance with pre-arranged patterns and not in a random fashion. To accomplish this, it becomes necessary to automatically manipulate the operation of main steam valves of turbo-generators in accordance with a suitable control strategy with a supplementary signal to speed changer master in the governors. The problem of regulating the power output of electric generators within a prescribed control area in response to changes in system frequency and the established interchange with other areas within predetermined limits is known as Automatic Generation Control (AGC)[6] . The traditional power system industry has a Vertically Integrated Utility (VIU) structure. In the restructured or deregulated environment, Vertically Integrated Utilities no longer exist. The utilities no longer own generation, transmission, and distribution, instead, three different entities emerge, namely: GENCOsindependent power producer; TRANSCOstransmission facility owners; DISCOsdistribution system companies.

The rst step in deregulation is to separate the generation of power from the transmission and distribution. An agreement between DISCO and GENCO should be established to supply regulation. As there are several GENCOs and DISCOs in the deregulated structure, a DISCO has the freedom to have a contract with any GENCO for transaction of power. A DISCO may have a contract with a GENCO in another control area. Such transactions are called bilateral transactions. With the emergence of the distinct identities of GENCOs, TRANSCOs, DISCOs and the ISO (Independent System Operator), many of the ancillary services of a vertically integrated utility will have a different role to play and hence have to be modeled differently. Among these ancillary services is the Automatic Generation Control (AGC)[35] .

Corresponding author. E-mail address: varshpk@rediffmail.com. Published by World Academic Press, World Academic Union

190

P. Kumar & S. Kazmi & N. Yasmeen: Comparative study of automatic generation control

The automatic generation control system of a control area is a feedback control whose task is to control net interchange and frequency at scheduled values[8] . The conventional Load Frequency Control method includes a regulator which generates control as a function of integral of Area Control Error such that the deviations in system frequency and tie-line powers become zero in steady state[1] . In formulating the optimal AGC problem, the power system dynamic behavior is represented by a set of non-linear differential equations and a quadratic performance index is dened in terms of system state and control variables which is to be minimized subjected to system dynamic constraints[9] . Finally, an optimal control feedback law is obtained by solving a resulting non-linear Riccati Equation using suitable computational technique[2, 7] . An optimal AGC strategy is based on linear state regulator theory which requires either the feedback of all the state variables of the system or state reconstruction procedure from the point of view of its implementation. A suboptimal control law is obtained as a function of smaller number of states of the system based on model order reduction technique[10] . In output feedback control techniques, accessible and easily measurable output variables are selected for control realization.

Gain1

B1 1/R1

-KDel Pd1(s)

Del Xg1(s) ACE1 k1 s controller Del Ptie1(s) Del Pc1(s) U1 1 Tg1.s+1 Gg1 1 Tt1.s+1 Gt1

DelPg1(s)

Del f1(s)

1 s

Integrator1

Del Ptie1(s) 1 -KDel Ptie2(s) Del Xg2(s) 1 1 Tt2.s+1 Gt2 Del Pg2(s) Kp1 Tp1.s+1 Gp2 Del f2(s) T12 1 s

a1 ACE2

Integrator2

Tg2.s+1 Gg2

Gain4

B2

-K- 1/R2

Del Pd2(s)

FIG.1(a)

BLOCK DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION OF TWO AREA POWER SYSTEM WITH NON-REHEAT TURBINES

Fig. 1. Block diagram representation of 2-area power system with non-reheat turbines

Gain1

B1 1/R1

-KDel Pd1

Del Xg1(s) ACE1 k1 s controller Del Ptie1(s) Del Pc1(s) 1 Tg1.s+1 Gg1 1 Tt1.s+1

DelPg1(s)

Del f1(s)

Transfer Fcn3

1 s

Integrator1

-K-

a1 ACE2 k2 s controller1 DelPc2 U2 1 Tg2.s+1 Gg2 Del Xg2(s) 1 Tt2.s+1 Transfer Fcn8

Integrator2

Del Pg2(s)

Gain4

B2

-K- 1/R2

Del Pd2

FIG.1(b) BLOCK DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION OF TWO AREA POWER SYSTEM WITH REHEAT TURBINES

Fig. 2. Block diagram representation of 2-area power system with reheat turbines

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World Journal of Modelling and Simulation, Vol. 6 (2010) No. 3, pp. 189-197

191

The 2-area power system, shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, can be described by the following controllable (t) = AX (t) + Bu(t) + Fd P (t), Y (t) = and observable linear time-invariant state space representation: X CX (t), where State vector: X (9 1) = [f1 , Pg1 , Xg1 , f2 , Pg2 , Xg2 , Ptie,1 , IACE1 , IACE2 ]T (Non-reheat turbine model), X (11 1) = [f1 , Pg1 , Pr1 , Xg1 , f2 , Pg2 , Pr2 , Xg2 , Ptie,1 , IACE1 , IACE2 ]T (Reheat turbine model). Control vector: u(2 1) = [Pc1 , Pc2 ]T Disturbance vector: p(2 1) = [Pd1 , Pd2 ]T System matrix (non-zero elements): Non-reheat turbine model, A11 = 1/Tp1 , A12 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A17 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A22 = 1/Tt1 , A23 = 1/Tt1 , A31 1/R1 Tg1 , A33 = 1/Tg1 , A44 = 1/Tp2 , A45 = Kp2 /Tp2 , A47 = a12 Kp2 /Tp2 , A55 = 1/Tt2 , A56 1/Tt2 , A64 = 1/R2 Tg2 , A66 = 1/Tg2 , A71 = T12 , A74 = T12 , A81 = b1 , A87 = 1, A94 = b2 , A97 a12 . Reheat turbine model, A11 = 1/Tp1 , A12 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A19 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A22 = 1/Tr1 , A23 = 1/Tr1 , A24 Kr1 /Tt1 , A25 = Kr1 /Tt1 , A33 = 1/Tt1 , A34 = 1/Tt1 , A41 = 1/R1 Tg1 , A44 = 1/Tg1 , A55 = 1/Tp2 , A56 = Kp2 /Tp2 , A59 = a12 Kp2 /Tp2 , A66 = 1/Tr2 , A67 = 1/Tr2 , A68 = Kr2 /Tt2 , A69 = Kr2 /Tt2 , A77 = 1/Tt2 , A78 = 1/Tt2 , A85 = 1/R2 Tg2 , A88 = 1/Tg2 , A91 = T12 , A95 = T12 , A10,1 = b1 , A10,9 = 1, A11,5 = b2 , A11,9 = a12 . Control distribution matrix: Non-reheat turbine model, B31 = 1/Tg1 , B62 = 1/Tg2 . Reheat turbine model, B41 = 1/Tg1 , B82 = 1/Tg2 . Disturbance matrix: Non-reheat turbine model, Fd11 = Kp1 /Tp1 , Fd42 = Kp2 /Tp2 . Reheat turbine model, Fd11 = Kp1 /Tp1 , Fd52 = Kp2 /Tp2 ,

= = =

B. Deregulated environment The DISCO Participation Matrix concept is used as described by V.Donde, M.A.Pai and I.A.Hiskens[5] considering a 2-area system in which each area has two GENCOs and two DISCOs in it, as shown in Fig. 3.

The corresponding Disco Participation matrix (DPM) is: cpf11 cpf12 cpf13 cpf21 cpf22 cpf23 DPM = cpf31 cpf32 cpf33 cpf41 cpf42 cpf43

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192

P. Kumar & S. Kazmi & N. Yasmeen: Comparative study of automatic generation control

where cpf refers to contract participation factor. The block diagram for a two-area AGC system in the deregulated scenario is formulated. Whenever a load demanded by a DISCO changes, these demands are specied by cpfs (elements of DPM) and the pu MW load of a DISCO. The 2-area power system, as shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, can be described by the following

Fig. 4. Two-area AGC system block diagram for non-reheat turbines in deregulated environment

Fig. 5. Two-area AGC system block diagram for reheat turbines in deregulated environment

controllable and observable linear time-invariant state space representation: (t) = AX (t) + Bu(t), Y (t) = CX (t), X where State vector: X (13 1) = [f1 , f2 , Pg1 , Pg2 , Pg3 , Pg4 , Pm1 , Pm2 , Pm3 , Pm4 , Ptie,1 , IACE1 , IACE2 ]T (NR T model) X (17 1) = [f1 , f2 , Pg1 , Pg2 , Pg3 , Pg4 , Pr1 , Pr2 , Pr3 , Pr4 , Pm1 , Pm2 , Pm3 , Pm4 , Ptie,1 , IACE1 , IACE2 ]T ]T (R T model)

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World Journal of Modelling and Simulation, Vol. 6 (2010) No. 3, pp. 189-197

Characteristic Plots

193

Reheat turbine(Deregulated environment)

0.005

0.015 0.01

0 0.005 -0.005 0

Delta f1

-0.01

Delta f1

-0.005 -0.01 -0.015 Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2

-0.015

-0.02 Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

-0.025

-0.02 -0.025

-0.03

10

15

20

25

30

Time(sec)

Figure 5.1a

(a)

x 10

-3

Time(sec)

Figure 5.1b

(b)

Reheat turbine(Traditional environment)

0.005

0

-0.005

Delta f2

-0.01

-0.015

Deltaf2

Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2

-5

-10

-0.02

-15

-0.025

Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2

-0.03

10

15

20

25

30

-20

10

15

20

25

30

Time(sec)

(a)

Time(sec)

Figure 5.2b

(b)

5.2a Fig. 7.Figure Frequency deviation in area-2 ((a) traditional (b) and deregulated)

8 6

x 10

-3

0.01

0.005

4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2

Delta Ptie1

DeltaPtie1

-0.005

-0.01

Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2

10

15

20

25

30

-0.015

10

15

20

25

30

Time(sec)

Figure 5.3a

(a)

Time(sec)

Figure 5.3b

(b)

x 10

-3

0.01

4 2 0 -2

0.005

Delta ACE1

-4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2

D elta A C E 1

-0.005

-0.01

-0.015

Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

-0.02

10

15

20

25

30

Time(sec)

Figure 5.4a

(a)

Time(sec)

Figure5. 4b

(b)

Fig. 9. Area Control Error in area-1 ((a) traditional and (b) deregulated

194

4 2 0 -2 x 10

-3

P. Kumar & S. Kazmi & N. Yasmeen: Comparative study of automatic generation control

Reheat turbine (Traditional environment)

0.01

0.005

D elta AC E2

Delta ACE2

-4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2

-0.005

-0.01

Load Change in area 1 Load Change in area 2 Load change in area 1&2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

15

20

25

30

-0.015

Time(sec)

Figure 5.5a

(a)

Time(sec)

Figure 5.5b

(b)

Reheat turbine(Load change in area 1&2)

0.005

0

0

-0.005

-0.005

-0.01

Delta f1

D eltaf2

Traditional Deregulated

-0.01

-0.015

-0.015

-0.02

-0.025

-0.025

-0.03

10

15

20

25

30

-0.03

10

15

20

25

30

Time(sec)

Figure 6a

(a)

4 2 0 x 10

-3

Time(sec)

Figure 6b

(b)

0 Traditional Deregulated

-0.002

-0.004

Delta ACE2

Delta ACE1

-0.006

-0.008

-0.01

-0.012

-0.014

10

15

20

25

30

10

15

20

25

30

Time(sec)

Figure 6c

(c)

Time(sec)

Figure 6d

(d)

Fig. 11. Frequency deviations and Area Control Error for load change in both areas 1 and 2 in traditional and deregulated environment

Control vector: u(2 1) = [Pc1 , Pc2 ]T Disturbance vector: p(4 1) = [PL1 , PL2 , PL3 , PL4 ]T System matrix (non-zero elements): Non-reheat turbine model, A11 = 1/Tp1 , A13 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A14 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A1,11 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A22 = 1/Tp2 , A25 = Kp2 /Tp2 , A26 = Kp2 /Tp2 , A2,11 = Kp2 /Tp2 , A33 = 1/Tt1 , A37 = 1/Tt1 , A44 = 1/Tt2 , A48 = 1/Tt2 , A55 = 1/Tt3 , A59 = 1/Tt2 , A66 = 1/Tt4 , A6,10 = 1/Tt4 , A71 = 1/2R1 Tg1 , A77 = 1/Tg1 , A81 = 1/2R2 Tg2 , A88 = 1/Tg2 , A92 = 1/2R3 Tg3 , A99 = 1/Tg3 , A10,2 = 1/2R4 Tg4 , A10,10 = 1/Tg4 , A11,1 = T12 /2, A11,2 = T12 /2, A12,1 = b1 /2, A12,11 = 1, A13,2 = b2 /2, A13,11 = 1 Reheat turbine model, A11 = 1/Tp1 , A13 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A14 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A1,15 = Kp1 /Tp1 , A22 = 1/Tp2 , A25 = Kp2 /Tp2 , A26 = Kp2 /Tp2 , A2,11 = Kp2 /Tp2 , A33 = 1/Tr1 , A37 = 1/Tr1 Kr1 /Tt1 , A3,11 = Kr1 /Tt1 , A44 = 1/Tr2 , A48 = 1/Tr2 Kr2 /Tt2 , A4,12 = Kr2 /Tt2 , A55 = 1/Tr3 , A59 = 1/Tr3 Kr3 /Tt3 , A5,13 = Kr3 /Tt3 , A66 = 1/Tr4 , A6,10 = 1/Tr4 Kr4 /Tt4 ,

World Journal of Modelling and Simulation, Vol. 6 (2010) No. 3, pp. 189-197

195

A6,14 = Kr4 /Tt4 , A77 = 1/Tt1 , A7,11 = 1/Tt1 , A88 = 1/Tt2 , A8,12 = 1/Tt2 , A99 = 1/Tt3 , A9,13 = 1/Tt2 , A10,10 = 1/Tt4 , A10,14 = 1/Tt4 , A11,1 = 1/2R1 Tg1 , A11,11 = 1/Tg1 , A12,1 = 1/2R2 Tg2 , A12,12 = 1/Tg2 , A13,2 = 1/2R3 Tg3 , A13,13 = 1/Tg3 , A14,2 = 1/2R4 Tg4 , A14,14 = 1/Tg4 , A15,1 = T12 /2, A15,2 = T12 /2, A16,1 = b1 /2, A16,15 = 1, A16,2 = b2 /2, A16,15 = 1 Control distribution matrix: Non-reheat turbine model, B71 = apf1 /Tg1 , B81 = apf2 /Tg2 , B92 = apf3 /Tg3 , B10,2 = apf4 /Tg4 , Reheat turbine model, B11,1 = apf1 /Tg1 , B12,1 = apf2 /Tg2 , B13,2 = apf3 /Tg3 , B14,2 = apf4 /Tg4 . Disturbance matrix, Non-reheat turbine model, Fd11 = Kp1 /Tp1 , Fd12 = Kp1 /Tp1 , Fd23 = Kp2 /Tp2 , Fd24 = Kp2 /Tp2 , Fd71 = cpf11 /Tg1 , Fd72 = cpf12 /Tg1 , Fd73 = cpf13 /Tg1 , Fd74 = cpf14 /Tg1 , Fd81 = cpf21 /Tg2 , Fd82 = cpf22 /Tg2 , Fd83 = cpf23 /Tg2 , Fd84 = cpf24 /Tg2 , Fd91 = cpf31 /Tg3 , Fd92 = cpf32 /Tg3 , Fd93 = cpf33 /Tg3 , Fd94 = cpf34 /Tg3 , Fd10,1 = cpf41 /Tg4 , Fd10,2 = cpf42 /Tg4 , Fd10,3 = cpf43 /Tg4 , Fd10,4 = cpf44 /Tg4 , Fd12,1 = cpf31 + cpf41 , Fd12,2 = cpf32 + cpf42 , Fd12,3 = (cpf11 + cpf23 ), Fd12,4 = (cpf14 + cpf24 ), Fd13,1 = (cpf31 + cpf41 ), Fd13,2 = (cpf32 + cpf42 ), Fd13,3 = cpf11 + cpf23 , Fd13,4 = cpf14 + cpf24 . Reheat turbine model, Fd11 = Kp1 /Tp1 , Fd12 = Kp1 /Tp1 , Fd23 = Kp2 /Tp2 , Fd24 = Kp2 /Tp2 , Fd11,1 = cpf11 /Tg1 , Fd11,2 = cpf12 /Tg1 , Fd11,3 = cpf13 /Tg1 , Fd11,4 = cpf14 /Tg1 , Fd12,1 = cpf21 /Tg2 , Fd12,2 = cpf22 /Tg2 , Fd12,3 = cpf23 /Tg2 , Fd12,4 = cpf24 /Tg2 , Fd13,1 = cpf31 /Tg3 , Fd13,2 = cpf32 /Tg3 , Fd13,3 = cpf33 /Tg3 , Fd13,4 = cpf34 /Tg3 , Fd14,1 = cpf41 /Tg4 , Fd14,2 = cpf42 /Tg4 , Fd14,3 = cpf43 /Tg4 , Fd14,4 = cpf44 /Tg4 , Fd16,1 = cpf31 + cpf41 , Fd16,2 = cpf32 + cpf42 , Fd16,3 = (cpf11 + cpf23 ), Fd16,4 = (cpf14 + cpf24 ), Fd17,1 = (cpf31 + cpf41 ), Fd17,2 = (cpf32 + cpf42 ), Fd17,3 = cpf11 + cpf23 , Fd17,4 = cpf14 + cpf24 .

An Algorithm based on steepest descent iterative gradient technique[9] for the solution of the problem is reported in Appendix.

Simulation results

Simulation results are shown in Tab. 1.

Discussion

Characteristic plots are shown in Fig. 6 to Fig. 10 and Fig. 11. The stability of closed loop system is ensured by investigating the nature of all eigenvalues of the closed loop system matrix. The appreciable shifting towards the left of jw-axis of few eigenvalues obtained for case-3 has led to increased stability margins as compared to case-1, 2 in case of traditional scenario. The eigenvalues for case-3 have substantially small magnitude of imaginary part which may yield a smooth system dynamic response as compared to those obtained in other case studies. The system dynamic responses of f1 , f2 , Ptie , obtained for case 3 (i) as shown in (a) part of Figs. 6 8 have lesser number of oscillatory modes but with higher magnitudes than those obtained for case studies 3 (ii) as shown in part (b) of Figs. 6 8.The system offers a substantial improvement in dynamic performance when full state variable feedback is given in case 3 (i) i.e. as shown in (a) part of Figs. 6 8. The investigations can be further extended using Fuzzy Logic Controllers which improves the dynamic performance of the power system[4] .

Conclusion

In the present work, a comparative study is made to propose Automatic Generation Control strategies for 2-area non-reheat/reheat thermal power system. Different cases are studied and a comparative study is made

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196

P. Kumar & S. Kazmi & N. Yasmeen: Comparative study of automatic generation control

between traditional and deregulated power environment. From the study, it has been inferred that although the controllers designed for deregulated power environment yield a degraded performance compared to traditional environment, however, the performance obtained is within the acceptable limits and may be implemented with lesser complexity.

Table 1. Eigen values Eigen Values Of The Closed Loop System Matrix Traditional Environment Deregulated Environment 0.6067 + 4.4209i 0.6067 4.4209i 1.1614 + 3.6106i 1.1614 3.6106i 0.3479 9.0563 14.3014 14.0562 12.8961 12.5000 12.5000 3.3333 3.3333 14.0607 13.8194 0.4739 + 4.8616i 0.4739 4.8616i 0.8766 + 3.5525i 0.8766 3.5525i 0.4333 + 0.7095i 0.4333 0.7095i 0.3024 12.5000 12.5000 3.3333 + 0.0000i 3.3333 0.0000i 3(ii) 12.6058 + 0.0433i 12.6058 0.0433i 0.5510 + 2.9928i 0.5510 2.9928i 2.2765 + 0.5359i 2.2765 0.5359i 2.6841 0.6468 + 0.2094i 0.6468 0.2094i 0.7285 0.2675 12.5000 12.5000 3.3333 3.3333 0.2000 0.2000

23.7165 13.1477 13.2431 4.1005 1.2240 + 2.9891i 1.2240 2.9891i 1.3736 + 1.8200i 1.3736 1.8200i 0.2868

13.5925 13.3126 0.7936 + 3.8081i 0.7936 3.8081i 1.0565 + 2.4796i 1.0565 2.4796i 0.3476 + 0.6291i 0.3476 0.6291i 0.4493

3(i) 27.0638 11.9528 9.6634 3.1380 + 2.0073i 3.1380 2.0073i 1.6979 0.1651 0.9327 + 0.5395i 0.9327 0.5395i 0.6860 + 0.2582i 0.6860 0.2582i

World Journal of Modelling and Simulation, Vol. 6 (2010) No. 3, pp. 189-197

197

References

[1] N. Bekhouche. Automatic Generation Control Before and After Deregulation. in: Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth Southeastern Symposium on System Theory, IEEE, 2002, 321323. [2] M. Calovic. Linear regulator design for load frequency control. IEEE Transanction, 1972, PAS-91: 22712285. [3] R. Christie, A. Bose. Load Frequency Control Issues in Power System Operations after Deregulation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 1996, 11(3): 11911200. [4] S. Dalai, S. Chowdhury, et al. Automatic generation Control in a Deregulated Power System. in: All India Seminar on Integrated Operation of Power System, IE (1), WBSC and IEEE CAL SEC, PE Chapter, 2003, 9097. [5] V. Donde, M. Pai, I. Hiskens. Simulation and Optimization in an AGC System after Deregulation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2001, 16(3): 481488. [6] O. Elgerd. Electric Energy Systems TheoryAn Introduction. New York MC GRAWHILL, 1968. [7] O. Elgerd. Optimum Megawatt Frequency Control of Multi-area Electric Energy System. IEEE Transaction, 1970, PAS-89(4): 556563. [8] C. Fosha, O. Elgerd. The Megawatt Frequency Control Problem: A New Approach Via Optimal Control Theory. IEEE Transanction, 1970, PAS-89(4): 563571. [9] P. Kumar. Load Frequency Control of Reheat Thermal Power System Using Optimal Control Strategy. in: NSC-86, Paper No. III-5, I. I. T. Delhi, 1986, 127132. [10] N. Saha, S. Tripathy. Suboptimal Regulator for Automatic Generation Control of a Power System. Journal of Institution of Engineers (India), 1977, 58(EL3): 176184.

Appendix

Step 1. Read data N , M , L, TOL, alpha, A, B , C , Fd , R, Q and initialize F ; Step 2. Set iteration count k = 1; Step 3. Compute the closed loop system matrix Z = A BF C ; Step 4. Solve Lyapunov equation for n n matrix S , Z T S + SZ + Q + C T F T RF C = 0; Step 5. Compute trace of S as, tri [S ] = i Sii ; Step 6. Solve Lyapunov equation for matrix P, ZP + P Z T + I = 0; Step 7. Determine gradient, DELH = 2[RF CP C T B T SP C T ]; Step 8. Modify the feedback gain matrix, FI = F alpha DELH , where alpha is step size; Step 9. Compute the new value of S and tr2 i.e. trace of S; Step 10. Check the convergence. If converged, then stop and print optimum F and go to step 12. Otherwise, proceed to next step; Step 11. Increase iteration count by 1. Set F = F1 and tr1 = tr2 . Repeat from step-3 onwards; Step 12. Set F = optimum F ; Step 13. Set iteration count as 1; Step 14. Initialize x = 0, t = 0 and t = 0.1; Step 15. Apply Runga-Kutta routine to nd new value of x; Step 16. Check if t Tmax . If yes, plot the characteristics, else go to next step; Step 17. Increase iteration count by 1 and t by t.

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