CONCEPT OF FORCE The concept force had been a central theme for centuries till it started taking a shape in the time of Galileo at body a „rest‟ was supposed to be in its „natural state‟. It was thought that an influence is required to remove the body from its natural state and put it into motion. It was further felt that the influence, which was being postulated should continuously propel the body otherwise the body will revert back to its natural state. To test these ideas. Experimentally, it is essential that we possess a body which is free from all external influences and hence called a free body.

To produce motion in a body, already at rest, or to destroy the motion of a moving body, we have to apply „effort‟ known as force in the form of a pull or push. Force is defined as that pull or push which produces or tends to produce , destroys or tends to destroy motion in a body, increases or decreases the speed of the body or changes its direction of motion. Force is the basic cause of motion. Force can be classified into two main categories: 1. Contact Forces. These are the forces which come into play due to actual contact between the source and the object. Example (i) Normal reaction (FN) or R : When a body exerts a force on another, the second provides a reaction which acts perpendicular to the surface of first body (Fig.1). If the contact is frictionless. Then contact force which is perpendicular to the common surface is known as normal reaction. (ii) Frictional force (Ff or f ) : If friction is present at the point of contact of two surfaces and two objects move actually or tend to move relative to each other without losing contact, then frictional force originates and opposes this relative motion of objects. This frictional force is perpendicular to normal reaction. Therefore, the contact force between two objects is resultant of two mutually perpendicular forces: (a) Normal reaction (R) (b) Frictional force(f) And resultant contact force is: F contact = √R2 + f2 +2Nf cos 90 = √R2 + f2 (iii)Air resistance (Fa).Applicable when motion takes place through air. This force becomes appreciable for bodies moving at high speeds. 2. Non –contact forces (OR) Field forces - Action at a distance force. Forces which came into existence without any physical contact between the bodies. These forces are due to some inherent characteristics of the body. Examples I. Gravitational force (F g). This is due to the gravitational attraction between two bodies. If we deal with cases of attraction due to earth, this force is always directed downwards.



Electrical force (Felec). This force is due to the charges present on the two bodies. The direction of this force depends upon the type of charges. III. Magnetic Force (F mg). Force which comes into play between two bodies due to their magnetic characteristics. Its direction depends upon the nature of magnetic polarity acquired by the body. In mechanics we shall only deal with gravitational forces from this category. 3. Forces due to Interconnection. Generally we come across cases where one body drives another body due to an interconnection between them. A. Bodies connected with strings When two bodies are connected by means of a string, a tension comes into play when force is applied to one of the bodies .The tension is directed towards the fixed point. Inextensible string. In case the string is inextensible, same tension exists throughout the length of string and the system moves with same acceleration. Fig. 3. 3(a) shows motion over a horizontal surface while Fig. 3(b) shows motion across a pulley


String massless .In case the string is massless, tension in its different parts will be same as shown in Figure. iii. String not massless. If the string is not massless, tension at different points of the string shall be different. iv. String passing over a pulley The string passing over a pulley gets divided into two segments. The tension in these two segments depends whether the string is massless or not and whether frictional resistance is there between the pulley and the string. String mass less. If the string is mass less and there is no friction between the string and pulley, tension in different parts of string is same Fig 4. If there is friction between string and pulley, tension in different segments will be different while it will be same in one segment Fig 4. (a) String not mass less. In case of string which is not mass less, the tension in different segments and at different points in one segment shall be different whether there is friction between the string and the pulley or not Fig.5 B. Bodies connected through springs: Elastic “force –“spring Force” When a spring is compressed or extended, a force known also restoring force comes into play due to the property of elasticity . This force tends to restore the spring back to its original shape and hence the name given to it. Its magnitude is proportional to the displacement (x) of spring and acts in a direction opposite to the direction of displacement. If x is the displacement of the spring, F α x Or F=-kx Where „k‟ is known as the spring constant. Negative sign is due to the reason that the force acts in a direction opposite to that of increasing x. If x =1, F = k




Spring constant of a spring is defined as the magnitude of restoring force due to a unit displacement of spring (extension/ compression). Fig. 6 (a) (i) show the springs in their natural shape.

Fig.6(a) (ii) and (a) (iii) show the compression and extension in horizontal direction while Fig.6(b) (ii) shows the extension in vertical direction. It will be observed from these figures that the restoring force always oppose the direction of increasing displacement. BALANCED AND UNBALANCED FORCES When a number of force act, simultaneously, on a body, their resultant is given by the vector sum of all the forces. Momentum Momentum of a body is defined as the amount of motion obtain in a body. Quantity of motion on the momentum of the body depends. I. Mass of the body. II. Velocity of the body.  Momentum of a body of mass „m‟ and velocity „v‟ is, P = mv Quantitative definition: Momentum of a body is equal to the product of its mass and velocity. Momentum is a vector quantity and possesses the direction of velocity. The units of momentum are, g cm s-1 in C.G.S. system and kq ms-1 in S.I. Study of momentum constitutes an important part in Physics. There are certain problems which cannot be explained only on the concepts of law of conservation of energy. For example : recoil of a gun when a bullet is fired from it. Law of conservation of energy tells us that the energy of explosion is shared by the bullet, gun and the atmosphere. It does not tell us how the energy is distributed among the three of them. Moreover it gives us no idea regarding the fact that the gun moves in a direction opposite to that of bullet. The concept of momentum, which is a vector quantity, can be used to explain these types of problem. Momentum can be put into following two categories. I. Non – relativistic momentum. According to classical physics (or non-realistic physics) which is based upon the concepts of Newton‟s laws of motion, mass of a body is considered to be a constant quantity, independent of the velocity of body. In that case momentum p is given by. P = mv. Thus, momentum of a body is a linear function of its velocity. Relativistic momentum. According to Einstein‟s special theory of relativity, mass of a body depends upon the relative velocity „v‟ of the body with respect to the observer. If „m o‟ is the mass of body observe by an observer at rest with respect to body, its relativistic mass „m‟ is given by m = m0 / √ 1 – v2 / c2 Therefore, momentum of a body according to the concepts of theory of relativity is given by P = m0 v /√ 1 – v2 / c2 Thus, relativistic momentum is not a linear function of v.




It states that, “Everybody continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled by some external force to change that state” Inertia. When body, without the help of an external force cannot change state of rest or of uniform motion along a straight in Newton‟s first law of motion, certainty, is not reason for since the bodies used to behave like this before New appeared on the scene. The answer is very simple that “it is property of the body”. This property is assigned name inertia. Inertia is the property of all bodies by virtue of which are unable to change their state of rest or uniform motion straight line without the help of an external force. In other words inertia can also be termed as a resistance change the state of motion of a body. We know that a great force is required to produce motion in a big rock than in a small stone. Also a big force is required to stop a car than that to stop cycle when both are moving eighth same speeds. Therefore, --------- of a body is a measure of inertia. Inertia of rest. It is the property of a body by virtue which it is unable to change its state of rest without the help an external force. Following examples will help understanding this property. Place a cardboard over a tumbler and place a coin over. Give a sudden jerk to the cardboard. It will observed that as the cardboard flies ahead, coin falls into tumbler. Before the motion of the board could be communication to coin, it slipped ahead. Due to the property of inertia of a coin remained in its position, and hence fell into the tumbler. Dust particles get separated from a blanket if the late given a sudden jerk. Due to inertia of rest dust particles rem in their position while the blanket suddenly takes the new position. Inertia of motion. It is the property of a body by virtue which it is not able to change its speed without the help of an internal force. Following examples will illustrate the property. A man riding a running horse falls in the forward direction if the horse, suddenly, comes to a stop. The lower part his body comes to rest along with the horse while the upper it is still in motion. Due to the property of inertia of motion, falls forward. Due to the same reason, a person sitting in a bus gets a hard jerk as it, suddenly, stops. Inertia of direction. It is the property of body by virtue of which it is unable to change its direction of motion without the help of an external force. Mud sticking to a cycle tyre flies off tangentially. That is why mud- guards are provided on the front and rear wheels. Consider a stone tied to a string being rotated in a horizontal circle. The stone, due to the property of inertia of direction, flies tangentially if the string breaks. Qualitative definition of force from first law. Newton‟s first law states that there cannot be any change in the state of rest or that of motion of a body unless some external force acts upon it. In other words force is an agent which is capable of producing any change in state of rest or that motion (including direction). This provides a qualitative definition of force.



(b) ii.


(b) iii. a. b.



NEWTON‟S SECOND LAW OF MOTION It is stated as, “The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the direction of the force.” Newton‟s first law provides a qualitative definition of the force while second law provides a qualitative definition of the force. Let v be the instantaneous velocity of the body. Momentum p of the body is given by. P = mv According to second law, F = (rate of change of momentum) F = d /dt ( P ) = d / dt ( mv ) Where „k‟ is the constant of proportionality. Mass „m‟ of a body is considered to be a constant quantity.  F = k . m d/ dt ( v) Or F = kma The units of force are so selected that „k‟ becomes one.Thus, if a unit force is chosen to be the force which produces a unit acceleration in a unit mass,Then, k = 1 So, Newton‟s second law can be written, in mathematical form, as F = ma i.e., Force = mass x acceleration This provides us a measure of the force. Let FX FY and Fz be the three rectangular components of force while ax,ay and az are rectangular components of acceleration.F x i + F y j +Fz k = m (ax i + ay j + az k ) Equating the coefficients of i, j and k we get Fx =m ax, Fy =m a y and Fz = m a y These equation represents mathematical form of Newton‟s second law in component form. Outcomes of Newton‟s 2nd Law Net force acting on a particle produces acceleration. The magnitude of the acceleration, so produced, depend on the quantity of matter (inertial mass) being acted upon. Direction of acceleration, so produced, is the same as of net force. F net = m a F net = dp /dt = mv – mu / t-o = mv – mu / t If same force is applied on two different bodies different masses m1 and m2 , then F = m1 a1 =m 2 a2 If m 2 > m1 then a1 > a2 If velocity of an object is in comparison with velocity light i.e, v –c , the mass of body is not constant and its vary considerably with velocity. In such cases. F = p /dt is valid. While F= ma is not valid IMPULSE So many times, in our daily life, we come across cases of forces which are variable in magnitude. A cricket player hits the ball with a bat. Just before the bat came in contact with the ball, the force was zero. It increased to maximum value and again became zero. After this process is over the ball flies away from the bat in a direction different from its original direction of motion. Thus, it is clear that the effect of the force is to bring about a change in the momentum of the ball. Impulse of a force is defined as the change in momentum reduced by the force and it is equal to the product of force is to bring about a change in the momentum of the ball. Impulse of a force is defined as the change in momentum produced by the force and it is equal to the product of force and the time for which



it acts. If the force acts for a small duration of time, the force is called impulsive force. In such cases the total effect of force is called impulse and is a measure of action of force. According to Newton‟s 2nd law of motion : F = dp / dt or F dt = dp Integrating both sides within suitable limits; F dt = dp = [ p ]p1 if F is variable Fdt = P2 - P1

F (t - o) = P2 – P1 F x t = P2 – p 1 ( for constant force ) Impulse =force x time of action of force = force x time for change in momentum = force x time for transfer of momentum from one body to the other. This is known as impulse - momentum theorem. If same change in momentum is caused by two different force F1 and F2 acting for different times t1 and t2 : Then : F t = F 2 t2 ; F1/F2 = t2/ t2 i.e If F1 > F2 , then t1 > t2 i.e. same change in momentum is caused by applying larger force for smaller time and vice versa. Graphical Interpretation Case (i) Constant force Force -time graph for a constant force is a straight line parallel to the axis Fig 7. Impulse = F x t From the graph, F = OA, t = OC Impulse = OA X OC = area of rectangle OABC. Case (ii) Variable force. Force -time graph for a variable force is shown in Fig.7. Let a force „ab‟ be acting on the body at any instant „t‟. Consider another ordinate „cd‟ corresponding to time„t + dt‟ where „dt‟ is very small. Impulse of the force = force x time = F x dt =ab x ad =area of strip abcd Let the whole time „t‟ be divided into such small strips. Total impulse of the force =area below the curve OPQ. Thus, we have seen that whether the force is constant or variable, impulse of the force is equal to the area covered under F-t diagram.





(iii) (iv)





It states that, “To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” Whenever one force acts on a body, it gives rise to another called reaction. A Single isolated force is an impossibility. Two forces involved in any interaction between two bodies called “action” and “reaction” . But this does not imply any Hence in their nature ,or that one force may be considered as action and the other „reaction‟ to it. It may be noted that action and reaction never act on same. Following are the few examples of Newton‟s third law of motion. Walking on the ground. Process of walking on the and can be explained on the basis of Newton‟s third law of motion. We press the ground a force F with our foot. The ground is an equal and opposite motion to our foot. This motion R can be resolved two components. The horizontal component R is responsible for the motion of body. It is difficult to walk on ice or stand. While trying to walk on ice or stand we cannot exert at large force F by foot. In case of ice we are likely to slip because of lesser friction while study surface moves itself. Therefore, the reaction available is also small its small and its horizontal component is insufficient to reduce motion. Process of swimming. While swimming we press water backward with a certain force. Water exerts an equal and opposite reaction on our body. This reaction moves our body in forward direction. A Tea cup breaks on falling on the ground. Tea cup exerts certain force(action) on ground while the ground exerts equal and opposite reaction on the cup. Ground is able to withstand the action of cup, but the being relatively more *indicate breaks due to reaction. Rubber ball re- bounds from a wall. When a rubber all strikes against a wall. It exerts a force (action) on the wall. He wall exerts an equal and opposite reaction on ball. The ball bounds back due to this reaction. Action of rope and a pulley. It is a matter of the common experience to lift a heavy weight with the help of rope passing over a pulley . We apply a force F(downward) on the rope by pulling its free end A downward. According to Newton‟s third law, a reaction T (equal and opposite to F) will be exerted by the rope on the hand. This reaction T will act in both the segments of the rope and will be directed towards the pulley. In the left segment T opposes weight Mg of the body. If the magnitude of T happens to be greater than Mg, the body is drawn upward. Action of the spring balance. When we suspend a body from the hook of a spring balance, the body exerts a force equal to its own weight on the spring gets extended due to this force. In accordance with Newton‟s third law of motion, the spring exerts a force F (equal and opposite to t he weight W of the body) in opposite direction. The extension produced in the spring is a measurement of third force. Rotary lawn sprinkler works on this principle. Water is forced into it a large pressure. As water comes out of the fine jets with high speed, the jets get a recoil backward direction, due to which the system starts rotating and sprinkles water the same. SECOND LAW IS THE REAL LAW OF MOTION. It can be proved that Newton‟s third law and first law, both, can be derived from second law, thus, establishing that second law is real law of motion. (i) First law is contained in second law. We are given and law while we are to prove first law. According to Newton‟s second law of motion.



F = ma In case of an isolated system,i.e., no external force. F = 0 Ma = 0 A = 0 (since m # 0) . Zero acceleration means if the body is at rest, it will remain zest and if it is in motion, it will keep on moving with same city. This is Newton‟s second law of motion. Thus, it is proved that first law can be derived from second. (ii) Third law is contained in the second law. Consider an isolated ted system (Fext = 0) containing two bodies 1 and 2. If the two bodies interact mutually they exert force on each Let F 12 = Force (internal ) acting on body 1 due to body 2. dp1 = Change in momentum of body 1 Dt F 12 = d P1/ dt F 21 = d P2 /2 F 12 + F 21 = d P1/ dt + d P2 /dt = d/dt { p1 + p2 }

From second law of motion : If Fext = 0, then total change in momentum of the system should be zero, i.e. ; d/ dt (P 1 + P2 ) = 0 F 12 + F 21 = 0 F 12 = - F 21 Action = -Reaction Which is the statement of third law of motion. 3RD law is contained in second law. As both the first law and third law are contained in 2nd law of motion. Therefore, second law is the real of motion. (iii) Third law is contained in First law. We are given first law and we are to prove third law. Consider a system comprising of two bodies „A‟ and „B‟ pressing each other, „F AB Is The Force Which „B‟ exerts on „A‟ {Fig 8}.These forces are „action‟ and „reaction‟ and are only internal forces. No external force is present. The system has a displaced under the action of these forces. If the forces are unequal (say FBA > FAB), the two bodies will be displaced through unequal distances from G to G „.This is contrary to first law since the center of gravity of a system cannot be changed without the application the application of an external force.

If the two forces are equal, the bodies will be displaced equal distances from G, keeping the position of G, undisturbed This is in accordance with Newton‟s first law. Thus, the action and reaction must be equal and opposite. This proves that Newton‟s third law is contained in Newton‟s first law. APPARENT WEIGHT OF A MAN INSIDE A LIFT Consider q weighing machine placed on the floor of a lift and a man standing on it. The man presses the weighing machine with weight W (=mg) while the machine gives him a reaction R. The reading of a machine (the apparent weight of the man ) will be governed by the value of R. Case (i) The lift possesses zero acceleration {Fig.9 (a) If the lift is at rest or moving with a uniform velocity by (upward or downward), it is said to possess zero acceleration .In this case. R =mg Thus, the weighing machine will show that the apparent weight of man is equal to his true weight . Case (ii) The lift moving upward with an acceleration „a‟ Net upward force = R – mg .According to newton‟s second law of motion, R – mg =ma or R = mg + ma or R = m (g+a)



Thus, the apparent weight of man is greater than his true weight. Case(iii) The lift moving downward with an acceleration „a‟ {Fig 9(c)} Net downward force =mg – R According to Newton‟s second law of motion. Mg–R =ma R = m (g –a). The apparent weight of man is greater than his true weight. Case (iv) Lift falling freely under gravity. If the lift happens to move freely under gravity, a = g Using relation (i), we get R =ma (g-) or R= 0 The weighing machine shall indicate zero reading and the man shall feel weightless.

Pulling is easier than pushing
It can be shown that it is always convenient to pull a heavier body than to push it. Fig 10. Pull Resolve the force F, applied along OA, into two rectangular components. Force cos φ horizontally along OB F sin φ vertically upward along OC. The component „F sin φ „ acts in a direction opposite to that of weight. Thus, it makes the body, comparatively, lighter. Therefore, it is easier to pull. Push Resolve the force F, applied along OA, into two rectangular components. F cos φ horizontally along OB. F sin φ vertically downward along OC. The component „F‟ Sin φ‟ acts in the direction of weight. Thus it makes the body ,comparatively, heavier . Therefore, it is difficult to push. HORSE AND CART PROBLEM. A horse pulls a cart with a certain force while the cart exerts the same force on the horse in opposite direction. Consider a horse attached to a cart by means of a string AB . Fig 11. Let T be the tension in the string . The horse exerts a force T on the cart through this string while the cart gives a reaction to the horse in opposite direction. As the horse tends to push the earth in downward direction, it experiences a reaction „R‟ from the earth . The horizontal component of this reaction is denoted by P and is responsible for the motion of the horse in the forward direction. The force of friction F opposes the motion of the system. Motion of horse: Let m1 be the mass of horse. Resultant force on horse = P – T P -T =m1 a Where a = acceleration of the system. Motion of cart: Let m2 be the mass of cart. Resultant force on the cart = T – F…….i

(i) (ii)

(i) (ii)

T – F =m2 a ……ii Adding equation (i) and (ii), (P –T) + (T – F) = m1 a + m2 a or P - F =(m1 + m2 ) a or This equation indicates that the motion take place so long as P is greater than F. Existence opposite tensions in the string creates no motion.

INERTIAL MASS : „inertia‟ is the inability of the body to bring about a change in rest or in state of its motion without the help of an external force. When some force „F‟ is applied to the body, it produces an acceleration „a‟ in it . Greater the value of F, greater is the acceleration produced an acceleration produced in the body. Inertial mass „m‟ of body is defined as the ratio between force „F‟ to the acceleration „a‟ produced in the body. mi = If a= 1 mi = F Quantitatively, inertial mass of a body is numerically equal to the force required to produced unit acceleration in the body. a= F / mi i.e., greater the value of mi smaller is the acceleration produced in the body due to the same force. Thus, qualitatively , we can say that inertial mass of a body is the opposition offered by a body when a force tries to produce acceleration in it. Characteristics of inertial mass Inertial mass obeys the following characteristics :  Inertial masses are added algebraically.  It is proportional to the quantity of matter contained in the body.  It does not depend upon the shape or size of the body.  It is independent of the temperature of body.  It is not affected by the presence or absence of other bodies near it.  When bodies combine physically or chemically, their inertial mass is conserved. When the velocity of body is comparable to velocity of light, inertial mass changes with velocity in accordance with following formula, Where mio = rest mass of the body. v = velocity of

body and c = velocity of light. Principle of Conservation of linear momentum It states , “ In an isolated system (no external force), the algebraic sum of the momenta of bodies , along any straight line, remains constant and is not changed due to their mutual action and reaction

on each other” .This can be verified by a following simple experiment. Consider a body „A‟ of mass „mi „ moving with a velocity strike against another body „B‟ of mass „m 2, moving with velocity u2 in same direction {Fig.12}. Two bodies remains in contact with each other for a small time. „Δt‟. They are separated and move with velocity v1 and v2 after collision.

Let FAB be the force exerted by „A‟ upon „B‟ and F BA be its reaction. Since the system is isolated, i.e., no external force there. F AB + F AB = 0 F AB = - F BA …………………………………..(1) This is in accordance with Newton‟s third law of motion that „action and reaction are equal and opposite‟. Considering the momentum of the bodies before and after collision. Body A Body B Momentum of A before collision = m1 u1 Momentum of B before Collision = m2u2 Momentum of A after collision = m1 v1 Momentum of B after Collision = m2v2 Change in momentum of A =m1 v1 - m1 u1 Change in momentum B = m2 v2 – m2u2 Time taken the change of momentum =Δt Time taken for the change of momentum =Δt Rate of change of momentum of A ( =Force on A ) Rate of change of momentum of B (= Force on B ) = (m1 v1 – m1 u1) /Δt =( m2v2 – m2u2) /Δt F AB = ( m2v2 – m2u2 )/ Δt F BA =( m1 v1 – m1 u1) /Δt Substituting for F AB and F AB in equation (1), (m2v2 – m2u2)/Δt = - (m1 v1 – m1u1)/Δt (m2v2 – m2u2 ) = - (m1v1 – m1 u1) m2v2 – m2u2 = m1 v1 + m2 u1 m1 u1 + m2u2 = m1 v1 + m2v2 Total momentum of the system before collision = Total momentum of the system after collision.This verifies the law of conservation of momentum. It may be noted that the conservation of momentum is closely connected with the validity of Newton‟s third law of motion. Since we have used equation (1) { which is nothing but third law} to prove it. Alternative method According of Newton‟s second law of motion, F = ma = m dv/dt = d/ dt (mv) Since m v = p (momentum of body ) F = d/ dt (p) In case of an isolated system, F = 0 .  dp/dt = 0 or p = constant i.e. Momentum (in vector form )of an isolated system remains constant. This is in law of conservation of momentum. APPLICATION OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

accordance with the

(i) Recoil of gun. A gun and a bullet constitute one isolated system. On firing the gun, bullet moves out with a very high velocity V . The gun experiences a recoil. It moves in the opposite direction.{Fig 13}. Velocity V „ of the recoil of gun can be calculated by the application of law of conservation of momentum.

Before firing

After firing

Momementum of bullet = 0 Momentum of bullet =mv Momementum of gun = 0 Momentum of gun = MV Total momentum of the system = 0 Total momentum of the system = MV + mv Here „m‟ and „M‟ are the masses of bullet and gun respectively. According to the law of conservation of momentum, momentum before collision and after collision must be same. MV +mv =0, Or MV =- mv Or V = - mv/M Negative sign indicates that direction of motion of gun is in opposite direction. (ii) Rocket and Jet Plane. Fuel and oxygen is burnt in the ignition chamber. As hot gases escape from a rear opening, with some momentum, the rocket moves in the forward direction with the same momentum. (iii) Explosion of a bomb. Momentum of a bomb before explosion is zero. After explosion different fragments fly in various directions. It will be observed that their moment a, when represented by the side of a polygon, indicating that net momentum after explosion is also zero. Thus, if the bomb exploded into two fragments, they must move in opposite directions. (iv) When a man jumps from the boat to the shore, the boat is pushed backward . It can, exactly , be explained as in the case of recoil of gun. ROCKET PROPULSION Propulsion of rocket is based upon the law of conservation of momentum. A mixture of fuel and oxygen is mixed together and allowed to get ignited in the ignition chamber. Hot gases get ejected out under high pressure as a result of which the body of the rocket gets a recoil in opposite. Equation of motion. As rocket propagates upward against gravity, its mass decreases, gradually, due to continuous consumption of fuel and its velocity of rocket at various instants of time be given as follows : Time = t = 0 Mass m0 Velocity v0 (firing instant) T m v T + dt m – dm v + dv During the interval from t to t + dt a small amount of fuel „dm‟ is consumed and there is a corresponding increase in velocity by an amount dv. Let vr be the relative velocity of rocket of the burnt gases w.r.t the rocket, while v is the velocity of rocket w.r.t earth ( V Re ) t the instant. V Re = v, V gR = vr  Relative velocity pf burnt gases w.r.t. earth is

V ge = V Gr + V Re or Vge = vr + v At instant t, Intial momentum of the system = m v (rocket and unjected gas) At instant t, + dt, Final momentum of the system = (m – dm ) (v + dv ) (rocket and ejected gas ) + dm (v +vr)  Change in momentum of the system, = (final momentum ) – (intial momentum) = (m – dm) ( v +dv ) +dm (v + vr) – mv = mv + mdv – v dm – dm dv + v dm + vr dm –mv = m dv + v r dm …………………………….1 Here we have neglected the term dm dv, being small. Thrust on the rocket Impulse imparted to the rocket = F dt = - mg dt Since, impulse = change in momentum -mg dt = m dv + v r dm Or m dv = - v r dm - mg dt Or m dv/dt = - u r dm/dt -mg ……………2 At higher altitudes, mg can be neglected  mdv/dt = F = - v r dm/ dt ………………..3 Instantaenous speed of rocket Equation (3) gives the trust on rocket at any instant. Dividing throughout by m we get, dv/ dt = - u r /m dm/dt ……………4 Equation (4) gives the acceleration of the rocket. From equation (4), dv = - u r dm /m Integrating∫ ∫ ∫ Generally, velocity of ejection of gases u r w.r.t. rocket is considered to be constant .  Or Or Or (v) = - vr [ ] v = Vr [ log e m – log e mo] v – v o = v r loge mo/ m v = v o + v r log mo / m ………………5

Equation (5) gives the instantaneous velocity of rocket. Burnt out speed of rocket After sometime when whole of the fuel contained has been burnt mass „m‟ is equal to m v (mass of the vessel only). If vf is the final speed of the rocket. Vf = V0 + Vr loge (mo /mv ) Equation (5) is valid only for higher altitudes where „g‟ is negligible. At, comparatively, lower altitudes where „g‟ cannot be neglected, we shall have to proceed from equation (2). Following the same method we shall arrive at the equation given below : V = V 0 + V r loge (m0 /m ) - gt

Here t represents the instant when mass of the system (rocket and fuel) is m.

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