Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology Education Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. Pacquing Student : Antonio P.

Antonio, Summer 2006

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Vocational Education and the Employed Youth Part Time Schools and Employed Youth 1. Ascendancy of the part time general continuation school. The assumed obligation of the continuation schools was to promote the civic and vocational intelligence of those who leave school early to go to work. 2. Called by numerous names. (1) part time schools (2) general part time schools (3) continuation Schools 3. Waning of the general continuation schools. The depression of the late twenties and thirties caused the disappearance of this school because of wide spread unemployment. 4. In the Place of the general continuation school. Different types of part time schools for young workers over sixteen and under twenty-one years of age; all these part time schools divide the working time of the worker on some basis between work and attendance upon instruction. Time taken from the working day to attend school makes an arrangement a part time scheme. The types of part time training schedule are as follows: (1) indentured apprenticeship (2) apprenticeship under union auspices (3) part time classes for young workers not indentured and (4) diversified cooperative training, the most recently organized. 5. America’s perennial dearth of apprentices. Indentured apprenticeship set up a written agreement between the employer and his new apprenticeship and containing the terms and regulations to which both are bound. Hitler required German employers to indenture an additional 800,000 apprentices, half of whom were to be trained for service in the army and navy and the remainder for service in war industries. Few trained all around mechanics that trained specialized mechanics that in turn trained the machine tenders running specialized machines. 6. Why the old apprenticeship failed? The reason are as follows: (1) immigration shut off the source (2) we developed the subdivision of tasks, the specialized machine and the machine worker (3) Constant controversies between the employer and organized labor (4) rising public vocational school (5) employers did not employ even the quota allowed them (6) lack of efficient organization, administration, supervision, and instruction both on the job and in the related training class. 7. The federal and state apprenticeship committee system. Federal Committee on Apprenticeship bring labor and management together nationally and in the various states for the promotion of standards for adequate apprenticeship throughout the country. Apprenticeship in the United States hold that it can be developed adequately on the following conditions: (1) Complete separation of one hand on the public apprenticeship standards from the other hand the public educational authorities and their staffs (2) Control of apprenticeship by the states and local communities. Other wise we would have individual, local and state apathy. (3) Intimate coordination.

Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology Education Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. Pacquing Student : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006

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8. The operation of the new apprenticeship system in the states. A serious difficulty in the state administration of this apprenticeship act arises when a federal agent, instead of confining his efforts to the promotion of apprenticeship standards, undertakes in any way to administer the act and infringes on the autonomy of the state in the management of its own affairs. 9. Other schemes and influences of apprenticeship. Many divide the apprentice’s time between the employer’s establishment and the school. In the small communities better result will be gained if the apprentices were given time off during the working day and required to attend evening extension classes. Then workmen who know the trades instead of by teachers of high school mathematics or science could teach them. Most devoted perhaps of all to keeping alive the apprenticeship tradition are the members of organized labor in the mechanical trades. There are signs that both employers on their own and employers cooperating with unions are increasing numbers joining the federal and state plan of indentured apprenticeship. 10. Conditions of Efficient Apprenticeship. What in your opinion are the most vital things in which apprenticeship needs improvement? (1) Apprenticeship and vocational schools have much to learn from each other if they will have closer cooperation, with loose rivalry and more mutual help. (2) The entire success of any vocational training scheme including apprenticeship depends upon functioning subject matter suitably taught. I. The success of any training program for apprenticeship is in direct proportion to the efficiency of the instructor a. No instructor can successfully teach any apprentice to understand what he himself does not understand or to apply practical knowledge to a job that he himself cannot apply. Tradesmen should not only teach trades but they should be all around mechanics. b. Keep up constantly to changing processes and demands on workers. c. Must know how to teach. There are not many but at the most few, best ways to teach anything whatever it may be. Learning those few best ways require practice in the art under competent supervision. All the rest of us must learn and practice the art under someone who knows it and can impart it to us. II. The success of any training program also calls for the careful selection of trainees. No consideration should be given to relatives, friends, political influence, or any other favoritism in hiring apprentices. a. The avowed purpose of apprenticeship is to provide industry with competent mechanics. This call for the impersonal selection of trainees without fear or favor. Brains, character, industry, and ambition in the apprentice insure with certainty a competent mechanics. b. The surest way to select promising youth for training is to rely on previous school records and neighborhood opinion. Intelligence test and aptitude tests, if adequate and intelligently administered and interpreted, may be of some use in selection.

Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology Education Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. Pacquing Student : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006

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III. Apprentice be given experiences in all the production work needed to make him all-around mechanic in his trade. a. Job analysis of the trade in the firs step in determining the fundamental skills he should inculcate in the learner. b. Experience shows that many good mechanics do not know how to make such an analysis of their own trade. As this ability is vital to the success of the training, they should be taught how to do it. IV. The real needs of apprentices will not met by classroom instruction under academic schoolmasters who had no experience in the trade. a. The usual class instruction is confined to 144 hours per year for four or more years. b. Certainly this service cannot be rendered by anyone else than instructor who knows the trade and can teach. c. It goes without saying that the last situation means also an instructor in the classroom who is not able to help the apprentice with his real problems. d. Employer pays for four hours, apprentice gives four hours. e. Even with only one apprentice in a trade, it would be better if he were provided with an approved correspondence course which would give practical related training to be checked by his employer or his foreman, than to resort to college preparatory subjects. V. At least 144 hours of related class instruction annually-for four hours per week for 36 weeks. a. 144 hours of such instruction annually has become standard. b. Not less than 300 hours of related training annually should be given to apprentices per year. American apprenticeship pins to much faith on mere spending of time on the job and too little on the related knowledge that the apprentice vitally needs to make him an expert mechanic. VI. The value of class instruction will always be in direct proportion to the extent to which it is derived from analysis of the specific needs of the apprentice in that particular trade or occupation. a. Made by the instructor. b. Adapted to local and changing conditions and needs. c. No instructor should be left free to teach content not derived as in (1) and (2). VII. Unless the foreman and his crew are sold on the apprenticeship program, the results will be disappointing. a. Place final responsibility on the foreman. b. The foreman’s workmen should be sympathetic and cooperative with him in their common task of developing the trade possibilities of the new recruit. VIII. Efficient supervision.

Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology Education Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. Pacquing Student : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006

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a. One glaring weakness of apprenticeship in America is its lack of competent and adequate supervision. What is everybody’s business inevitably turns out to be nobody’s business. b. These federal representatives are primarily promoters of standards of apprenticeship. This is the responsibility of the state director. c. Responsibility failed to provide him funds. d. Inefficiency was due to lack of supervision. IX. Psychology of habit formation. a. Repetitive practice. b. Anyone who is to troubleshoot or repair and adjust a machine must understand how it works before he undertakes the task. Misusing a machine is regrettable; misusing the mind of an apprentice may be the unforgivable sin of the scriptures. c. The accepted psychology of learning to be put into effects are the following: c.1 someone to be specially charged with the task of seeing that he does. c.2 make the learner do everything is a right way from the start. c.3 clear picture of the performance expected of him and the reasons for it. c.4 in order to fix any desirable habit, have the learner do it over and over again until it is perfected. c.5 correct bad work habits by substituting good ones. c.6 have rising standards of performance as the training progresses and adapt them to workers of different abilities. c.7 perform perfectly what you undertake to teach others to do. c.8 every learner does not progress steadily or at the same rate. c.9 arouse the workers interest in every way possible. c.10 teach the workers to do the job right by thinking straight. c.11 teach workers to do the job right by thinking straight. c.12 test the learner by his ability to do and not by his talk about doing. 11. Insuring the success of the national apprenticeship scheme. Depending upon the way in which the program is carried out. These wounds in the heel of Achiles include all such grave injuries as the following: I. II. Violations of the conditions of efficient apprenticeship. To these violations should be added a long list of other dangers to the national apprenticeship program and which are also constantly at work, such as: a. Some employers take advantage of the opportunity to recruit desirable young workers on a beginning apprenticeship wage and train them as machine hands and nothing more. b. The union sometimes insists that the sons of their members shall be given preference in hiring new apprentices.

Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology Education Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. Pacquing Student : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006

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c. 144 hours of related instruction annually for the four-year apprenticeship period. Many approved schemes of apprenticeship where no class work is provided. d. In to many instances where local high schools give the related instruction, the training is given by faculty members who teach general mathematics or science or drawing e. In some instances small communities approve contracts for apprentices where there is no possibility of any available school service. f. Their indefensible, indeed almost unbelievable, lack of effective textbooks and other such teaching aids characterize the vocational education programs. g. Some state labor union officials and state labor departments have either openly or secretly opposed efforts to secure from the legislature the authorization and funds sorely needed to establish and maintain an efficient state program of apprenticeship. III. The dangers. a. the monthly pay of veteran. b. As a result, the rush of veterans applying for apprenticeship training. c. Some of the states have no apprenticeship law and therefore no funds, no office, no supervisory staff. d. We may gain valuable lessons for apprenticeship training in the future-at the expense of the veterans of this war. Diversified Cooperative Training 12. For high school youth who must learn their living upon graduation or before. These high school youth work half days and attend school for about three periods. The scheme is not college preparatory, but strictly life preparatory. Diversified because it strives to give training to the few youth needed in each of the diverse occupations characteristic. 13. Diversified cooperative training a modified apprenticeship. The diversified cooperative training has generally dealt with occupations of less standardized and less widely recognized contents than those of the apprenticeable occupations. The following principles in the selection and inculcation of subject matter: 1. The dominant purpose of all the training should be that of helping youth adjust himself or herself to the fundamental requirements of the occupation. 2. The purposes of the latter are to supplement the occupation.

Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology Education Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. Pacquing Student : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006

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3. Occupational and personal assets as reliability, industry, initiative, getting along with fellow workers and pride in his calling. 4. Concomitant learning, originality, sociability, initiative, trustworthiness and the like. 14. Values of the diversified cooperative training scheme to high school pupils. 1. select the types of education. 2. select occupations 3. earn while they learn 4. opportunity to graduate 5. learn chosen occupation 6. practice learning 7. learn good business practices 8. acquire respect for honest work 9. acquire standard 10. master jobs. 15. Values of the diversified cooperative training plan to high schools. 1. Instead of dropping out of school at sixteen, the cooperative training group remains to graduate. 2. Pride in the plan, working boys and girls who are deeply interested , alert, industrious, and a valuable social addition to the school. 3. College bound not work-bound youth. 4. Under the diversified cooperative training plan the employers of the community provide the equipment in their plans and pay the student for half of his or her time as a beginner’s 5. Make it possible for the secondary schools in small as well as large communities to provide wage earning vocational training. 6. The employers now engaged in carrying out their parts of the program have learned that training pays and that what they have done is a wise investment. 16. Values of the diversified cooperative training program to the community, state and nation. 1. The diversified cooperative training scheme is redeeming the mounting tide of delinquency among idle youth. 2. Stabilizing employment by conserving the youth of the community 3. Democratizing public education by meeting the real needs of those not going to college. 4. Bringing home to employers their responsibility. 5. Bringing home to the schools the truth that it is their duty to prepare all youth for the more efficient performance of life, each according to his interests. 6. It gains itself and for the school hearty approval and support by parents, students, employers, and workers.

Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology Education Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. Pacquing Student : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006

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EFFICIENCY FACTORS IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION It is one thing to train a person but it is quite another thing to give this training so as to secure the highest possible results from the effort. 17. The acid test of efficiency. The acid test of efficiency in the production game is not whether the required product or article is made, but whether it is made at minimum cost inversely with the amount of time, energy and money expended in its performance, getting it done properly with human beings under reduced cost. Improving the technique of instruction in any occupation is an efficiency device and better teaching to give better results. 18. Special efficiency devices. Other things being equal, any scheme of instruction for any occupation will be more efficient in results and cost which selects and trains only those who need the service want it, are willing to take it, and are able to profit by it. Other things being equal that scheme will be more efficient which employs an occupationally trained instructor to give real experience on real jobs in a real occupational environment. Other things being equal, that scheme will produce the best results which teaches usable information to improve doing ability instead of wasting its efforts in the teaching of nonusable knowledge. Trains its students to meet real occupational standards by subjecting their work to real performance. Other things being equal, any scheme will be better which recognizes and adapts its policies and objectives to the age, abilities and traits of the group it serves. 19. Comparing Plant and Outside School as Training Agencies. When the plant does undertake to train any group of employees, it will usually be strong in everything that furthers production because that is it job. The plant tends to choose workers for fitness while the school tends in a generous spirit to admit all who apply. Because it is primarily interested in doing ability, the company is much more likely than the school system: 1. to use an instructor a workman who is a master of the occupation. 2. to train on the real job and in the working environment to give timely help for meeting immediate demands. 3. to instruct workers individually more than by groups. 4. to measure their progress by performance tests. 5. to advance them as individuals not as student groups. On the other hand the outside school is almost always superior: 1. in the teaching methods employed by its instructor. 2. the organization of teaching materials for both shop and class. 3. the better arrangement or ordering of process and jobs as progressive steps in learning. 4. the use of labor saving devices in instruction. 5. the better recognition and understanding of group characteristics, particularly of the abilities and traits of adolescent. 6. In resourceful ways of teaching skill and knowledge and thinking.

Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology Education Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. Pacquing Student : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006

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While the school is on the whole probably more sympathetic with the adolescent and his problems, the plants is much more insistent upon training him thoroughly in occupational habits, at this, the habits forming stage in his physical and mental development. 20. Efficiency of the two schemes. The purpose of the chart brings out sharply the tendencies toward strength and weakness in the use each makes of recognized efficiency devices for the instruction of workers. 21. What the table says. The plant tends to be strong on those efficiency devices which further the production of goods; the efficiency points in which the plant is not familiar in its production work; the school tends to be efficient on these points which have to do with teaching; both are weak and need strengthening on the personal or human side of all their dealings with learners. 22. GETTING THE JOB DONE. There are only three ways of getting vocational education: 1. through the isolated school alone; 2. through the job alone and 3. through some combination of school job. Three period in his career as new recruit, wageearning learner, and as qualified employed worker. If his needs were met, as they should be at every stage of his working career, training as a new recruit, training as a continuous learner on the job and training for advancement as a qualified employed workman. 23. Any local community should adopt these policies: 1. Sell the local association on the all day preparatory course in auto mechanics. 2. Determine the point of advantageous entrance into the repair shop of the school trained boy whether this be, for example at the end of three months, six months, or two years of training. 3. Get the members of this association to agree that they will use these boys as the source of supply of new workers. 4. Train the foremen of auto repair shops to be effective instructors in repair processes of new recruits and learners, particularly the latter. 5. Work for the establishment of part time extension classes for learners, particularly during the winter or dull season, whenever this may be. 6. Offer a wide spread of short unit courses in evening school for the benefit of older learners and qualified workers. 24. The mass problem. The worker, doing everything for himself by the pick up method, ranks first because in theory every worker has a chance according to his ability and ambition to learn. From the standpoint solely of its use for the mass training of beginners, the pick up method is theoretically the best and the national school the poorest scheme. The pick up method rated first theory as a universal training device, ranks last as an actual scheme for reasons just given. The foreman instructor schemes are rated first in both columns.

Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology Education Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. Pacquing Student : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006

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25. The trend in agriculture. The trend in agriculture is decidedly toward a recognition of the value of educational service to the adult farmer through the extension work of land grant colleges, carried on by county agents and short courses. 26. The trend in home economics. The trend in vocational homemaking education is toward more and better educational service for girls and women who make immediate use of it. 27. The trend in business. The adaptation of its service to the real situations and needs of the commercial world, and has therefore been the most isolated and least democaratic in its policies and practices. 28. A prophecy for agriculture. In the agriculture education of the future, all the present drifts toward mass training will continue. 29. A prophecy for home economics. Vocational training in home economics will continue to develop only as it gives increasing attention to home projects intimately linking the problems of the home with the instruction in school and to older girls out of school to adult women. The home economics instruction is intensely practical. What is needed is not formal technical knowledge, but functioning information for use under actual conditions, taught by demonstration and fixed by practice in real home jobs. S 30. A prophecy for business education. The high school training still lacks the directness and thoroughness of the work done by private business colleges with students of comparatively less native ability and education. As in all other fields, however the mass problem can only be met by training subsequent to employment, the part time diversified cooperative training is natural for the training of high school boys and girls. Only those who are occupationally competent and abreast of current practice and needs will be employed as instructors.