THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES vs. RAFAEL STA. MARIA y INDON FACTS: The prosecution: On Nove !er "#$ "%%"$ P&Chie' Insp.

No(i P)checo$ Chie' o' the Provinci)( Dru* En'orce ent +roup o' the ,u()c)n Provinci)( O''ice receive- )n inte((i*ence report )!out the i((e*)( -ru* )ctivities in Sitio +u(o-$ ,)r)n*)y P)ntu!i*$ S)n R)')e($ ,u()c)n o' ) cert)in .F)e($. /ho ()ter turne- out to !e )ppe(()nt R)')e( St). M)ri). P)checo 'or e- ) survei(()nce te) to (oo0 'or ) po(ice )sset to ne*oti)te ) -ru* -e)( /ith )ppe(()nt. On Nove !er "1$ "%%"$ the survei(()nce te) reporte- to P)checo th)t ) con'i-enti)( )sset 'oun- !y the te) h)- )(re)-y ne*oti)te- ) -ru* -e)( 'or the purch)se o' P"%% /orth o' sh)!u 'ro )ppe(()nt )t the ()tter2s house in the evenin* o' Nove !er "1$ "%%". The survei(()nce te) then prep)re- 'or ) !uy3!ust oper)tion. At the )ppointe- ti e )n- p()ce$ PO4 5entur) )n- the con'i-enti)( in'or )nt procee-e- to )ppe(()nt2s house )n0noc0e- )t the -oor. Appe(()nt opene- the -oor )n- the con'i-enti)( in'or )nt intro-uce- to hi PO4 5entur) )s ) prospective !uyer. PO4 5entur) ()ter h)n-e- the t/o 6"7 )r0e- P4%%3!i((s to )ppe(()nt /ho$ in turn$ *)ve hi ) p()stic s)chet o' sh)!u. Thereupon$ PO4 5entur) sp)r0ehis ci*)rette (i*hter$ /hich /)s the pre3)rr)n*e- si*n)( to the other e !ers o' the !uy3!ust te) th)t the s)(e /)s consu )te-. Appe(()nt /)s )rreste- )n- the t/o )r0eP4%%3!i((s recovere- 'ro hi . A(so )rreste- on th)t occ)sion /)s one 8e-ric -e() Cru9 /ho /)s )((e*e-(y sni''in* sh)!u insi-e )ppe(()nt2s house )n- 'ro /ho -ru* p)r)phern)(i) /ere recovere-. :pon ()!or)tory e;) in)tion o' the ite !ou*ht 'ro )ppe(()nt$ the s) e yie(-e- positive 'or ethy() pet) ine hy-roch(ori-e or sh)!u /ei*hin* %.%<4 *r) . The -e'ense: Appe(()nt testi'ie- th)t on Nove !er "1$ "%%"$ he /)s )t ho e /ith ) cert)in 8e-ric -e() Cru9 /ho /)s )((e*e-(y o''erin* hi ) ce((phone 'or s)(e )n- co((ectin* p)y ent on ) (o)n o' his /i'e. At th)t ti e$ his /i'e /)s out o' the house to p)y their e(ectric !i((. =hi(e /)itin* 'or his /i'e$ he )n- 8e-ric /)tche- te(evision /hen they he)r- the !)r0in* o' -o*s. I e-i)te(y$ three 6>7 en su--en(y !)r*e- into the house )n- )nnounce- th)t they /ere po(ice o''icers /hi(e three other en st)ye- outsi-e the house. The po(ice o''icers 'ris0e- hi )n- 8e-ric )n- se)rche- the house. He trie- to co p()in )!out /h)t they /ere -oin* !ut the po(ice o''icers *ot )- )n- )ccuse- hi o' se((in* sh)!u. He rep(ie- th)t he -oes not 0no/ )nythin* )!out -ru*s. A'ter/)r-s$ he )n- 8e-ric /ere !rou*ht out o' the

house )n- h)n-cu''e-. =hi(e on !o)r- the po(ice vehic(e$ the po(ice o''icers /)rne- the to cooper)te. The po(ice o''icers )(so )s0e- hi to !e their )sset )n- /hen he s)ith)t he -oes not 0no/ )nythin* )!out it$ they to(- hi th)t they cou(- 'i(e ) c)se )*)inst hi . The po(ice o''icers )(so o''ere- to !uy -ru*s 'ro hi !ut he re'use- the o''er !ec)use he 0no/s th)t it is on(y ) p()n 'or the to )rrest hi . TC: *ui(ty !eyon- re)son)!(e -ou!t o' 5io()tion o' Section ?$ Artic(e II o' Repu!(ic Act 14@?. CA: )''ir e-. ISS:E: =ON the tri)( court erre- in convictin* hi !ec)use his *ui(t /)s not proven !eyon- re)son)!(e -ou!t. 6He )int)ins th)t insti*)tion$ not entr)p ent$ prece-e- his )rrest. He )(so ')u(ts the )ppe(()te court in not 'in-in* th)t the evi-ence )--uce- !y the prosecution /)s o!t)ine- in vio()tion o' Sections "4 )n- A@ o' Repu!(ic Act No. 14@?.7 HELD: No. In entr)p ent$ the entr)pper resorts to /)ys )n- e)ns to tr)p )n- c)pture ) ()/!re)0er /hi(e e;ecutin* his cri in)( p()n. In insti*)tion$ the insti*)tor pr)ctic)((y in-uces the /ou(-3!e3-e'en-)nt into co ittin* the o''ense$ )n- hi se(' !eco es ) co3princip)(. In entr)p ent$ the e)ns ori*in)tes 'ro the in- o' the cri in)(. The i-e) )n- the reso(ve to co it the cri e co e 'ro hi . In insti*)tion$ the ()/ en'orcer conceives the co ission o' the cri e )n- su**ests to the )ccuse- /ho )-opts the i-e) )n- c)rries it into e;ecution. The (e*)( e''ects o' entr)p ent -o not e;e pt the cri in)( 'ro (i)!i(ity. Insti*)tion -oes. Here$ the ere ')ct th)t the )*ree ent !et/een )ppe(()nt )n- the po(ice in'or )nt 'or the purch)se )n- s)(e o' i((e*)( -ru*s /)s )-e on Nove !er "#$ "%%"$ /hi(e the !uy3!ust oper)tion /)s con-ucte- on Nove !er "1$ "%%"$ is o' no o ent. =ithout ore$ it -oes not prove th)t s)iin'or )nt insti*)te- )ppe(()nt into co ittin* the o''ense. I' )t )(($ the e)r(ier )*ree ent )n- the su!seBuent )ctu)( s)(e su**est th)t )ppe(()nt /)s h)!itu)((y -e)(in* in i((e*)( -ru*s. It is ) !)sic ru(e in evi-ence th)t e)ch p)rty ust prove his )''ir )tive )((e*)tion. In this c)se$ )p)rt 'ro )ppe(()nt2s se('3servin* -ec()r)tion th)t he /)s insti*)te- into co ittin* the o''ense$ he -i- not present )ny other evi-ence to prove the s) e. Appe(()nt /ou(- ne;t )r*ue th)t the evi-ence )*)inst hi /)s o!t)ine- in vio()tion o' Sections "4 )n- A@ o' Repu!(ic

Crim Rev - Drugs 1

c)ses. O' tr)nsp)rent p()stic sheets o 4 s )(( nee-(e on top o' ) s )(( ch)ir 6!)n*0ito7 Prin*)s2 De'ense: He -enie.A@$ RA 14@? Ruling: YES Ratio: Pringas’ Arguments Po(ice o''icers vio()teSection A@ o' RA 14@? /hen the )((e*e.A@ o' Repu!(ic Act No.Act No.: Facts: • On "" Apr "%%>$ SP%< Tu)no$ O''icer3in3ch)r*e o' the St)tion Dru* En'orce ent :nit o' the P)si* City Po(ice -esi*n)te.4" o' Repu!(ic Act No.issi!i(ity o' the evi-ence h)vin* !een o!t)ine./)ter pipe use.his co on3 ()/ /i'e +in) De)n /ere /ith their three chi(-ren in their House in . • A'ter con-uctin* the s)(e$ Es )n)((er then )rrestePrin*)s.Drugs 1 .not -eprive the PNP o' the po/er to )0e )rrests. Moreover$ the ()/ -i.the !uy3!ust oper)tions. There'ore$ other ()/ en'orce ent !o-ies sti(( possess )uthority to per'or si i()r 'unctions )s the PDEA )s (on* )s i((e*)( -ru*s c)ses /i(( eventu)((y !e tr)ns'erre.the Prin*)s o' his vio()tion )n. Non3co p(i)nce /i(( not Non3co p(i)nce /ith Crim Rev .the 'o((o/in* 'ro Prin*)s2 house: • • • > pcs.ut !y no stretch o' i )*in)tion cou(.pursu)nt to such )n )rrest in).(e). In-ee-$ the po(ice o''icers2 )((e*e. Even )ssu in* ex gratia argumenti.c)ses to the PDEA$ in the s) e /)y th)t the I p(e entin* Ru(es )nRe*u()tions 6IRR7 o' Repu!(ic Act No.issi!(e.ever(y Street$ .to the ()tter. SC It /)s very c(e)r in the Doint A''i-)vit o' Arrest o' Es )n)((er )n.!urner o =oo-en se)(er o S )(( scissors o 4< pcs. The ()/ e.hi +:ILTE o Issue: =ON Prin*)s is *ui(ty o' the o''enses ch)r*e-espite the in).the -oor o' their house$ entere.th)t he )n.vio()tions o' Sections "4 )n.hi se(' )s ) po(ice o''icer )n.issi!(e./ithout )ny se)rch /)rr)nt or )rrest /)rr)nt.out to !e sh)!u 6Meth) phet) ine Hy-roch(ori-e7 o " -ispos)!(e (i*hters o @ strips o' )(u iniu 'oi( /ith tr)ces o' sh)!u 6Meth) phet) ine Hy-roch(ori-e7 o I provise. Appe(()nt ne.-isposition o' the evi-ence )*)inst hi . 14@? !ec)use the !uy3!ust oper)tion /)s /ithout )ny invo(ve ent o' the Phi(ippine Dru* En'orce ent A*ency 6PDEA7.in vio()tion o' Sections "4 )n.!y SP%> Lene)( M)ti)s to !e con-ucte)*)inst A(vin Prin*)s in his house in .utin*$ P)si* City /hen so e!o-y 6()ter i-enti'ie.M)ti)s th)t the !uy3!ust oper)tion su!Cect o' the c)se /)s not /ith the invo(ve ent o' the PDEA.F) i(i)r)7 0ic0e. Ho/ever$ /h)tever Custi'i)!(e *roun-s )y e.ever(y Street$ .)s Es )n)((er$ M)pu()$ Esp)res )n. 14@? Tri)( Court )n.tr)nsp)rent p()stic s)chets cont)inin* ) /hite cryst)((ine su!st)nce /hich turne. 14@? re*)r-in* the custo-y )n.to Es )(()ner ) p()stic s)chet cont)inin* ) /hite cryst)((ine su!st)nce ()ter 'oun.in the !uy3!ust oper)tion in this c)se 'ro co p(yin* /ith Section "4 /i(( re )in un0no/n$ !ec)use )ppe(()nt -i.)s ) (e*is()tive intent to )0e )n )rrest /ithout the p)rticip)tion o' PDEA i((e*)( nor evi-ence o!t)ine.)s ) tooter o I provise. o' he)t3se)(e. As /e see it$ Section A@ is e.cuses non3co p(i)nce un-er Custi'i)!(e *roun-s.!uy3!ust oper)tion th)t (e.!e'ore the tri)( court !ut /ere inste).to !e sh)!u$ 'or Php4%%. Pringas APPEAL from a decision of the Court of Appeals CHICO3NA8ARIO$ D.to the )pprehension o' the )ppe(()nt /)s con-ucte/ithout the invo(ve ent o' PDEA.r)ise.in'or e.to sho/ co p(i)nce /ith Section "4 o' Repu!(ic Act No. • :pon reco*ni9in* the in'or )nt$ Prin*)s so(.P%4 Dose(ito Es )(()ner to )ct )s ) poseur !uyer in ) !uy3!ust oper)tion he)-e.utin*$ P)si* City. He c()i e.)*ency.cuse the po(ice o''icers invo(ve.not Buestion -urin* tri)( the s)'e0eepin* o' the ite s sei9e.his constitution)( ri*hts.t )r*ues th)t the prosecution ')i(e. .this si(ence !e interprete.nor too0 )nythin*.'ro hi . Prin*)s /)s ch)r*e./ith 5io()tion o' Sections ?$ 44 )n. 14@? /ere not r)ise.p(icit on(y in s)yin* th)t the PDEA sh)(( !e the .!y > o' his nei*h!ours /ho /ere h)vin* ) -rin0in* session. People v.'or the 'irst ti e on )ppe)(.Court o' Appe)(s 'oun. He intro-uce. The vio(ent entry /)s even /itnesse. The po(ice en su!seBuent(y con-ucte. there is nothin* in RA 14@? /hich even re ote(y in-ic)te the intention o' the (e*is()ture to )0e )n )rrest )-e /ithout p)rticip)tion o' PDEA i((e*)( )nevi-ence o!t)inepursu)nt to such )n )rrest in). in the investi*)tions )nprosecutions o' -ru*3re()te.) se)rch in the house !ut they neither recovere. • M)ti)s recovere. 14@? is )(so si(ent on the )tter. )-e Section A@ is si(ent )s to the conseBuences o' ')i(ure on the p)rt o' the ()/ en'orcers to tr)ns'er -ru*3re()te.

su!st)nce !e est)!(ishe. The -)n*erous "rug itsel constitutes t)e ver* corpus "elicti o t)e o ense )n.F they /ere i e-i)te(y )r0e'or proper i-enti'ic)tion )n'or/)r-e. PE$PLE $F !(E P(ILIPPINES' Respon"ent.in the 'irst p()ce is the s) e su!st)nce o''ere.to the Cri e L)!or)tory 'or e.-ru*G 6!7 such possession is not )uthori9e.!y ()/ 6>7 Accuse.)n.the s)- Three o' his nei*h!ours /itnesse.-ru*s. Essenti)( there'ore in these c)ses is th)t the i-entity o' the prohi!ite.6c7 the )ccuse./ith or)( cert)inty$ to*ether /ith the ')ct th)t the s) e is not )uthori9e. 4A%@1> : Septe !er <$ "%%1I %$NIFACI$ D$LERA Y !E&ADA' Petitioner' v. The evi-ence 'or the prosecution sho/ethe presence o' )(( these e(e ents. Prin*)s ')i(e.in the -eter in)tion o' the *ui(t or innocence o' the )ccuse-. !)e c)ain o custo"* re+uirement per orms t)is unction in t)at it ensures t)at unnecessar* "ou.in the c)se )t !)r. The e(e ents necess)ry 'or the prosecution o' i((e*)( s)(e o' -ru*s )re: 647 I-entity o' the !uyer )n. Prosecutions 'or i((e*)( possession o' prohi!ite. The con-uct o' ) !uy3!ust oper)tion is ) co on )n)ccepteo-e o' )pprehen-in* those invo(vein )n i((e*)( s)(e o' prohi!iteor re*u()te. Appe(()nt /)s ch)r*e.'or non3co p(i)nce /i(( re )in un0no/n !ec)use )ppe(()nt on(y r)ise.the ')ct o' its e.p)y ent thereo'.the or)( cert)inty reBuire. ren-er )n )ccuse-2s )rrest i((e*)( o' the ite s sei9e-&con'isc)te.Drugs 1 .e th)t )s it )y$ the ere ')ct o' un)uthori9e. The e(e ents necess)ry 'or i((e*)( possession o' -)n*erous -ru*s )re: 647 Accuseis in possession o' )n ite or o!Cect /hich is i-enti'ie. Peop(e7 FAC!S: CARPIO MORALES.to present the or )ny o' the to prove his point./)s in possession o' )n ite or )n o!Cect i-enti'ieto !e ) prohi!ite.the evi-enti)ry v)(ue o' the sei9e.ite s$ )s the s) e /ou(.) in)tion.R.!y ()/G )n. A(( these e(e ents h)ve !een est)!(ishe. The Custi'i)!(e *roun.to sust)in ) 'in-in* o' *ui(t. J ! Crim Rev .Section "4 o' RA 14@? re*)r-in* the custo-y )n-isposition o' the con'isc)te-&sei9e-)n*erous -ru*s )np)r)phern)(i) /i(( )0e these ite s in)./)s 'ree(y )nconscious(y )/)re o' !ein* in possession o' the -ru*. The Court he(.the vio(ent entry )-e !y the po(ice en in his house. 6M)((i((in v. D$C!RINE: For ) prosecution 'or i((e*)( possession o' ) -)n*erous -ru* to prosper$ it ust !e sho/n th)t 6)7 the )ccuse./ith vio()tions o' Sections ?$ 44 )n.issi!(e in evi-ence.'ro hi in). .!y ()/.th)t the inte*rity )n.-ou!t.-ru* !e est)!(ishe!eyon.4" o' RA 14@?.to !e ) prohi!ite.possession /i(( not su''ice to cre)te in ) re)son)!(e in.se((er$ the o!Cect$ )nconsi-er)tionG )n6"7 De(ivery o' the thin* so(.or re*u()te.)ctitu-e )s th)t reBuisite to )0e ) 'in-in* o' *ui(t./ith the s) e un/)verin* e.hi!it ust )(so !e est)!(ishe. NO.issi!(e. More th)n Cust the ')ct o' possession$ the ')ct th)t the su!st)nce i((e*)((y possesse.istence is vit)( to ) Cu-* ent o' conviction. Decisions o R!C an" CA AFFIR#ED IN !$!$.'or the 'irst ti e on )ppe)(.the issue !e'ore the CA$ /hich he c)nnot -o. The Court -i. APPEAL DENIED.'ree(y )nconscious(y possesse.ts concerning t)e i"entit* o t)e evi"ence are remove".-ru* 6"7 Such possession is not )uthori9e.the evi-enti)ry v)(ue o' the ite s invo(ve/ere s)'e*u)r-e. H+. =h)t is o' ut ost i port)nce is the preserv)tion o' the inte*rity )n. O!Cection to evi-ence c)nnot !e r)ise. -ru*.not see )ny c(e)r )nconvincin* evi-ence th)t the e !ers o' the !uy3!ust te) /ere inspire!y )ny i proper otive$ so the presu ption o' re*u()rity in the per'or )nce o' o''ici)( -uties ust !e uphe(-.-ru*s necessit)te th)t the e(e ent)( )ct o' possession o' ) prohi!ite.in court )s e.!e uti(i9e.

AP. No.ingl& ha.contro( o' the -ru*s sh)(($ i e-i)te(y )'ter sei9ure )n.to si*n the copies o' the inventory )n./)s su!Cecte.the s) e /hen he su! itte.4% *r) s o' sh)!u. the said accused not #eing authori+ed #& la.contro( o' the -ru*s sh)(($ immediatel& after sei+ure )n. (ELD: The petition is eritorious.petitioner )n.pu!(ic o''ici)( /ho sh)(( !e reBuire.n)tu()()$.hi se(' to the Curis-iction o' the tri)( court.the DOD$ )n. PO" L)!on s)/ petitioner$ )t ) -ist)nce o' # $ stan"ing near an alle* a"-oining %icol Street' scrutini.tutu(uy)n ni() )0o.th)t he /)s st)n-in* in 'ront o' his house /)itin* 'or ) ri-e to the pu!(ic )r0et /hen > en in civi(i)n c(othes )(i*hte'ro ) /hite .pu!(ic o''ici)( /ho sh)(( !e reBuire.)ny e(ecte. Philippines.PO" ABuino$ receive. #.to inBuest procee-in*s )'ter < -)ys.Cust stop )nt)0e )/)y /ith the ) person /ho is -oin* nothin* !ut st)n-in* on the street in 'ront o' his house.FL. PO4 PeJ)(os) 'ris0e.RL.the ch)r*e.'orce.the p()stic s)chets /ith their respective initi)(s .) he)t3se)(ep()stic s)chet )(so cont)inin* /hite cryst)((ine su!st)nce 'ro the ri*ht 'ront poc0et o' petitionerKs p)nts.petitioner. Petitioner conten-s$ ) on* others$ th)t the prosecution aile" to esta. In !rushin* )si-e )ppe(()ntKs Buestionin* o' his /)rr)nt(ess )rrest$ the )ppe(()te court he(. 4356 /hich provi-es: 47 The apprehending team h)vin* initi)( custo-y )n.intro-uce.the vehic(e. -i.e in /his0 possession and control.-)y(i*ht /ou(.)n. >.hi .oper)tin* proce-ure on the sei9ure )ncusto-y o' -)n*erous -ru*s is 'oun.hi se(' )s ) po(ice )n.the Dep)rt ent o' Dustice 6DOD7$ )n)ny e(ecte. to possess or use an& dangerous drug.h)n-cu''e. PO" L)!on )s0e. After informing him of his constitutional rights.e" illegal "rugs to thus c)st serious -ou!t on /hether the speci ens presente.th)t he h). The st)n-)r. Petitioner -enie.hi th)t .recovere.!y PO4 Pen)(os)$ )n)ppro)che.in court /ere the ones )((e*e-(y con'isc)te.-ru*s1 N$. The court 'in-s it Buite i pro!)!(e th)t po(ice o''icers in !ro).. He /)s then !rou*ht to the po(ice st)tion /here he /)s )s0e. unla.. Thus$ /ith respect to the )r0in* o' -)n*erous -ru* !y the )pprehen-in* o''icer or te) in c)se o' /)rr)nt(ess sei9ures such )s in this c)se$ it ust !e -one )t the ne)rest po(ice ".estigation PO" L)!on )n.A. Section 237a8 o Article II o t)e IRR o R.)n-&or sei9e-$ or his&her represent)tive or counse($ ) represent)tive 'ro the e-i) )n. Crim Rev .sentence.to p)y ) 'ine o' P>%%$%%%.. Suspectin* th)t the /hite cryst)((ine su!st)nce insi-e the p()stic s)chet /)s sh)!u$ PO" L)!on con'isc)tethe s) e )n.con'isc)tion$ physic)((y inventory )n.) in)tion sho/eth)t e)ch o' the s)chets cont)ine.A. petitioner .such sei9ures o' )n.petitioner )n.%. He c()i e.)n-&or sei9e-$ or his&her represent)tive or counse($ ) represent)tive 'ro the e-i) )n./)ive.to si*n the copies o' the inventory )n. Au*ust 4<$ "%%>$ >:>% p $ PO" L)!on$ PO4 PeJ)(os) )n.!e *iven ) copy thereo'G PRO5IDED$ th)t t)e p)*sical inventor* an" p)otograp) s)all . =hen he rep(ie. )n. RTC convicte.one -)y )s ini u )nthirteen ye)rs )s ). !e'ore turnin* the over to the c)se investi*)tor.or the person&s 'ro /ho such ite s /ere con'isc)te.as #rought to the police station for further in.'ro hi .lis) t)e c)ain o custo"* o t)e sei.stance .their -uties in ) re*u()r )nner$ there'ore$ st)n-s. <.inv)(i.the evi-enti)ry v)(ue o' the sei9e. @.Drugs 1 . No.!e *iven ) copy thereo'.in Section 23' Article II o R.full& and -no.PO4 PeJ)(os) )r0e.the petitioner )n..e con"ucte" at t)e place /)ere t)e searc) /arrant is serve" G or )t the ne)rest po(ice st)tion or )t the ne)rest o''ice o' the )pprehen-in* o''icer&te) $ /hichever is pr)ctic)!(e$ in c)se o' /)rr)nt(ess sei9uresG PRO5IDED$ 'urther th)t non9compliance /ith these reBuire ents un-er Custi'i)!(e *roun-s$ )s (on* )s the inte*rity )n.ing a transparent plastic sac)et containing /)ite cr*stalline su.con'isc)tion$ physic)((y inventory )nphoto*r)ph the s) e in the presence o t)e accuse" or the person&s 'ro /ho such ite s /ere con'isc)te.custo-y over s)iite s. '(() in *ue+on Cit&.petitioner /h)t he /)s ho(-in*$ !ut the ()tter$ /ho )ppe)re. The presu ption th)t the po(ice o''icers per'or e.ilfull&.petitionerKs conviction.!y the )pprehen-in* o''icer&te) $ sh)(( not ren-er voi)n.) survei(()nce o' the )re).i u )n."hat on or a#out the $%th da& of August. ISS0E: H)s the prosecution !een )!(e to est)!(ish the ch)in o' custo-y o' the con'isc)te.th)t he -i.to i-enti'y ) -ru* pusher in their p()ce.to su''er ) C)i( ter o' t/e(ve ye)rs )n. .photo*r)ph the s) e in the presence o' the )ccuse.not rep(y.ico( Street$ P)y)t)sG thus$ they con-ucte. ?. 1( '(2 grams of .hite cr&stalline su#stance containing Meth&lamphetamine /sic0 h&drochloride a dangerous drug 4. )n. did then and there. 4356 ore speci'ic)((y )n-)tes th)t: 6)7 The )pprehen-in* o''icer&te) h)vin* initi)( custo-y )n. PO" L)!on$ /ho /)s in civi(i)n c(othes$ thus )(i*hte'ro the vehic(e$ 'o((o/e.ite s )re proper(y preserve. He /)s then -et)ine.) report o' -ru* tr)''ic0in* in the vicinity o' .hi to !o)r. The t/o p()stic s)chets inc(u-in* their contents /ere !rou*ht to the PNP Cri e L)!G e.not 0no/ )ny$ they to(. CA )''ir e.

!e -one 647 in the presence o' the )pprehen-e.to present )(( persons /ho c) e into cont)ct /ith the sei9e.)t /h)t st)*e o' the investi*)tion /)s the suppose)r0in* o' evi-ence -one /ere not even in-ic)te-.orator* e=amination. No.)ctin* -uty to prove !eyonre)son)!(e -ou!t the *ui(t o' )ccuse-3petitioner 'oun-ers.=orse$ the t/o )r0e. Consi-er PO4 PeJ)(os)Ks 'o((o/in* testi ony: Here$ there is no sho/in* ho/ the '(o/ o' the custo-y o' the -ru*s /ent 'ro the ti e o' the )rrest o' petitioner )n)((e*e. =h)t Section "4 o' R.photo*r)ph )re )-e )t the ne)rest po(ice st)tion or o''ice )s )((o/e.ch)in o' custo-y.* t)e investigator or "es. t)e items allege"l* con iscate": /ere su.t o''icer in the ch)in o' custo-y.in evi-ence 3 shou(.)*)inst these evi-enti)ry nor s$ the prosecutionKs terse tre)t ent o' its e.ing: means t)e placing .se)rches$ )n.positive 'or sh)!u /ere -i''erent 'ro the ite s )((e*e-(y sei9e'ro petitioner.The Che istry Report on(y con'ir e.ust rest on the stren*th o' the prosecutionKs evi-ence )n.to -isch)r*e.)n.ch)in o' custo-y.there is no in-ic)tion /hether the investi*)tor )n.ite s sh)(( !e p()ce.o' /h)t h)ppene.ite s in /)rr)nt(ess sei9ures to ensure th)t the evi-ence sei9e.concocte. A(thou*h PETITIONERKS DEFENSE IS DENIAL /hich$ st)n-in* )(one$ is inherent(y /e)0$ the Court h)s repe)te-(y stresse.inisterin* Custice !y un-ert)0in* ) serious )nco prehensive consi-er)tion o' the pros )n.ite s 3 to tru(y ensure th)t they )re the s) e ite s th)t enter the ch)in )n.*ive ore th)n (ip service to the )n-)te o' ). This the prosecution ')i(e.th)t the conviction o' )n )ccuse.the contents o' t/o p()stic s)chets. CARPI$ #$RALES' J.to the )'ter their ()!or)tory e. I' the physic)( inventory )n.Reso(ution No. The Court h)s (on* consi-ere.st)tion or )t the ne)rest o''ice o' the )pprehen-in* o''icer&te) $ /hichever is pr)ctic)!(e.over to the ne.lis) t)at t)e c)ain o custo"* remaine" un. There is thus ) re)son)!(e (i0e(ihoo.p()stic s)chets /ere not even presente-$ hence$ not i-enti'ie. In ')ct$ /here in the po(ice st)tion )n. There)'ter$ the sei9e.not su''ice to upho(. 4$ Series o' "%%"$ !ut in every c)se$ t)e appre)en"e" violator or counsel must .u*er o )is<)er initials an" signature on t)e item<s sei. Neither is there ) sho/in* th)t the ite s /ere inventorie.Drugs 1 . =hi(e there is no nee.cons o' the evi-ence o''ere./)s th)t$ ) on* other thin*s$ .!y the h)n-(in* o''icer )nturne.!y !oth the prosecution )n.)s !in-in* truth )n.to !e e. DOLERA$ is ACN:ITTED o' the cri e o' i((e*)( possession o' -)n*erous -ru*s.mar.A.the -es0 o''icer /ere one )n.ONIFACIO T.-e'ense in -eter inin* the erits o' ) c)se.on )((e*)tions o' ro!!ery or the't.)re eventu)((y the ones o''ere.vio()tor 6"7 imme"iatel* upon con'isc)tion. (o/ t)e* /ere turne" over to )im ./h)t steps /ere un-ert)0en to insure the inte*rity o' the evi-ence. For *re)ter speci'icity$ .!re)0 in the ch)in.e" items speci icall* i"enti ie" .e present. This is in (ine /ith the .press(y speci'y is the MATTER OF .c)ses$ courts shou(. Consistency /ith the .the ite s to the cri e ()!or)tory.* t)e appre)en"ing o icer or t)e poseur9.!y the ru(es$ the inventory )nphoto*r)phy o' the sei9e.upon )pprehension is the s) e evi-ence su!Cecte.petitionerKs conviction.t)nt in the recor.o)r.in open court !y the po(ice o''icers3 /itnesses )n. People vs.Bu)ntity o' the sei9e.in )n enve(ope or )n evi-ence !)* :NLESS the type )n. An.-ru*s to testi'y in court$ t)e prosecution still )as to convincingl* esta.horte.'ro petitioner$ the prosecution ')i(e. 14@? )n. o icer' t)e prosecution aile" to give even a simple in"ication t)ereo .p()ine. This step initi)tes the process o' protectin* innocent persons 'ro -u!ious )n.such possi!i(ity o' su!stitution )s ')t)( 'or the prosecution.: Crim Rev . The evi-ence !)* or cont)iner sh)(( )ccor-in*(y !e si*ne. " o' .c)nnot prev)i( over the presu ption o' innocence o' petitioner3 )ccuse-. ru(e.in the presence o' petitioner in )ccor-)nce /ith st)tutory reBuire ents.mitte" or la. ru(e reBuires th)t t)e :mar.its i p(e entin* ru(e -o not e.p()n)tion e.o' protectin* )s /e(( the )pprehen-in* o''icers 'ro h)r)ss ent suits !)seon p()ntin* o' evi-ence un-er Section "1 )n. =HEREFORE$ 'or ')i(ure o' the prosecution to prove his *ui(t !eyon. R)n*e. RE STIP:LATION: =h)t /)s stipu()te.to inventory )n.con'isc)tion o' the s)chets up to the turnover thereo' )t the po(ice st)tion to the investi*)tor )ccor-in* to PO" Pen)(os)$ to the -es0 o''icer )ccor-in* to PO" L)!on.to est)!(ish )s there /)s yet )*)in )n une.photo*r)phy /hen these )ctivities )re un-ert)0en )t the po(ice st)tion r)ther th)n )t the p()ce o' )rrest.ite s ust !e )-e in )ccor-)nce /ith Sec.ro. The )ppe(()te courtKs re(i)nce on the presu ption o' re*u()rity in the per'or )nce o' o''ici)( 'unctions /ou(.the s) e person$ )n. E.MARMIN+. Once ch)((en*e!y evi-ence$ such )s in this c)se$ the presu ption o' re*u()rity c)nnot !e re*)r-e. >utierre. =hether they /ere the s) e p)c0ets )((e*e-(y con'isc)te.) in)tion.)r0e.sho/s th)t it /)s PO4 PeJ)(os) /ho -e(ivere.o' su!stitution )(on* the ch)in in th)t the t/o p()stic s)chets th)t teste.or photo*r)phe.there is no e.tr) vi*i()nt in tryin* -ru*3re()te.e".ite s reBuire ) -i''erent type o' h)n-(in* )n-&or cont)iner.en t)roug)out' an" t)e sei. Not)!(y$ the recor.re)son)!(e -ou!t$ petitioner$ .not on the /e)0ness o' his -e'ense.ing: o' the sei9e. o' the sei9e.

PO4 Esp)res thereupon e.-)u*hter Denni'er corro!or)te.in the present )ppe)( is the Apri( >%$ "%%# Decision o' the Court o' Appe)(s in CA3+.H>I The tri)( court$ )'ter tri)($ )cBuitte. Five )r0e.thre)tene.PO4 M)pu() )n. Appe(()nt /)s !rou*ht to the po(ice st)tion /herein the con'isc)te. etoperaP )t the s) e ti e ten-erin* the !uy3!ust oney /hich )ppe(()nt too0 )n.th)t ) c)se /ou(.con'isc)te.to$ )n.p()in )t the po(ice st)tion.ecute. 14@?$ other/ise 0no/n )s the Co prehensive D)n*erous Dru*s Act o' "%%".)ppe(()nt )n.to PO4 Esp)res.too0 one p()stic s)chet cont)inin* ) /hite cryst)((ine su!st)nce /hich he h)n-e.In'or )tion 6i((e*)( possession o' p)r)phern)(i)7$ hence$ this Decision sh)(( -/e(( on(y on the revie/ o' )ppe(()nt2s conviction o' se((in* sha#u.)n.)ppe(()nt$ )n.) !uy3!ust tr)ns)ction th)t sp)/ne.!e 'i(e.)n o/ner3type Ceep. 4i#ilia-ongpiso P App)rent(y not h)vin* he)r.his /)((et.si*n)($ the other e !ers o' the te) c(ose.)ppe(()nt o' i((e*)( s)(e o' sha#u As re'(ectee)r(ier$ )ppe(()nt /)s e. . on Dune 4@$ "%%>$ /hi(e on -uty )t the Dru* En'orce ent :nit o' the P)si* City Po(ice Force$ SPO> M)ti)s receive.H1I In convictin* )ppe(()nt o' i((e*)( s)(e o' sha#u$ the tri)( court 'oun.en /h)t the o''ense o' )ppe(()nt /)s$ !ut she receive.escorte.A. Appe(()nt2s /i'e Dosephine )n. =hi(e the other e !ers o' the te) /ere str)te*ic)((y positione-$ the )sset$ )cco p)nie. Fro the testi onies o' three e !ers o' the te) /hich con-ucte.!y 'our persons /ho )(( !o)r-e.P"%$%%%. The te) there)'ter /ent to the t)r*et )re) )n. on Dune 4@$ "%%>$ /hi(e he /)s )t ho e h)vin* -inner /ith his /i'e Dosephine$ -)u*hter Denni'er )n. He ')i(e.t/enty3peso !i((s /ere *iven to PO4 Esp)res )s !uy3!ust oney.the in'or )tion.no )ns/er. %4114 )''ir in* th)t o' . SPO> M)ti)s thus 'or e.) !uy3!ust te) $ /hich he he)-e-$ /ith PO4 Esp)res )s poseur3!uyer$ )n. . Appe(()nt$ 'or his p)rt$ presente.in to )ssist PO4 Esp)res /ho then )r0e.survei((e-$ the )re) )n.?:%% p. .r)nch "@# o' the Re*ion)( Tri)( Court o' P)si* City in Cri in)( C)se No.OPisolang.not *ui(ty. Appe(()nt /)s ch)r*e. Denni'er$ too$ )s0e.7 No.F)cts: Ass)i(e. .con'ir e.!y PO4 Esp)res$ )ppro)che. On )s0in* the /h)t his o''ense /)s$ he /)s si p(y to(. .o' the ch)r*e o' i((e*)( possession o' p)r)phern)(i).%? *r) o' sha#u )n.'ris0e.it )n. CR3HC No.the !()c0 p()stic c)se /hich )ppe(()nt /)s ho(-in*.the 'i(in* o' the In'or )tions F PO4 Mich)e( Esp)res 6PO4 Esp)res7$H<I SPO> Lene)(M)ti)s 6SPO> M)ti)s7$H?I )nPO4 A(()n M)pu() 6PO4 M)pu()7$H@I the 'o((o/in* version o' the prosecution is *)there-: At )roun.the )r e.oner)te.re)son)!(e -ou!t o' vio()tion o' Section ?$ Artic(e II o' Repu!(ic Act 6R.su!seBuent(y ch)r*e-. Appe(()nt then -re/ 'ro his p)nts2 !)c0 poc0et ) !()c0 p()stic c)se$ opene.citi9en th)t ) cert)in )(i)s ONic0$P ()ter i-enti'ie.the pre3)rr)n*esi*n)($ )pprehen-e.)(( the sei9e. Hee-in* the pre3)rr)n*e.the entire utter)nces$ )ppe(()nt rep(ie-$ 5Mag-ano#a#i#ilhinmo3P 6Ho/ uch )re you !uyin*Q7$ to /hich PO4 Esp)res rep(ie.ite s inc(u-in* the p()stic s)chet cont)inin* the su!st)nce su!Cect o' the s)(e.open the -oor o' their house. meron-a#adi&an3 4i#ili -ami. On the instructions o' SPO> M)ti)s$ PO4 Esp)res )n.hi $ )ncon'isc)te.R.th)t the prosecution su''icient(y est)!(ishe- Crim Rev .the 'o((o/in* version:H#I At )!out #:>% p. or intro-ucin* )ny -)n*erous -ru* into the !o-yP !y t/o sep)r)te In'or )tions$ !oth -)teDune 41$ "%%> On )rr)i*n ent$ )ppe(()nt p(e)-e.et /ith ) con'i-enti)( )sset /ho /)s to )ssist the in the oper)tion.'or s o0in* .p()ce.)*)inst hi un(ess he p)i.her hus!)n-$ so eone 0ic0e.p()stic s)chet cont)inin* tr)ces o' /hite cryst)((ine su!st)nce$ )n.to e.)ppe(()nt2s t)(e on the circu st)nces surroun-in* his )rrest. on Dune 4@$ "%%>$ he s)/ )ppe(()nt co e out o' his house h)n-cu''e)n. .Drugs 1 . The c)se yie(-e) p)ir o' scissors$ )n unse)(e. 4"?4<3D 'in-in* Nico()s +utierre9 y Licu)n)n )(i)s Nic0 6)ppe(()nt7 *ui(ty !eyon./ith i((e*)( s)(e o' %.th)t )t )!out #:<? p. He /)s there)'ter !rou*ht to the P)ri)nci((o po(ice precinct /here ) po(ice o''icer sho/e.)s0e.to !e )ppe(()nt$ /)s pe--(in* sha#u )(on* S)n A*ustin Street$ .y Decision o' D)nu)ry 4A$ "%%@$H4%I the tri)( court convicte.i((e*)( possessiono'p)r)phern)(i) O'it or inten-e. Four )r een in civi(i)n c(othes i e-i)te(y entere-$ h)n-cu''e.HAI Appe(()nt2s nei*h!or Dose -e +u9 )n$ /ho )(so too0 the /itness st)n-$ st)te.ite s /ere surren-ere.'ive e pty p()stic s)chets.hi ) p()stic s)chet )n.PO4 M)pu() procee-e.to )n investi*)tor.to p)y$ ho/ever$ hence$ he /)s -et)ine.in his ri*ht 'ront poc0et.hi OPare.)r)n*)y P)()ti/$ P)si* City.)ppe(()nt o' the ch)r*e su!Cect o' the secon.PO4 Mich)e( F) i()r) 6PO4 F) i()r)7 )s e !ers.)n.in'or )tion vi) te(ephone 'ro ) concerne.

re)son)!(e -ou!t.custo-y o' the sei9e.then -escri!e the prec)utions t)0en to ensure th)t there h)./h)t h)ppene.'ro /ho it /)s receive-$ /here it /)s )n.ti es /hen such tr)ns'ers o' custo-y /ere )-e in the course o' s)'e0eepin* )n. OCh)in o' Custo-yP e)ns the "ul* recor"e" aut)ori.!een no ch)n*e in the con-ition o' the ite )n. Such recoro' ove ents )n.!y c(e)r )n.!y the prosecution movements an" custo"* o' sei9e-ru*s or contro((e.o)rRe*u()tion No.i+: PO4 Esp)res -ec()re. =h)t is )teri)( is proo' th)t the tr)ns)ction or s)(e tr)nspire-$ coup(e. =ON the corpus -e(icti o' the cri e /)s est)!(ishe.H4"I Issue: 4. 14@?$H4<I the e(e ents necess)ry in ) prosecution 'or the i((e*)( s)(e o' sha#u )re: the i-entity o' the !uyer )n.its e.H4?I In prosecutions invo(vin* n)rcotics$ the n)rcotic su!st)nce itse(' constitutes the corpus delicti o' the o''ense )n. H4AI Section 4 6!7 o' the D)n*erous Dru*s .the e. It )--e.si*n)( )t the !uy3!ust oper)tion /)s th)t he /ou(.the sha#u purch)se.(i*ht ) ci*)rette$ /hi(e SPO> M)ti)s st)te.to it /hi(e in the /itness2 possession$ the con-ition in /hich it /)s receive.ite $ the -)tes )n.hi!it !e prece-e!y evi-ence su''icient to support ) 'in-in* th)t the )tter in Buestion is /h)t the proponent c()i s it to !e.'ro hi .A.th)t the pre3)rr)n*e.e" Crim Rev .to the ne. People.no opportunity 'or so eone not in the ch)in to h)ve possession o' the s) e.)rrest. On )ppe)($ the Court o' Appe)(s )''ir e.in est)!(ishin* the corpus delicti H4#I The Och)in o' custo-yP ru(e per'or s this 'unction )s it ensures th)t unnecess)ry -ou!ts concernin* the i-entity o' the evi-ence )re re ove-.)ppe(()nt2s conviction !y Decision o' Apri( >%$ "%%#$H44I hence$ the present )ppe)(. No.to )ppe(()nt )n.inc(u-e testi ony )!out every (in0 in the ch)in$ 'ro the o ent the ite /)s pic0e.use in court )s evi-ence$ )nthe 'in)( -isposition.up to the ti e it is o''ere. 6E ph)sis )n.th)t PO4 Esp)res /)s to '(ic0 the s)chet cont)inin* sh)!u.into evi-ence$ in such ) /)y th)t every person /ho touche.H"%I the Court e.)n. These /itnesses /ou(.the -e(ivery o' the thin* so(.che ic)(s or p()nts source o' -)n*erous -ru*s or ()!or)tory eBuip ent )t e)ch st)*e$ 'ro the ti e o' sei9ure&con'isc)tion to receipt in the 'orensic ()!or)tory to s)'e0eepin* to present)tion in court )n-estruction. Appe(()nt )r*ues th)t he /)s ) victi o' )n inv)(i/)rr)nt(ess se)rch )n.te por)ry custo-y o' the sei9e.un-erscorin* supp(ie-7 In Malillin . 14@? -e'ines Och)in o' custo-yP )s 'o((o/s: !.hi!it /ou(.o' )uthentic)tin* evi-ence$ the ch)in o' custo-y ru(e reBuires th)t the ).the consi-er)tionG )n. He cites )n inconsistency in the testi onies o' PO4 Esp)res )n. It /ou(. He )int)ins th)t he /)s ere(y h)vin* -inner /ith his ') i(y /hen 'our uni-enti'ie)r een !)r*e.t (in0 in the ch)in.the con-ition in /hich it /)s -e(ivere.th)t )ppe(()nt2s -e'ense o' 'r) e3up /)s not supporte.ission o' )n e.p()ine.)nthe p)y ent there'or.into their house.A.the se((erG the o!Cect )n.Drugs 1 As ) etho.pects the ch)in o' custo-y or O ove entP o' the sei9eevi-ence to !e )int)ine-: He(-: :n-er Section ?$ Artic(e II o' R.istence is vit)( to sust)in ) Cu-* ent o' conviction !eyon.si*n)ture o' the person /ho he(.re)son)!(e -ou!t -e )n-s th)t un/)verin* e.)ctitu-e !e o!serve.ho/ it e.convincin* evi-ence.-escri!e ho/ )n. No. 4$ Series o' "%%"H41I /hich i p(e ents R.the corpus delicticonsistin* o' the !uy3!ust oney p)i. ./ith the present)tion in court o' the corpus delicti R the !o-y or su!st)nce o' the cri e /hich est)!(ishes the ')ct th)t ) cri e h)s )ctu)((y !een co itte-.SPO> M)ti)s th)t he c()i s -estroys their cre-i!i(ity$ .H4@I Proo' !eyon.ite sh)(( inc(u-e the i-entity )n.

t (in0 in the ch)in. 6:n-erscorin* supp(ie-7 )ppe(()nt /)s the source o' the speci en /ou(.sha#u !et/een the turnover !y the che ist to the investi*)tor )nits present)tion in court$ the recor-s -o not sho/.positive 'or ethy() phet) ine hy-roch(ori-e h)s no !e)rin* on the Buestion o' ch)in o' custo-y.istence o' the speci en$ )n.p()n)tion /)s *iven re*)r-in* its custo-y in the interi F 'ro the ti e it /)s turne.hi!itKs (eve( o' suscepti!i(ity to 'un*i!i(ity$ )(ter)tion or t) perin* R /ithout re*)r.) in)tion )nthe resu(ts thereo'$ /ere entere./h)t h)ppene.it /ou(. Such /)nt o' e.e.essenti)( /hen the ite o' re)( evi-ence is not -istinctive )n.th)t the -e'ense /)s reservin* its ri*ht to o!Cect to the pieces o' evi-ence )r0e!y the prosecution. The Court )-e it c(e)r in Malillin th)t the ch)in o' custo-y ru(e reBuires th)t there !e testi ony )!out every (in0 in the ch)in$ 'ro the o ent the o!Cect sei9e.ch)n*e.to it /hi(e in the /itness2 possession$ the con-ition in /hich it /)s receive.no opportunity 'or so eone not in the ch)in to h)ve possession thereo'.to /hether the s) e is )-vertent or other/ise not R -ict)tes the (eve( o' strictness in the )pp(ic)tion o' the ch)in o' custo-y ru(e. An.is not re)((y i-enti'i)!(e$ or /hen its con-ition )t the ti e o' testin* or tri)( is critic)($ or /hen ) /itness h)s ')i(e.custo-y o' -ru*s$ sep)r)te(y 'ro the *ener)( ()/ proce-ures *e)reto ensure th)t the ri*hts o' persons un-er cri in)( Crim Rev . These stipu()tions$ /hich ere(y )''ir the e.) in)tion )npresente.)'ter it (e't her possession.)n.th)t it teste.to the ne. .the reBuest 'or ()!or)tory e. In other /or-s$ the e./h)t h)ppene.!y the recor-s /hich cre)tes ) -)n*erous prece-ent The n)**in* Buestion$ there'ore$ re )ins /hether the o!Cect evi-ence su!Cecte.ists$ th)t ) reBuest h)s !een )-e !y the )rrestin* o''icers 'or e. =hi(e )((e*e.speci enG )n.H"4I C(e)r(y$ the stipu()tions -o not cover the )nner the speci en /)s h)n-(e.over to the investi*)tor to its turnover 'or ()!or)tory e.into -urin* pre3tri)( on(y in or-er to -ispense /ith the testi ony o' the 'orensic che ist )n.-escri!e ho/ )n'ro /ho it /)s receive-$ /here it /)s )n.eventu)( turnover o' the )((e*e-(y sei9es)chet o' su!st)nce to the investi*)tor$ no e.p()n)tion !)res ) si*ni'ic)nt *)p in the ch)in o' custo-y o' the )((e*e-(y sei9e.on the )r0in* )n.ission th)t The Court reiter)tes th)t on )ccount o' the !ui(t3in -)n*er o' )!use th)t ) !uy3!ust oper)tion c)rries$ it is *overne.even su!stitution )n.) in)tion thereo'$ th)t ) 'orensic che ist e.(i0e/ise o!t)ins in c)se the evi-ence is suscepti!(e to )(ter)tion$ t) perin*$ cont) in)tion )n. Th)t the -e'ense stipu()te.!e to !inhi to )n uncere onious /ith-r)/)( o' his p(e) o' not *ui(ty 6 ) re)-in* not supporte.lis) t)e c)ain o custo"* o t)e allege"l* sei.no person)( 0no/(e-*e )s to the source o' the )((e*e.ite .poseur3!uyer PO4 Esp)res testi'ie.on these )tters$ .!y speci'ic proce-ures on the sei9ure )n.)!!revi)te the procee-in*s.!e'ore it c) e to the possession o' the 'orensic che ist )n.in court is thes) e o!Cect )((e*e-(y sei9e.the testi ony o' PO4 Esp)res$ SPO> M)ti)s )n.not 'i(( in this *)p.it$ )n.in evi-ence$ in such ) /)y th)t every person /ho touche.i+: th)t the speci en e.=hi(e testi ony )!out ) per'ect ch)in is not )(/)ys the st)n-)r.to ()!or)tory e.Drugs 1 !)e Court in"s t)at t)e evi"ence or t)e prosecution aile" to esta. The s) e st)n-)r.up to the ti e it is o''ere.) ine.e" shabu. H)vin* ere(y su!st)nti)((y echoe.!ec)use it is )( ost )(/)ys i possi!(e to o!t)in$ )n un!ro0en ch)in o' custo-y !eco es in-ispens)!(e )n./)s pic0e.to the )((e*e-(y sei9e. To interpret the stipu()tions )s )n ).PO4 M)pu() -i. It !e)rs no )ccount o' the prec)utions t)0en to ensure th)t there /)s no ch)n*e in the con-ition o' the o!Cect )n. The tot)(ity o' the prosecution evi-ence -oes not eet this st)n-)r-.) in)tion.'ro )ppe(()nt.to o!serve its uniBueness.the con-ition in /hich it /)s -e(ivere. Th)t such is the intention o' the p)rties is c(e)r 'ro the )--ition)( stipu()tions th)t the 'orensic che ist h).

$ M)r(on -e Leon$ )n. No. To corro!or)te L)y(o2s testi ony$ the -e'ense presenteL)y(o2s three nei*h!ors.-ecision o' the Court o' Appe)(s is RE@ERSED )n.t/o /itnesses: Po(ice O''icer 4 6PO47 An*e(ito +. The t/o en$ /ho they ()ter i-enti'ie.the three p()stic s)chets o' sh)!u recovere.?:%% or @:%% p./)s trie.$ he /)s on his /)y ho e At this Cuncture$ the Court notes )nother ()pse o' the e !ers o' the !uy3!ust te) F their ')i(ure to co p(y /ith the proce-ur)( reBuire ents o' Section "4$ P)r)*r)ph 4 o' Artic(e II o' R.the secrecy th)t inevit)!(y shrou-s )(( -ru* -e)(s$ the possi!i(ity o' )!use is *re)t.$ )ppe(()nt L)y(o )n./ith the ')i(ure toprove th)t the inte*rity )n.PO4 P)stor )r0e.Drugs 1 PE$PLE @S R$LAND$ LAYL$ . Coup(e. The po(ice o''icers ch)r*e.his co on3()/ /i'e$ Rit/)($ /ere /)(0in* on the street$ t/o en *r)!!e.'ro the st)n-)rcon-uct o' o''ici)( -uty )s provi-e.photo*r)ph o' the sha#u)((e*e-(y con'isc)te'ro )ppe(()nt.s)(e o' i((e*)( -ru*s.)s PO4 Reyes )nPO4 P)stor$ -r)**e.'or entr)p ent proce-ures$ the use o' sh)-y ch)r)cters )s in'or )nts$ the e)se /ith /hich stic0s o' )riCu)n) or *r) s o' heroin c)n !e p()nte.not *ui(ty.?:<% p.the t/o p()stic s)chets cont)inin* sh)!u )s !)sis /hi(e Rit/)( /)s ch)r*e.p()n)tion o''ere'or the non3o!serv)nce o' the ru(e.c()i s th)t the -ru*s /ere p()nte. "an$H"<I the Court e. The presu ption$ in other /or-s$ o!t)ins on(y /here nothin* on recor.)s Op()stic$P in the (e't si-e o' L)y(o2s C)c0et.th)t he /)s t)0in* c)re o' the L)y(o )n.o' the coup(e$ testi'ie.SE! ASIDE " sep)r)te In'or )tions )*)inst )ppe(()nt L)y(o )nMe(iton) Rit/)( 6Rit/)(7 /ere 'i(e.up its version o' the ')cts: In the )'ternoon o' 4# Dece !er "%%?$ PO4 Reyes )n.L)y(o.in a#sentia. Ro-ri*o P)n)on$ Dr.o' the )ccuse. The prosecution presente.the se(ves )s cops.the to their house.in)n*on)n :pon )rr)i*n ent$ !oth )ccuse.PO4 P)stor$ !oth /e)rin* civi(i)n c(othes$ /ere con-uctin* )nti3 -ru* survei(()nce oper)tions. 6P)n)on7 n)rr)te.'or/)r-ethe to the PNP Cri e L)!or)tory 'or 'orensic testin*. M)n)o* con-ucte.evi-enti)ry v)(ue o' the ite s )--uce.courts to !e e.the po(ice o''icers$ O9os 1P'(( ((2 ang isa.s)chet cont)inin* %.on the $ they /ere )rreste. Reyes 6PO4 Reyes7 )n. He s)/ en$ /ho -e Leon i-enti'ie.!)i( )n.'or possession o' i((e*)( -ru*s usin* )s !)sis the thir.horte.s)(e o' i((e*)( -ru*s )n. PO4 Reyes )n.P Thus$ it e.the present)tion o' her evi-ence )nthe c)se /)s su! itte.the )n)s0e-$ O8usto mong umis-or ng sha#uQP PO4 Reyes rep(ie-$ O4a-it ma&roon -a #aQP L)y(o then !rou*ht out t/o p()stic !)*s cont)inin* sh)!u )n.tr) vi*i()nt in tryin* -ru* c)ses (est )n innocent person is )-e to su''er the unusu)((y severe pen)(ties 'or -ru* o''enses.Rit/)(2s chi(.)nother s)chet o' sh)!u in ) SIM c)r.'oun.su**ests th)t the ()/ en'orcers invo(ve. In People . Thus$ Rit/)( /)s Crim Rev .istin* ru(e o' ()/ or st)tute )uthori9in* the per'or )nce o' )n )ct or -uty or prescri!in* ) proce-ure in the per'or )nce thereo'. P)stor 6PO4 P)stor7$ the poseur3!uyers in the )tte pte.p(e)-e.investi*)tionH""I )n. H"@I ?(EREF$RE$ the )ss)i(e.th)t on 4# Dece !er "%%?$ )t )roun.the ()!or)tory e.to *et )/)y !ut PO4 P)stor c)u*ht up /ith her.presse. Rit/)($ on the other$ trie.Rit/)( )n. Prosecution2s version: The prosecution su e.'oun.Rit/)( )n. Forensic Che ist Po(ice Inspector Eeh() C./ere not t)inte-$ the !uy !ust te) 2s -isre*)r.the recovere.to(.in the poc0ets or h)n-s o' unsuspectin* provinci)( hic0s$ )n.ite s positive 'or sh)!u$ ) -)n*erous -ru*.c()i e. . 5ersion o' the De'ense The /itnesses presente.)n. Other/ise$ /here the o''ici)( )ct in Buestion is irre*u()r on its ')ce$ )n )-verse presu ption )rises )s ) )tter o' course.o' the reBuire ents o' Section "4 is ')t)(.th)t /hi(e he )n.'ro L)y(o )n. Doint tri)( on the erits ensue-. M)r(on -e Leon 6-e Leon7$ )(so ) c(ose 'rien.'or in the ()/.this concern )s it reco*ni9e.his (ive3in p)rtner$ Rit/)($ )ppro)che.th)t O!y the very n)ture o' )nti3n)rcotics oper)tions$ the nee.')cin* ) cri in)( ch)r*eH">I )re s)'e*u)r-e-./ere: )ppe(()nt L)y(oG L)y(o2s three nei*h!ors n) e(y Ro-ri*o P)n)on$ Dr. It nee-s no e(uci-)tion th)t the presu ption o' re*u()rity in the per'or )nce o' o''ici)( -uty ust !e seen in the conte.L)y(o 'or )tte pte. -ee e.A.PO4 +e A.th)t he s)/ one o' the put so ethin*$ /hich he -escri!e. There /)s (i0e/ise no e. Ho/ever$ -urin* the tri)($ Rit/)( Cu pe. PO4 P)stor then 'ris0e.ch)r*e-.) in)tion on the speci ens su! itte.c)se /hich Rit/)( /)s c)rryin*.) co otion.t o' )n e. =hi(e the po(ice o''icers /ere in 'ront o' ) sari7sari store )t )roun.-evi)te.to h)ve /)ive.Teresit) M)rBue9.-ru*s. PO4 Reyes i e-i)te(y )rreste.the . .)s )ssets$ ho(-in* the coup(e )n.)n./ith the RTC o' . A'ter/)r-s$ they /ere !rou*ht to the po(ice st)tion /here$ -espite protests )n.use.%" *r) s o' sh)!u.P :pon he)rin* this$ the po(ice o''icers intro-uce. There /)s no physic)( inventory )n.'or -ecision /ithout )ny evi-ence on her p)rt. 14@?H"?I /ith respect to custo-y )n-isposition o' con'isc)te.t/o p()stic s)chets in e)ch o' their poc0ets. L)y(o testi'ie. Once insi-e$ the po(ice o''icers p()ce./hen he he)r.

!y inconsistencies or contr)-ictions in their )teri)( points.the se(ves )np()ce.in )''ir in* the RTC -ecision Ru(in*: NO.L)y(o2s son shoutin*$ OAmang.RTC -ecision.PO4 P)stor testi'ie.P Then P)n)on s)/ so eone p()ce so ethin* insi-e the C)c0et o' L)y(o )s he he)r. . At )roun.his )((e*)tion o' p()ntin* o' evi-ence or 'r) e3up c)n !e e)si(y concocte-.unsh)0en !y cross3 e.th)t the -eni)( o' )ppe(()nt L)y(o is /e)0 )n.%% 'or e)ch s)chet h). Thus$ the s)(e /)s not consu )te.Rit/)(2s re(e)se. Then so eone pu((e.L)y(o utterin*$ O4a-it #aQ 4a-it #aQP L)ter$ P)n)on s)/ ) co otion t)0in* p()ce )t L)y(o2s !)c0y)r-.PO4 P)stor.L)y(o2s co(()r )n.)n )ppe)( /ith the CA.re)son)!(e -ou!t o' vio()tions o' RA 14@?.cri e !y sho/in* the su!st)nce to PO4 Reyes )n.precursor )n. tulungan nin&o -ami. L)y(o 'i(e.to se(( sh)!u )n.se((er$ the o!Cect$ )n.)ppe(()nt )s the se((er o' the su!st)nce cont)ine. The RTC *)ve cre-ence to the testi onies o' the po(ice o''icers$ /ho /ere presu e. Fro the testi onies *iven$ PO4 Reyes )n.th)t Reyes )n. Here$ )ppe(()nt inten-e. Crim Rev ./hen the po(ice o''icers intro-ucethe se(ves )s cops )n.P<%$%%%.hi .ala po. M)rBue9 overhe)r.Rit/)( un-er )rrest.her )n.Drugs 1 . ..oney 'or L)y(o )n. The s)(e /)s )!orte.un-er this Act: ./hen the po(ice o''icers i-enti'ie. Amang. Their testi onies /ere un'()/e.. Thus$ )ppe(()nt /)s ch)r*e. Section "@6!7$ Artic(e II o' RA 14@? provi-es: Section "@.L)y(o /hi(e the ()tter shoute-$ OMga -apit#aha&.)ppe(()nt )nhis (ive3in p)rtner Rit/)(. In )--ition$ the p()stic s)chets /ere presente. M)rBue9 then )cco p)nieRit/)(2s -)u*hter to the unicip)( h)(($ /here ) )n -e )n-e. Thus$ the e(e ents o' the cri e ch)r*e.se('3servin* )n.s)(e o' -)n*erous -ru*s.!y evi-ence.P)stor /ere str)i*ht'or/)r.run to his ')ther$ /ho /)s /ith sever)( )(e co p)nions.L)y(o s)y$ O.in court.!orro/e.ala po.to !e positive 'or sh)!u. Thus$ L)y(o2s -e'ense c)nnot !e *iven cre-ence over the positive )n.!ut ere(y )tte pte-. Attempt or Conspirac& 6 Any )tte pt or conspir)cy to co it the 'o((o/in* un()/'u( )cts sh)(( !e pen)(i9e.$ she he)r.th)t /hi(e she /)s 'etchin* /)ter 'ro the /e(( on 4# Dece !er "%%?$ )t )roun.inistr)tion$ -ispens)tion$ -e(ivery$ -istri!ution )ntr)nsport)tion o' )ny -)n*erous -ru* )n-&or contro((e.'or the co ission o' the s) e )s provi-e./ith )tte pte.so eone utterin*$ O. Even the consi-er)tion o' P"%%. He overhe)r.ala -a&ong ma-u-uha dito. Ho/ever$ the s)(e /)s interrupte.th)t they /ere the poseur3!uyers in the s)(e.1:%% in the evenin*$ Rit/)(2s -)u*hter visite. The RTC )--e.P M)rBue9 then s)/ the chi(. Fro the testi onies o' the /itnesses$ the prosecution /)s )!(e to est)!(ish th)t there /)s )n )tte pt to se(( sh)!u.!y the s) e pen)(ty prescri!e. Issue: =ON the CA erre.their -uties in ) re*u()r )nner.co ence.?:%% or @:%% p.in their testi onies )n.'ris0e./ere su''icient(y est)!(ishe. RTC -ecision: !oth )re *ui(ty !eyon.oth positive(y i-enti'ie. -ami:& dinadampot.!y overt )cts the co ission o' the inten-e.in p()stic s)chets /hich /ere 'oun.i e-i)te(y )rreste.P M)rBue9 /ent ho e )'ter the inci-ent.) in)tion.the consi-er)tionG )n.the p)y ent. .%% 'or the coup(e2s re(e)se.)nc)n-i.6"7 the -e(ivery o' the thin* so()n.!een )-e 0no/n !y )ppe(()nt to the po(ice o''icers. The three en )rreste. CA )''ir e. 6!7 S)(e$ tr)-in*$ ). The s) e p()stic s)chets /ere (i0e/ise i-enti'ie!y the prosecution /itnesses /hen presente.P Teresit) M)rBue9 6M)rBue97 testi'ie.in court )s evi-ence o' corpus delicti./hen he s)/ L)y(o )r*uin* /ith three en in )n )((ey. The e(e ents necess)ry 'or the prosecution o' i((e*)( s)(e o' -ru*s )re: 647 the i-entity o' the !uyer )n..to h)ve per'or e..essenti)( che ic)(G .c(e)r testi onies o' the prosecution /itnesses.)ppe(()nt )n. The RTC st)te.

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