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Gas Properties

The Table below lists some of the more useful properties in building services for natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG).

Properties

Natural Gas

Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Propane
100% C3H8

Composition & Chemical symbol

92.6% Methane CH4 3.6% Ethane C2H6 0.8% Propane C3H8 0.2% Butane C4H10

Gross Calorific Value (GCV) (MJ/m3)(kJ/litre) Gross Calorific Value (GCV) (MJ/litre) Gross Calorific Value (GCV) (MJ/kg) Net Calorific Value (NCV) (MJ/m3) Density of gas at 15oC (kg/m3) Density of liquid under pressure (kg/litre) or (kg/m3) Ignition temperature (oC) Operating pressure (millibars) Volume of gas per volume of liquid (m3/m3) or (m3/litre) Volume of gas per kg mass of liquid (m3/kg)

41.6 0.0416 53.3 38.7 0.78 650 20 -

95 as gas 25.5 as liquid 50 86 1.85 0.512 kg/litre or 512 kg/m3 510 37 274 m3gas /m3 liquid or 0.274 m3 gas / litre liquid 0.54

LPG (Gas) Pipe Sizing Notes
Allowable pressure drops Medium pressure lines 450 Pa per m run ( 2 P.S.I. per 100 foot ) Low pressure lines 4.1 Pa per m run ( ½” w.g. /100 ft) Maximum 1300 Pa total pressure drop in any run.

An allowance may be made for fittings. 2.037 bar) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Allowable pressure drops The allowable pressure drop between the outlet of the meter and appliances must not exceed 1 mbar or 0.7 bar.7 MJ/m3 to give gas flow rate in m3/s. The three tables are for Steel.3 metres for 90 o bends and 0. 5.05 bar) At equipment and appliances 37 millibar (0. Measure the length of pipe in each section. 0. This allowance is to add to the measured pipe lengths.020 bar) SIMPLE METHOD OF NATURAL GAS PIPE SIZING A simple method of sizing Natural Gas pipes is to use the tables below. Determine pipe size from relevant Table. Add equivalent lengths for fittings. thin wall copper and thick wall copper. 4. Pressure loss is generally limited to between 75 Pa and 125 Pa from the meter to the point of use. 38. Second stage regulation at building pressure is reduced to 50 mbar (0. . Procedure 1. 3. Determine heat output of appliance or heat to be carried in pipe in MW Divide this by Gross Calorific Value (GCV) of gas i.e.001 bar or 100 Pa.6 metres for an elbow or tee.Gas Pressures First stage regulation at tank pressure is reduced from 6 bar to 0. Gas Pressures At equipment and appliances 20 millibar (0.

00574 0. – answer 28 / 1000 = 0.00275 0.00393 0.00480 0.8 m.00120 0.6 = 1.00039 0.00409 0.00153 0. Divide this by Gross Calorific Value (GCV) of gas i.00102 0.e.00071 0.0 Gas Flow Rate (m3/s) 0.00826 0.0 18.Example 1 Determine the steel pipe size for a gas boiler if the boiler rating is 28 kW and the measured pipe run is 10. Determine pipe size from relevant Table – answer from Table 1 gives 20mm pipe because the flow rate lies between two values on the table and the larger pipe size is chosen.7 MJ/m3 to give gas flow rate in m3/s – answer 0. 3.2 m 2.00291 0.00346 0.00598 0.00057 0.028 MW 4. Procedure 1.0 12.00076 0.0 metres.00527 0.00275 0. Table 1 below is used for Mild Steel pipe. Measure the length of pipe in each section – answer 10.7 = 0.00700 0.00083 0. Add to 10.00464 0.0 6.0 15.2 metres with 3 elbows.00224 0.00417 . Determine heat output of appliance or heat to be carried in pipe in MW.01258 0.00142 0. Table 1 – Gas Pipe Sizing for Steel Pipe Nominal Pipe size (mm) 15 20 25 32 40 Pipe length (m) 3.00034 0.0 21.00044 0. BS 1387: medium grade.00104 0.00865 0.00134 0.00440 0.00072 0.00315 0. 38. Add equivalent lengths for fittings – answer 3 x 0.2 m gives 12.025 / 38.0 9.0007235 m3/s 5.00219 0.00090 0.00149 0.0 24.00169 0.00050 0.00193 0.00036 0.

00134 Table 3 below is used for Copper Tube Table ‘Y’ or EN 1057 thick wall.00126 0.00244 0.00071 0.00165 0.0 6.0 30.00063 0.00027 0.0 12.00134 0.00456 0.0 20.0 15.00118 0.00330 0.00260 0.0 25.00072 0.00220 0.00165 0.0 25.00025 0.0 12.00079 0.0 30.00205 0. half hard temper.00087 0.00244 0.00149 0.00043 0.00149 0.0 Gas Flow Rate (m3/s) 0.00035 0.00070 0.00027 0.00032 0.00054 0. Table 2 – Gas Pipe Sizing for Copper Tube Table ‘X’ Nominal Pipe size (mm) 15 22 28 Pipe length (m) 3. half hard temper.00024 0.00037 0.00079 0.00057 0.00181 0.00024 0. but can be useful for checking pipe sizes quickly.00142 0.00110 0.Table 2 below is used for Copper Tube Table ‘X’ or EN 1057 thin wall.0 9. .0 20.00220 0.00094 0.0 9.0 15.0 Gas Flow Rate (m3/s) 0.00047 0.0 6.00197 0.00020 0.00495 0.00118 It must be remembered that the above method of pipe sizing is not as accurate as using the CIBSE guide method as detailed in page 3. Table 1 – Gas Pipe Sizing for Copper Tube Table ‘Y’ Nominal Pipe size (mm) 15 22 28 Pipe length (m) 3.00307 0.00028 0.00102 0.00064 0.00032 0.

For natural gas it is usual to limit the pressure loss to 75 Pa to 125 Pa from the gas meter to the point of use. Appliance pressure is 20 mbar.037 bar). Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Example Size the gas supply pipe shown below.46 (copper) for natural and LPG pipe sizing.CIBSE method of Gas Pipe Sizing Use CIBSE guide Table C4.76 of the CIBSE guide.45 (steel) and C4. A maximum pressure drop from meter to appliance of 1millibar (100 Pa) can be used. Use the maximum pressure drop given above of 100 Pa from meter to appliance. If LPG is used then refer to correction factors on page C4. Most domestic natural gas appliances operate at a pressure of 20 millibar (0. Copper pipework is used. Section Length (metres) 8 4 13 5 4 1 2 3 4 5 .020 bar) Domestic LPG appliances operate at a gas pressure of 37 mbar (0.

Flow rate Q = H / GCV Q = 41 x 10-3 (MW) / 38. Q = H = GCV = For example.Example 1 – Gas Pipe System To calculate the gas flow rates use the following formula: Q = H / GCV Gas flow rate in pipe section (m3/s) Heat output in pipe section (convert to MW) Gross Calorific Value of gas (MJ/m3) given in Pipe Sizing Table.00106 m3/s .05943 x 10-3 m3/s Q = 0. Q = 1.00105943 m3/s Q = approximately 0. Where. in Pipe section 1 the Heat output to all appliances is 25 + 12 + 4 kW = 41 kW.7 (MJ/m3) from Pipe Sizing Table.

4 m 8 + 1.5 + 1.8 = 13.94 5 + 1.0 = 2.G.4 = 0. 23 m Tee 0.6 .E.4 4.0 4 25 0.L = 4.0 Total  = 4.0 x 0.5 T.3 3 4 0.E.5 x 0. =  x le = 1.0 = 3. =  x le T.8 1.000413 15 4 38.0 T.0 T.6 8.000103 15 13 17.00065 22 5 19.E.25 = 1.0 5 12 0.4 = 0.5 m 1 plug valve = 1. =  x le = 1.7 = 1.E.5 4 + 0.E.75 T.L = 1.0 x 0.75 x 0.23 = 9.7 96 Gas Pipe Sizing Table 1 Heat Secti Outpu on t Ref.0 1 plug valve = 1.3 2 16 0.L = 3. 6 x Pa/m 7 Pa 1 41 0.L.GAS Natural gas L.0 T. in sectio n kW Zeta factor for Tee = 0. ( Commercial propane) GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE MJ/m3 38.8 m 2 bends @ 1.0 = 1.4 = 4.23 2.L.5 = 1.L.5 = 6.00031 15 4 17.5 + 1.E.L.P. =  x le T.31 4 + 0. 4+5 m 9 1 7 8 Pressure Pressure at Pressure TOTAL atstartof end drop PRESSU section of section per RE Pa Pa metre DROP Col.0 + 0.6 m 3 bends @ 1.18 13 + 0.E.2 = 0.6 = 4.5 3.00106 28 8 20.0 x 0.2 2 Flow rate m3/s 3 Pipe Size mm dia 4 Lengt h of pipe 5 Total Equivalent length of Fittings m m 6 Total Pipe Length Col.0 1 plug valve = 1.

09 76. The pressure drops as shown in the following Table: Sections 1.5 1.81 76.60 20.18 + 17.94 Pressure drop (Pa) 39.Gas pipe sizes and pressure drops can now be put on the drawing.2.2.3 Pressure drop (Pa) 20.43 .18 + 17.4 1.31 + 38.50 20.31 + 19.31 + 38.

If the pressure drop in sections 1. metre Col. This is less than the recommended maximum of 100 Pa.The maximum pressure drop is in sections 1.43 Pa.6 96 GAS Natural gas L. and a second calculation of pressure drop carried out. 6 x 7 section Fittings dia kW 4+5 Pa/m Pa Pa m m 10 Pressure at end of section Pa . ( Commercial propane) Gas Pipe Sizing Table 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 5 Heat Flow Pipe Length Total Pressure TOTAL Pressure Total Section Output rate Size of pipe Equivalent Pipe drop PRESSURE at start Ref. in m3/s per DROP of length of Length mm section m Col.G.P. GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE (MJ/m3) 41. 2 and 3 and amounts to 76. 2 and 3 and was too high then the pipe size in section 2 could have been increased to 22mm. therefore the pipe sizes are appropriate.