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TEACHER GUIDELINES: How SunSmart are students at your school?

Background:
Survey monkey (www.surveymonkey.com/) enables registered users to design survey questions and send their surveys via email to selected participants (in this case your class). Use Survey monkey to demonstrate and model the collection and presentation of data. Establish the degree of class awareness of myths relating to sun safety, e.g. you cant get burnt in winter or on cloudy days; fake tans provide protection against skin damage. Once class knowledge is established, myths can be dispelled and correct information explored. Demonstrate how survey data can be presented graphically to assist in drawing conclusions and used as the basis to fix a problem, for example dispel a common myth believed by some class members. Promote discussion concerning the accuracy of information available on sun safety. Sample questions and Survey monkey considerations can be found in Appendix A. The headings: Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion and Recommendations have been used in this document, Teacher guidelines: How SunSmart are students at your school? to reflect the learning that students will demonstrate in each section of their research report.

STEP 1

Introduction:
STEP 2

Revise why it is important to stay safe in the sun. Reinforce why all five SunSmart steps are important.

Method:
STEP 3

Brainstorm a range of ways that your class could determine the extent to which students actions demonstrated all five SunSmart steps. An oral questionnaire or an interview is recommended as the method for data collection although observation of students actions in the playground or a paperbased survey could be used. A sample oral questionnaire / interview proforma can be found in Appendix B. The questionnaire can be modified to suit the school context, e.g. if no students wear a legionnaire style hat, that option can be removed. It is recommended to include at least one question for each of the five SunSmart steps.

eLearning. Department of Education and Training Part of Sun Safety Year 5 How SunSmart are students at your school? TIPS 04381 Page 1 of 11

STEP 4

Before collecting data it is important that the following considerations have been taken into account: Interview a defined population, e.g. a single year level (Year 6) or two sequential year levels (Year 6 and 7). Interview an even number of females and males, e.g. each student should interview two females and two males. The number of students interviewed will be influenced by the size of the school. Results from 50 students (or as close to 50 as possible) would provide sufficient data for students to analyse. Students may conduct their interviews in pairs (particularly if your school population is small). No student is interviewed more than once. Students have had opportunities to practise data collection (i.e. interview techniques, and recording). When students conduct their interviews, it is recommended that they: introduce themselves and state who they represent, e.g. Im Adam from 5A check that the interviewee has not been interviewed by any other student about sun safety briefly explain what they are investigating and why check that it is ok to ask a few questions tell the interviewee that their name will not be used in the report record the responses on the interview sheet (proforma) thank the interviewees for their time. A sample proforma for collating student interviews conducted by each student in the class can be found in Appendix C.

Results:
STEP 5

Different ways of presenting data should be considered including both graphical presentation and a written description of results. Discussion should encompass: What data should be presented in the report? What data should not be presented in the report? How can the data be presented so the reader can interpret the information? Students are asked to present two graphs in their report. One graph should demonstrate the SunSmart step that is used most effectively by students and one graph should demonstrate a SunSmart step that is used less effectively. The contrast will enable students to draw conclusions more easily. The most appropriate graph to use for data gathered in this investigation is a bar graph. Pie graphs may also be used. The data is not continuous therefore line graphs should not be used.

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Sample graphs are illustrated below. The task sheet can be modified, e.g. students may be asked to present one graph demonstrating students use of hats and another demonstrating their use of shade rather than sunscreen.
Figure1: The number of students who wear hats at school
60 50 Number of students
Number of students 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Females Males

Figure 2: The number of students who wear sunscreen at school

40 30 20 10 0 All of the time Most of the time Some of the time How often? Rarely Never Females Males

All of the time

Most of the time

Some of the time How often?

Rarely

Never

Students are directed in their Task assessment guidelines to write one sentence about each graph that describes the trend. To enable students to describe their graph in words provide them with some sentence stems for example: a) Graph one shows that most students .. b) We noticed . These results are shown in Graph two. c) We found d) Few students

Discussion:
STEP 6

Source your schools sun safety strategy which may be published in the student /staff handbook or on the schools website. If your schools sun safety strategy is unable to be used, an example strategy can be found in Appendix D. Using the schools strategy discuss how the school: endeavours to ensure that students have opportunities to be SunSmart, e.g. the uniform includes a collared shirt with a close weave endeavours to encourage students to use the SunSmart steps, e.g. model ideal behaviour, sunscreen is provided in every classroom communicates the strategy to students, parents and the wider school community.

STEP 7

Complete a simple audit of the schools sun safety strategy. Students will need to use their collated survey results to complete this audit. A worked example of an audit tool, including helpful hints can be found in Appendix E. A blank audit tool can be found in Appendix F.

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Consider: Are all SunSmart steps addressed in the schools strategy? How does the wording of the strategy distinguish between rules (compulsory, mandatory, required) and recommendations (encourage, remind, reinforce, permit, allow, provide)? How does the wording of the strategy communicate the SunSmart steps that the school stakeholders consider most important, e.g. if the wearing of sunglasses is permitted rather than encouraged do the stakeholders consider the wearing of sunglasses important? After completing the audit students should understand that: Elements of the school strategy that are compulsory (i.e. rules) are more likely to translate into more students using the SunSmart step. Rules are not always followed by all students all of the time students need to be reminded of the rules. When the behaviour is actively encouraged students will be likely to adopt the targeted SunSmart step. Encouragement can be effective or ineffective. Encouragement can take many forms including role models, reminders, ease of access to hats, sunscreen, shade and the use of rewards or punishment etc. Elements of the school strategy that only permit students to make a choice about adopting SunSmart behaviours are less likely to translate into students using the SunSmart step. A range of other strategies might be identified that support students use of the SunSmart steps. The following questions may be used to scaffold students analyses of the collected data and strategy audit. SunSmart steps associated with school rules, e.g. no hat no play What are the SunSmart steps? How many students use these SunSmart steps? Are there more or less students using them than you expected? How are students reminded about the rules? SunSmart steps not associated with school rules, e.g. use of sunscreen What are the SunSmart steps? How many students use these SunSmart steps? Are these SunSmart steps used more or less often than the SunSmart steps associated with rules? How are students reminded to use these SunSmart steps? Drawing conclusions What are some reasons why students use particular SunSmart steps? What are some reasons why students might not use particular SunSmart steps? Students will use modal verbs to communicate the degree of certainty of their conclusions. Might, could, should, would, will and have may be used. Students may also use the terms more likely or less likely to describe their degree of certainty.

STEP 8

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This discussion is important to enable students to respond to the discussion questions in their Task assessment guidelines: Which SunSmart steps are used most often? Why? Which SunSmart steps are not used as often? Why?

Recommendations:
STEP 9

Students are required to make recommendations in their report on ways to improve the use of one SunSmart step in the school. They need to provide a detailed explanation to support their recommendations with justification, e.g. Why do you think this will work? A high-level response may describe a range of ideas or a number of reasons why a particular recommendation could realistically be effective. It is suggested that students have a narrow focus to ensure that their recommendations are explained in sufficient detail. The class may even be directed to focus on a particular SunSmart step.

Reflection:
STEP 10

It is important that students have an opportunity to communicate their recommendations for action beyond the confines of the classroom (i.e. to a key stakeholder such as the principal, deputy principal, HOC, representative of the P&C, a group of parents or the classroom teachers of the interviewed population (Year 6 and 7 teachers)). One way that this objective could be achieved would be to hold a discussion forum that an invited guest could observe. Students could work in small groups, present their ideas to the group and the group could offer suggestions to refine the recommendation so that it could realistically be implemented in their school.

Extension:
It is possible to extend the scope of this unit to incorporate an enactment component where students are involved in implementing some class recommendations, e.g. design a poster campaign to improve students use of sunscreen.

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APPENDIX A

Myths and misinformation about sun safety

Survey monkey can be used as a tool to collect and present data (student knowledge of sun safety). Why use Survey monkey? Fast to register a basic account, enter the questions below and send the survey to email respondents, takes only 5-10 minutes. A basic account allows you to create a survey with ten questions or less, collect and display the results. The survey responses can be cleared and the survey reused for another class or the cumulative responses can be stored. The following questions address some of the 10 myths about sun protection: Ten myths about sun protection http://www.nswcc.org.au/html/prevention/sunsmart/downloads_nationalskin/myths_ broch.pdf There is more than one correct answer to the following questions. Using this type of question will enable the breadth and depth of student knowledge about sun safety to be assessed and displayed. 1. You can get a sunburn when the sky is cloudy in cool weather if you have a fake tan when it is sunny through a window 2. You are not at risk of skin cancer if you apply sunscreen once a day you have olive skin you tan but do not burn you have red hair 3. Skin cancer is always easy to see can spread to other parts of the body only affects sunbathers is not life threatening An example of the graph generated by Survey monkey:

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APPENDIX B

How are the SunSmart steps used by students at your school?

Female or Male At school do you

Year ____

Do you think you are SunSmart? Yes All of the Most of Some of rarely time the time the time

No never

slip on a collared shirt slap on a hat What kind of hat do you wear? Legionnaire style slop on sunscreen What is the SPF? 30+ seek shade slide on sunglasses Female or Male At school do you Year ____

Wide brimmed 15+

Cap

Do you think you are SunSmart? Yes All of the Most of Some of rarely time the time the time

No never

slip on a collared shirt slap on a hat What kind of hat do you wear? Legionnaire style slop on sunscreen What is the SPF? 30+ seek shade slide on sunglasses Female or Male At school do you... Year ____

Wide brimmed 15+

Cap

Do you think you are SunSmart? Yes All of the Most of Some of rarely time the time the time

No never

slip on a collared shirt slap on a hat What kind of hat do you wear? Legionnaire style slop on sunscreen What is the SPF? 30+ seek shade slide on sunglasses Female or Male At school do you Year ____

Wide brimmed 15+

Cap

Do you think you are SunSmart? Yes All of the Most of Some of rarely time the time the time

No never

slip on a collared shirt slap on a hat What kind of hat do you wear? Legionnaire style slop on sunscreen What is the SPF? 30+ seek shade slide on sunglasses

Wide brimmed 15+

Cap

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APPENDIX C

How are the SunSmart steps used by students at your school? Class data collation tool
Female tally Yes No Do you think you are SunSmart? Male tally Yes No

Female tally All of the time How often do students wear a collared shirt at school? Most of the time Some of the time Rarely Never All of the time How often do students wear a hat at school? Most of the time Some of the time Rarely Never Legionnaire What style of hat? Wide brimmed Cap All of the time How often do students wear sunscreen? Most of the time Some of the time Rarely Never What is the SPF? 30+ 15+ All of the time How often do students seek shade? Most of the time Some of the time Rarely Never All of the time How often do students wear sunglasses? Most of the time Some of the time Rarely Never

Male tally

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APPENDIX D

School sun safety strategy

1. Compulsory wearing of hats (either wide brimmed or legionnaire style) by all students, staff and volunteer helpers for any outdoor movement or activities where exposure to the sun is imminent and extended. e.g. moving between buildings which are not connected by a covered walkway. 2. Compulsory wearing of collared shirts. 3. Uniform incorporates sun safety design features. 4. Flexible planning encouraged, to reduce exposure to the sun between 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. whenever practical. 5. Utilise a range of educational programs to reinforce and educate students regarding sun safety. 6. Provide SPF 15+ broad spectrum sunscreen to every classroom for use by the students, staff and volunteers. 7. Encourage all school community members to apply SPF 30+ broad spectrum sunscreens, SPF 30+ lip creams, zinc creams, etc. to all exposed areas of skin. 8. Encourage students to play in shade areas when ever possible. 9. Continue to review and plan play areas for the future.

10. Reinforce the need for all school community members to be appropriate role models.
11. Permit students to wear appropriate sun glasses to protect their eyes from UV radiation if they wish to or need to. The sunglasses must have a sun protection factor of 97% (EPF 10). 12. Remind students to drink plenty of water as they can dehydrate quickly during hot weather.

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Attachment 4

APPENDIX E

Sun safety strategy audit


The judgement about the school strategy should be made to reflect students use of the SunSmart steps.

Students should be able to name the appropriate SunSmart step

School strategy

SunSmart step

How many students are using this SunSmart step?

Is the school strategy working?

Why? It is a rule, hats are part of our uniform and all teachers are role models they wear hats too. Our school shirt has a collar and everyone wears their uniform. No one ever talks about sunscreen. Our school has a new shade cloth and trees around the oval but no one thinks to play there. You dont get in trouble if you wear sunglasses but they might break in your bag.

Compulsory wearing of hats (either wide brimmed or legionnaire style) by all students, staff and volunteer helpers.

Slap

100 out of 100

Yes

Compulsory wearing of collared shirts

Slip

100 out of 100

Yes

Encourage all school community members to use SPF 30+ sunscreen.

Slop

15 out of 100

No

Encourage students to play in shady areas

Seek

10 out of 100

No

Permit the wearing of sunglasses

Slide

1 out of 100

No

Select the most pertinent elements of the schools strategy and summarise

This number may reflect students who use the step all the time or most of the time from the interview

Discussing and including some additional information will be useful to help students draw conclusions

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Attachment 4

APPENDIX F

Sun safety strategy audit

School strategy

SunSmart step

How many students are using this SunSmart step?

Is the school strategy working?

Why?

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