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Contents
Acknowledgement .......................................................................................................................... 2 Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 3 Hazards ........................................................................................................................................... 4 Diseases/Accidents/Incidents .......................................................................................................... 6 Safety Management System and International Best Practices ........................................................ 7 Legal Requirements ........................................................................................................................ 9 Improvements ............................................................................................................................... 11 Present Benefits and Service Package .......................................................................................... 12 Suitable Benefits and Services Package for the Organization ...................................................... 13 Reference ...................................................................................................................................... 15

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Acknowledgement

Acknowledgement
The case study you are about to read is not an individual effort. It consists of knowledge, support, encouragement, insight and convictions given by different people. I would like to thank my classmates from PQHRM 67 batch, who gave me an immense support in preparing this report. The session we had together and discussed about the case gave me a lot of confidence, because I was able to grasp a lot of information from that session. Then I would like to thank the lecturers who did the lectures in the Module 6. Without the knowledge I gained from those lectures I would be in a big trouble, because without that knowledge I wouldnt be able to look at the case in a theoretical point of view. So a big thank should go to Mr. Kaushal Mendis, Mr. Dharshan Amarasinghe, Mr. M. N. J. Jayaratna, Mr. A. D. Gomez and Mr. Ditha de Alwis. My Father and mother, Mr. A. Jayasinghe and Mrs. Padmini Jayasinghe helped me a lot with giving their views about the case as well. So I thank my parents for the support they gave me. Shan Anjana Jayasinghe. PQHRM/67/21 01/09/2012

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Executive Summary

Executive Summary
Of course, safety is an issue of vital importance in all sectors. Whether people are involved in education, retail, manufacturing, hospitality or anything else, their wellbeing must be protected. However, solid health and safety policy is perhaps even more crucial in the construction industry. The nature of the work is particularly dangerous, as official Health and Safety Executive figures show. With this in mind, you may want to invest in further construction health and safety training for your personnel to ensure they know exactly how to control the risks they face. There are many reasons why construction work poses a threat. One of the issues concerns height. Often, workers are operating high off the ground, meaning that even a minor slip or trip could have devastating consequences. Also, staff members are frequently required to use potentially dangerous machinery and there are plenty of heavy objects that can fall or tip over, causing serious harm to anyone affected. So we need to understand the importance of construction skills training as a means of reducing the risk of such problems occurring and we go out of our way to ensure that our courses are of the highest standard. Also, organizations can encourage more health and safety trainings. Also they need to make sure construction health and safety programmes are engaging, meaning delegates tend to get more out of them. The construction company Zigma Real Estate is a Sri Lankan construction company. It seems that they have forgot to implement a lot of Health and Safety measures I mentioned above. According to the case study they seem to be a company which is profit oriented. A company should be profit oriented. At the end of the day earning profits is the aim of any organization. But when doing that organizations have a duty of ensure health and safety of their employees as well. Otherwise we cant call that organization a successful organization. In construction sites of Zigma Real Estate there seems to be a lot of hazards. Hazard is a source or situation with a potential for harm (injury/illness). When there are hazards in a work station it cannot be called a safe work station. Someone dies in every twenty seconds throughout the world as a result of an industrial accident Due to this reason management of any organization should pay attention to minimize the health and safety hazards.

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Hazards

According to the case study Zigma Real State is experiencing the bad side of Unsafe Working Environment. It is said that the labour turn over and absenteeism are at unprecedented rate. Also the morale of the employees are also very low. The organization is in danger of paying a huge amount to the client due to delay of the project. These things are always on the cards when the working condition of a construction site is unsafe. So what the Chief Executive Officer has decided seems to be a timely move. Zigma Real State has to rethink about their work station deigning policy. Otherwise they will face very adverse effect and they will not be able to compete with competitors like Sanken Lanka, CECB, MAGA, etc, who have a big concern about work station health and safety.

Hazards
Identify the hazards. The excavation was not well protected This is a health hazard which could lead to accidents/incidents. One accident had already occurred. Car had met with an accident as it fell into the excavation. No matter how many trenching, shoring, and backfilling jobs you have done in the past, it is important to approach each new job with the utmost care and preparation. Many on-the-job accidents related to excavation result directly from inadequate initial planning. Waiting until after the work has started to correct mistakes in shoring or sloping slows down the operation, adds to the cost, and increases the possibility of a cave-in or other excavation failure. Scaffolding was not built up to the standard Improperly installed or unsafe operation of scaffolds can prove extremely hazardous to the health of workers. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), about 4,500 injuries and 50 deaths occur in the United States each year due to scaffolding mishaps, resulting in $90 million in lost work time. Zigma Real Estate should pay their attention towards the quality of the scaffolding standard, because that affects the overall design of the work station. Normally scaffoldings occupy a considerable amount of space. Improper traffic management system You must organise a construction site so that vehicles and pedestrians using site routes can move around safely. The routes need to be suitable for the persons or vehicles using them, in suitable positions and sufficient in number and size. The term vehicles includes: cars, vans, lorries, low-loaders and mobile plant such as excavators, lift trucks and site dumpers etc. construction site vehicle incidents can and should be prevented by the effective management of transport operations throughout the construction process.
Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Hazards

No proper signage Signage in a construction is very important to minimize industrial accidents/incidents. The objectives of safety signs is as follows. To draw attention rapidly and precisely to objects and situations capable of causing specific injuries or accidents. To alert or warn personnel about workplace hazards of which they may not be aware of. To restrict access to areas that present dangerous conditions. To inform people of safety requirements. Provide general information and directions. Remind employees where PPE equipment must be worn. Show where emergency equipment or exits are located. Indicate where certain actions are prohibited. Sanitation Sanitation refers to excreta and waste water management as well as runoff water and solid and industrial waste. It is important to have a waste water management system, since improper water management can cause health hazards such as physical, chemical and biological. Laundry not regular On-premises laundry service is a must for a construction site. But in the construction site of Zigma Real Estate though there is laundry facility, it is not regular. That has been the problem for the employees. They are not ready to wear dirty clothes/uniforms. But the management wants them to wear them. By doing that management is exposing the workers to biological health hazards. Stressed employees without rest The findings, which were released by Lifeline Australia, revealed 90 per cent of us feel stressed, with the workplace being the major culprit for our furrowed brows and clenched fists. Most concerning was that for 40 per cent of people, their stress is at a level deemed to be unhealthy. Majority of the employees in Zigma Real Estate sites seem to be stressed most of the time. That is mainly due to health and safety issues. They are handling hazardous substances without adequate precautions. And there is no first aid facility if an accident/incident takes place.

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Diseases/Accidents/Incidents

Diseases/Accidents/Incidents

Identify the factors which are likely to cause occupational disease/accidents/injuries. Poor sanitation facilities Poor sanitation facilities can give rise to adverse health issues. When the sanitation is improper following things could happen. Considerable nuisance because of flies, insects (mosquitoes if pit is wet) Bad smell

These conditions can easily give rise to diseases like Diarrhea, Arsenic sis, Cholera, etc. If that happens organization will have to face great difficulties financially and socially. Accidents by equipments to properties Heavy equipment requires a huge investment, and regular maintenance on this type of machinery can save you a lot of headaches and money from costly repairs. Properly maintained heavy equipment will function efficiently, increase workers productivity and improve the working environment for everyone. Different types of heavy equipment may require specific maintenance procedures but there are basic steps that you can employ to properly care for any type of heavy equipment. But with the environment the construction sites of Zigma Real Estate has, the chance of accidents/incidents related to the construction machinery is high. Asthma & other diseases due to not wearing PPE Personal Protective Equipment provide the greatest possible protection for employees in the workplace, the cooperative efforts of both employers and employees will help in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthful work environment. But Zigma Real Estate is not spending on Personal Protective Equipment. That can lead to accidents/incidents which will lead to consequences like loss of life. Also employees will get caught to diseases like Asthma, etc. Long hour working- stress & accidents Normally the heavy vehicle drivers and machine operators are compelled to continue working 24 hours both a shift to cover up the absentees. This could lead to adverse results. Normally there is number of hours a normal person can work continuously. After exceeding these normal number of hours his/her concentration rattles. This can affect their mental condition and it will lead them to stressful condition. Due to the stress they will try to finish off more work in a small time frame. Due lack of focus they can cause accidents which would lead to severe damages to property, loss of life, etc.
Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Safety Management System and International Best Practices

No proper facilities stress condition The employees in Zigma Real Estate seem to be unhappy with the facilities they are getting form the organization. The machine operators in organizations like MAGA, CECB, are getting on-the site accommodation. But the machine operators in Zigma Real Estate dont get that. There is no first aid facility and ambulance service in Zigma Real Estate sites. If an accident/incident happens there is no way they can take injured people to hospitals by their own. They have to ask for support of external parties. But normally other construction companies provide those facilities to employees for free and they provide facilities to reimburse the medical bills. At Zigma Real Estate, employees dont have the medical bill reimbursement facility. Due to these reasons most of the workers are disappointed on the benefits/services that are provided by the company.

Safety Management System and International Best Practices


To do a safety audit and safety inspection and propose a safe system of work in terms of safety management system and international best practices. A first critical step in developing a comprehensive safety and health program is to identify physical and health hazards in the workplace. This process is known as a "hazard assessment." Potential hazards may be physical or health-related and a comprehensive hazard assessment should identify hazards in both categories. Examples of physical hazards include moving objects, fluctuating temperatures, high intensity lighting, rolling or pinching objects, electrical connections and sharp edges. Examples of health hazards include overexposure to harmful dusts, chemicals or radiation. The hazard assessment should begin with a walk-through survey of the facility to develop a list of potential hazards in the following basic hazard categories:

Impact, Penetration, Compression (roll-over), Chemical, Heat/cold, Harmful dust, Light (optical) radiation, and Biologic.

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Safety Management System and International Best Practices

In addition to noting the basic layout of the facility and reviewing any history of occupational illnesses or injuries, things to look for during the walk-through survey include: Sources of electricity. Sources of motion such as machines or processes where movement may exist that could result in an impact between personnel and equipment. Sources of high temperatures that could result in burns, eye injuries or fire. Types of chemicals used in the workplace. Sources of harmful dusts. Sources of light radiation, such as welding, brazing, cutting, furnaces, heat treating, high intensity lights, etc. The potential for falling or dropping objects. Sharp objects that could poke, cut, stab or puncture. Biologic hazards such as blood or other potentially infected material.

When the walk-through is complete, the employer should organize and analyze the data so that it may be efficiently used in determining the proper types of PPE required at the worksite. The employer should become aware of the different types of PPE available and the levels of protection offered. It is definitely a good idea to select PPE that will provide a level of protection greater than the minimum required to protect employees from hazards. The workplace should be periodically reassessed for any changes in conditions, equipment or operating procedures that could affect occupational hazards. This periodic reassessment should also include a review of injury and illness records to spot any trends or areas of concern and taking appropriate corrective action. The suitability of existing PPE, including an evaluation of its condition and age, should be included in the reassessment. Traffic management is another area Zigma Real Estate should pay their attention. When doing the traffic management they should look in to following things. Keeping pedestrians and vehicles apart Minimising vehicle movements People on site Turning vehicles Visibility Signs and instructions

When managing heavy equipment, machineries, etc Zigma Real Estate should follow following international standards. Regular inspection of any heavy equipment can alert you to potential damage to the machine or danger to the operator. Make it part of your standard operating procedure to
Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Legal Requirements

do regular inspection. Require your operators to report any sign of malfunction, to do manual and physical inspection before and after each shift. Do visual inspections in the morning to check for damage that can be fixed by minor repairs and do them immediately before using the equipment. Your toolbox should be complete and within easy reach when needed. Check oil, gas and radiator coolant levels and fill as needed. Inspect hoses and hydraulic line connectors to see if there are cracks and leaks prior to actual use. Do not use your hand to inspect and look for leaks. Use paper or cardboard instead. During down times, clean radiators and air filters of dirt, dust and debris built up to keep the motor functioning smoothly and avoid overheating. Remove caked mud, debris and rocks stuck to track rollers and top frames.

When giving a proper solution to sanitation issue Zigma Real Estate can look in to on-site sanitation method or off-site sanitation method. These two methods are the most popular sanitation methods in the world at the moment. On-site sanitation is System of sanitation where the means of storage are contained within the plot occupied by the dwelling and its immediate surroundings. It may be disposed of on site or removed manually for safe disposal. Off-site sanitation is System of sanitation where excreta are removed from the plot occupied by the dwelling and its immediate surroundings Off-site sanitation consists of an authoritys sewer network and a centralised waste water treatment and disposal plant. It can also include the manual transportation or removal of waste from onsite sanitary retention vaults.

Legal Requirements
Identify the relevant legal requirements. Zigma Real Estate will have to reassess the legal aspects of occupational health and safety in Sri Lanka. I say so, because, according to the case study they are violating a lot of laws related to occupational health and safety. In Sri Lanka there are two related legislations to occupational health and safety. They are as follows. Workmens compensation ordinance modified by Act No. 15 of 1990. Factories Ordinance No. 45 of 1946

Factories ordinance contains the provision of health, safety and welfare proactive measures. The purpose of this Ordinance is to make provisions for the safety and welfare of workers in factories. General provisions contained in the factories ordinance are as follows. General Provision Health General Provision Safety
Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Identify the relevant legal requirements.

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General Provision Welfare

There are a few clauses which Zigma Real Estate should implement to make sure they are adhering to the laws of Sri Lanka. General Provisions Health Every factory should be maintained in a clear state. Accumulate dirt and refuse should be removed daily from floors, benches, work rooms, staircases and passages by a suitable method. Floor of every work room should be cleared by washing or sweeping at least once a week. The factory should not be over crowded so as to cause risk of injury to health. Sufficient and suitable sanitary conveniences should be provided for employees. Separate sanitary conveniences for males/females are required to be provided. one for 25 people

General Provision Safety Every fly wheel or moving part of any prime mover or transmission machinery should be securely fenced. Every hoist or lift should be of good mechanical construction and should be examined by a competent person at least once a year. Provision should be made for escape in case of fire. And fire fighting appliances should be installed and properly maintained. All floors, steps, stairs, passage ways and gangways should be of sound construction and properly maintained.

General Provision Welfare All person employed should be provided adequate supply of suitable drinking water. Adequate and suitable washing facilities should be provided. Adequate and suitable accommodation should be provided for clothing not worn during working hours. First aid cupboard or box should be provided at a reasonably accessible place. Suitable and sufficient facilities for resting should be provided for female workers whose work is done standing.

The above clauses should be strictly followed by Zigma Real Estate. At the moment they are not following any of these.

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Improvements

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Improvements
Identify the improvements to the external and internal environment. According to the case study the labour turn over and absenteeism are at unprecedented rate in the construction sites of Zigma Real Estate. The morale of the employees is at low ebb. The top management fears that any trade union action in the site will have an impact on the progress of the building construction and it may lead to penalties and contractor has to pay a huge amount to the client for the delay of the project. Above mentioned things have not occurred immediately. Those things have occurred as a result of chain of incidents. Firstly the management had not thought about the internal and external working environment. They have paid their attention only towards earning profits. That affected adversely to the employees. They didnt receive any benefits/ services they wanted and anticipated form the management. These things have given rise to the present situation. To avoid these things happening the management of Zigma Real Estate should do following internal an external improvements. Internal improvements Transport & accommodation allowances should be paid Most of the competitors are doing this Proper signing way This will create a safe working environment for every one. Employees go through workshops This will make sure every employee will be updated. Implementing 5S consignment This will create safe working environment Leisure games This will release the stress of the employees Clean working area This will prevent diseases Staff meeting once a month This will give the employees a chance to express their ideas to top management. Breakfast should be provided This will create a better image about the employer, in employees Laundry facilities This will prevent diseases.

External improvements Training for machine operators This will minimize the chances of accidents/incidents Proper checking of machines once a week This will prevent breakdowns, accidents and incidents Proper management system Management support for health and safety procedure wil motivate employees, since they will sense of safety.
Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Present Benefits and Service Package

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Sound pollution evaluation This will prevent sound pollution. Night shift should be maintaining in proper way & without sound This will prevent employees getting over stressed.

If the management of Zigma Real Estate would not pay their attention toward these improvements, they will not stop the downfall of the organization. No one is like to work in an unsafe working environment, because everyone values their health wellbeing more than anything else.

Present Benefits and Service Package


Assess the present benefits and service package. For an organization like Zigma Real Estate having a strong employee benefits and welfare scheme is a must. I say so, because, construction is a very competitive field and industry. There are a lot of organizations in the construction industry in Sri Lanka. So to retain the workforce employers have to go that extra mile when it comes to employee benefits and welfare. But the sad thing is Zigma Real Estate doesnt have a proper employee benefits and welfare scheme. Normally welfare of employees consists of Physical, Mental, Morale and Emotional well being factors. I say so, because, employees are expecting that the employer will make sure they have the Economic wellbeing, Psychological wellbeing and Physical wellbeing. Benefits are those for which monetary value can be ascertained. And services are those for which direct monetary value cannot readily establish. When considering about the present benefits and service package of the employees of Zigma Real Estate, there is not much to speak about. The benefits and services they receive are as follows. A uniform is provided There is a separate locker for every employee. But it is far away from work station. A laundry service is there. Sanitation facilities are provided. But standard is low. They are paid overtime. They are paid a shift allowance. Subsidized food is provided to the employees (Packets are brought from outside).

As you can see though they have initiated a few schemes, they dont have the power to make the employees happy. That is why the labour turnover and the absenteeism are high in Zigma Real Estate. So definitely they will have to revise this scheme with the help of an expert.

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Suitable Benefits and Services Package for the Organization

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Suitable Benefits and Services Package for the Organization


Plan out a suitable benefits and services package for the organization. It seems that the top management of Zigma Real Estate has ignored the employee welfare. I say, because, it is clearly mentioned in the case study that The employer is not spending on personal protective equipment. This is a clear indication to show that the top management of Zigma Real Estate is not worried about the employee welfare. But it seems to be the high time to introduce a suitable benefits and service package which will reduce the employee turnover and absenteeism. By doing that they will be able to retain talented and competent workers. Also they will be benefited from the financial cost, organizational profile and the legal case. The community will have a good image about Zigma Real Estate in future if they could introduce a suitable benefits and services plan. They will have to consider about the benefits listed below. Legally required benefits i) Health and Safety (Factory Ordinance) ii) Workmens compensation iii) Terminal Benefits Contingent or deferred benefits i) Pension ii) Insurance iii) Severance pay Payment for time not worked i) Vacation ii) Holiday iii) Sick leave Personal service benefits i) Credit facilities ii) Loans iii) Counseling iv) Social and recreation facilities v) Study Programmes and trainings Other benefits i) Travel allowance ii) Subside, allowances, discounts

Also they can introduce financial benefits related to construction industry, considering the schemes of their competitors. The financial incentives they can introduce are as follows.

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

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Scanlon plan gain sharing. Employee stock ownership plan. Profit sharing scheme.

Also they can introduce services, which will motivate the employees and make sure that they will stay with the organization. The services they can introduce are as follows. Canteen facility Medical reimbursement scheme Transport Advances and loans Holiday facility

To show that the organization is grateful to the employees, they can introduce a superannuation benefit scheme also. When doing this the top management should seek for expert help, because the scheme should be a one which can be bared by the organization. Also the top management should pay their attention to free the human resource manager from health and safety duties. They should pay their attention to take a health and safety engineer to the site.

-The End-

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management

Reference

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Reference
Human Resource Management by Snell, Bohlander and Vohra Employee Benefits/Welfare Schemes and Superannuation Benefits by Mr. Haleemdeen Adambawa. Ergonomis by Dr. Wajira M. Palipana Occupational Health by Dr. Wajira M. Palipana Health and Safety at Work by Mr. Athula Amarasena Importance of Personal Protective Equipment,http://futureenv.blogspot.com/2010/11/importance-of-personal-protective.html

Shan Anjana Jayasinghe PQHRM Institute of Personnel Management