f
1
,
f
2
, ,
f
m
}
that of W. We now dene n + m basis vectors {e
1
, , e
n
,
f
1
, ,
f
m
}. The
vector space spanned by these basis vectors is V W, and is called the direct
sum of V and W.
1
2.2 Vectors
Any vector v V can be written as a linear combination of the basis vectors,
v = v
1
e
1
+ v
2
e
2
+ + v
n
e
n
. We normally express this fact in the form of a
column vector,
v =
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
v
2
.
.
.
v
n
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
_
_
n. (1)
Here, it is emphasized that this is an element of the vector space V , and the
column vector has n components. In particular, the basis vectors themselves
can be written as,
e
1
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
.
.
.
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
, e
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
.
.
.
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
, , e
n
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
.
.
.
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
. (2)
If the basis system is orthonormal, i.e., e
i
e
j
=
ij
, then v
i
= e
i
v. Similarly
for any vector w, we can write
w =
_
_
_
_
_
_
w
1
w
2
.
.
.
w
n
_
_
_
_
_
_
W
_
_
m. (3)
The basis vectors are
f
1
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
.
.
.
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
W
,
f
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
.
.
.
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
W
, ,
f
m
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
.
.
.
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
W
. (4)
The vectors are naturally elements of the direct sum, just by lling zeros
2
to the unused entries,
v =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
.
.
.
v
n
0
.
.
.
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
n + m, w =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
.
.
.
0
w
1
.
.
.
w
m
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
n + m. (5)
One can also dene a direct sum of two nonzero vectors,
v w =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
.
.
.
v
n
w
1
.
.
.
w
m
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
v
w
__
n + m, (6)
where the last expression is used to save space and it is understood that v
and w are each column vector.
2.3 Matrices
A matrix is mathematically a linear map from a vector space to another
vector space. Here, we specialize to the maps from a vector space to the
same one because of our interest in applications to quantum mechanics, A :
V V , e.g.,
v Av, (7)
or
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
v
2
.
.
.
v
n
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
a
12
a
1n
a
22
a
22
a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
a
nn
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
v
2
.
.
.
v
n
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
. (8)
Similarly, B : W W, and B : w B w.
On the direct sum space, the same matrices can still act on the vectors,
so that v Av, and w B w. This matrix is written as A B. This can
3
be achieved by lining up all matrix elements in a blockdiagonal form,
A B =
_
A 0
nm
0
mn
B
_
. (9)
For instance, if n = 2 and m = 3, and
A =
_
a
11
a
12
a
21
a
22
_
V
, B =
_
_
_
b
11
b
12
b
13
b
21
b
22
b
23
b
31
b
32
b
33
_
_
_
W
, (10)
where it is emphasized that A and B act on dierent spaces. Their direct
sum is
A B =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
a
12
0 0 0
a
21
a
22
0 0 0
0 0 b
11
b
12
b
13
0 0 b
21
b
22
b
23
0 0 b
31
b
32
b
33
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (11)
The reason why the blockdiagonal form is appropriate is clear once you
act it on v w,
(AB)(v w) =
_
A 0
nm
0
mn
B
__
v
w
_
=
_
Av
B w
_
= (Av)(B w). (12)
If you have two matrices, their multiplications are done on each vector
space separately,
(A
1
B
1
)(A
2
B
2
) = (A
1
A
2
) (B
1
B
2
). (13)
Note that not every matrix on V W can be written as a direct sum of a
matrix on V and another on W. There are (n+m)
2
independent matrices on
V W, while there are only n
2
and m
2
matrices on V and W, respectively.
Remaining (n+m)
2
n
2
m
2
= 2nm matrices cannot be written as a direct
sum.
Other useful formulae are
det(A B) = (detA)(detB), (14)
Tr(A B) = (TrA) + (TrB). (15)
4
3 Tensor Product
The word tensor product refers to another way of constructing a big vector
space out of two (or more) smaller vector spaces. You can see that the spirit
of the word tensor is there. It is also called Kronecker product or direct
product.
3.1 Space
You start with two vector spaces, V that is ndimensional, and W that
is mdimensional. The tensor product of these two vector spaces is nm
dimensional. Here is how it works.
Let {e
1
, e
2
, , e
n
} be the basis system of V , and similarly {
f
1
,
f
2
, ,
f
m
}
that of W. We now dene nm basis vectors e
i
f
j
, where i = 1, , n and
j = 1, , m. Never mind what means at this moment. We will be more
explicit later. Just regard it a symbol that denes a new set of basis vectors.
This is why the word tensor is used for this: the basis vectors have two
indices.
3.2 Vectors
We use the same notation for the column vectors as in Section 2.2.
The tensor product is bilinear, namely linear in V and also linear in W.
(If there are more than two vector spaces, it is multilinear.) What it implies
is that v w = (
n
i
v
i
e
i
) (
m
j
w
j
f
j
) =
n
i
m
j
v
i
w
j
(e
i
f
j
). In other
words, it is a vector in V W, spanned by the basis vectors e
i
f
j
, and the
coecients are given by v
i
w
j
for each basis vector.
One way to make it very explicit is to literally write it out. For example,
let us take n = 2 and m = 3. The tensor product space is nm = 6 dimen
sional. The new basis vectors are e
1
f
1
, e
1
f
2
, e
1
f
3
, e
2
f
1
, e
2
f
2
,
and e
2
f
3
. Let us write them as a sixcomponent column vector,
e
1
f
1
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, e
1
f
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
0
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, e
1
f
3
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
1
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
,
5
e
2
f
1
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
1
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, e
2
f
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
0
1
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, e
2
f
3
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
0
0
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (16)
Here, I drew a horizontal lines to separate two sets of basis vectors, the rst
set that is made of e
1
, and the second made of e
2
. For general vectors v and
w, the tensor product is
v w =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
w
1
v
1
w
2
v
1
w
3
v
2
w
1
v
2
w
2
v
2
w
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (17)
3.3 Matrices
A matrix is mathematically a linear map from a vector space to another
vector space. Here, we specialize to the maps from a vector space to the
same one because of our interest in applications to quantum mechanics, A :
V V , e.g.,
v Av, (18)
or
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
v
2
.
.
.
v
n
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
a
12
a
1n
a
22
a
22
a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
a
nn
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
v
2
.
.
.
v
n
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
. (19)
On the tensor product space, the same matrix can still act on the vectors,
so that v Av, but w w untouched. This matrix is written as A I,
where I is the identity matrix. In the previous example of n = 2 and m = 3,
6
the matrix A is twobytwo, while A I is sixbysix,
A I =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
0 0 a
12
0 0
0 a
11
0 0 a
12
0
0 0 a
11
0 0 a
12
a
21
0 0 a
22
0 0
0 a
21
0 0 a
22
0
0 0 a
21
0 0 a
22
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (20)
The reason why this expression is appropriate is clear once you act it on
v w,
(A I)(v w) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
0 0 a
12
0 0
0 a
11
0 0 a
12
0
0 0 a
11
0 0 a
12
a
21
0 0 a
22
0 0
0 a
21
0 0 a
22
0
0 0 a
21
0 0 a
22
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
w
1
v
1
w
2
v
1
w
3
v
2
w
1
v
2
w
2
v
2
w
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(a
11
v
1
+ a
12
v
2
)w
1
(a
11
v
1
+ a
12
v
2
)w
2
(a
11
v
1
+ a
12
v
2
)w
3
(a
21
v
1
+ a
22
v
2
)w
1
(a
21
v
1
+ a
22
v
2
)w
2
(a
21
v
1
+ a
22
v
2
)w
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
= (Av) w. (21)
Clearly the matrix A acts only on v V and leaves w W untouched.
Similarly, the matrix B : W W maps w B w. It can also act on
V W as I B, where
I B =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
11
b
12
b
13
0 0 0
b
21
b
22
b
23
0 0 0
b
31
b
32
b
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 b
11
b
12
b
13
0 0 0 b
21
b
22
b
23
0 0 0 b
31
b
32
b
33
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (22)
7
It acts on v w as
(I B)(v w) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
11
b
12
b
13
0 0 0
b
21
b
22
b
23
0 0 0
b
31
b
32
b
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 b
11
b
12
b
13
0 0 0 b
21
b
22
b
23
0 0 0 b
31
b
32
b
33
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
w
1
v
1
w
2
v
1
w
3
v
2
w
1
v
2
w
2
v
2
w
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
v
1
(b
11
w
1
+ b
12
w
2
+ b
13
w
3
)
v
1
(b
21
w
1
+ b
22
w
2
+ b
23
w
3
)
v
1
(b
31
w
1
+ b
32
w
2
+ b
33
w
3
)
v
2
(b
11
w
1
+ b
12
w
2
+ b
13
w
3
)
v
2
(b
21
w
1
+ b
22
w
2
+ b
23
w
3
)
v
2
(b
31
w
1
+ b
32
w
2
+ b
33
w
3
)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
= v (B w). (23)
In general, (AI)(v w) = (Av) w, and (I B)(v w) = v (B w).
If you have two matrices, their multiplications are done on each vector
space separately,
(A
1
I)(A
2
I) = (A
1
A
2
) I,
(I B
1
)(I B
2
) = I (B
1
B
2
),
(A I)(I B) = (I B)(A I) = (A B). (24)
The last expression allows us to write out A B explicitly,
A B =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
b
11
a
11
b
12
a
11
b
13
a
12
b
11
a
12
b
12
a
12
b
13
a
11
b
21
a
11
b
22
a
11
b
23
a
12
b
21
a
12
b
22
a
12
b
23
a
11
b
31
a
11
b
32
a
11
b
33
a
12
b
31
a
12
b
32
a
12
b
33
a
21
b
11
a
21
b
12
a
21
b
13
a
22
b
11
a
22
b
12
a
22
b
13
a
21
b
21
a
21
b
22
a
21
b
23
a
22
b
21
a
22
b
22
a
22
b
23
a
21
b
31
a
21
b
32
a
21
b
33
a
22
b
31
a
22
b
32
a
22
b
33
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (25)
It is easy to verify that (A B)(v w) = (Av) (B w).
Note that not every matrix on V W can be written as a tensor product
of a matrix on V and another on W.
Other useful formulae are
det(A B) = (detA)
m
(detB)
n
, (26)
Tr(A B) = (TrA)(TrB). (27)
8
In Mathematica, you can dene the tensor product of two square matrices
by
Needs["LinearAlgebraMatrixManipulation"];
KroneckerProduct[a_?SquareMatrixQ, b_?SquareMatrixQ] :=
BlockMatrix[Outer[Times, a, b]]
and then
KroneckerProduct[A,B]
3.4 Tensor Product in Quantum Mechanics
In quantum mechanics, we associate a Hilbert space for each dynamical de
gree of freedom. For example, a free particle in three dimensions has three
dynamical degrees of freedom, p
x
, p
y
, and p
z
. Note that we can specify only
p
x
or x, but not both, and hence each dimension gives only one degree of
freedom, unlike in classical mechanics where you have two. Therefore, mo
mentum eigenkets P
x
p
x
= p
x
p
x
from a basis system for the Hilbert space
H
x
, etc.
The eigenstate of the full Hamiltonian is obtained by the tensor product
of momentum eigenstates in each direction,
p
x
, p
y
, p
z
= p
x
p
y
p
z
. (28)
We normally dont bother writing it this way, but it is nothing but a tensor
product.
The operator P
x
is then P
x
I I, and acts as
(P
x
II)(p
x
p
y
p
z
) = (P
x
p
x
)(Ip
y
)(Ip
z
) = p
x
p
x
p
y
p
z
(29)
and similarly for P
y
and P
z
.
The Hamiltonian is actually
H =
1
2m
_
(P
x
I I)
2
+ (I P
y
I)
2
+ (I I P
z
)
2
_
. (30)
Clearly we dont want to write the tensor products explicitly each time!
9
3.5 Addition of Angular Momenta
Using the example of n = 2 and m = 3, one can discuss the addition of
s = 1/2 and l = 1. V is twodimensional, representing the spin 1/2, while
W is threedimensional, representing the orbital angular momentum one. As
usual, the basis vectors are

1
2
,
1
2
=
_
1
0
_
, 
1
2
,
1
2
=
_
0
1
_
, (31)
for s = 1/2, and
1, 1 =
_
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
_, 1, 0 =
_
_
_
0
1
0
_
_
_, 1, 1 =
_
_
_
0
0
1
_
_
_, (32)
for l = 1. The matrix representations of the angular momentum operators
are
S
+
= h
_
0 1
0 0
_
, S
= h
_
0 0
1 0
_
, S
z
=
h
2
_
1 0
0 1
_
, (33)
while
L
+
= h
_
_
_
0
2 0
0 0
2
0 0 0
_
_
_, L
= h
_
_
_
0 0 0
2 0 0
0
2 0
_
_
_, L
z
= h
_
_
_
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
_
_
_.
(34)
On the tensor product space V W, they become
S
+
I = h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, I L
+
= h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
2 0 0 0 0
0 0
2 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
2 0
0 0 0 0 0
2
0 0 0 0 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
,
S
I = h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, I L
= h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 0
0
2 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
2 0 0
0 0 0 0
2 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
,
10
S
z
I =
h
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, I L
z
= h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
(35)
The addition of angular momenta is done simply by adding these matrices,
J
,z
= S
,z
I + I L
,z
,
J
+
= h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
2 0 1 0 0
0 0
2 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
2 0
0 0 0 0 0
2
0 0 0 0 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
,
J
= h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 0
0
2 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0
2 0 0
0 0 1 0
2 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
,
J
z
= h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
2
0 0 0 0 0
0
1
2
0 0 0 0
0 0
1
2
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
3
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (36)
It is clear that

3
2
,
3
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, 
3
2
,
3
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
0
0
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (37)
11
They satisfy J
+

3
2
,
3
2
= J

3
2
,
3
2
= 0. By using the general formula
J
j, m =
_
j(j + 1) m(m1)j, m1, we nd
J

3
2
,
3
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
2
0
1
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
3
3
2
,
1
2
, J
+

3
2
,
3
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
1
0
2
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
3
3
2
,
1
2
.
(38)
We normally write them without using column vectors,
J

3
2
,
3
2
= J

1
2
,
1
2
1, 1
= 
1
2
,
1
2
1, 1 +
2
1
2
,
1
2
1, 0 =
3
3
2
,
1
2
, (39)
J
+

3
2
,
3
2
= J
+

1
2
,
1
2
1, 1
= 
1
2
,
1
2
1, 1 +
2
1
2
,
1
2
1, 0 =
3
3
2
,
1
2
. (40)
Their orthogonal linear combinations belong to the j = 1/2 representation,

1
2
,
1
2
=
1
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
0
2
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, 
1
2
,
1
2
=
1
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
2
0
1
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (41)
It is easy to verify J
+

1
2
,
1
2
= J

1
2
,
1
2
= 0, and J

1
2
,
1
2
= 
1
2
,
1
2
.
Now we can go to a new basis system by a unitary rotation
U =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0 0 0
0
_
2
3
0
1
3
0 0
0 0
1
3
0
_
2
3
0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0
1
3
0
_
2
3
0 0
0 0
_
2
3
0
1
3
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (42)
12
This matrix puts transpose of vectors in successive rows so that the vectors
of denite j and m are mapped to simply each component of the vector,
U
3
2
,
3
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, U
3
2
,
1
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
0
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, U
3
2
,
1
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
1
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, U
3
2
,
3
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
1
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
,
U
1
2
,
1
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
0
1
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, U
3
2
,
3
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
0
0
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (43)
For the generators, we nd
UJ
z
U
= h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
2
0 0 0 0 0
0
1
2
0 0 0 0
0 0
1
2
0 0 0
0 0 0
3
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, (44)
UJ
+
U
= h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 2 0 0 0
0 0 0
3 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, (45)
UJ
= h
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 0 0 0
0 0
3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (46)
Here, the matrices are written in a blockdiagonal form. What we see here
is that this space is actually a direct sum of two representations j = 3/2 and
13
j = 1/2. In other words,
V
1/2
V
1
= V
3/2
V
1/2
. (47)
This is what we do with ClebschGordan coecients. Namely that the
ClebschGordan coecients dene a unitary transformation that allow us
to decompose the tensor product space into a direct sum of irreducible rep
resentations of the angular momentum. As a mnemonic, we often write it
as
2 3 = 4 2. (48)
Here, the numbers refer to the dimensionality of each representation 2j + 1.
If I replace by and by +, my eightyear old daughter can conrm that
this equation is true. The added meaning here is that the righthand side
shows a specic way how the tensor product space decomposes to a direct
sum.
14