You are on page 1of 18

!

! ! ! ! ! ! !

415%'66'7$-.'%#&'% $"'%*+,$-.-$#*-/)%81+%$#2'3%

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!"#$%#&'%$"'%(')$%% *+,$-.-$#*-/%(&#/0)%% 1/%$"'%*#&2'$3% %

"##$!%&'(')*!

The Multivitamin Guide

Vitamin supplements are becoming increasingly popular.


According to a recent national health survey, as many as 78 million Americans use multivitamins on a regular basis.

But are you getting what youre paying for?


A study conducted at Yale New Haven Hospital tested 257 vitamin products. Only 49 were judged as having adequate ratios of nutrients.

Find out which multivitamin products really work.

Contents:
What is the source of this information? .................................................................................. 2 How is the comparison made? .................................................................................................... 2 What are the optimal doses for each vitamin and mineral? .............................................. 3 What are the findings of the comparison?.............................................................................. 3 What is the score of the multivitamins you are taking? ..................................................... 4 Price and availability of top nutritional supplements .......................................................... 5 How do the commonly-available vitamin brands compare? .............................................. 6 Appendix A: Full list of multivitamin products and their scores ....................................... 7 Appendix B: Definition of the 14 comparison criteria........................................................13 Appendix C: Why take vitamin supplements? ......................................................................15 Appendix D: Do medical authorities recommend vitamin supplements?......................16

-1-

The Multivitamin Guide

What is the source of this information?


The information in this document comes from the thirdedition of the Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements (ISBN: 0973253800) written by Lyle MacWilliam, BSc, MSc, FP. This is the most comprehensive, science-based comparison of multivitamin products published to date. Please note that this document provides only a high level summary of the findings of the guide. For more in-depth information, it is recommended you purchase a copy of the guide from www.amazon.com. The author of the Comparative This guide provides the most Guide to Nutritional Supplements, comprehensive comparison of vitamin supplements available Lyle MacWilliam, is a respected on the market in North America biochemist and a former member of Canadian Parliament. He was commissioned by the Canadian Minister of Health to develop a new regulatory framework to ensure people have access to safe, effective, high quality nutritional products. This guide is the culmination of over six years of research and analysis in this area. In this comparative study, Mr. MacWilliam identified over 1000 multivitamin formulas, which were available on the market in the United States and Canada. He then short-listed 510 of these products for further analysis and comparison.
Lyle MacWilliam,
BSc, MSc, FP

How is the comparison made?


Fourteen criteria were used to compare the short-listed 510 multivitamin products. The development of each criterion was based on scientific evidence available in the latest published medical literature. The 14 comparison criteria are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Completeness Potency Bioavailability Bioactivity of Vitamin E Cardiac Health Triad Homocysteine Reduction Triad Bone Health Complex 8. Antioxidant Triad 9. Glutathione Support 10. Metabolic Support 11. Bioflavonoid Profile 12. Phenolic Compound Profile 13. Lipotropic Factors 14. Potential Toxicities

For an in-depth explanation of each of the 14 comparison criteria please refer to Appendix B. From these 14 criteria, a Product Score, based on a percentage ranking, is calculated. A score approaching 100% represents a product that possesses those characteristics for optimal nutrition. Conversely, a low percent score represents a product possessing few, if any, of the characteristics for optimal nutrition.

-2-

The Multivitamin Guide

What are the optimal doses for each vitamin and mineral?
The Blended Standard represents the optimal quantities of vitamins and minerals individuals should be taking every day according to the latest research in the area of nutritional supplementation. This Standard includes the 39 essential ingredients, listed in the table below alongside with their recommended daily dose:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Vitamin A Vitamin D3 Vitamin K* Biotin Folic Acid Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 complex Vitamin B5 VitaminB6 Vitamin B12 beta-Carotene Coenzyme Q10 Lipoic Acid Para-Aminobenzoic Acid Vitamin C Vitamin E Bioflavonoids (mixed) Phenolic compounds Procyanidolic Oligomers 7500 IU 350 IU 180 ug 200 ug 400 ug 50 mg 43 mg 75 mg 75 mg 63 mg 300 ug 12,500 IU 45 mg 35 mg 35 mg 2,000 mg 500 IU 555 mg 25 mg 75 mg 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 n-Acetyl-l-Cysteine l-Carnitine Choline Inositol Lecithin Boron* Calcium Chromium Copper Iodine Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Potassium Selenium Silicon Vanadium Zinc 56 mg 750 mg 59 mg 125 mg 350 mg 3 mg 800 mg 275 ug 2 mg 100 ug 23 mg 450 mg 7 mg 63 ug 300 mg 150 ug 8 mg 75 ug 23 mg

* Not availab le in Canadian products

What are the findings of the comparison?


After Mr. MacWilliam assessed all 510 products he assigned each of them a score from 1% to 100%, 100% being the highest. The author believed that a score of 80% and above was commendable. Surprisingly only 8 out of the 510 products were able to surpass this benchmark. The products that scored above 80% are listed in the table below:
Company USANA Health Sciences Douglas Laboratories Vitamin Research Products Source Naturals Source Naturals USANA Health Sciences FreeLife Life Extension Foundation Product Essentials (U.S.) Ultra Preventive X Extended Plus Life Force Multiple Elan VitaI Essentials (Canadian) Basic Mindell Plus Life Extension Mix Score Rank 96.1% 1 95.4% 2 93.1% 3 92.8% 4 91.8% 5 90.2% 6 82.3% 7 81.4% 8

The top four manufacturers listed above - USANA Health Sciences, Douglas Laboratories, Vitamin Research Products, and Source Naturals are considered to set the standard for nutritional supplement quality, potency and bioavailability.

-3-

The Multivitamin Guide

What is the score of the multivitamins you are taking?


In order to find the Product Score of the multivitamin product you are taking please refer to Appendix A where all 510 evaluated products are listed in alphabetic order alongside with their Product Score. The table below provides a summary of the Product Scores of some of the more popular vitamin brands available on the market.
Com pany
Atkins Bronson Laboratories Centrum DaVinci Laboratories Dr. Julian W hitaker's Equate GNC Herbalife Jamieson Kirkland Signature (Costco) Lifestyles Mannatech Melaleuca Metagenics Nature Made Nikken NOW Foods Nutrilite (Amway, Quixtar) One A Day Puritan's Pride Purity Products Safeway Select Sundown Rite Aid Shaklee Solgar SupraLife Thompson TwinLab USANA Health Sciences Vitamin Power Vitamin W orld W algreens YourLife

Product
Basic #3 Performance Edge for W omen Forte Spectra W oman Forward Multi-Nutrient Complete Mega Men's Formula 2 Mega-Vim Level 4 Potency Daily Multivitamin Lifecycles for W omen Glycentials Vitality Pak (Mel-VIta, Mela-Cal) Multigenics Intensive Care Formula Essential Mega Bio-Directed Multi-Vltamin/Mineral Vit-Min Caps High Potency Multiple Double X Active Time Release Mega Vita-Min Perfect Multi Focus Formula Super W omen's Multivitamin Complete Ultra W hole Source Basics with Iron Omnium Maxum Essentials Human Nature Green Multi Daily One without Iron Essentials Power Source 100 Mega Vita Min for W omen Ultra Choice Premium W omen Super Multi with Herbs

Score Rank
46.1% 43.8% 4.7% 66.8% 74.7% 4.9% 21.1% 14.8% 9.0% 5.2% 14.5% 33.1% 6.2% 51.0% 17.9% 11.1% 26.2% 30.0% 5.1% 15.3% 68.9% 28.2% 8.1% 6.2% 30.5% 56.5% 48.9% 29.3% 26.4% 96.1% 26.9% 19.4% 22.1% 7.5% 104 120 442 17 13 430 255 319 376 416 323 181 402 82 292 353 221 201 419 311 16 209 382 403 200 62 91 203 218 1 215 272 247 391

Given that the benchmark for product excellence is 80%, we can conclude that the great majority of multivitamin products on the market do not provide adequate protection against diseases, such as cancer, arthrosclerosis, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis. Using a multivitamin product with a score of 80% or above is strongly advised.

-4-

The Multivitamin Guide

Price and availability of top nutritional supplements


Nutritional supplements with a product score of 80% and above are typically several times more expensive than low-end multivitamins that can be found in grocery stores. The table below provides a cost comparison of the top-ranked nutritional supplements. The table lists the price of each product, the number of tablets in a single package, as well as, the recommended daily dose. These numbers are then used to calculate the products Cost-Per-Day. Product Cost of Top Multivitamin Brands
Company USANA Health Sciences Douglas Laboratories Vitamin Research Products Source Naturals Source Naturals FreeLife Life Extension Foundation Product Essentials (U.S.) Ultra Preventive X Extended Plus Life Force Multiple Elan VitaI Basic Mindell Plus Life Extension Mix Price $39.95 $57.10 $48.95 $37.98 $66.50 $69.95 $69.75 Contents 224 tablets 240 tablets 360 capsules 180 capsules 180 tablets 60 packets 315 tablets Daily Dose 8 8 12 8 6 2 9 Cost/Day $1.43 $1.90 $1.63 $1.69 $2.22 $2.33 $1.99 Availability Online Online Online Online Online Online Online

The diagram below takes the Cost-Per-Day numbers from the table and provides a visual comparison of the cost for the top multivitamin brands. Cost-Per-Day Comparison
USANA Health Sciences Douglas Laboratories Vitamin Research Products Source Naturals (Life Force) Source Naturals (Elan Vital) FreeLife Life Extension Foundation
$1.00 $1.50 $2.00

High-end multivitamin products are generally not available through traditional retail outlets, such as supermarkets and health stores. The main reason for that is their higher production cost, which comes as a result of the R&D and the superior quality of the raw materials used in the preparation of the product. Because of the higher production costs, most high-end supplement manufacturers have chosen to sell their products over the Internet directly to consumers. In that way they are able to avoid the markups charged by distributors/retailers and offer their premium products at a lower retail price than would otherwise be possible. In other words, buying direct from the manufacturer saves you money.

-5-

The Multivitamin Guide

How do the commonly-available vitamin brands compare?


The most widespread multivitamin brands are Centrum, GNC, One-A-Day, and Equate. The main reasons behind the popularity of these brands are their low cost and their widespread availability through a variety of retail outlets. Unfortunately none of the above products is very effective from a medical point of view. Centrum, One-A-Day and Equate multivitamins have Product Scores of 4.7%, 5.1%, and 4.9% respectively, while GNC multivitamins (which retail at a slightly higher price) have a Product Score of 21%. The diagram below provides a visual depiction of the Price versus Effectiveness relationship of the most popular multivitamin brands, relative to the top three nutritional supplements. Price vs. Effectiveness Comparison
High

USANA Vitamin Research

Product Effectiveness

Douglas Labs

Amway Equate GNC

One-A-Day Centrum
Low

Low

Product Price

High

If you would like more information on the top three multivitamin products, visit the manufacturers websites by clicking on the links below:
!

USANA Health Sciences Essentials http://www.usana-health.com/en/essentials.htm Douglas Labs Ultra Preventive X http://www.douglaslabs.com/pdf/pds/45410.pdf Vitamin Research Products Extended Plus http://www.vrp.com/ProductPage.aspx?ProdID=3226 ***
-6-

The Multivitamin Guide

Appendix A: Full list of multivitamin products and their scores (sorted by company name)
Company
21st Ce ntury 21st Ce ntury 21st Ce ntury 21st Ce ntury 4Life 4Life 4Life 4Life Absolute Nutrition Action Labs Action Labs Action Labs Adrien Gagnon (Sa nte Naturelle ) Advanced Physicia n's Products Advanced Physicia n's Products Advanced Physicia n's Products Advanced Physicia n's Products Advocare Albi Imports Albi Imports Alive Vitamins All One Pow de r Allergy Re search Group Allergy Re search Group Allergy Re search Group Alpha Nutrition American Longevity amni amni amni amni amni amni amni amni Andre w Le ssman's Andre w Le ssman's Apex Fitne ss Group Atkins Atkins Atkins Avon Avon Avon Ba sic Nutrition Bio Actif Inc. Bluebonne t Body W ise Inte rnationa l Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Ca rlson Ce ll Te ch Ce ll Te ch Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Club Vitamin Colgan Institute Comprehe nsive Formula Comprehe nsive Formula Coope r Coope r Country Life Country Life Country Life Country Life Country Life Country Life Creative Nutrition Cana da Creative Nutrition Cana da Cypress (Star 2000) Da Vinci La bora torie s

Product
Advanced 21 w ith Lutein One Daily Maximum One Daily Men's Therapeutic-M W ith Lute in BioVita Mins Type II BioVita mins Type III BioVlta Mins Type I MultiPlex Stress Formula Dieters' Multi's Action-Tabs Ma de for Me n Action-Tabs Ma de for W ome n Essential Nutrie nts Multi-Vltamines et Mineraux Complete MultiVltamin/Mine ral w ith Iron Complete MultiVltamin/Mine ral w ithout Iron Ma ximum MultiVita min/Mine ral w ithout Iron Ma ximum Pote ncy MultiVita min/Mine ral w ith Iron Gold Rocky Mountain Multiple Super One a Da y Super One Plus Multiple Vitamins a nd Minerals EDP Basic Multi-Vi-Min Multi-Vi-Min w ithout Copper and Iron Alpha ENF Ultima te Da ily Added Protection III Ba sic Preventive 1 Ba sic Preventive 2 Ba sic Preventive 3 Ba sic Preventive 4 Ba sic Preventive 5 Ba sic Preventive w ith Ex tra D Essential Basics Ma ximum Complete for Men Ma ximum Complete for W omen Profile 5 Ba sic #1 Ba sic #3 Immune VitAdvance Me n's Complete Multivita min VitAdvance W omen's Complete I Bala nce d Multi VitAdvance W omen's Complete II Balance d Multi Multiple Vitamins & Minerals Phytobec #1 Super Earth Formula Right Choice AM/PM Advanced Mature Gold Fortifie d Vitamin & Mine ral Insurance Formula Ma ture Formula Me n's Complete Formula w ith 7-Keto Pe rformance Edge for Men Pe rformance Edge for W ome n Multi-Gel Alpha Sun Omega Sun Ce ntrum Forte Pe rformance Protegra Se lect Se lect Che w ables Se lect Che w ables for Adults ove r 50 Se lect for Adults over 50 Silver Be st Formula MCS Me n's W ome n's Complete Complete w ith Iron Adult's Multi Da ily Vege taria n Support Hi Pote ncy Action 75 Ma x for Me n Ma xine Ve giCa ps PLUS Formula PRIME Formula MultiVltamin w ith Minerals Da ily Best

Country
US US US US US US US US US US US US CA US US US US US CA CA CA US US US US CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA US CA/US US US US US US US US US US US CA/US US CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA/US CA US US

Score !
4.9% 5.3% 7.3% 4.6% 33.2% 44.0% 21.6% 5.9% 26.4% 1.3% 0.0% 4.4% 9.9% 49.1% 49.1% 57.2% 57.4% 35.7% 34.3% 10.9% 20.9% 49.9% 18.3% 16.6% 18.7% 21.9% 60.7% 69.1% 60.2% 59.6% 60.2% 59.6% 59.9% 60.0% 51.5% 30.8% 31.2% 16.8% 38.2% 46.1% 14.6% 10.9% 10.5% 10.5% 4.4% 15.1% 54.0% 52.2% 18.0% 33.2% 8.6% 21.5% 43.6% 43.8% 45.7% 0.3% 0.3% 3.2% 4.7% 5.2% 7.2% 4.6% 4.0% 4.7% 5.0% 4.7% 3.6% 63.3% 14.0% 11.8% 45.8% 38.0% 9.8% 44.5% 24.0% 32.8% 43.1% 19.2% 54.8% 52.4% 14.1% 21.9%

Rank "
429 413 394 453 178 119 251 406 216 495 502 460 367 89 90 53 52 168 174 355 260 87 286 297 278 248 39 15 41 46 42 47 45 43 76 195 193 296 146 104 322 356 361 362 461 315 71 74 290 179 378 252 121 120 107 497 498 482 442 415 395 454 474 443 423 444 477 30 328 348 106 149 370 115 234 184 124 273 66 73 326 249

-7-

The Multivitamin Guide

Company
Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Doctor's Nutrition Doctor's Nutrition Doctor's Nutrition Doctor's Nutrition Doctor's Nutrition Dougla s La bora tories Dougla s La bora tories Dougla s La bora tories Dougla s La bora tories Dougla s La bora tories Dr. Julian W hitaker's Dr. Julian W hitaker's EAS EcoNugenics EcoNugenics EHN Inc. Enerex Enzymatic The rapy Enzymatic The rapy Epic4Health Equate Equate Equate Equate Equate Essentials by Mega food Essentials by Mega food Essentials by Mega food Flora Flora FoodScience of Ve rmont FoodScience of Ve rmont FoodScience of Ve rmont FoodScience of Ve rmont FoodScience of Ve rmont For Mor Interna tional For Mor Interna tional Freeda Vitamins Freeda Vitamins Freeda Vitamins FreeLife Future biotics Future biotics Future biotics Garry Null's Garry Null's Genestra (Seroyal) Gerbe x Geritol GNC GNC GNC GNC GNC GNC GNC GNC Golde n Ne o-Life Diamite Interna tiona l Good Neighbor Pha rma cy Good Neighbor Pha rma cy Great Earth Great Earth Greens+ Greens+ He rba life He rba life Hillestad Pharmace utica ls Hillestad Pharmace utica ls Holista Hea lth Immuvit Inno-Vite Ja mie son Ja mie son Ja mie son Ja mie son Ja rrow Ja rrow Ja rrow Je an Carper's Je an Carper's

Product
Omni Spectra Spectra Ma n Spectra Ve geta rian Spectra w ithout Copper and Iron Spectra W oman Me ga Veggie Vites Me ga Vites Senior Me ga Vites w ithout Copper & Iron Me ga Vites W oman UItraNutrie nt Ultra Preve ntive Be ta Ultra Preve ntive III Ultra Preve ntive IX Ultra Preve ntive X Ultra Vita 75 II Forw a rd Multi-Nutrient Forw a rd Multi-Nutrient Multi-Blend Me n's Longevity Essentials Plus W ome n's Longe vity Rhythms Gold protect+ Sona Doctor's Choice for Men Doctor's Choice for W omen Physician's Multi Vitamin Formula Ce ntury Comple te Ce ntury Plus Complete Complete Mature Multi-Vitamin & Minerals Essentials for Life Essentials for W ome n One Daily for Men MultiCaps MultiTabs Da ily Best Me n's Supe rior Superior Care Total Care W ome n's Supe rior AnOx Oral Chela te Quinta bs-M Ultra Freeda Iron-Free Ultra Freeda w ith Iron Ba sic Mindell Plus Hi Ene rgy Multi for Men Multi-Vitamin Energy Plus for W omen Ve geta rian Super Multi Super AM Formula Supreme Health Formula Super Orti-Vite Ge rivol Complete Me ga Men's Preventron SoloCa ps Solotron w ithout Iron Ultra Mega Gold w ithout Iron Ultra Mega Gre en Ultra Mega Tw o w ithout Iron W ome n's Ultra Mega Formula IV Ba lanced Care Complete Multi Ce ntury Se nior Super Hy-Vites-Ultra Stre ngth/Timed Rele ase TNT - Total Nutrition Tablet Greens+ Multi+ Formula 2 Formula 2 Sterling Summit Gold Multi-Spectrum Immuvit Total NRG Lift Adult's 50+ Vita -Vim Me ga-Vim Leve l 4 Potency Pow er Vita mins for Men Super Vita -Vim Multi 1-to-3 Multi E-Z Pow de r W ome n's Multi Stop Aging Now ! Stop Aging Now ! Plus

Country
US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA US US US CA CA US US US CA CA US US CA US US US CA CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA US US US US US US US US US CA US US US US US CA CA US US US CA US CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US

Score !
63.6% 64.7% 62.5% 48.6% 64.5% 66.8% 43.3% 54.7% 64.2% 66.8% 55.9% 75.1% 70.0% 66.6% 95.4% 16.2% 74.7% 58.5% 62.1% 20.3% 57.0% 7.8% 20.6% 42.5% 45.5% 31.3% 3.5% 4.7% 4.9% 4.7% 2.8% 51.2% 34.8% 20.6% 10.6% 10.6% 21.9% 62.5% 64.7% 13.3% 63.8% 42.1% 13.7% 1.5% 25.8% 23.4% 82.3% 40.3% 18.7% 40.3% 17.7% 47.2% 44.8% 0.0% 3.4% 21.1% 9.9% 10.6% 7.7% 37.1% 46.9% 24.5% 28.2% 0.0% 5.0% 4.7% 29.4% 48.6% 14.8% 37.9% 15.2% 14.8% 21.0% 19.1% 35.9% 4.4% 15.5% 4.4% 9.0% 3.5% 8.3% 37.7% 48.7% 31.5% 58.5% 58.5%

Rank "
29 23 33 93 26 17 122 67 27 18 64 11 14 20 2 306 13 48 38 265 54 383 262 126 109 192 478 445 430 446 486 79 172 263 358 359 250 34 24 333 28 129 331 494 225 240 7 137 279 138 294 98 114 503 480 255 368 360 385 155 100 231 207 504 424 447 202 94 318 151 314 319 259 274 165 462 309 463 376 479 380 153 92 191 49 50

-8-

The Multivitamin Guide

Company
KAL KAL KAL KAL KAL KAL Ka runa Ka runa Ka runa Kirkland Signa ture (Costco) Kirkma n Laboratories Kirkma n Laboratories Klama th Blue Gree n Algae Klama th Blue Gree n Algae Kroge r La bora toire La lco Enr. Le Naturiste (Je an Marc Brunet) Le s Produits Na ture ls Suisse Inc. Life Brand Life Brand Life Brand Life Ex tension Foundation Life Force International Life Plus Life Plus LifeScript Lifestyles Lifestyles Lifestyles Lifestyles LifeTime LiFizz London Drugs London Na tura ls London's Best Lorna Vanderhaeghe Manna tech Manna tech Marke t America Matol MD He althline Melale uca Metagenics Metagenics Micha el's Naturopa thic Programs Micha el's Naturopa thic Programs Micha el's Naturopa thic Programs Micha el's Naturopa thic Programs MMS Pro Moducare Molecular Biologics Molecular Biologics Molecular Biologics More Than A Multiple Mountain Naturals of Ve rmont Mountain Naturals of Ve rmont Mountain Naturals of Ve rmont N. V. Perricone , MD Na tional Vitamin Compa ny Na trol Na trol Na trol Na tura l Fa ctors Na tura l Fa ctors Na tura l Fa ctors Na ture Ma de Na ture Ma de Na ture 's Answ e r Na ture 's Blend Na ture 's Blend Na ture 's Bounty Na ture 's Bounty Na ture 's Bounty Na ture 's Bounty Na ture 's Life Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Sunshine Na ture 's Sunshine Na ture 's Sunshine Na ture 's W ay Na ture 's W ay Na ture 's W ay

Product
Enhanced Energy w ith Lutein, Iron-Free High Potency Soft Multiple, Iron-Free Multi-Four Multiple Energy Ve geta rian Multiple Vitality for W omen HIM Ma xxum 2 Ma xxum 4 Da ily Multivitamin Kirkma n's Everyday Kirkma n's Supe r Nu-The ra Ta blets Ve gica ps Advanced Formula Complete Multi Max US-100 Multi-vitamines Sw ica l Ene rgy Optimum Optimum 50+ Spectrum Forte Life Ex tension Mix Body Balance Da ily Bio-Basics TVM-Plus Da ily Essentials, plus Ca lcium Complete Lifecycles for Mature Me n Lifecycles for Mature W ome n Lifecycles for Men Lifecycles for W ome n Nutrilife Multivitamin Multi Premium Multi-Vitamin Select Premie r Fe mmEsse ntials (multiple only) Glycentials GlycoLEAN Catalyst Isotonix Multite ch Multivitamin Ma tolife Advanced Gree n Multi Vitality Pak (Me l-VIta, Mela-Cal) Multigenics Inte nsive Ca re Formula Multigenics Inte nsive Ca re Formula w ithout Iron Active Senior Tabs for Me n for W omen Just One Preventamins Multi-mune Allervimin Bio-Na tura lvite De rma -Vite s More Than A Multiple Me n's Supe rior Superior Care W ome n's Supe rior Physician's Super Antiox ida nt Vitamin, Minera l & Phyto-Nutrient Fo Life-line Mega Multi w ith Minera ls My Favorite Multiple Comple te Care My Favorite Multiple Origina l My Favorite Multiple Take One MultiStart MultiStart Men's MultiStart W omen's Essential Balance Essential Mega Multi-Daily Ma ximum Daily Gre en Vitaminix Ultimate Green Source Vege taria n Formula Me ga Vita Min for W ome n Time Rele ase Ultra Man Time Release Ultra Vita-Time Iron Free Green Multi Re generation Source of Life No Iron Uitra One Ultra II Ultra-One Iron-Free Sustaine d Re lease Super Supplementa l Vitamins and Minera ls Super Supplementa l w ithout Iron SynerPro Age Right Formula Alivel W hole Food Energize r (lron-Fre e) Completia Ultra Ene rgy Multi (lron-Fre e)

Country
US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US CA/US CAlUS CA/US CA/US CA CA CA CA CA CA US US CA/US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA CA CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US

Score !
49.2% 19.1% 33.0% 51.2% 31.7% 35.0% 41.2% 65.7% 79.0% 5.2% 3.1% 12.3% 0.3% 0.3% 4.9% 7.7% 9.5% 0.0% 5.0% 5.0% 4.3% 81.4% 9.2% 32.3% 22.7% 36.6% 14.7% 14.7% 5.8% 14.5% 7.4% 2.9% 15.0% 12.4% 18.8% 56.5% 33.1% 26.2% 3.2% 40.0% 4.8% 6.2% 51.0% 50.5% 56.6% 36.9% 36.9% 23.6% 58.1% 8.6% 8.3% 9.7% 20.2% 44.4% 62.5% 64.7% 66.8% 41.7% 11.9% 27.3% 36.7% 27.2% 13.3% 47.7% 56.9% 4.4% 17.9% 21.2% 37.5% 54.7% 40.1% 19.4% 12.5% 4.7% 42.0% 30.7% 29.2% 18.6% 18.6% 23.7% 26.2% 28.6% 4.9% 38.0% 60.0% 17.6%

Rank "
88 275 183 80 190 171 133 22 9 416 484 344 499 500 431 386 372 505 425 426 465 8 374 188 245 162 320 321 407 323 392 485 317 340 277 61 181 219 483 141 439 402 82 84 60 158 159 239 51 379 381 371 266 116 35 25 19 132 347 212 161 213 334 97 57 464 292 254 154 68 139 270 337 448 130 196 204 281 280 238 220 206 432 150 44 295

-9-

The Multivitamin Guide

Company
Na ture 's W ay Na ture 's W ay Ne w Image Inte rna tiona l Ne w Roots Herbal Ne w Roots Herbal Ne w ays Ne w Vision Nikken NOW Foods NOW Foods NOW Foods NOW Foods Nu-life Nu-life Nu-life Nu-life Nutra Therapeutics NutriBiotics NutriBiotics Nutricology Nutricology Nutrie x Nutrilite (Amw a y, Quixta r) Nutrilite IAmw a y, Quixta r) Nutrillte (Amw a y, Qulxta r) Nutrina Nutrina Nutrina Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition for Life Nutrition for Life Nutri-W est Nutri-W est Nutri-W est Nutri-W est Olympian Labs Omnitrition One A Day One A Day One A Day OneSource Optimox Optimox Optimox Oregon He alth Pa ramette s Pa taki USA Pe rfect Choice Pe rfect Choice Pe rfect Choice Pe rformance Labs Pe rsonnelle (Pharmetics Inc.) Pe rsonnelle (Pharmetics Inc.) Pe rsonnelle (Pharmetlcs Inc.) Pharmacist's Ultima te Health Pharmacist's Ultima te Health Pharmane x (Nu Skin) Pharmane x (Nu Skin) Pharmane x (Nu Skin) Pharmasave Pharmasave PharmAssure PharmAssure Pharmetics Pharmetics PhytoPharmica PhytoPharmica PhytoPharmica PhytoPharmica Pilgrim's Pilgrim's Prairie Naturals ProActive ProActive Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride

Product
Da ily Tw o Multi Iron-Fre e Multivitamin Iron-Free Multi Multi-Max Phytomax Orache l JuicePow e r Ve geta ble Caps Bio-Directe d Multi-Vltamin/Mineral Iron-Free Vit-Min 75+ Specia l Tw o Vit-Min 100 (Timed Rele ase High Pote ncy) Vit-Min Caps High Potency Multiple Gourmet Multiple The Le gend for W omen Ultima te One for Me n Ultima te One for W omen AlI-ln-One Ultima te Matrix Men Ultima te Matrix W omen Multi-Vi-Min Multi-Vi-Min w ithout Copper & Iron Nutriex Double X Double X Da ily Athlete Formula Champion Formula Fitness Formula Ba sic Formula Da y Start/Day End Essentials Iodine Free "Ve gi" Formula Multi-vitasorb Optimum Health Essentials Essentials Grand Master Formula Multi Complex Multibalance for Me n Multibalance for W omen W hole System Health Mainte nance Vita-Vitamin Omni4 Active Advance Men's Formula Advance W ome n's Formula Multivitamins a nd Minerals for Adults Androvite for Men Gynovite Plus Optivite PMT for W omen Multi-Guard w ith CoQ10 Adults Complete 2101 Formula Complete Extra Multivitamin Specia lly Formulate d for Me n Multivitamin Specia lly Formulate d for W omen Vltalert Multivitamines et Minera ux Forte Multivitamines et Minera ux Preventa -Tab Multivitamines et Minera ux Natura Se nior Ma n's Ultimate Formula W oma n's Ultimate Formula Life Essentials LifePa k Prime LifePa k w ith Ca techins MultiForte 29 MultiSelect 29 Me n's Biomultiple W ome n's Biomultiple Formula Forte Multivitamins a nd Minerals w ith beta -Carotene Clinica l Nutrients for 45-Plus W omen Clinica l Nutrients for 50-Plus Men Clinica l Nutrients for Me n Clinica l Nutrients for W omen Se nse of Energy Silver Stars Multi Multi-Force for Active Men for Adult Men Green Source Iron Free High Potency Puritron Me ga Vita Min for W ome n Solovites Super All Day Nutricom Time Relea se Mega Vita -Min UItra-VIta-Min UItra-VIta-Min Iron-Free

Country
US US US CA CA US CA/US CA/US US US US US CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US CA US US US US US US US US US US CA/US CA/US US US US US US US US CA CA CA US US US US CA US US US US US CA CA CA US US US US CA CA CA US US CA CA US US US US US US CA CA CA US US US US US US US US

Score !
34.8% 33.2% 27.4% 46.3% 2.5% 24.1% 2.4% 11.1% 32.6% 43.1% 32.8% 26.2% 23.8% 33.8% 35.8% 21.4% 22.7% 35.2% 35.2% 13.1% 13.0% 40.5% 23.0% 30.0% 3.4% 18.1% 24.6% 19.9% 37.0% 63.0% 16.5% 0.7% 66.6% 15.1% 54.3% 10.5% 16.6% 16.6% 19.8% 22.8% 0.0% 5.1% 4.6% 1.9% 5.8% 50.1% 30.5% 42.5% 55.0% 4.5% 10.1% 6.0% 21.1% 28.2% 7.6% 4.3% 6.9% 4.9% 37.8% 60.7% 13.8% 52.7% 28.0% 4.3% 4.6% 11.5% 12.2% 4.3% 18.3% 45.3% 45.4% 42.5% 45.5% 51.7% 26.4% 35.8% 41.2% 30.5% 37.1% 0.0% 19.4% 12.2% 5.7% 15.3% 5.1% 4.3%

Rank "
173 180 211 103 487 233 488 353 186 125 185 221 236 175 166 253 246 169 170 335 336 136 242 201 481 288 229 267 157 32 300 496 21 316 69 363 298 299 268 244 506 419 455 492 408 85 198 127 65 458 365 404 256 208 388 466 397 433 152 40 330 72 210 467 456 350 345 468 287 112 111 128 110 75 217 167 134 199 156 507 271 346 410 311 420 469

- 10 -

The Multivitamin Guide

Company
Purita n's Pride Purity Products Purity Products QCI Nutritionals QCI Nutritionals QCI Nutritionals QCL Nutritiona ls QCL Nutritiona ls Quest Quest Quest Quest Quest R Garden Internationale Ra inbow Light Ra inbow Light Ra inbow Light Ra inbow Light Ra inbow Light Re liv Re liv Re liv Re liv Re -VIta Ripple Cre ek Ripple Cre ek Ripple Cre ek Rite Aid Rite AId Rite Aid Rite Aid Rite Aid Royal Bodycare Royal Bodycare Rx Vitamins Rx Vitamins Sa few ay Select Sa few ay Select Sa few ay Select Sa few ay Select Sa few ay Select Sa nte Naturelle Sa v-On Osco by Albertson's Sa v-On Osco by Albertson's Schiff Schiff Schiff Shakle e Shakle e Shakle e Sisu Sisu Sisu Sisu SoIara y Solara y Solara y Solara y Solara y Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar SomaLife Source Na turals Source Na turals Source Na turals Source Na turals SportPharma Sports Nutrition 2000 Spring Valley Spring Valley Sundow n Sundow n Sundow n Sundow n Sunkist Sunkist Sunrider Supra Life

Product
Vita-Min Pe rfect Multi Focus Formula Purity's Pe rfect Multi Ultra Vitality #1 Ultra Vitality #2 Ultra Vitality #3 Da ily Preve ntive #1 Da ily Preve ntive #3 Ex tra Once A Day Ma ximum Once A Day Once A Da y Premium Multi-One w ith Nia cina mide Super Once a Day Multiple Vitamin Minera l Formula Advanced Nutritiona l System Complete Nutritiona l System Iron-Free Advanced Nutritional Syste m Just Once Iron Free Pe rformance Energy Multivitamin for Men Classic Classic Now Now Liqua Health Me ga-100 (Slow Release ) Me ga-Caps 2 (Quick Release ) Me ga-One 75 (Slow Rele ase ) Ce ntra l-Vite Ce ntra l-Vite Se lect W hole Source W hole Source Complete Formula for Men W hole Source Complete Formula for W omen Omega Boost Ultima te Re vita lize Re vita lize No Iron Ce ntra l-Vite Forte 29 One Ta blet Daily One Ta blet Daily Advanced Formula for W omen Super Men's Multivitamin Super W omen's Multivitamin Fe minex Multi One Daily Active Therapeulic-M Double Day Prime Years Single Day Ba sics w ith Iron Ba sics w ith Iron Vita-Le a Advanced Formula Ma n Only One, Iron Free Nutricology Multi-Vi-Min Only One Ve gi-Mins Ve geta rian Spe ctro Multi-Vita-Min Iron-Free Spectro Multi-VIta-Min Iron-Free Spectro Multi-Vita-Min Spectro 3 Iron Free Spectro Multi-Vita-Min Ea rth Source Multi-Nutrient Fe male Multiple Formula VM-2000 Iron-Free Omnium Multi II Vegicaps Na turvite Omnium Solovite Iron-Free Ve gica ps Vege taria n Multiple VM-75 Iron-Free SomaVit Elan VitaI Life Force Multiple Me ga-one Multiple Ultra Multiple Multiguard Athlete 's Multi Ma ximum One Dally Multiplus Complete Energy Complete Multi 50+ Complete Multi Daily Complete Ultra Multi-Active Multi-Men's Me tabalance 44 Formula Plus

Country
US US US US US US US US CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US US US CA US CA US US US US US US US US US US CA/US US US CA CA CA US US CA US US US US US US CA CA CA/US CA CA/US CA/US US US CA US US US US US US US US US US US US CA/US US US US US US US US CA US US US US CA CA US US

Score !
0.0% 68.9% 62.2% 51.2% 51.5% 50.9% 48.4% 48.1% 18.6% 40.6% 0.3% 23.2% 11.4% 12.4% 63.2% 36.0% 62.2% 9.9% 41.9% 10.4% 7.7% 9.0% 6.0% 5.8% 32.2% 23.0% 16.4% 4.9% 4.8% 6.2% 5.6% 4.8% 36.3% 16.3% 39.1% 39.1% 4.7% 3.7% 0.0% 18.0% 28.2% 9.2% 4.9% 4.3% 4.9% 7.0% 15.9% 30.5% 24.6% 13.4% 16.4% 10.1% 16.4% 47.1% 57.0% 56.7% 38.2% 56.7% 57.0% 51.4% 50.1% 32.5% 45.1% 15.5% 14.5% 56.5% 5.6% 25.9% 18.5% 9.5% 91.8% 92.8% 30.6% 7.5% 74.9% 28.9% 5.0% 5.0% 5.1% 5.3% 5.1% 8.1% 12.4% 15.8% 20.4% 43.3%

Rank "
508 16 36 81 77 83 95 96 282 135 501 241 352 341 31 164 37 369 131 364 387 377 405 409 189 243 301 434 440 403 411 441 163 305 143 144 449 476 509 291 209 375 435 470 436 396 307 200 230 332 302 366 303 99 56 58 147 59 55 78 86 187 113 310 324 62 412 222 284 373 5 4 197 390 12 205 427 428 421 414 422 382 342 308 264 123

- 11 -

The Multivitamin Guide

Company
Supra Life Supra Life Sw iss Natural Sources Sw iss Natural Sources Sw iss Natural Sources Symmetry Symmetry The Green Turtie Bay Vitamin Co. The Green Turtle Bay Vitamin Co. The Green Turtle Bay Vitamin Co. Thompson Thompson Thompson Thompson Thompson Thorne Re search Thorne Re search Thorne Re search Total Health Solulions Total Health Solutions Trace Mine rals Trace Mine rals Trace Mine rals Trophic Truehope Truly Health Truly Health Tw inLab Tw inLab Tw inLab Tw inLab Tw inLab Tyler Ultima te Health Ultima te Health Ultima te Nutrition Unicity Netw ork (Re xall, Enrich) USANA He alth Scie nces USANA He alth Scie nces Va lu-Rite Va lu-Rite Va xa Ve ga Nutritiona ls Ve ga Nutritiona ls Ve gLife VirtuVites Vitality Products Vitality Products Vitamin Pow er Vitamin Pow er Vitamin Pow er Vitamin Pow er Vitamin Re search Products Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld VitaSmart VitaSmart Vitaza n He rbs a nd Vitamins Vitaza n He rbs a nd Vitamins Viva Life Sciences Viva Life Sciences Vita-Complete W algreens W algreens W ampole W atkins W atkins W ebbe r Na tura ls W ellne ss International Netw ork W este rn Fa mily W este rn Fa mily W este rn Fa mily W este rn Fa mily YourLife YourLife YourLife ZonePerfe ct

Product
Ma xum Essentials Ultra Body Toddy Hi Pote ncy Sw iss One "80" Super Adult Chew a ble Super Sw iss One "50" NutraPack Ultra Vitality Sunnie Pow erMate Pow erVites Human Nature Gree n Multi Me ga 80 Multi-Formula for W ome n Multiple Choice Super Max icaps Al's Formula Ba sic Nutrients III Ba sic Nutrients V Bone Plants Vita Active s Electro-Vita -Min ImmunoMa x Ma xi Multi Se lect Empow erplus Ce ntury Premium Ce ntury Silver Da ily One w ithout Iron Da ily Tw o Caps w ithout Iron DualTa bs Me ga 6 Ca ps SuperTw in Multiplex-2 w ithout Iron 40+ Multiple P.M. Formula Super Complete Ca rdio-Basics Essentials (Canadia n) Essentials (U.S.) Advanced Formula Complete Pre mium Iron-Free Multivitamin Mineral Suppleme nt Da ily Essentials Formula ZM3 Spectrum SpectroVeg High Energy Vita-Min 75 Complete Multi-Vita mins w ith Minera ls Tw o-A-Day Pow er Source 100 Super-Vite Ultra Multi 90 Plus Vita-Max 1 Ex tended Plus Da ily 3 W ith Antioxidant Factors Green Source Iron Free Me ga Vita Min for W ome n Me ga Vita Min for W ome n, Iron Free More Than A Multiple Nutri 100 Time Relea se Mega Vita -Min Iron-Fre e Ultra Vita MAN Ultra VIta-Min Iron Free Ce ntury Advantage Ce ntury Se nior Iron Free Multi #2 ORO #1 Da ilyGuard VIVA for Life AA (Anti-Aging) Ultra Choice Premium Men Ultra Choice Premium W omen Complete Multi-Adult Super Multi Superfood Multiple Multivitamins Extra B Phyto-Vite Complete Adva nced Formula w ith Lutein Multra Forte Multra Plex Therapeulic-M Na tura l lron-fre e One Dally 50+ Super Multi w ith He rbs Multi Vitamin & Mineral

Country
US US CA CA CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA/US CA CA US US US US US US US US US US CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA US US CA US US CA CA US US US US CA CA US US US US US

Score !
48.9% 38.1% 20.9% 23.8% 19.6% 25.5% 7.8% 10.9% 11.1% 7.4% 29.3% 4.9% 6.3% 4.5% 19.0% 46.9% 38.7% 44.4% 6.7% 18.1% 14.3% 1.7% 13.9% 33.1% 25.9% 6.9% 4.6% 26.4% 33.8% 40.1% 56.2% 33.6% 54.2% 18.6% 14.1% 75.8% 31.0% 90.2% 96.1% 5.2% 0.0% 7.6% 2.3% 2.3% 45.9% 24.2% 25.9% 21.1% 26.9% 15.3% 11.5% 6.8% 93.1% 45.6% 39.8% 19.4% 16.4% 44.4% 25.6% 15.3% 12.5% 4.7% 5.2% 4.7% 12.5% 18.4% 36.8% 17.9% 4.3% 21.1% 22.1% 4.3% 23.9% 27.2% 2.3% 46.6% 4.9% 12.4% 11.6% 4.3% 3.9% 4.7% 7.5% 25.1%

Rank "
91 148 261 237 269 227 384 357 354 393 203 437 401 459 276 101 145 117 400 289 325 493 329 182 223 398 457 218 176 140 63 177 70 283 327 10 194 6 1 417 510 389 489 490 105 232 224 257 215 312 351 399 3 108 142 272 304 118 226 313 338 450 418 451 339 285 160 293 471 258 247 472 235 214 491 102 438 343 349 473 475 452 391 228

1 Overall product score based on 14 scientific criteria 2 Ranking of this product out of all the 510 products compared

- 12 -

The Multivitamin Guide

Appendix B: Definition of the 14 comparison criteria


The definitions of each of the fourteen criteria used in the comparison are as follows: 1. Completeness - Does the product contain the full spectrum of nutrients listed in the Blended Standard and considered essential for optimal health? 2. Potency - Of those nutrients in the product, what percent are found at potency levels meeting or exceeding 50 percent of the potency for those nutrients in the Blended Standard? 3. Bioavailability - Does the product contain minerals in their most bioavailable firms as amino acid chelates or organic acid complexes? 4. Bioactivity of Vitamin E - Does the product contain only the d-isomer of vitamin E (the natural, biologically active form of alpha tocopherol) or does the product use the d/l isomers of vitamin E (a synthetic form, where the biological activity is about one-half [or less] of the natural vitamin E)? 5. Cardiac Health Triad - Does the product contain vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and magnesium, three nutritional components important to cardiac health, at potencies that meet or exceed 50 percent of the Blended Standard? 6. Homocysteine Reduction Triad - Does the product contain the nutritional triad of vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folic acid, at levels meeting or exceeding 50 percent of the Blended Standard? 7. Bone Health Complex - Does the product contain the nutrients shown by clinical studies to be important for optimal bone health (vitamin D, vitamin K, folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, boron, calcium, magnesium, silicon and zinc) at potencies equal to or exceeding 50 percent of the potencies listed in the Blended Standard? 8. Antioxidant Triad - Does the product contain the important antioxidant triad of vitamin E, vitamin C and beta-carotene at potencies equal to or exceeding 50 percent of the potencies listed in the Blended Standard? 9. Glutathione Support - Does the product contain the nutritional precursors necessary for glutathione synthesis and the proper functioning of the Glutathione Peroxidase Pathway, at potencies equal to or exceeding 50 percent of the potencies listed in the Blended Standard? 10. Metabolic Support - Does the product contain the nutrients necessary to help regulate glucose metabolism and support the body's ability to generate, store and utilize energy, and are these nutrients available at potencies equal to or exceeding 50 percent of the potencies listed in the Blended Standard?

- 13 -

The Multivitamin Guide

11. Bioflavonoid Profile - Does the product contain a mixture of bioflavonoids (citrus flavonoids, soy isoflavones, quercetin, quercitrin, hesperidin, rutin, bilberry extract and green tea catechins) and proanthocyanidins at potencies that meet or exceed 50 percent of the combined recommended potencies for PCOs and mixed bioflavonoids in the Blended Standard? 12. Phenolic Compound Profile - Does the product contain phenolic compounds (poly phenolic acids and their derivatives, including curcumin) at a potency level recently established in the literature (25 mg) that has been associated with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease? 13. Lipotropic Factors - Does the product contain the important lipotropic factors, choline (including phosphatidylcholine) and inositol, at levels meeting or exceeding 50 percent of the Blended Standard? 14. Potential Toxicities - Does the nutritional supplement contain levels of vitamin A and iron that exceed 100% of the Blended Standard?

- 14 -

The Multivitamin Guide

Appendix C: Why take vitamin supplements?


By Dr. George Obikoya Vitamins are substances that are found in many of the foods we eat. Your body uses vitamins to do many things, like help you grow and develop. It needs vitamins to help your blood clot when you get a cut. Some vitamins help us make energy. Vitamins are even involved in making sure you can see in color, the world would look black and white without them! And if you've ever wondered what helps make your teeth healthy and strong, then you'll be sure to smile when you find out it's, guess what, vitamins! Vitamins regulate metabolism reactions, in contrast to other dietary components known as macronutrients, for example, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, which are the compounds utilized in the reactions regulated by the vitamins. Absence of a vitamin blocks one or more specific metabolic reactions in a cell and eventually may disrupt the metabolic balance within a cell and in our entire body. Vitamins contain no calories but play an essential role in your body. Think of vitamins kind of like the fluids in your car. If you have no oil (vitamins) in your car, it does not matter how much gasoline (calories) you put in your car, your car will not run. For this reason, it is critically important to ensure a proper supply of vitamins in your car. Unlike the oil in your car, many vitamins are purged from your body daily. With the exception of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), all of the water-soluble vitamins assist enzymes that function in energy transfer or in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. In other words, it will be difficult for our body to break down these nutrients into energy we can use without vitamins. Some of the fat-soluble vitamins form part of the structure of biological membranes or assist in maintaining the integrity and functioning of these membranes. Some fat-soluble vitamins also may function at the genetic level to control the synthesis of certain enzymes. These vitamins are necessary for specific functions in highly differentiated cells. When you take fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), the vitamins are stored in the fat tissues in your body and in your liver until your body needs them. Some are stored for a few days, some for up to six months! Water-soluble vitamins such as Vitamin C and the B group of vitamins, on the other hand are different. They are not stored as much in your body. Instead, they travel through your bloodstream and whatever your body doesn't use comes out when you urinate. So these kinds of vitamins need to be replaced often, and many people fail to do so. That is why you need to take a high-quality multivitamin in order to replenish lost vitamins and minerals. Daily vitamin supplementation is, no doubt, absolutely critical for maintaining a healthy body.

- 15 -

The Multivitamin Guide

Appendix D: Do medical authorities recommend vitamin supplements?


By Lyle MacWilliam, BSc, MSc, FP After 20 years, the American Medical Association (AMA) has completely reversed its anti-vitamin stance and now encourages all adults to supplement daily with a multiple vitamin. A landmark review of 38 years of scientific evidence by Harvard researchers, Dr. Robert Fletcher and Dr. Kathleen Fairfield, convinced the conservative Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) to rewrite its policy guidelines regarding the use of vitamin supplements. In two reports, published in the June 19, 2002 edition of JAMA, the authors conclude that the current North American diet, while sufficient to prevent vitamin deficiency diseases (such as scurvy and pellagra), is inadequate to support the need for optimal health. Insufficient vitamin intake is apparently a cause of chronic diseases. Recent evidence has shown that sub-optimal levels of vitamins (below standard), even well above those causing deficiency syndromes, are risk factors for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and osteoporosis. A large portion of the general population is apparently at increased risk for this reason. Dr. Robert Fletcher and Dr. Kathleen Fairfield In the study, the authors examine several nutrients, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, K, folic acid and several of the carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lycopene and lutein). Among their conclusions, they note:

! Folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 are required for proper homo cysteine ! ! ! ! ! ! !
metabolism, and low levels of the vitamins are associated with increased risk of heart disease; Inadequate folic acid status increases the risk of neural tube defects and some cancers; Vitamin E and lycopene appear to decrease the risk of prostate cancer; Vitamin D is associated with a decreased risk of osteoporosis and fracture, when taken with calcium; Inadequate vitamin B12 is associated with anemia and neurological disorders; Low levels of the carotenoids appear to increase the risk of breast, prostate and lung cancer; Inadequate vitamin C is associated with increased cancer risk; and, Low vitamin A status is associated with vision disorders and impaired immune functions.

- 16 -

The Multivitamin Guide

In a striking departure from JAMAs anti-vitamin stance of the last twenty years, the authors conclude that, given today's diet, daily supplementation with a multiple vitamin is a prudent preventive measure against chronic disease. The researchers base their guidance on the fact that more than 80 percent of the American population does not consume anywhere near the five-per-day servings of fruits and vegetables required for optimal health. All of us grew up believing that if we ate a reasonable diet, that would take care of our vitamin needs. But, the new evidence, much of it in the last couple of years, is that vitamins also prevent the usual diseases we deal with everyday - heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis and birth defects. Dr. Robert Fletcher JAMAs last comprehensive review of vitamins, conducted in the 1980s, concluded that people of normal health do not need to take a multivitamin and can meet all their nutritional needs through diet. The sudden "about-face," along with JAMAs public declaration that supplementation is now deemed important to your health, underscores the strength of the scientific evidence that now prevails. The JAMA declaration also underscores a growing concern among nutrition experts that the current recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for vitamins and minerals are too low. The RDAs were originally established to prevent acute vitamin deficiency disorders; however, a growing volume of evidence supports the argument that higher levels of many vitamins and minerals are necessary to achieve optimal health. Much of the evidence supporting the need for daily supplementation as a preventive measure comes from large population-based (epidemiological) studies. Among them is a study conducted some years ago by three eminent scientists, Nobel Laureate Dr. Linus Pauling, Dr. Richard Passwater and Dr. Jim Enstrom. They examined mortality rates in elderly Californians, and what they found was remarkable: the death rate for supplement users was significantly lower than for non-users. Male supplement users had a 22 percent lower risk of death and female users a 46 percent lower risk, over a given time period. Later, Enstrom and co-workers found that supplementation with vitamin C, in excess of 250 mg per day (much above the RDA standard), reduced the risk of male mortality from cardiovascular disease by 42 percent and lowered the risk of death by all causes by 35 percent, providing an estimated six-year increase in life expectancy. In two large studies of self-supplementation, vitamin E was associated with reduced coronary risk. The studies, conducted among 39,910 male health care professionals and 87,245 female nurses, found that men and women who took vitamin E supplements for more than two years showed a 37 percent and 41 percent reduction, respectively, in the risk of heart disease. These results support a recent large-scale study conducted at Laval University, Quebec, which found a 69 percent reduction in ischemic heart disease and a 47 percent reduction in cardiac-related deaths among long-term consumers of nutritional supplements. These results indicate that supplementing your diet with a high-quality multivitamin on a daily basis is essential for long-term health.

- 17 -