This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Lecturer M.Salman Siddiqui
**

Air University, E-9, Islamabad.

2 . • Analyze power generation coupled with process heating called cogeneration. • Analyze the reheat and regenerative vapor power cycles. • Investigate ways to modify the basic Rankine vapor power cycle to increase the cycle thermal efficiency. • Analyze vapor power cycles in which the working fluid is alternately vaporized and condensed. • Analyze power cycles that consist of two separate cycles known as combined cycles and binary cycles.Objectives • Evaluate the performance of gas power cycles for which the working fluid remains a gas throughout the entire cycle.

1-2 isothermal heat addition in a boiler 2-3 isentropic expansion in a turbine 3-4 isothermal heat rejection in a condenser 4-1 isentropic compression in a compressor T-s diagram of two Carnot vapor cycles.THE CARNOT VAPOR CYCLE The Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle operating between two specified temperature limits but it is not a suitable model for power cycles. 3 . Because: Process 1-2 Limiting the heat transfer processes to two-phase systems severely limits the maximum temperature that can be used in the cycle (374°C for water) Process 2-3 The turbine cannot handle steam with a high moisture content because of the impingement of liquid droplets on the turbine blades causing erosion and wear. The cycle in (b) is not suitable since it requires isentropic compression to extremely high pressures and isothermal heat transfer at variable pressures. Process 4-1 It is not practical to design a compressor that handles two phases.

The ideal Rankine cycle does not involve any internal irreversibilities. 4 . which is the ideal cycle for vapor power plants. The cycle that results is the Rankine cycle. The simple ideal Rankine cycle.RANKINE CYCLE: THE IDEAL CYCLE FOR VAPOR POWER CYCLES Many of the impracticalities associated with the Carnot cycle can be eliminated by superheating the steam in the boiler and condensing it completely in the condenser.

Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle Steady-flow energy equation The thermal efficiency can be interpreted as the ratio of the area enclosed by the cycle on a T-s diagram to the area under the heat-addition process. 5 .

DEVIATION OF ACTUAL VAPOR POWER CYCLES FROM IDEALIZED ONES The actual vapor power cycle differs from the ideal Rankine cycle as a result of irreversibilities in various components. (b) The effect of pump and turbine irreversibilities on the ideal Rankine cycle. Isentropic efficiencies (a) Deviation of actual vapor power cycle from the ideal Rankine cycle. 6 . Fluid friction and heat loss to the surroundings are the two common sources of irreversibilities.

Example 7 .

Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers Tlow.HOW CAN WE INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE RANKINE CYCLE? The basic idea behind all the modifications to increase the thermal efficiency of a power cycle is the same: Increase the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working fluid in the boiler. The effect of lowering the condenser pressure on the ideal Rankine cycle. or decrease the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the working fluid in the condenser. 8 . the condensers of steam power plants usually operate well below the atmospheric pressure.avg) To take advantage of the increased efficiencies at low pressures. There is a lower limit to this pressure depending on the temperature of the cooling medium Side effect: Lowering the condenser pressure increases the moisture content of the steam at the final stages of the turbine.

Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures (Increases Thigh.avg) Both the net work and heat input increase as a result of superheating the steam to a higher temperature. The temperature is limited by metallurgical considerations. Presently the highest steam temperature allowed at the turbine inlet is about 620°C. 9 The effect of superheating the steam to higher temperatures on the ideal Rankine cycle. The overall effect is an increase in thermal efficiency since the average temperature at which heat is added increases. . which is desirable. Superheating to higher temperatures decreases the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit.

- 2129
- ETM.pdf
- Lec1_F12B_Jan26_2016.pptx
- Sharmeen-Obaid
- Stress, Its Causes and Management (2)
- Fee Schedule (Spring 2016)
- General Instructions
- Ese Science Math Bps 9
- Tutorial Session 1
- Chapter 1 _power Plant Engineering
- Boilers
- example 1.1
- PR 1
- Lec1_
- Lec1_F12B_Jan26_2016
- Lec1b_
- Attachment
- Document
- Solar Energy System
- Cub Seismicw Lesson01 Activity1 Worksheetnew
- 14. SPC
- ISO9000-2015
- Refrigeration & Air Conditioning_Lec5
- Course Outline
- Numerical Methods in Heat Conduction

thermodynamics

thermodynamics

- IFS Mechanical Engineering 2004
- 2_Rankinecycle
- avcd
- 2_Rankinecycle
- Rankinecycle
- 2_Rankinecycle
- Rcycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- STG Q And A
- PVT Diagram Rankine Cycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- Rankine Cycle
- Steam, saturated, overheated, wet, heat, dry, thermal, viscosity.pdf
- 1082appa_5
- 2_Rankinecycle
- 2_ Rankinecycle
- Steam quality measurement methods using Prowirl E&H meter
- WASPBOOK
- FALLSEM2016-17_MEE1003_TH_8797_18-OCT-2016_RM001_UNIT 3
- Chap 10 Lecture

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd