The Question of the ‘Relative Autochthony’ of the Albanians in Epiros And the Albanian Immigration Movements of the Fourteenth entury! The case of the region of "ropull# $%iro&ast'r ()outhern Albania*+
by Konstantinos Giakoumis
Abstract The purpose of this article is to put together recent linguistic and historical studies, in order to challenge the views of ‘older’ Greek and Albanian scholarship with respect to the presence of a solely Greek or Albanian population in the regions of Epiros, with specific reference to the district of ropull in the light of primary sources dealing with the Albanian immigrations of the !"th century# $t will show that Greek and Albanian%speaking populations had all along been living together in Epiros, while in the !"th century immigrant Albanians migrated into the regions of G&irokast'r# The reactions of local milieu( against the new settlers shall be attributed to the disintegration of the previous local elites#

The issue of the Albanian presence in the lands of Epiros ! has long been a point of contention between Greek and Albanian scholarship# )n the one hand it as claimed that only in the !*th and especially the !"th +entury Albanians originating from Elbasan region migrated to Epiros, ,acedonia and Thessaly and from there to more distant districts, including -oumeli .central Greece/ and the 0eloponnese, regions inhabited by Greek populations, and on the other hand that the Albanians have been the indigenous population in Epiros# $t is needless to analyse how this scheme served the idea of national purity in 1ones claimed by both Greece and Albania in the beginning of the 23th century# The first viewpoint was upheld chiefly by ‘older’ Greek scholarship, which either disregarded much of the evidence presented in support of the second viewpoint or even manipulated it to fit into its ideological position# 0# Karolidis, at the beginning of 23th century, wrote4 ‘$f ,r# 5auer2, as many other Europeans, call Epiros 6ow Albania, this must be
understood from an ethnological point of view only in the sense that in Epiros there are Greeks who speak Albanian and that the word Albanian in Epiros must mean Greek%Epirote ’*#

The e(istence of

an Albanian%speaking population in Epiros was attributed by Apostolos 7akalopoulos to a process of ‘Albani1ation of the Greek population ’"# 8uch views were mechanically maintained in more recent popular books on the Greek%Albanian relations9# :owever, it is a well%documented fact that in the !*th and !"th centuries there was an Albanian infiltration into Epiros;, which was part of a wider immigration movement of 5alkan

8outhern Albania/. the late Ekrem Aace& who. based on toponymy. while a smaller part in Greece# $n dealing with our sub&ect from a historical point of view. ropull shares borders with ropull is elvin' . be considered among the autochthonous inhabitants of Epiros# :is study stands out as one of the most serious works.%!3 km in width and it lays on a 8E# FG# a(is# $ts central city. some scholars have indicated that there is sufficient evidence.2 people at the end of the .Gk# [PIKQS / to the E and $oannina to the 8outh# Today. a fertile region in the . Buite distant from nationalistic enthusiasmC it was this particular scholar who coined the term ‘relative autochthony’ referring to the Albanians in Epiros!3# This Buestion has only recently been the sub&ect of both historical and linguistic studies# The purpose of this article is to put together all of these recent studies. therefore.Gk# WXYZSQP / to the G. which.Gk# RSPTQ O U V / to the FE. the recent work of 0rof# Allain ucellier distinguishes# At a recent congress held in the +entre of 5y1antine 8tudies. G&irokast'r. the ma&or part of included in Albania. to argue that Albanians were already in Epiros by the !2th and !*th centuries@# Among them. according to the Albanian historian 0'llumb >hufi. Athens. who misinterpreted )ttoman registers and a Greek chronicle. The Fational =oundation for -esearch.iddle Ages and has been attributed to disintegration of the target territories# The second viewpoint was mostly supported by Albanian historiography. concluded that the Albanians were descendants of the ancient $llyrians and should. originally had the name Ἀ HIJHKL M N O H P Q # 6un(h'ri . in order to challenge the views of ‘older’ Greek and Albanian scholarship with respect to the presence of solely Greek or Albanian populations in the regions of Epiros. 0ogon . in contrast. ropull was coloni1ed by Greeks not earlier than the beginning of the !<th century?# :owever. the work of the leading Albanian linguist of the 23th century. the eminent =rench scholar dealing with sources referring either to $llyrians or Albanians demonstrated that there are reliable historical data that the latter were descendants of the former and . possesses a large number of villages# $ts area does not e(ceed 93 km in length and . with specific reference to the district of ropull in the light of primary sources dealing with the rino 7alley of Forthern Epiros Albanian immigrations of the !"th century# ropull Dmap !%2E. alleged that Epiros was solely inhabited by Albanians<# =or e(ample. taking into consideration toponymic data.

which states that the continent facing the island of +orfu is inhabited by Albanians23C and the second is letters of the . but also of the Greeks themselves in the same lands# $n connection with the Albanian studies on linguistics. he has located certain ancient Greek words in the elvin'%8arand' Greek idiomatic vocabulary!?. Albos. and those of :imarr'. together with those of ropull. which he attributed to the perennial co%e(istence of Greek%speaking and Albanian%speaking populations in the same region!<# =urthermore. apart from occasional appearances in the neighbouring idioms of by serious scholars who distance themselves from the old clich\s of the nationalistic ideologies constitute the most stable foundation not only for the promotion of related studies. it is important to mention a recent and impressive doctoral thesis by the Albanologist Aristotelis 8pyrou on the Greek linguistic idiom of the regions of elvin' and 8arand'!2# 8ince this doctoral thesis is still unpublished. $ suggest that names that appear in two acts of the Angevins of Faples dated !*3"22 using the forms. undertaken preserved in any other Greek dialect or idiom.etropolitan of Faupaktos ]ohn Apokaukos to a certain George ysipati. toponymy. 8patos. it is worth mentioning his basic conclusions so far as they relate to the present article# The author confirms that the idiom in Buestion. 0ogon and Thesprotia. who was considered to be an ancestor of the famous 8hpata family2!# =urthermore. +atarucos. constitute a clear continuum between the idiomatic conventions of $oannina on the one hand. which had not been ropull and 0ogon !@# $mportant work of this kind. there is no need further to elaborate on the author’s views!!# =rom a linguistic point of view. he not only traced the influences of the Albanian language in this idiom!9. . +orfu and the other $onian islands on the other !*# 8pyrou has also discovered certain genitive singular nouns which are very close to ancient Greek forms!"# Additionally.* therefore should be considered as indigenous inhabitants of Epiros# The recent publication of the acts of the congress makes this important contribution accessible to the scientific communityC conseBuently. but also influences of Greek in Albanian idioms of the same region !. such as the archaic elements in the Greek and Albanian idioms of Epiros. but also for the peaceful co%e(istence of both nations in regions of Epiros and Albania where they have lived for centuries# The presence of Albanians in the Epirote lands from the beginning of the !* th century is also attested by two documentary sources4 the first is a 7enetian document of !2!3. reveal not only the ‘relative autochthony’ of the Albanians. as well as other acknowledged linguistic features.

as $ shall point out below# Testimonies from the !"th century narrative sources not only confirm the population movements. they harvested the lands and moved on# Apart from the clan% . religion as well as principal language of communication# $t is evident that these were the case in a period when co% e(istence and understanding among people of different nations . continuously on the lookout for new pastureland. when the Albanians around 5erat and Kanina revolted and carried out raids and plunderings against cities and castles# After the death of Andronicus $$$ in !*"!." 5ischesini. but also describe the nature and character of the Albanian social immigrant groups# 5y1antine sources present the Albanians as nomads. arrived in Forthern Epiros2@# The chief preoccupations of the immigrant clans were cattle%breeding. 6ogoresc et . who. moved out of Arbanon and the region of Elbasan# They descended in two ma&or immigrant%groups to the 8outh following the a(is of the valleys and the rivers# The first group. implying heavy cattle%breeding*!# 6acking even essential provisions. Aranitos.in the modern sense of the term/ were far better they are today29# Fevertheless. as Kostas Komis did in the case of the etymology of the toponym ‘0reve1a’2*_ $ believe that the use of hypothetical immigrations as a basis to interpret sources that indicate the presence of Albanians in the Epirote lands prior to the !* th%!"th century is somewhat arbitrary# =or it serves the concept of national purity in 1ones with clear lines of communication. again with many incremental stops of diverse length.arino 8anudo Torsello who mentions the presence of large Albanian crowds in Thessaly.ateseos are either well%known.as linguistic research has proved2"/ and common traditions. reached Thessaly via the regions around Kastoria# The second. mutual relations . the Albanians around 0ogoniani and 6ivisda staged revolts at the same time as those in Thessaly attacking and pillaging 5erat and other cities of the despotate 2?# $t is known that the Albanians. Turbaceos.# The first appearance of the Albanians ‘en masse’ is recorded in a letter of . with a great number of interim stops of uneBual duration. robbery and war%making# The chronicle of the Toccos characterised them as ‘swineherds’*3. poor and autonomous. 5ucceseos. moving from place to place. ^eneuias.archaseos. 6ecenis. . had destroyed the lands outside the castles 2<# This kind of Albanian presence within the territories of the espotate is not recorded before !**<. the immigration movements of the !"th century are documented facts. less%known or totally unknown names of Albanian clan leaders at that time# Are we obliged to see in this a possible earlier Albanian immigration in the Epirote lands. 8curas. who attempted predatory raids against fortified cities2.

the rest of the population lived in scattered. the Albanian clans established themselves in Epiros# The indigenous population. decimated by the demographic crisis of the !"th century and especially by the 5lack eath *".acedonia. they set their hands on the land and ravaged the citiesC they e(ploited the land for their own purposes. Ἀ HIJHPc P Yg m Q V Q Oh LM ὶ nMNOP H g M Q # ἀkSLKbhQP S a ὲ ἐcὶ ihO O M Y g M Q NkgNSQ ὑcPmhg H S P Q cPSVN d bh Q P S LM ὶ O ὰ e cKYhS e ἐcSaShYKb h Q P S . the Albanians left the regions of the triangle )hrid% urr's%Kru&' and moved southwards# According to the sources. impromptu settlements.a1araB.alakash. these nomads did not normally settle permanently in one place. the one which travelled via )hrid and ended in Thessaly while the other. small settlements . who took control of Arta. reached G&irokast'r and the despotate# The purpose of their occupation was to search for new pasture lands# The combination of fertile plains and mountains rich in grasslands in the region of G&irokast'r was ideal for the poor nomadic Albanians who did not hesitate to ravage cities when they lacked provisions# ppon arrival. there were two migrant groups.‘katund’/ *2C when the security of the castle was threatened. QPbd a h e Oh ὄ QOh e LM ὶ P ὐ aMb ῇ ἔ OS ZXZM S PQ Nk ῶ Q M ὐ O ῶ Q O ὴ Q P ἴ LVNSQ cPSPTbh Q P S ’ .The Albanians. ^enebis and ^ulan# 6aonikos +halkokondyles is e(plicit when it comes to Buestions concerning Albanian immigration to the province of G&irokast'r and the character of the Albanian immigrants themselves*94 ‘ἈYZMQP ὶ a ὲ ὡ HbVbXQP S ἀcὸ ἘcSadbQ PJ LM ὶ O ὸ cH ὸ e ἕf ZMagU P Q O h e ihO O M Y g M Q OVQ Oh Oh ὑcjIPQ O P moH M Q NkgNS LM ὶ Oῆ e bhNPI M g P J lMLhaPQ g M e O ὰ cYXf . most parts of central . LMO ὰ Nkᾶ e ἐQXbPQ O P O ὴ Q moH M Q . subdued Thessaly. the +hronicles also mentioned the clans of the . for they were nomads and did not yet settle permanently in any place/# As noted earlier. from whom it was neither linguistically nor culturally alienated# Thus. but rather lived in temporary. the Albanian shepherds ran to its defence **# The different clans acted independently of each other# After the death of 8tefan u`an and the battle of Acheloous. moving through K'lcyr'. at the beginning of the !9 th century the Albanians were consolidated in Epiros# Apart from the clan of 8hpata. who held the castles together with a number of soldiers. G&irokast'r and Kastoria for themselves# After arriving at Thessaly. the . . originating in urr's and marching towards the south.9 leaders. probably did not react negatively to the new comers. temporary.

the head of the )ttoman frontier forces . who must have had already consolidated themselves in the region as did the 7lachs of Thessaly*.today the elvin' region/ $sas was defeated outright and held in captivity""# As a conseBuence of the victory.!*?"/"2# 8hortly thereafter. in which the Albanians were defeated# $n !*?2 Thomas 0reliubos with the help of the )ttoman forces subordinated the Albanian clans of ^ulan and ^enebis in the north of $oannina and recaptured the provinces of 7ella.esopotamon in the region of 7agenitia . according to ]ohn +antacu1enus.# $t is known that the clan of ^enebis arrived and settled in the province of G&irokast'r# As noted above.."*# $n !*@@ the despot of $oannina. ropull and 7agenitia"!# Two years later.later called 8hahin 0asha/ occupied ropull .qr bey/. G&in ^enebis e(tended his territory to the entire northern part of 7agenitia# $n accordance with negotiations for the release of the captive despot $sas.alakash and . perhaps following the e(ample of the antagonist nomadic 7lachs. probably contingent upon a small tribute due to the )ttomans as a token of vassalage# $t seems. while in !"33 they pleaded for peace to ‘Geomi ^enebissi Bui tenet terram de la 8ayata’"9# Thus. the ^enebis regained control. whilst at peace with 8hpata. moved against G&in ^enebis# :is army consisted of men from the . having penetrated as far as K'lcyr' in !**<.!9 ]une !*"!/ *@# The first mention in the +hronicle of $oannina concerning the ^enebis as rulers of the provinces of G&irokast'r and ropull is in the last Buarter of the !"th century"3# $n !*?3 they are mentioned together with the . sacked 5erat and other cities of Epiros. the 7enetians addressed G&in ^enebis as ‘albanensem ]ahannem sevastokratora’. according to >hufi. as well as from ^agor% ropull and great ^agori# At the battle of . the ^enebis family is first mentioned in two Angevin documents of !*3"*<.a1arak clans. however. where they are mentioned as land holders in regions controlled by the Angevins. $sayim .a1araB as participants in the battle of 0olit1es against the allied forces of the despot Thomas and $sayim. a territory which e(tended. after the death of Andronicus $$$ 0alaeologus . when the )ttomans entered to the second stage of conBuest and occupied the castle of G&irokast'r e(pelling on the . along the coastal 1one among :imarr'. who. $sas 5uontelmonti. the turn of the century found the ^enebis well established in the provinces of G&irokast'r# The ^enebis dominated these lands until !"!?. ‘katunds’. that a gradual slackening in performing the obligations of vassalage provided incentive for a new )ttoman attack under Evreno1 bey against G&in ^enebis at the end of !*@9% beginning of !*@. G&irokast'r and 0reve1a*?# The ^enebis clan was possibly included among the ‘Albanians around 0ogoniani and 6ivisda’.

who. all of whom were affected by the presence of immigrants and their powerful rulers. the poor branches of the ^enebis family must have responded positively to the invitation of the )ttomans to re%settle these regions"?# . do not describe the social influence of this class# $n the present study $ attempted to challenge the opinions of ‘older’ Greek and Albanian historiography that the regions of G&irokast'r were inhabited solely either by Greek or Albanian populations by piecing together historical and linguistic evidence# $ maintained that Greek%speaking and Albanian%speaking populations had all along been living together in Epiros in the period in Buestion# =urthermore. according to 0simouli. as e(pressed by their participation in the campaign of $sas against G&in . who in !*@@ allied themselves to the despot $sas in the latter’s campaign against G&in ^enebis# The narrative sources. must have resisted in some way the ambitions of the new%comers to rule these lands# These are the same circles. it is my opinion that the chronicle’s description is e(aggerated. cannot.< clan".y opinion is supported by a passage in 6aonikos +halkokondyles. as $ have shown above. the local intelligentsia and. after wandering through the Epirote provinces. $ presented evidence that in !"th century immigrant Albanians taking advantage of the decimation of the local Epirote population owing to the 5lack eath also migrated into the regions of G&irokast'r# .oreover. in describing the attitude of the Albanians who remained in the rebellion of epa ^enebis . ruling class. though. in which they were not allowed to settle by the despot +harles Tocco. certainly. such as the presence of Albanian%speaking populations in the regions in Buestion prior to the immigrations of the !*th%!"th century. referred to them as ‘P ἱ bXQ O P S O ῶ Q cH ὸ e O ὴ Q Ὰ HIJH Pc PY g m Q V Q Pἰ LPTQ O f Q ἈYZMQ ῶ Q P ἱ YPScP ὶ ’ . found refuge in +orfu92# There is insufficient evidence for reliable conclusions about the sort of reception that the Albanian immigrants received# 8canty and highly limited evidence. since.# The conseBuences of the resistance of ^enebis against the transformation of vassal tributes into complete anne(ation were overwhelming4 the +hronicle of Tocco describes them as causing the complete e(termination and displacement of the Albanians from the regions of G&irokast'r "<# Fevertheless. finally passed to the 0eloponnese9!# ^enebis’ branch of the family. being citi1ens of 7enice. $ suggested that the reactions of local milieu( against the new settlers. previously settled in the region.!"*2/ "@. the old. offer secure conclusions# $t is possible that some of the 7lachs.the rest of the Albanians living around G&irokast'r/93# The more powerful branches of the ^enebis clan.

!?.!?9. 2 vls# .Athens !@@?/ !<%"9# uka .. ed# +# Gasparis .. on pp# !.%!.Thessaloniki/# ucellier . ‘-ealiteti etnik i ropullit n' burimet historike t' shek# >7$ .εριγραφ/ της Ηπείρου εις τρία μ%ρη.wcSNOVbPQSLj wchOVHgaM xSYPNPkSLje ymPYje. Dtudime 8ist1riBe *%".!@?</.!@@?/.-. .!@9</. ‘6es Albanais et 5y1ance au( 7$e%>$ siucles’.!@@!/. eme2da<it a221tati12i=us>ue 3riti3is i2stru?it @uAe2ius 9arBC.6a diaspore albanaise en Gruce au cours du >$7 siucle/’.<%!@@# K# =rash'ri .C =rench synopsis. ‘6es Albanais dans l’ Empire by1antine4 de la communaut\ v l’ e(pansion’.iterature 0# Aravantinos . introduction of the reprint by K# Th# imaras . WzWz{|4 cMHdHOVbM MHS}# 9?/# # Ficol . Qημογραφι %ς όRεις της . ‘ iaspora shBiptare n' GreBi g&at' shekullit >$7 .@/.Thessaloniki/# .οςV)]ος αιZO .. !.ρ%(εSαςT )UοςV)*ος αι!νας ..!@@@/. )(ford# .!@22/ t 0a12i3i 45a6313a2d76ae 8ist1riarum 9em12strati12es ad :idem 31di3um re3e2suit.!@@?/.# Fysta1opoulou%0elekidou . P5e 9esW1tate 1: @Wir1s. in P5e Hedie<a6 G6=a2ia2s. 0a :aEade maritime de 6F G6=a2ie au H17e2 GAe I9uraJJ1 et Ka612a du LMe au LKe siN36eO . reprint4 !@. in P5e Hedie<a6 G6=a2ia2s.Athens !@@?/ "<%9<# K# Komis .Athens/# 0# Aravantinos . efteri osman i reg&istrimit t' pronave dhe t' popullsis' t' san(hakut t' 7lor's i vitit !923/’.!@@!/. . ed# +# Gasparis . )ctober 233! .<# A# A# =# ucellier . !"@%!. reprint4 !@?"/.$oannina/ .!*@@/.5udapest !@22/# ]# ranrolli . Χρονογραφία της Ηπείρου των τε ομόρων Ελληνι !ν αι "λλυρι !ν #ωρ!ν $ιατρ%#ου&α ατ' &ειρ'ν τα εν αυταίς &υμ('ντα από του &ωτηρίου %τους μ%#ρι του )*+.? ^enebis .!@?!/.$oannina/# 6# +halkokondyles . should be attributed to the disintegration of the previous local elites rather than to resistence against a ‘foreign’ invasion# =urther linguistic research of the thoroughness of A# 8pyrou’s work is a desideratum for the advance of our knowledge on the sub&ect dealt with in this article# 5irmingham. * vls#.. Dtudime 8ist1riBe *. Xι Yαλ ανι οί λαοίZ [πό την τουρ ι / ατ' τη&η &την ε\νι / απο ατ'&τα&η I).

aοbλι αι aουλι!τες .+orpus =ontium :istoriae 5y1antinae. trans# 5# Aktsoglou .Gien/# 6# Thalloc1y % K# ]irecek % .!@<@/. α&τι&μός.!@.!@@!/.# 8ufflay . "&τορία της [λ(ανίας. Dtudime 8ist1riBe *%".Albanian migrations to Greece in the !"th +entury/’. $$ .!@@"/.*""%!*"*/ .iddle Ages’.ap of the region of ropull. _ο ελληνι ό γλω&&ι ό ι$ίωμα της περιο#/ς Qελ(ίνου αι [γίων aαρ'ντα .*# G# Tafel % G# Tomas ./. 4r12a3a dei P1331 de 4e:a612ia di a212im1 .ap of Albania# The region of ropull is marked in the sBuare# Map . ‘. G3ta et 9iW61mata des G6=a2iae Hediae Getatis M66ustra2tia. Dtudia G6=a2i3a.Athens/# F# 0apadopoulos .! .Athens/# A# 0uto % 8# 0ollo . ! .igrimet shBiptare n' GreBi n' shek# >$7 .!%!@<*/.7indbonae/# A# 7akalopoulos . G&irokast'r# .Athens/# )ubheadings Map -! . Dtudime 8ist1riBe *. pniversity of Athens# Athens/# -# 8to&kov % T# Kacori .Thessaloniki/# 6# 7ranousis . ‘The Ethnic 8ituation in Epirus during the ./.!@<.!@.2333/. . !3# -oma/# A# 8pyrou . " vls# . _ουρ ο ρατοbμενη gπειροςT τιμαριωτι&μός. "!%9?# F# ^iangos .λη\υ&μός αι οι ι&μοί της .*V)*h`O . "&τορία του e%ου Ελληνι&μοb. *%*3C English synopsis in pp# *!%*2# 0# >hufi .ελοπονν/&ουT )^οςV)*ος αι!νας . Επετηρίς του fε&αιωνι οb [ρ#είου. crBu2de2 Jur a6tere2 8a2de6s u2d Dtaats Aes35i35te der deWu=6iB Ke2ediA./. Η Qρόπολις της Yορείου Ηπείρου ατ' την _ουρ ο ρατίαν I).Thessaloniki/# G# 8chire . 9<%!!9# 0# >hufi .^`V)])^O ..0h# # thesis submitted in the =aculty of 0hilology % 8ector of 6inguistics. νεοελληνι / αναγ%ννη&η I)U.!@<9/.!@<"/. !%2. ‘F&' reg&ist'r osmano%turk i shek# >7 p'r shiptar't e 0elopone1it’.!@.!@!*/.!?9. !2. ‘~P •HPQSLKQ OfQ €fMQQgQfQ LMO’ MQXLaPOPQ aVboaV hcSOPbjQ’.!@?</. !"@%!.9/.!@@?/.@ 7# 0anagiotopoulos .Athens/# 7# 0simouli .

0F G6=a2ie e2tre y7Ja23e ucellier. _α "&τορι ' *‚9 . Xι [λ(ανοί &την Ελλ'$α I)^οςV)+ος αι!ναςOZ Η ranrolli ./ !<# ? @ 0# >hufi .. !??!%0aris. . ‘| OPcfQJbSLj }hoHVNSe OPJ }hNNMYSLPT moHPJ’. !@*?/./ *!C $# 0oulos.*. . 2<%9<. . )n the sub&ect of the Albanian immigration of the !"th and !9th centuries. ‘6a population de la . v# ! . [ρ(ανίτεςT Xι Qωριείς του e%ου Ελληνι&μοb .!@?9/.C F# ^iangos . yu6eti2 i c2i<ersitetit D5tzter1r tz Pira2zs.Athens !@@"/ !"%!9. *rd ed# . Austrian politician .argaritis.Athens !@?3/ *23%*2?C # 7agiakakos. Ηπειρ!τες αι [λ(ανοίT Η .! The term ‘Epiros’ is used for historic reasons and in strictly geographic and cultural conte(ts . Grist1t6e a2d ma27 1t5er A61ri1us me2 1: a2ti>uit7 are err12e1us67 35ara3terised as xreeBsZZZ …. Xι [λ(ανοί ατ' την υρίω Ελλ'$α αι την . as we66 as G6e?a2der t5e xreat. !?%2!..# A# 7akalopoulos . v# ! . . m1re 31rre3t67.!@<@/.!@93/ "*%"9C -# 8to&kov % T# Kacori . **2%***C 0# Aravantinos . see 8# 8toupis. Ηπειρ!τες αι [λ(ανοίT Η . ‘dber die Einwanderung der Albaner in Griechenland .!@?"/ *3"C . aυμ(ολ/ &την ι&τορία αι τοπογραφία της περιο#/ς sορίν\ου &τους μ%&ους #ρόνους. 9issertati12es G6=a2i3ae./ *"%*9C A# μεταν'&τευ&η μιας οινότητας .!@<"/. Επετηρίς του fε&αιωνι οb [ρ#είου .$llyrians/C hence. !3"%!2.!@. "&τορία του Ελληνι&μοb με ('&ιν την fα ε$ονίαν $ι' μ%&ου των αι!νων Athens !@2*.ichael% ede.yTQOPbPe SNOPHSLj hcSNLKcVNSe/’.Athens 233!/ !!"%!9@ . Ηπειρωτι ό Ημερολόγιο . it is mentioned that „ P5e G6=a2ia2s are des3e2da2ts 1: t5e ue6asAia2sv 81mer.ρο&φορ' της Ηπείρου προ το k\νος . ‘The 0roblem of the Autochthony of the . !@3<# * " 9 0apadopoulos.Athens !@?!/ !*<C . *2?C 0# -ontogiannis.*%<! and K# Komis .# Fysta1opoulou%0elekidou .*C # ^akythinos. pp# !"%!<C K# 5iris. [ρ(ανίτεςZ Xι Qωριείς του νε!τερου Ελληνι&μοb. ‘lhNMSfQSLj ƒchSHPe . * . ‘| hcPgLVNSe OfQ •YZMQoQ hSe nPHSQ}gMQ’.6ondon !@?</ . ‘6es Albanais du >$e au >$$$e siucle4 Fomades ou s\dentaires_’. 99!%992C A# ucellier. cited in 8toupis. and v# *.!@. 0F 8e66ι2isme 412temW1rai2.!@32/ . !!3C T# . **%*"# =or e(amples.#G# 6abrinydis. G6=a2ia2Z G66 5er1es 1: xree3e i2 Pr1ia were G6=a2ia2s..ρο&φορ' της Ηπείρου προ το k\νος .!@@?/.!@@!/. v# !.!@@!/ 9%<.!@?!/. . ‘WVbPIHMkgM.Athens !@@2/ 2?. was a ue6asAia2 5imse6: 1r.Athens !@3</ 9%!!C 0# >hufi .the northernmost limit being -iver 7&os'/# As will be shown.# . X [λ(ανι ός Ε\νι ι&μός αι ο Xι ουμενι ός Ελληνι&μόςZ lmπειροςn #!ρα .αν'ρ#αια oη I αι ο _ε#νητός [φελληνι&μός τηςO.!/. bhOMQMNOhTNhSe LMS cPYSOSNbSLd NTQPHM McK OM OXYV OPJ lhNMgfQM NOV QhoOhHV hcPmj’.Eine 1usammenfassende 5etrachtung/’./ ?"%@@C A# of.!@@"/ 9"# A# ucellier. pp# 2!<%2!?C ]# .$oannina !@<. see A# ucellier . v# !. . "&τορία της ν/&ου rευ '$ος . 2"<%2<2 and *"<%*93C 0# )ikonomou. one of the leaders of the 8ocial% emocratic 0arty and author 0# Karolidis. ‘0roblemi i autoktonis' s' shBiptar've n' drit'n e emrave t' vendeve’.even though on p# !9* he mentions that co%e(istence of Greeks and Albanians in Epiros was for centuries a daily practice/# < $n an Albanian proclamation dated !???. *. Xι kλληνες [ρ(ανίτες .!@@!/. v# 2.Athens !@@</ @@%!*<C 8# Kargakos. mentioned in K# Fikolaidis. ??%@".Athens !@@</ "!%<2C .!@?.!@"@/ !!<%!!@C .?%?9C A# 0uto % 8# 0ollo ..!@9@/ 9"C for the English version of this important article see Aabe& E#. [\ην' <@ .. !@C K# 5iris.!@@@/.orSe by1antine’. t5e =iAAest W1et e<er.Athens !@@. . [λ(ανοί.ελοπόννη&ονT t$ραVaπ%τ&αι . [λ(ανίαT Ελληνι / . "!9%"!. ‘•YZMQgM LMS •YZMQPg’ Ελληνι&μός 9 .*@9 b#•#%!"*3 b#•#/# .!@?</C 7# 0simouli et Ke2ise .7ariorum -eprints./ 9*C A# 7akalopoulos .Athens !@@"/# . .$oannina !@<. 9ie iati12a6itjte2:raAe u2d die D1Jia6dem1Bratie . [ρ(ανίτες kλληνες .!@?"/. note 2* and 0# >hufi . * . in A# ucellier. M2 8121rem p1seW5i Ka6e2ti2i et @r2esti q16i>i DeWtuaAe2ari1rum . Epiros was inhabited both by Greeks and Albanians .!@.# Kordosis. 29%2. where the case of 0reve1a is dealt with# !3 Aabe& E#./C T# ]ochalas. ! .Gien.!/.Knchen !@<!/ !39C 7# 0anagiotopoulos . among many others. there is no relation here with the political implications given to this term from the end of !@ th +entury onwards# Fowadays parts of Epiros belong both to Greece and Albania# 2 )tto 5auer.!@?3/.

see 0# >hufi . verse !"2. !22# F# 5ees % E# 8eferli. doc# 9. @9%@. when the 7lachs of the village 8uh' are mentioned in a espot 8ymeon 0alaeologos D0# Aravantinos .!@?9/.. !?%2!# 8ee notes !3%!.#G#8#. <th ed# .!@@"/. 2< 2? 7# 0anagiotopoulos .Tirana !@?9/ *"E# The relative autochthony of the Albanian populations in Epiros was naturally accepted with great enthusiasm by Albanian scholarship D0# >hufi . calves. meaning the breeding of light animals. [ρ(ανίτες αι η ατγωγ/ των Ελλ/νωνT "&τορι /Vrαογραφι /V.Albanians in the 6ight of 0lace%names’. .# =or the history of the espotate of Epiros. !<<# 1WZ 3itZ .!@<9/. !. chapter ". verses !<!. "!%9? and K# =rash'ri .!@@?/. .?. |εου$αρ#ι / gπειρο αι Qε&ποτ'το της Ελλ'$αςT aυμ(ολ/ &το e%ο Ελληνι&μό . verses @3@ and ff# K# Giakoumis. "< and note !*2# 22 2* 2" 29 6# Thalloc1y % K# ]irecek % . 6# +halkokondyles .!@@?/E# !! !2 !* !" !9 !.2332/ /. where most of the related literature is given# 2@ *3 *! =or a definition of this particular.!?9..!@@@/.!@<"/. !. pp# !??%!?@ and note *!3. see F#G# ^iangos.* and !. !?9.Athens !@<"/ 239%2*! and especially the late A# Kollias. !3". cows.!. !9. o(en. 2229# 1WZ 3itZ ./.!@22/. note 222 and pp# !!. in P5e G6=a2ia2s a2d t5eir Perrit1ries . !?2%!?*.2# =or views on this name as being ancestral to the name ‘8hpata’. v# !..# 8ufflay . 23<9. *!!%*!"C cf# K# 8tergiopoulos. see 1WZ 3itZ . see 1WZ 3itZ . |εου$αρ#ι / gπειρο αι Qε&ποτ'το της Ελλ'$αςT aυμ(ολ/ &το e%ο Ελληνι&μό .Athens !@@2/ !!<%!*9.?%<*# G# Tafel % G# Tomas . with e(tensive references to the older literature in relevant linguistic research# 1WZ 3itZ . !?9# 1WZ 3itZ . P5e m12asteries 1: p1rAu3at a2d Ka2is5tz i2 9r1Wu66 a2d 1: DWe6ai1 i2 0u2?5zri as H12ume2ts a2d light cattle%breeding.2333/.a.<%!.hereafter cited as Giakoumis K# ./. 23<%23?# 23 2! pa5r={35er. 23<%23?# 1WZ 3itZ .!@@!/.# 5y heavy cattle%breeding $ mean the breeding of heavy animals. etc# in contrast to G# 8chir† . !?9%!??. see note !# G# 8chir† .!.!@@?/. who believes that from antiBuity Albanians and Greeks.5irmingham 2332/ .!?9. p# !@. such as sheep and goats# *2 ** *" M2stituti12s 9uri2A t5e }tt1ma2 ueri1d i2 G6=a2ia I)Ut5V)]t5 4e2turiesO . verses !9%22# There is evidence of the presence of 7lachs at least from !*. . but also in other districts in Greece# 2. where most of the relevant literature is listed# A# 8pyrou . !?!%!?2C for views on the close pro(imity of the Greek idioms of ropull and 0ogon to that G# Tafel % G# Tomas . v# 2.!@9</C F#G# ^iangos.αρατηρ/&εις chrysobull of the . ‘pnedierte 8chriftstqche aus des Kan1lei des ]ohannes Apokaukos’. 933# 8ee also 7# 0simouli . !< !? !@ A# ucellier .. The pniversity of 5irmingham .!@!*/. both sharing the same civili1ation and culture. see # Ficol . 93%9*# *9 *. note *39./. were living together not only in Epiros.on 8pyrou and his work/# )n the presence of Albanians in Epiros prior. doc# 9.@# K# Komis . 2! . y7Ja2ti2is35VieuArie35is35 of elvin' % 8arand'. !?!# =or these words. 0h# # thesis submitted in the +#5#)#. 9%<C 0# >hufi . such as swine. doc# .!?9.!@<9/.# 1WZ 3itZ .ολιτι&τι /Voλω&&ολογι / Επι& όπη&η . *3 and note !. p# !@3# 1WZ 3itZ .Athens !@<"/.!@@"/.

@# 0# >hufi .2# 0# Aravantinos . note 2!C 7# 0simouli . doc# 9.?./.!@@"/ "<%"? and note !**# $oannis +antacu1eni e(imperatoris./. see A# -i1os.!@@?/ 9!%92# =or these events see 6# 7ranousis .!@9</ !.!@<9/ <@%?2 and verses *!<"%*22*. *2<"%**3*# 7# 0simouli .!@@?/ *9C for the penetration of the Albanians in K'lcyr' see 7# 0simouli . v# !.!@.!@?</ !99% G# 8chir† . !". ".a.<%!.!@@?/ ".!@@?/ 9!%92 and 9. p# 2@4 !%*# 8chir† G# . v# 2.Athens !@*</ *<C F# 0apadopoulos .!@@?/ 9!# 6# 7ranousis .!@@?/ 9!. chapter ". 8ist1riarum 0i=ri MK xrae3e et 0ati2e 2 . as well as other rebellions around that year. doc# 9.!@@3/ facs# 2.!@<.!?9.%9<# )n this rebellion.%9<C ]# ranrolli .# 92 . *2<"%**3*C 7# 0simouli . !39C 7# 0simouli .C 0# >hufi .%2<E# $n the mu:assa6 de:ter of !923 an entire 2a5i7e of 7lachs was registered D=# century’.!@@?/ *"# "3 "! "2 "* "" "9 ".!@<9/ <@%?2 and verses *!<"%*22*. "./.!# 6# 7ranousis . in Pur3i3a . ‘The )ttoman G# 8chir† .!@@!/ !. ‘The 7lachs of 6arissa in the !3 th 6# Thalloc1y % K# ]irecek % .* and !.3# 6# 7ranousis . see K# Giakoumis.C 7# 0simouli .". *2<"%**3*C 7# 0simouli . 6$ .εις την eεωτ%ραν oεωγραφίαν της Ηπείρου . 2.!@.!@@!/E# 7lachs were also mentioned in the villages of 7odhino and 6uvin' D0# >hufi . forthcoming# "< "? "@ 93 9! !9. y7Ja2ti221s6a<i3a .3# =or the )ttoman advance and consolidation in Epiros during the !9th century. 7# 0simouli .!@.!@. p# 9"E# )n the 7lachs of Thessaly.!?9.!@@?/ ".!@@?/ 92. "".2332/ !*%!9# 6# +halkokondyles .!@!*/ !. v# 2.!@9</ !93%!9!C 7# 0simouli .!@22/.9/ !33C # Ficol .# 8ufflay . 232%23<# *< *? *@ uka .%!< and note ?! on p# !. see K# Giakoumis .!@<9/ <@%?2 and verses *!<"%*22*..5onn !@*3/ ?!# ]ohn +antecu1enus located the sacks in the cities of AcarnaniaC for a survey of the use of the term in ]ohn +antecu1enus see4 7# 0simouli .!@@?/ 9.9/ @3%@2C 0# Aravantinos .9/ @?%@@C 7# 0simouli .9/ @2%@*C # Ficol . 2!%22.!@@"/.!@@?/ 9<# Advance and +onsolidation in Epiros during the =ourteenth and =ifteenth +entury’.

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