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RESISUAL STRESS NDT PORTABLE UPDATE

Introduction This type of non-destructive method NDT provides the possibility to measure residual stress and the effect of the service load with an impact device and a vibration measurement sensor. Internal stresses are to be considered as the following: 1) perational strains referring to loads that the material is sub!ect and calculated ") #esidual stresses in the material caused by heat treatments or stresses caused by welding$ forging$ casting$ etc. The new techni%ue is able to measure the applied load and residual stress that are balanced on the surface of the material$ and in a relatively large volume$ at times even the same si&e as the entire structures. This stress is part of the metal's elasticity field and has a three a(is spatial orientation. The system wor)s through the accelerometer mounted with a magnetic base to generate the acceleration value of the vibrations created by the device impacting on the metal surface. The acceleration value$ in combination with other parameters$ permits obtaining the e(act value of the residual stress or load applied in the desired point. This value will appear on the display directly in N * mm +. ,or non-magnetic metals$ wa( or gel will be used to mount the accelerometer. This new system$ for buildings$ bridges steel inspection is very simple for to use $ portable $measure e(act values of residual stress due to welding and the applied loads. -fter many years of research and tests$ and between e discover about elastics behavior in field of metal steel now is very practice inspection point to point building and bridge constructions. This new system$ for buildings$ bridges steel inspection is very simple for to use $ portable $measure e(act values of residual stress due to welding and the applied loads. Internal stresses are to be considered as the following: 1) perational strains referring to loads that the material is sub!ect and calculated ") #esidual stresses in the material caused by heat treatments or stresses caused by welding$ forging$ casting$ etc. The new techni%ue is able to measure the applied load and residual stress that are balanced on the surface of the material$ and in a relatively large volume$ at times even the same si&e as the entire structures. This stress is part of the metal's elasticity field and has a three a(is spatial orientation. Description .lastic oscillations /also called vibrations) of an elastic material consisting of elementary masses alternately moving around their respective balance positions0 these movements cause a transformation of the potential energy into )inetic energy. This phenomenon ta)es place due to reactions /elastic forces) that the aforementioned masses produce in opposition to elastic movements0

these reactions are proportional according to 1oo)e's 2aw to the same movements. The elastic waves that are produced propagate according to a fi(ed speed that depends on how rapidly the elemental masses begin to oscillate. .lastic waves of this type are called 3permanently progressive4$ and they propagate at a constant speed which is absolutely independent of the speed with which the elemental masses move during the oscillating motion$ and therefore also their respective oscillations. It is easy to verify that the elastic oscillations$ from a material point 5 /in which the elemental mass m is supposedly concentrated) are harmonic. In reality$ due to the fact that in any moment the elastic force that is applied to 5 is proportional to the distance ( of the point from its position of balance 6$ 5 acceleration /caused by the proportionality between the forces and the corresponding accelerations) is also proportional to (0 this is demonstrated in the harmonic movement. The impulse creates in the metallic mass a harmonic oscillation /vibration) which is characteri&ed by a specific fre%uency f and by a width e%ual to d( /movement of the relative mass). If a constant impulse is produced in the metallic material$ the elastic oscillation generated in the 5 point will also produce a sinusoidal wave with specific width$ acceleration$ speed and period values. This wave is longitudinal when the direction of the vibration is e%ual to the 5 point movement$ or is trasversal$ and in both cases the values of the results are identical0 the only difference is the 7 delay of the phase. Analyse impact energies

Impact with the metallic surface results an elastic deformation plus a plastic deformation .d 8 .i 9 / .r : .p ) .i 8 Impact energy .r 8 #ebound energy .p 8 5lastic deformation energy

.d 8 .lastic deformation energy .d 8 ; < = d(+

= 8 metal elastic >odule

The elastic energy generate from the impulse generator$ on the surface of the metal$ varies with the hardness of the metal itself. This elastic energy$ however$ remains unchanged at each corresponding hardness./ see diagram ) The impulse of force gives an elastic volumetric deformation e%ual to: Ee = ! " d# $ol% ?ol 8 ?olume deformation =. 8 .lastic >odule /volumic reaction.) d( 8 Displacement. -t the same time gives rise to a transverse vibration forced with energy e%ual E& = ! m a d# m 8 inertial mass a 8 acceleration of vibration. therefore Ee = ! $ol% " d# = E& = ! m a d# = constant

The value of residual stress$ with the elastic energy constant$ depends on the change from the module " and inverse d# /other values are fi(ed: @$ D$ A). T'e &ariation o( " t'ere(ore corresponds to a proportional &ariation o() a *&i+ratory acceleration,% The system wor)s through the accelerometer mounted with a magnetic base to

generate the acceleration value of the vibrations created by the device impacting on the metal surface. The acceleration value$ in combination with other parameters$ allow to obtain the e(act value of the residual stress or load applied in the desired point. This value will appear on the display directly in N * mm +. ,or non-magnetic metals$ wa( or gel will be used to mount the accelerometer. The system doesn't recogni&e the compressive from tensile stress% -onclusion -pplication of this type of non-destructive method NDT provides the possibility to measure residual stress and the effect of the service load in a very rapid and simple way on any point of the metallic surface. 5recision depends on the roughness of the surface. This technology has demonstrated its validity over years of mechanical e(perimentation and has confirmed its theoretical basis. A+out residual stresses The residual stress in a metal doesn't depend on its hardness$ but from the elasticity module or Boung module and from its chemical composition. The hardness of a metal indicates its ability to absorb elastic an plastic energy$ but through it not possible to determine the value of residual stress. In a metal with the same hardness we will have different values of this stress. The residual stresses tend to e%uilibration themselves in the surface of the material. The measurement made with all the ma!or methods$ C-ray$ string gauge /destructive)$ optical etc. the residual stress is determined between the measuring the displacement of the e%uilibrium point the reticule crystalline. The method discovered analyse the value of fre%uency and vibratory acceleration generated by an impulse with the subse%uent reaction elastic /elastic field) from the metal. Bou will reali&e the convenience of this techni%ue. 1) 5ortable system easy to use and very swift. ") NDT non-destructive test. D) #epeatable in unlimited number of points. E) -ll metals type /a-magnetic) and surface and inclination. F) Don't e(pensive. .ffective for welding$ hardened treatments$ vessels control$ bridges$ pipes line$ aeronautics$ NDT inspection for every metal .p.i .nnio Gurto. Hith I-DT cn. collaboration -nd Jniversity of Icience and Technology Kei!ing /#ay-()