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Carleton University DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ENVE4003 Air Pollution and Emissions Control - Laboratory Experiment

3. Motor Vehicle Emissions Introduction The internal combustion engines which are used in motor vehicles represent a significant fraction of the total CO, NOx, VOC and PM emissions to the atmosphere from human activity. These emissions are governed by engine design, operating conditions, fuel characteristics, and ambient conditions. Regulatory emissions testing of light duty vehicles is typically carried out on a chassis dynamometer, simulating actual driving conditions on roadways. The driving wheels of the vehicle are placed on a rotating shaft which can apply a varying, and carefully monitored, resistance as the driver follows a recommended speed vs time trace called a driving cycle. Throughout the test, the exhaust emissions are monitored making it possible to report mass of emissions per unit distance driven during the test. This is a fairly elaborate test, requiring specialized equipment and expertise. Simplified procedures of emissions testing have been devised for periodic checking of vehicles to ensure that their emissions are within the limits originally designed for the vehicle. Measuring the concentration of some pollutants in the tailpipe of a vehicle under idle and/or high idle operation of the engine has been among the procedures used by programs called Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) as a practical way of identifying vehicles that may require some maintenance to meet their expected emissions performance. Advances in emission control technologies for vehicles have required correspondingly improved emissions testing procedures, closer to the regulatory testing on a chassis dynamometer. However, tailpipe concentrations measured at idle and high idle can still give some indication of the operation and emissions performance of an internal combustion engine. Theory Full discussion of the mechanisms of formation and the significance of emissions from vehicles and internal combustion engines can be found in sections of the textbook (de Nevers, 2000). In terms of emissions from the engine a key parameter is the air/fuel (A/F) ratio which in turm is governed by the demand on the engine in terms of speed and load. Exhaust after-treatment technologies are used to reduce pollutants in engine exhaust to CO2, H2O, and N2 before the exhaust is released through the tailpipe to the atmosphere. For gasoline engines the A/F ratio can be calculated by mass balances, using the measured concentrations of CO, CO2, O2, and HC, and an empirical formula for gasoline. Procedure Vehicles recruited from class members will be tested in the area behind the bus station on Campus Avenue. Emissions will be measured at the following engine speeds: - idle (record rpm reading if available) - 2500 rpm (or a steady high engine speed if no rpm reading available)

ENVE4003 Experiment 3. Motor Vehicle Emissions

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Before you start any emission measurements ensure the following: For a standard transmission vehicle the emergency (hand) brake should be engaged and the gear shift should be in neutral An automatic transmission vehicle should be in Park, and the emergency (hand) brake engaged. You will be using a Horiba MEXA-534GE Portable Automotive Analyzer for monitoring the concentrations of CO, HC, CO2, and O21 in the exhaust. A small gas canister with known CO, HC, and CO2 content can be used periodically to calibrate the sensors. Your demonstrator will give you a few simple instructions in obtaining your readings from this instrument. Data Collection Record the following: Vehicle identification: Make, model, model year, odometer reading. Engine characteristics: Number of cylinders, engine capacity and power Engine speed: rpm (if available) Gas Analysis: The data acquisition system developed by Stan Conley of our department's laboratories (DAS, described separately) will record the readings of the gas analyzer continuously. You should also record your direct observation of the readings on the gas analyzer. Calculations and Discussion You should set up an electronic spreadsheet for analyzing the internal combustion engine mass balances. Recall the use of electronic spreadsheets for mass and energy balances from ENVE2001. There, the balances assumed complete combustion. Here the CO, CO2 and HC readings need to be used as input while completing the calculations. Internal combustion engine emissions are closely related to the Air/Fuel ratio used by the engine which can be calculated by mass balances, using the measured concentrations of CO, CO2, O2, and HC, and an empirical formula of of CH1.8 for a typical gasoline. Calculate the A/F ratio2 for each set of engine operating conditions you observed in the test and plot the observed HC and CO concentrations against A/F ratio. Comment on your results. Find out what the emission regulations for this vehicle were when it was new. Can you make any comparisons between these regulations and the measurements you made? References: De Nevers, Noel, "Air Pollution Control Engineering", Mc-Graw-Hill, 2nd ed. 2000. Sections 7.10.1 through 7.10.3 Section 7.10.9 Chapter 13

D.Karman, August 2013


The O2 reading may be unavailable if the oxygen sensor has not been replaced recently. It can be estimated by mass balances if an average fuel molecular formula is used. The A/F ratio is typically expressed as the mass of air over the mass of fuel even though combustion calculations are completed using molar quantities. ENVE4003 Experiment 3. Motor Vehicle Emissions Page 2 / 2