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LUDWIGSBURG MOBILE COMMUNICATION DIVISION
Originator(s)
O. Aydin, U. Birkel, A.
Gaertner, RM. Goerner, M.
Hahn, L. Sanchez-Perez
UMTS RADIO NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE
Domain : NETWORK PLANNING
Product : UMTS/GSM GENERAL
Division : METHODS
Rubric : GENERAL
Type : GUIDELINE
Distribution Codes Internal : IDDL External : EDDL
PREDISTRIBUTION (for document reading cycle)
PCS K. Heinlein PCS E. Salomon
PCS J. Kozlik PCS T. Lebugle
PCS HJ. Machjer PCS C. Moignard
MND K. Daniel MND Y. Dupuch
PCS E. Nguyen
ABSTRACT
This guideline is giving an introduction into RNP relevant aspects of UMTS. It is shown how to
dimension, how to plan and how to perform measurements in an UMTS network based on Wide
Band CDMA.
KEYWORDS
UMTS, RNP, Guideline, Planning, Dimensioning, Traffic
Approvals (get approvals from document manager)
Name
App.
Appraisal Authority:
C. Brechtmann
U. Birkel K. Heinlein
Name
App.
?
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REVIEW
Edition Date Review Report Identification
HISTORY
Edition Date Reason of change
01 19.01.2001 Creation of document
01 23.01.2001 Draft 01
01 07.02.2001 Proposal 01
02 05.04.2001 Excluding confidential information from chapters 4 and 5
Short description of significant changes to previous edition:
Edition Changes
INTERNAL REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
Not applicable
FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY
Not applicable
IDDL - ALCATEL-INTERNAL DOCUMENT DISTRIBUTION LIST
PCS ISC Manager BR Operation Manager
Documentation Management Systems : DIAMS
EDDL - ALCATEL-EXTERNAL DOCUMENT DISTRIBUTION LIST
END OF ALCATEL INTERNAL PART OF THE DOCUMENT
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UMTS RADIO NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE
CONFIDENTIAL
Guideline
TABLE OF CONTENTS
REFERENCED DOCUMENTS..................................................................................................................... 6
RELATED DOCUMENTS............................................................................................................................. 6
PREFACE ........................................................................................................................................................ 6
SCOPE.............................................................................................................................................................. 6
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................... 6
1 RNP PROCESS DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................ 8
2 WCDMA FUNDAMENTALS AND UMTS AIR INTERFACE........................................................................... 9
2.1 UMTS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................................... 9
2.1.1 UE ( User Equipment) .............................................................................................................................. 9
2.1.2 UTRAN (UMTS Radio Access Network) .............................................................................................. 10
2.1.3 CN (Core network) ................................................................................................................................. 10
2.1.4 External networks ................................................................................................................................... 10
2.1.5 Interfaces ................................................................................................................................................ 11
2.1.6 Logical roles of the RNC........................................................................................................................ 11
2.1.6.1 CRNC .................................................................................................................................................. 11
2.1.6.2 SRNC & DRNC................................................................................................................................... 11
2.1.7 Mapping between GSM and UMTS....................................................................................................... 12
2.2 STANDARDS AND USED FREQUENCY SPECTRUM........................................................................................ 12
2.3 MOBILE CLASSES ....................................................................................................................................... 14
2.4 BROADBAND PROPAGATION CHANNEL AND WCDMA BASIC CONCEPT ................................................... 14
2.4.1 Multiple Access Techniques................................................................................................................... 14
2.4.2 Broadband signal and Coherence bandwidth.......................................................................................... 15
2.4.3 Multipath propagation and RAKE receiver ............................................................................................ 16
2.5 SPREADING, SCRAMBLING AND MODULATION .......................................................................................... 16
2.5.1 Spreading................................................................................................................................................ 16
2.5.2 Despreading............................................................................................................................................ 17
2.5.3 Codes used.............................................................................................................................................. 18
2.5.3.1 Channelization codes........................................................................................................................... 18
2.5.3.2 Scrambling codes................................................................................................................................. 19
2.5.4 Example for scrambling code allocation: Cell Search Process............................................................... 21
2.5.5 Spreading, scrambling and modulation .................................................................................................. 21
2.5.5.1 Uplink part ........................................................................................................................................... 21
2.5.5.2 Downlink part ...................................................................................................................................... 22
2.6 USER DETECTION MECHANISMS (QUICK OVERVIEW)................................................................................. 23
2.7 POWER CONTROL IN UMTS FDD.............................................................................................................. 23
2.7.1 General Power Control in UMTS........................................................................................................... 23
2.7.1.1 Outer Loop Power Control .................................................................................................................. 24
01 010123 Draft 01 C. Brechtmann, PCS PCS/NPL/METHODS
OA, UB, AG, MH, LSP, MG
ED DATE
(YYMMDD)
CHANGE NOTE APPRAISAL AUTHORITY ORIGINATORS
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2.7.1.2 Inner Loop Power Control for dedicated channels .............................................................................. 24
2.7.1.3 Open Loop Power Control................................................................................................................... 26
2.7.1.4 Site selection diversity transmit power control.................................................................................... 26
2.8 HO TYPES & EVENTS................................................................................................................................. 27
2.8.1 Hard handover ........................................................................................................................................ 27
2.8.2 Soft handover.......................................................................................................................................... 27
2.8.3 Softer handover....................................................................................................................................... 29
2.8.4 Power control in soft(er) handover ......................................................................................................... 29
2.8.4.1 Downlink PC in SHO.......................................................................................................................... 29
2.8.4.2 Uplink PC in SHO............................................................................................................................... 30
2.8.5 Reporting events for Soft Handover and measurement reports .............................................................. 30
2.8.6 Filtering E
C
/N
0
measures out of raw measures ....................................................................................... 31
2.9 RECEIVE & TRANSMIT DIVERSITY............................................................................................................. 31
2.9.1 Receiver diversity mechanisms .............................................................................................................. 32
2.9.1.1 Uplink receiver diversity ..................................................................................................................... 32
2.9.1.2 Downlink receiver diversity ................................................................................................................ 32
2.9.2 Downlink Transmit diversity mechanisms ............................................................................................. 33
2.9.2.1 Open loop downlink transmit diversity ............................................................................................... 34
2.9.2.2 Closed loop downlink transmit diversity for DPCH transmission....................................................... 35
2.10 CODECS SUPPORTED BY UTRAN .......................................................................................................... 35
2.10.1 Fixed Rate CODECs............................................................................................................................. 36
2.10.2 Adaptive Multi Rate CODECs ............................................................................................................. 36
3 CHANNEL TYPES AND RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT........................................................................ 38
3.1 OVERVIEW ON CHANNEL TYPES AND NAMES ............................................................................................ 39
3.1.1 Physical channels.................................................................................................................................... 39
3.1.2 Transport channels.................................................................................................................................. 40
3.1.3 Logical channels ..................................................................................................................................... 42
3.1.4 Mapping between different channel types .............................................................................................. 43
3.2 THE PHYSICAL CHANNELS ......................................................................................................................... 43
3.2.1 The physical channels in Uplink............................................................................................................. 43
3.2.1.1 DPCH (DPDCH & DPCCH) in UL..................................................................................................... 43
3.2.1.2 PRACH................................................................................................................................................ 44
3.2.1.3 PCPCH................................................................................................................................................. 46
3.2.2 The physical channels in DL .................................................................................................................. 47
3.2.2.1 Downlink DPCH.................................................................................................................................. 48
3.2.2.2 CPICH Common Pilot channel......................................................................................................... 49
3.2.2.3 PCCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel ................................................................... 49
3.2.2.4 SCCPCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel ............................................................... 50
3.2.2.5 SCH Synchronization Channel ......................................................................................................... 51
3.2.2.6 PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel.................................................................................... 51
3.3 RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS ........................................................................................... 52
3.3.1 Radio Admission Control ....................................................................................................................... 54
3.3.1.1 Admission control for uplink............................................................................................................... 54
3.3.1.2 Admission Control for Downlink ........................................................................................................ 55
4 UMTS SERVICES AND TRAFFIC MODELING ............................................................................................. 57
4.1 UMTS SERVICES ....................................................................................................................................... 58
4.2 TRAFFIC MODELLING................................................................................................................................. 60
4.2.1 Microscopic Traffic Models ................................................................................................................... 60
4.2.2 Macroscopic Traffic Models................................................................................................................... 60
4.3 SERVICE DEFINITION ................................................................................................................................. 61
4.3.1 Circuit Switched Services....................................................................................................................... 61
4.3.1.1 Bit rate: ................................................................................................................................................ 61
4.3.1.2 Radio Quality and QoS........................................................................................................................ 62
4.3.1.3 Grade of Service (GoS) ....................................................................................................................... 62
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4.3.1.4 Microscopic Traffic Model.................................................................................................................. 62
4.3.2 Packet Switched Services ....................................................................................................................... 63
4.3.2.1 Bit rates................................................................................................................................................ 64
4.3.2.2 QoS and Radio Quality........................................................................................................................ 65
4.3.2.3 Grade of Service .................................................................................................................................. 65
4.3.2.4 Microscopic Traffic Models ................................................................................................................ 65
4.4 MACROSCOPIC TRAFFIC MODEL FOR LINK BUDGET ANALYSIS............................................................... 67
4.4.1 Assumptions ........................................................................................................................................... 67
4.4.2 Concept ................................................................................................................................................... 68
4.4.3 Inputs of the Macroscopic Traffic Model ............................................................................................... 69
4.4.3.1 Circuit Switched Services.................................................................................................................... 69
4.4.3.2 Packet Switched Services .................................................................................................................... 70
4.4.4 Outputs of the Macroscopic Traffic Model ............................................................................................ 70
4.4.4.1 Uplink.................................................................................................................................................. 70
4.4.4.2 Downlink ............................................................................................................................................. 71
4.5 ANNEX A: REQUIRED E
B
/N
0
FOR SPEECH SERVICE................................................................................. 72
4.5.1 Speech 8 kbit/s........................................................................................................................................ 72
4.5.2 Speech 12.2 kbit/s................................................................................................................................... 72
4.6 ANNEX B: REQUIRED E
B
/N
0
FOR CIRCUIT SWITCHED SERVICES ............................................................. 74
4.6.1 CS 64 kbit/s ............................................................................................................................................ 74
4.6.2 CS 144 kbps............................................................................................................................................ 74
4.6.3 CS 384 kbit/s .......................................................................................................................................... 75
4.7 ANNEX C: REQUIRED E
B
/N
0
FOR PACKET SWITCHED SERVICES ............................................................... 76
4.7.1 PS 64 kbit/s............................................................................................................................................. 76
4.7.2 PS 144 kbit/s........................................................................................................................................... 76
4.7.3 PS 384 kbit/s........................................................................................................................................... 77
5 LINK BUDGET AND INITIAL NETWORK DESIGN........................................................................................ 78
5.1 MULTISERVICE LINK BUDGET.................................................................................................................... 78
5.1.1 Uplink Analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 79
5.1.1.1 Uplink Iteration Process ...................................................................................................................... 80
5.1.2 Downlink Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 83
5.1.2.1 Downlink Iteration Process.................................................................................................................. 83
5.2 LINK BUDGET PARAMETERS...................................................................................................................... 87
5.2.1 Input Parameters for Link Budget Process ............................................................................................. 87
5.2.1.1 Service Inputs ...................................................................................................................................... 87
5.2.2 Transmission Parameters ........................................................................................................................ 89
5.2.3 UE specific parameters ........................................................................................................................... 90
5.2.4 Node B Specific Parameters ................................................................................................................... 90
5.2.5 Exemplary Link Budget.......................................................................................................................... 92
6 CELL PLANNING WITH PLANNING TOOL.................................................................................................... 96
6.1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 96
6.2 WORKAROUND FOR UMTS CELL PLANNING............................................................................................. 96
6.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE WORKAROUND USING THE EXAMPLE OF OSTRAVA................................................. 96
6.3.1 Introduction and Process Description..................................................................................................... 96
6.3.2 Input Data ............................................................................................................................................... 97
6.3.2.1 Databases ............................................................................................................................................. 97
6.3.2.2 Traffic .................................................................................................................................................. 98
6.3.3 A955 planning step................................................................................................................................. 99
6.3.4 ILBT4RNP planning steps.................................................................................................................... 100
6.3.4.1 Propagation model ............................................................................................................................. 101
6.3.4.2 Input parameters ................................................................................................................................ 101
6.3.4.3 ILBT4RNP output ............................................................................................................................. 102
6.3.5 Comparison of the intermediate results ................................................................................................ 103
6.3.6 Results & Conclusion of the workaround............................................................................................. 104
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6.4 CODE PLANNING INSTEAD OF FREQUENCY PLANNING............................................................................. 104
7 ANTENNA ENGINEERING........................................................................................................................... 106
7.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 106
7.2 ANTENNA TILT......................................................................................................................................... 106
7.3 DIVERSITY ASPECTS ................................................................................................................................ 106
7.3.1 RX Diversity......................................................................................................................................... 106
7.3.2 TX STTD Diversity Gain ..................................................................................................................... 108
7.4 ANXU (ANTENNA NETWORK FOR UMTS) ............................................................................................. 109
7.4.1 Single Carrier Configuration with Transmit Diversity......................................................................... 110
7.4.2 Dual Single Carrier Configuration........................................................................................................ 111
7.5 MHA (MAST HEAD AMPLIFIER).............................................................................................................. 111
7.6 GSM AND UMTS/FDD CO-LOCATION.................................................................................................... 113
7.6.1 RF Requirements .................................................................................................................................. 113
7.6.1.1 Interference Mechanism .................................................................................................................... 113
7.6.1.2 Decoupling requirements................................................................................................................... 114
7.6.1.3 Receiver blocking.............................................................................................................................. 117
7.6.1.4 Intermodulation ................................................................................................................................. 120
7.6.1.5 Summary on the required decoupling................................................................................................ 127
7.6.2 Antenna System Solutions.................................................................................................................... 127
7.6.2.1 Dual Band Sites ................................................................................................................................. 127
7.6.2.2 Feeder Sharing................................................................................................................................... 136
7.6.2.3 Triple Band Sites ............................................................................................................................... 137
7.6.3 Outlook to the future: Smart antennas (beam-forming)........................................................................ 145
8 PRODUCTS AND MIGRATION STRATEGIES............................................................................................... 146
8.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 146
8.2 ROADMAP: RADIO ACCESS NETWORK EVOLUTION.................................................................. 147
8.2.1 RELEASE 1: UMTS OVERLAY NETWORK.................................................................................... 147
8.2.2 RELEASE 2: UMTS/GSM NETWORK INTEGRATION.................................................................. 149
8.2.3 RELEASE 3GR3: UNIFIED RAN ARCHITECTURE ....................................................................... 150
8.2.4 What is GERAN? ................................................................................................................................. 151
8.2.5 Interoperability in a multi-vendor environment.................................................................................... 152
8.3 PRODUCTS ............................................................................................................................................ 152
8.3.1 Evolium Node B (MBS V1) ................................................................................................................. 152
8.3.1.1 Possible configurations within one cabinet ....................................................................................... 153
8.3.1.2 Baseband board capabilities .............................................................................................................. 153
8.3.1.3 Radio performance values of MBS V1.............................................................................................. 154
8.3.1.4 Iub interface to RNC.......................................................................................................................... 155
8.3.2 Evolium MBS V2 ................................................................................................................................. 155
8.3.3 RNC V1................................................................................................................................................ 155
8.3.4 RNC Evolution ..................................................................................................................................... 156
8.3.5 OMC..................................................................................................................................................... 156
8.3.5.1 OMC V1 ............................................................................................................................................ 156
8.3.5.2 OMC V2 ............................................................................................................................................ 158
8.4 MIGRATION STRATEGIES RECOMMENDED BY ALCATEL........................................................ 158
8.4.1 Migration strategy recommended for incumbent operators.................................................................. 158
8.4.2 Migration strategy recommended for greenfield operators .................................................................. 161
8.5 ANNEX A.................................................................................................................................................. 162
8.6 ANNEX B.................................................................................................................................................. 164
8.7 ANNEX C.................................................................................................................................................. 165
8.8 ANNEX D.................................................................................................................................................. 166
9 DENSIFICATION STRATEGIES.................................................................................................................... 167
9.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 167
9.2 DENSIFICATION STRATEGIES.................................................................................................................... 168
9.2.1 Adding carriers ..................................................................................................................................... 169
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9.2.2 Sectorization ......................................................................................................................................... 169
9.2.3 Adding cells.......................................................................................................................................... 170
9.2.4 Microcells ............................................................................................................................................. 171
9.2.4.1 Microcells and macrocells on the same channel................................................................................ 172
9.2.4.2 Microcells and macrocells on different channels .............................................................................. 172
10 MULTI OPERATOR ENVIRONMENT ......................................................................................................... 174
10.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 174
10.2 ADJACENT CHANNEL INTERFERENCE IN CASE OF UMTS FDD-FDD CO-EXISTENCE ........................... 174
10.2.1 Capacity Loss due to adjacent operators co-existence ...................................................................... 175
10.2.1.1 Uplink case ...................................................................................................................................... 175
10.2.1.2 Downlink case ................................................................................................................................. 176
10.2.1.3 How can it be avoided?.................................................................................................................... 177
10.2.2 Dead zones.......................................................................................................................................... 177
11 MEASUREMENTS...................................................................................................................................... 179
11.1 MEASUREMENTS FOR PREDICTION MODEL CALIBRATION.................................................................... 179
11.2 MEASUREMENTS OF CELL COVERAGE .................................................................................................. 180
11.2.1 Coverage of Pilot Channel in DL Compared to GSM BCCH Channel .............................................. 180
11.2.2 Impact of Service Type on Coverage ................................................................................................. 180
11.2.3 Investigation on HO Gain................................................................................................................... 181
11.2.3.1 Soft Handover Gain......................................................................................................................... 181
11.2.3.2 Softer Handover Gain...................................................................................................................... 182
11.2.3.3 Influence of the UE Speed............................................................................................................... 183
11.2.3.4 Influence of the Interference Level.................................................................................................. 183
11.2.4 Investigation on Power Control .......................................................................................................... 183
11.2.4.1 Open Loop Power Control............................................................................................................... 183
11.2.4.2 Closed Loop Power Control ............................................................................................................ 183
11.2.4.3 Influence of the Propagation Environment ...................................................................................... 184
11.2.4.4 Influence of the UE Speed............................................................................................................... 185
11.3 INTERFERENCE MEASUREMENTS........................................................................................................... 185
11.3.1 Dead zones.......................................................................................................................................... 185
11.3.2 Influence of the Interference Level..................................................................................................... 186
11.4 TRIAL MEASUREMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 187
11.4.1 Co-Siting with GSM........................................................................................................................... 187
11.4.2 Code Multiplex................................................................................................................................... 188
11.4.2.1 Test COD1: Orthogonality of Scrambling Codes on Downlink (Intercell) ..................................... 188
11.4.2.2 Test COD2: Orthogonality on Spreading Codes on DL (Intracell) ................................................. 188
11.5 NETWORK ACCEPTANCE PROCEDURE................................................................................................... 190
11.6 QOS MEASUREMENTS ........................................................................................................................... 191
11.7 RECOMMENDED MEASUREMENT TOOLS FOR AIR INTERFACE MEASUREMENTS.................................. 191
11.8 POSSIBLE MEASUREMENTS.................................................................................................................... 192
GLOSSARY/TERMINOLOGY................................................................................................................. 195
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS..................................................................................................................... 195
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REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
Document references are given in the chapters!
[21.905] 3GPP specification TS21.905 V3.10 Release 1999
Useful document with explanations for UMTS abbreviations
RELATED DOCUMENTS
These documents give a good overview on the UMTS system.
[WCDMA] WCDMA for UMTS, Harri Holma & Antti Toskala, John Wiley & Sons, LTD
Published January 2000, ISBN 0471720518
[INTRO] Memorandum Introduction to UMTS Ref.: MCD/TD/BDC/JVPA/UMTS/2000/01
PREFACE
This document gives information required by radio network planning engineers to understand and
plan a UMTS network.
SCOPE
This guideline is giving an introduction to the radio network planning related topics of the UMTS
system. It is shown what input parameters are required to dimension and plan a UMTS radio
network, how the dimensioning and planning is done and what kind of measurements are of
interest.
INTRODUCTION
UMTS is the 3G mobile communication system specified by 3GPP. It is part of the IMT-2000
standard provided by the ITU and consists of a WCDMA system based on FDD. A future TDD part is
not yet specified by 3GPP, thus not included in this document.
The guideline is intended to provide all necessary information required for planning a UMTS
network in FDD mode. It is assumed that the reader has already experience in planning other
mobile communication systems, e.g. GSM.
Each chapter of this document contains its own introduction explaining the aim of the chapter. Find
hereafter a short summary of contents of all chapters of the guideline:
1 RNP Process Description
This chapter deals with the overall RNP process. This process is valid for GSM and UMTS. The different
steps of radio network planning are given together with input, output and interfaces.
2 WCDMA Fundamentals and UMTS Air Interface
This chapter gives an overview on the WCDMA technology used within UMTS. Power control and
handovers are explained in more detail.
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3 Channel Types and Radio Resource Management
The different layers and their according channels used in FDD UMTS are explained in this chapter.
Furthermore some aspects of Radio Resource Management like Radio Admission Control are
described.
4 UMTS Services and Traffic Modeling
Contrary to GSM a high variety of services with different requirements are possible in UMTS. These
services can be transmitted simultaneously. This requires a deeper understanding of services and traffic
modeling to be able to plan a UMTS network accurately.
5 Link Budget and Initial Network Design
Before doing the final cell planning, a rough dimensioning of the network is done. Therefore a
linkbudget tool is used, which is presented in more detail in this chapter.
6 Cell Planning with planning tool
Starting with an initial design, methods to find a network layout which can be implemented, are given
in this chapter.
7 Antenna Engineering
Things to keep in mind when doing antenna engineering for UMTS with and without co-location of
GSM sites are presented in this chapter.
8 Products and Migration strategies
What products are currently available from Alcatel and what is the Alcatel strategy to migrate existing
networks to 3G networks? Here you find the answer.
9 Densification strategies
There are different strategies possible to increase the capacity of an existing network. They are
explained in this chapter.
10 Multi operator environment
Having more than one UMTS operator in the same area may cause interference problems. How to
deal with these problems is explained in this chapter.
11 Measurements
Measurements are necessary for a lot of different purposes, e.g. to test the QoS or the propagation
conditions of a network. In the early phase of UMTS they are also important to understand the
algorithms used for HO. What is interesting to measure and how we can do it is described in this
chapter.
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1 RNP PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The RNP process description gives answers on the question what is radio network planning (RNP).
The main tasks included in RNP are bundled in packets. The inputs, contents, outputs and interfaces
of each packet are given and explained. In addition the relation of each packet to the existing AIO
modules are shown.
As this process is the same for UMTS and GSM, a separated document has been created for the
RNP process. This document can be found either in the PCS intranet or on DIAMS.
Document reference: RNP Process Description 3DF 00902 UA00 DEZZA
Intranet: http://aww.rcd.alcatel.com/PCS
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2 WCDMA FUNDAMENTALS AND UMTS AIR INTERFACE
Referenced Documents
[UTRA] UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access 3DF 009955 0004 UAZZA
[25.213] Spreading and modulation (FDD) (Release 1999) 3GPP 25.213 V3.3.0
[25.214] Physical layer procedures (FDD) (Release 1999) 3GPP 25.214 V3.4.0
[25.101] UE Radio Transmission and Reception (FDD) (Release 1999)
3GPP 25.101 V3.4.1
[25.331] RRC Protocol Specification (Release 1999) 3GPP 25.331 V3.4.1
[26.103] Speech CODEC List for GSM and UMTS 3GPP 26.103 V3.0.0
[WFI] 3 Day UMTS training held for ALCATEL in August 2000
[INTRO] Memorandum Introduction to UMTS
Ref.: MCD/TD/BDC/JVPA/UMTS/2000/01
[WCDMA] WCDMA for UMTS, Holma & Toskala, John Wiley & Sons 2000,
ISBN 0 471 72051 8
[OPNET] Study of soft handover with OPNET system simulations,
Ref: MCD/TD/SYT/PBL/200816
[SysDesign] UTRAN System Design Document Ed.7, 3BK 10240 0005 DSZZA
2.1 UMTS network architecture
The UMTS network includes not only the air interface of an UMTS network, but also the fixed
network part with its connection to the core networks (packet and circuit switched). All main elements
of an UMTS network and the connection to the external networks are shown in Figure 1.
USIM
ME
Cu
UE
Node B
Node B
Iur
UTRAN
RNC
RNC
Node B
Node B
Iub
Uu
MSC/VLR
CN
GMSC
GGSN
HLR
SGSN
Iu
PLMN, PSTN,
ISDN, ...
Internet
External Networks
RNS
RNS
Iu-CS
Iu-PS
Figure 1: Structure of the UMTS network [WCDMA]
The elements shown in Figure 1 are explained hereafter.
2.1.1 UE ( User Equipment)
The UE consists of two parts:
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The mobile equipment (ME) is the radio terminal used for radio communication over the
Uu interface
The UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) is the equivalent smartcard to the SIM in
GSM. It holds the subscriber identity, performs authentication algorithms, stores
authentication and encryption keys, etc.
2.1.2 UTRAN (UMTS Radio Access Network)
The UTRAN consists of one or several Radio Network Subsystems (RNS) each containing one RNC
and one or several Node B:
Node B
The Node B is the correspondent element to the BTS in GSM. Within Alcatel this part of
the network is called the Multi-standard Base Station (MBS), as it is possible to integrate
GSM modules as well (not in the early versions!)
RNC
The Radio Network Controller (RNC) owns and controls the radio resources of the
connected Node Bs. The RNC can have three different logical roles: CRNC, SRNC,
DRNC. See more details in chapter 2.1.6.
2.1.3 CN (Core network)
HLR
The Home Location Register is a database located in the users home system that stores
the master copy of the users service profile.
MSC/VLR
The Mobile Services Switching Center and Visitor Location Register are the switch (MSC)
and database (VLR) serving the UE in its current location for circuit switched services.
GMSC
The Gateway MSC (GMSC) is the MSC at the point where the UMTS PLMN is connected
to external circuit switched networks.
SGSN
The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is the counterpart of the MSC/VLR for the packet
switched part of the network.
GGSN
The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) is the counterpart of the GMSC in the packet
switched domain.
2.1.4 External networks
The UMTS network is connected to two kinds of external networks:
Circuit switched
Examples for CS networks are: Existing telephone service, ISDN, PSTN
Packet switched
Best example today for a packet switched network is the Internet
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2.1.5 Interfaces
It is important to know, that all external UMTS interfaces are open interfaces. This means that
theoretically equipment of different vendors can be mixed if it fulfills the standards.
Cu interface
The Cu interface is a standard interface for smartcards. In the UE it is the connection
between the USIM and the UE.
Uu interface
The Uu interface is the WCDMA radio interface within UMTS. It is the interface through
which the UE accesses the fixed part of the network. This interface is the most important
one to understand for RNP issues.
Iu interface
The Iu interface connects the UTRAN to the core network and is split in two parts. The Iu-
CS is the interface between the RNC and the circuit switched part of the core network.
The Iu-PS is the interface between the RNC and the packet switched part of the core
network.
Iur interface
This RNC-RNC interface was initially designed in order to provide inter RNC soft HO, but
more features were added during the development. Four distinct functions are
provided now:
1. Basic inter-RNC mobility
2. Dedicated channel traffic
3. Common channel traffic
4. Global resource management
Iub interface
The Iub interface connects the Node B and the RNC. Contrarily to GSM, this interface is
fully open in UMTS and thus more competition is expected.
2.1.6 Logical roles of the RNC
2.1.6.1 CRNC
For each Node B the RNC to which the Node B is connected is the Controlling RNC (CRNC).
2.1.6.2 SRNC & DRNC
The Serving RNC (SRNC) for a certain connection is the RNC providing the Iu connection to the core
network. When the UE is in inter-RNC soft HO, more than one Iub and at least one Iur connection is
established. Only one of the RNCs (the SRNC) is providing the Iu interface to the core network, all
other ones are just routing information between Iub and Iur interface. These RNCs are called Drift
RNC (DRNC). Figure 2 illustrates the logical role of SRNC and DRNC.
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UE
Node B
Node B
Iur
SRNC
DRNC
Node B
Node B
Iub
MSC/VLR
SGSN
Iu
RNS
RNS
Iu-CS
Iu-PS
UE
Node B
Node B
Iur
SRNC
DRNC
Node B
Node B
Iub
MSC/VLR
SGSN
Iu
RNS
RNS
Iu-CS
Iu-PS
Figure 2: Logical role of SRNC and DRNC
2.1.7 Mapping between GSM and UMTS
For easy understanding of the new notations within a UMTS network, the correspondent parts of the
GSM network are given in the table below.
Table 1: Mapping of notations between GSM and UMTS
GSM/GPRS UMTS
MS Mobile Station ME Mobile Equipment
SIM Subscriber Identity Module USIM UMTS SIM
- - UE User Equipment (USIM+ME)
Um Air interface Uu
BTS Base Station Node B Node B
Abis Iub
BSC Base Station Controller RNC Radio Network Controller
BSS Base Station Subsystem RNS Radio Network Subsystem
- Iur
A Iu-CS
Gb Iu-PS
MSC Mobile Switching Center MSC Mobile Switching Center
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
OMC Operation & Maintenance
Center
OMC dito
In this chapter, the air interface (Uu) part and its terminating devices UE and Node B are
investigated in more detail.
2.2 Standards and used frequency spectrum
The ITU-R has produced high-level documents covering the performance, service type, and inter-
working requirements for IMT-2000. Various international standards bodies such as the European
Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) are responsible for the detailed technical
specifications of the equipment required to provide an IMT-2000 compatible service. A number of
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different standards are likely to emerge; but they are expected to have sufficient inter-working
capability to allow an integrated IMT-2000 service for subscribers. IMT-2000 networks will support
five interface standards:
IMT-DS UMTS Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
IMT-MC US CDMA 2000 standard
IMT-TC UMTS Time Division Duplex (TDD)
IMT-SC GSM EDGE (IS-136) standard
IMT-FT DECT standard
The four Technical Specification Groups (TSGs) of the ETSI-supported 3
rd
Generation Partnership
Project (3GPP) have approved the detailed specification parts of their submission to the ITU-R for the
IMT-2000 radio interface standard. This is a terrestrial radio interface specification known as the
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN). The UTRAN is based on a Wide-band Code
Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) air interface.
Figure 3: IMT 2000 frequency spectrum compared to existing PLMN systems
In this document we are focusing on the FDD-WCDMA part of the IMT2000 system, the so called
FDD-UMTS. For this part, the following band is reserved:
UL: 1920 1980 MHz
DL: 2110 2170 MHz
As the UMTS carrier spacing is 5 MHz, the available bandwidth for the FDD part provides 12
different channels. Depending on the country these 12 available licenses are given to different
operators. An operator gets typically 2 or 3 licenses for paired (UL and DL) frequency bands. This
small amount of frequencies is due to the frequency reuse of 1 applied within a UMTS system.
The nominal channel spacing is 5 MHz, but this can be adjusted to optimize performance in a
particular deployment scenario. The channel raster is 200

kHz, which means that the center
frequency must be an integer multiple of 200 kHz. The carrier frequency is designated by the UTRA
Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (UARFCN). The value of the UARFCN in the IMT2000
band is defined as follows [25.101]:
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Table 2: UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
Uplink Nu = 5 * (Fuplink MHz) 0.0 MHz Fuplink 3276.6 MHz
where Fuplink is the uplink frequency in MHz
Downlink Nd = 5 * (Fdownlink MHz) 0.0 MHz Fdownlink 3276.6 MHz
where Fdownlink is the downlink frequency in MHz
2.3 Mobile classes
For the terrestrial UTRAN system, the following mobile power classes are defined. They define the
maximum output power of the UE [25.101].
Table 3: UE Power Classes
Power Class Maximum output power Tolerance
1 +33 dBm +1/-3 dB
2 +27 dBm +1/-3 dB
3 +24 dBm +1/-3 dB
4 +21 dBm 2 dB
Note: Up to now, only mobile class 4 has been entirely aproved by 3GPP
2.4 Broadband propagation channel and WCDMA basic concept
2.4.1 Multiple Access Techni ques
In a mobile radio system, the radio channel has to be accessed by a great number of users. A
multiple access method has to be used in order to avoid interference in the receiver. The current
principles are
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
The data signals are modulated with user specific carrier signals. The orthogonality
1
of the multiple
access carrier signals represents the prerequisite for correctly detecting the data of all users.
FDMA uses bandpass carrier signals which are non-overlapping in the frequency domain and
therefore orthogonal at any time.
TDMA impulse carrier signals are non-overlapping in the time domain and orthogonal at
sampling time.
CDMA signature waveforms are generated from orthogonal code sequences (e.g. Walsh
sequences) or from quasi-orthogonal pseudo-noise (PN) sequences (e.g. Gold Sequences). By
modulating the data with the user specific CDMA carrier signals, the original signal is spread
over the whole available frequency band.

1
Orthogonality of two functions g(t) and s(t) is given in the case, that their cross-correlation function
is equal to zero
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time
code
channel bandwidth
Figure 4: In CDMA the different channels are only separated by code
2.4.2 Broadband signal and Coherence bandwidth
A signal is called broadband, if its coherence bandwidth is smaller than the signal bandwidth.
Coherence bandwidth of a channel is defined as the range of frequency components which
experience similar fading conditions. The coherence bandwidth of the channel depends on the local
scattering environment. For most practical mobile channels 5MHz is much larger than the coherence
bandwidth. Narrow band transmission (<200 kHz) the channel bandwidth is less than the
coherence bandwidth. Fading characteristics at different frequency components are identical. For
wide band transmission (>1 MHz) fading characteristics of spectral components tend to be
uncorrelated
In narrow band transmission, when the receiver experiences a deep fade, signal quality is severely
degraded
High BER
However in wide band systems because of uncorrelated fading of the spectral components deep
fades affects only a portion of the spectrum
Better signal quality
Low BER
Better robustness to fading
The differentiation between broadband and narrow band signals can also be made in the time
domain. If the delay spread of a signal is that big, that the received multipath signals of the next
transmitted symbol interfere with the previous symbol, the channel is called a narrow band channel.
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t
t
t
0
t
1
t
1
t
0
Figure 5: Delay spreads of broad band (upper) and narrow band (lower) channels
2.4.3 Multipath propagation and RAKE receiver
One big advantage of the UMTS system is its capability to benefit from a multipath environment. In
the upper part of Figure 4 we can see the delay spread of a broadband channel as used in UMTS.
The received energy from the different multipaths of one signal overlaps much less than in the
narrow band case. Thus, the different multipaths can be combined by a special receiver technique,
called RAKE receiver, to one improved signal. A RAKE receiver has several input paths (called RAKE
fingers), where the signal can be delayed by an adjustable time. Selecting the delay time on each
finger in that way, that the different multipaths entering the receiver at the same time, the signals
can be combined and thus an improved summary signal can be generated.
The delay time on each RAKE finger is determined automatically. The number of RAKE fingers is not
fix and depends on the considered product.
Conclusion:
The UTRA system can take advantage from a multipath environment, e.g. dense urban areas.
2.5 Spreading, scrambling and modulation
2.5.1 Spreading
The UTRA system uses direct sequence (DS) spreading for both FDD and TDD mode. The principle
consists of multiplying the bipolar data signal b
i
(t) with a bipolar, broad band carrier signal s
i
(t). This
signal is user specific and therefor called signature waveform of the user i. The multiplication in the
time domain corresponds to a convolution in the frequency domain, so that the transmitted signal is
also broadband. The spreading factor S
P
describes the widening of its spectrum. The equivalent low-
pass of the transmitted signals consists of chips, i.e. bipolar impulses of the duration T
c
. One data
bit of the duration T
b
=S
P
x T
c
corresponds to SF chips during transmission.
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data signal consists of bipolar "bits"
signature signal consists of bipolar "chips"
chiprate = spreading factor bitrate
data signal b
i
(t)
PN signature signal s
i
(t)
spread signal g
i
(t)=b
i
(t)

s
i
(t)
t
t
t
1
-1
1
1
-1
-1
Figure 6: Principle of spreading
Before the data signal b
i
can be spread, it has to be generated out of the user bits u
i
and the
channel coding bits. The channel coding bits are added to the data bit rate b
i
. Knowing the data bit
rate b
i
, e.g. 960 kbit/s for the 384kbit/s data channel, the spreading factor is calculated. In this
example the spreading factor would be (3840kbit/s bandwidth)/(960kbit/s data rate) = 4.
Due to this spreading the signal can be recovered out of the noise and interference at the receiver
by de-spreading (auto-correlation). The received signal energy increase compared to the noise and
interference in dB is called the processing gain: PG [dB] = 10 x log SF.
Thus the processing gain can vary between 6 (SF = 4) and 24 (SF = 256).
2.5.2 Despreading
What is the sense of spreading the data signal onto the whole available channel bandwidth? Two
reasons we have seen in chapter 2.4.3 Multipath propagation and RAKE receiver:
1. Less fading sensible channel
2. Takes advantage from multipath environment
The main reason for spreading the data signal over the whole bandwidth is the ability to extract at
the receiver the wanted signal out of the total received power (interference, noise and useful signal)
by doing correlation with the known user specific code. This is the main principle of Direct Sequence
CDMA (DS-CDMA).
Principle:
time
code
channel bandwidth
time
code
channel bandwidth
Autocorrelation with
known code of channel 1
channel 1
Figure 7: Extracting the useful signal out of the overall noise
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The overall received power consists of lots of overlaid transmitted channels using different codes.
The wanted signal is extracted by correlating the whole received signal with the known code of the
wanted signal. Due to correlation, the part of the total received signal using the same code as the
code used for correlation, will have increased power. At the same time signals using codes different
from the one used for correlation will be suppressed. This is leading in the ideal case to an
improved SIR in the range of the processing gain PG.
2.5.3 Codes used
The spreading of the data signal onto physical channels is done in two steps:
1. Channelization
Channelization codes transform every data bit into a number of chips. The number of chips per
data bit is the so called spreading factor SF.
2. Scrambling
During the scrambling operation a complex scrambling code (real part for the I branch and
imaginary part for the Q branch) is applied to the spread signal.
The scrambling code is used to identify in UL the mobile and in DL the cell.
As this scrambling codes change very often between 1 and 1, they are responsible for increasing
the bandwidth. The channelization codes spread the signal to the chip rate of 3.84 Mbit/s, but do
not really increase the required bandwidth of the signal to 3.84 MHz. A chiprate of 3.84 Mbit/s is
only leading to an required bandwidth of 3.84 MHz in case of altering the sign on a chip by chip
basis.
2.5.3.1 Channelization codes
Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes are used as channelization codes, which
ensure that a number of mobiles can share the same RF channel (frequency) without causing
unacceptable interference. These codes allow Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to the shared
RF channel (frequency).
These spreading codes are of variable length and therefore offer spreading factors between 4 and
256. In that way, different user bit rates can be realized. The codes are mutually orthogonal even
though of different length, if they are synchronized. As synchronization is not possible between
different mobiles, the orthogonal OVSF codes are not leading to orthogonal signals in UL. In DL
they are fully orthogonal assuming a ideal propagation channel, but due to multipaths in real
environments, the signals using the codes are not fully orthogonal.
Figure 8 shows the OVSF code tree, which is generated by applying at each branch split the rule:
C
new,upper_branch
= +C
old
+C
old
and C
new, lower_branch
= +C
old
-C
old
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SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4
c
1,1
= (1)
c
2,1
= (1,1)
c
2,2
= (1,-1)
c
4,1
= (1,1,1,1)
c
4,2
= (1,1,-1,-1)
c
4,3
= (1,-1,1,-1)
c
4,4
= (1,-1,-1,1)
Figure 8: Code tree for generating OVSF codes
The code tree defines the code length used to provide the specified spreading factor. The higher
user data rate services use shorter codes and hence lower spreading factors (and associated de-
spreading gain). A given mobile cannot use all channel codes simultaneously. A channel code can
only be used by a mobile if no other code on the path from the specific code to the root of the code
tree, or in the sub-tree below the specific code, is used by any mobile. Thus the number of available
channel codes is not fixed, but depends on the data rate and associated spreading factor of each
physical channel used.
For each call, the mobile is allocated at least one uplink channel code, for an uplink DPCCH (see
explanation on channel types in chapter 3). Usually, at least one further uplink channel code is
allocated for an uplink DPDCH. Additional uplink channel codes may be allocated if the mobile
needs more DPDCHs. All channel codes used for the DPDCH must be orthogonal to the channel
code used for the DPCCH.
As each mobile using the same RF channel uses a unique uplink scrambling code, no co-ordination
of the allocation of uplink channel codes to mobiles is needed. They are allocated in a predefined
order that exploits the design of the scrambling codes used by the mobile transmitter.
The mobile and the network may negotiate the number and length (spreading factor) of the channel
codes needed for the call, and the network allocates the necessary codes.
2.5.3.2 Scrambling codes
For the scrambling, there is the choice between short scrambling codes and long scrambling codes.
The first option is used if there is multi user detection in the base station in order to simplify the
correlation matrix computations. In case of single user detection, the second option is applied, for
improving the cross correlation properties and to assure a uniform distribution of the interference.
The short scrambling code is a complex code c
scramb
= c
I
+jc
Q
, where c
I
and c
Q
are two different
codes from the extended Very Large Kasami set of length 256. The long scrambling codes constitute
of segments of 10ms (=38400 chips) of a set of Gold sequences with period 2
41
-1. What long
scrambling code to use is directly given by the short scrambling code.
Currently only single user detection is done within the Node Bs, thus long scrambling codes are
used. Multi user detection is just an option for the future.
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Downlink:
Each cell is allocated one and only one primary scrambling code. The primary CCPCH and primary
CPICH are always transmitted using the primary scrambling code. The other downlink physical
channels can be transmitted with either the primary scrambling code or a secondary scrambling
code from the set associated with the primary scrambling code of the cell.
There is a one-to-one mapping between each primary scrambling code and 15 secondary
scrambling codes in a set such that ith primary scrambling code corresponds to ith set of
secondary scrambling codes.
Hence, according to the above, scrambling codes k = 0, 1, , 8191 are used.
The set of primary scrambling codes is further divided into 64 scrambling code groups, each
consisting of 8 primary scrambling codes. The jth scrambling code group consists of primary
scrambling codes 16*8*j+16*k, where j=0..63 and k=0..7.
Uplink:
The UL scrambling code is the scrambling code used by UE. Every UE has its specific UL scrambling
code. The network decides the uplink scrambling code (UL scrambling code number 0..2
24
-1). No
explicit allocation of the long scrambling code is thus needed.
Depending on the channel type, different scrambling codes are used, but for all of them there is one
relation valid:
The UL scrambling codes of PRACH and PCPCH preambles are subdivided into 512 code groups,
having a one-to-one correspondence to the scrambling code used by the downlink. An overview on
spreading and scrambling code usage is given in Figure 9.
Node B
Spreading
OVSF
(User identifier)
Scrambling
PN
(Cell identifier)
UE
Descrambling Despreading
Spreading
OVSF
(User identifier)
Scrambling
PN
(User identifier) Descrambling Despreading
1 2
3 4
1
As the codes are sync. within the Node B, Orthogonal Codes are used to provide
small crosscorellation
2
To provide a small crosscorellation to unsyncronized codes (from other Node Bs or
from UEs), PN codes are used for scrambling in DL. One code for one cell !!!
As the UL isnt syncronized, the OVSF codes arent used for spreading because of
their orthogonality, but because of their easy generation for different req. lengths!
To provide a small crosscorellation to unsyncronized codes (from other UEs or
Node Bs), PN codes are used for scrambling
3
4
DL
UL
Figure 9: Overview on spreading and scrambling code usage
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2.5.4 Example for scrambling code allocation: Cell Search Process
During the cell search, the UE searches for a cell and determines the downlink scrambling code and
frame synchronization of that cell. The cell search is typically carried out in three steps:
- Step 1: Slot synchronization
During the first step of the cell search procedure the UE uses the SCHs primary synchronization
code to acquire slot synchronization to a cell. This is typically done with a single matched filter (or
any similar device) matched to the primary synchronization code which is common to all cells. The
slot timing of the cell can be obtained by detecting peaks in the matched filter output.
- Step 2: Frame synchronization and code-group identification
During the second step of the cell search procedure, the UE uses the SCHs secondary
synchronization code to find frame synchronization and identify the code group of the cell found in
the first step. This is done by correlating the received signal with all possible secondary
synchronization code sequences, and identifying the maximum correlation value. Since the cyclic
shifts of the sequences are unique the code group as well as the frame synchronization is
determined.
- Step 3: Scrambling-code identification
During the third and last step of the cell search procedure, the UE determines the exact primary
scrambling code used by the found cell. The primary scrambling code is typically identified through
symbol-by-symbol correlation over the CPICH with all codes within the code group identified in the
second step. After the primary scrambling code has been identified, the Primary CCPCH can be
detected. And the system- and cell specific BCH information can be read.
If the UE has received information about which scrambling codes to search for, steps 2 and 3 above
can be simplified.
2.5.5 Spreading, scrambling and modulation
As demodulation is the reciprocal of modulation, only the modulation is explained in more detail
here.
The UTRA system uses QPSK modulation. This means, that one transmitted symbol consists of two
bits, one is transmitted with 0 phase shift (I branch, or real part) and the other one with 90 phase
shift (Q branch or imaginary part).
2.5.5.1 Uplink part
Concerning the uplink physical channels, one can distinguish between the two dedicated physical
channels (Dedicated Physical Control Channel, DPCCH and Dedicated Physical Data Channel,
DPDCH) and the Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) which carries the random access burst.
For the QPSK modulation, the DPDCH bits are mapped to the in-phase (I) branch while the DPCCH
bits belong to the quadrature (Q) branch. The spreading is done separately for each branch by two
different spreading codes c
D
and c
C
, which are called channelization codes. Both are then scrambled
by the same mobile specific complex scrambling code c
scramb
which is therefore the signature of the
mobile in uplink direction. The in-phase part I and quadrature part Q are then separated again and
modulated with the signals cos(et) and sin(et) respectively (see Figure 10). The modulation
frequency is of course the center frequency of the used 5MHz band.
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DPDCH
cD
I
DPCCH
cC
Q
j
I+jQ
cscramb
cos(M MM Mt)
sin(M MM Mt)
p(t)
p(t)
Real
Imag
Channelization
codes (OVSF)
Figure 10: Uplink spreading, scrambling and modulation
2.5.5.2 Downlink part
Whereas in UL only one branch is used for traffic data and the other one for signaling, in DL both
branches are used for signaling and data traffic. This is the reason, why in DL 1920 kbit/s data rate
is possible and in UL only 960 kbit/s.
To be able to use both branches in DL, the data stream is subdivided and the two bit sequences are
mapped to the I and Q branch, respectively ("Serial-to-parallel mapping"). The I and Q branches
are then spread to the chip rate with the same channelization code c
ch
(real spreading) and
subsequently scrambled by the same cell specific scrambling code c
scramb
(real scrambling).
The channelization codes are also OVSF codes. In the downlink application, they preserve the
orthogonality between downlink channels of different rates and spreading factors.
DPDCH/DPCCH
I
c
ch
Q
cos(M MM Mt)
sin(M MM Mt)
p(t)
p(t)
c
scramb
S

P
c
ch
: channelization code
c
scramb
: scrambling code
p(t): pulse-shaping filter (root raised cosine, roll-off 0.22)
Figure 11: Downlink spreading, scrambling and modulation
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2.6 User detection mechanisms (quick overview)
In Figure 12 the proposed multi user detection ,mechanisms for the UTRA system are shown. Today
only the single user detection (SUD) is implemented in the Node Bs. This is due to the huge
calculation capacity required for performing multi user detection. More information about user
detection mechanisms can be found in [UTRA].
Single User Detection
(SUD)
Interference Cancellation
(IC)
Joint Detection
(JD)
Multi User Detection
(MUD)
CDMA Receiver
Figure 12: Possible multi user detection mechanisms in the UTRA system
2.7 Power Control in UMTS FDD
Find detailed information on power control in [25.214]. Summary in [WFI] or [INTRO]. This chapter
is in accordance with [SysDesign]. This chapter is divided into 3 parts:
General Power Control
Uplink PC
Downlink PC
2.7.1 General Power Control in UMTS
Evaluation of measurement reports and sending of power control commands is done by the serving
radio network controller SRNC.
Unlike in GSM, the power control mechanism in UMTS is not based on selecting appropriate power
levels to be used in the transmitter. Instead, the power control mechanism is based on a quality level
(the Signal to Interference Ratio) that has to be achieved by transmitting with an appropriate power
level.
CDMA is very sensitive for what concerns power control: for the proper functioning of UMTS, it is of
vital importance to have a good power control mechanism: the signal to interference ratio (SIR) has
to be kept at a certain level. If the SIR is too low, the signal of a UE can not be de-spreaded and
reconstructed any more. Since all users are transmitting simultaneously, the noise level depends
(among others) on the number of users.
-> The more interference, the more a cell is congested
This means that interference (transmit power of other links) determines the usage and thus
availability of free radio resources. A good power control algorithm will optimize the usage of radio
resources and thus increase the availability of radio resources.
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Another very important goal (maybe the most important goal) of power control is to maintain the
signal quality on a radio link. Once a radio link has been established, we try to maintain it.
There are 2 types of power control:
- power control for common channels: Open Loop Power control
- power control for dedicated channels DPCCH/DPDCH and downlink shared channel DSCH:
Closed Loop Power control
Closed loop power control is intended to reduce interference in the system by maintaining the
quality of a UE-UTRAN communication (i.e. radio link) as close as possible to the minimum quality
required for the type of service requested by the user. Closed loop power control is relevant for the
physical layer channels that support dedicated transport channels (DCH) and for those that support
shared transport channels (DSCH).
Closed loop power control consists of two parts an inner loop and outer loop. This chapter is
divided into subsections related to outer loop and inner loop power control for dedicated channels
followed by open loop power control for common channels.
2.7.1.1 Outer Loop Power Control
The parameter used by layer 1 for making inner loop power control decisions are determined by the
outer loop power control algorithm. The outer loop control function manages the inner loop process
by setting the SIR target parameter and the power up/down step sizes.
In general, the algorithm for generating the TPC bits can be described with the following rules:
SIR
est
>= SIR
target
TPC command = power down one step
SIR
est
< SIR
target
TPC command = power up one step
The frequency of the outer loop power control is typically in the range of 10 100 Hz.
2.7.1.2 Inner Loop Power Cont rol for dedicated channels
The inner part of closed loop power control is also called fast power control (1500 Hz) since it is
intended to respond to fast variations in propagation characteristics of the radio link (e.g. fast fading
at slow or medium speeds) as well as rapidly changing interference conditions. The power control
loop is closed because the receiver of the radio signal communicates commands back to the sender
to adjust its transmitted power. Fast power control is considered to be part of the physical layer of
the UTRA and is performed in the Node B and the UE.
The structure of the air interface enables power control commands called Transmit Power Control
(TPC) command bits to be sent once per slot. TPC bits can tell the remote end of the loop to either
power up by a step or to power down by a step. The decision to power up or down is based on an
estimate of the signal to interference ratio (SIR) of the channel. Since SIR is related to the quality of
the radio link, the principle of managing the quality of the link is achieved.
As closed loop power control is slightly different for UL and DL, more details are given in chapters
2.7.1.2.1 for uplink and 2.7.1.2.2 for downlink.
2.7.1.2.1 Uplink closed loop power control
Uplink power control in a CDMA system is very important because of the necessity of suppressing
the near-far effect. Assuming all mobiles transmitting with the same power, a mobile close the
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receiver (Node B) would interfere the signal received from a mobile at the cell edge very strong,
while the mobile at the cell edge doesnt interfere the one close to the Node B. This effect is harming
all communications of mobiles having another mobile between themselves and the Node B. This is
the so called Near-Far-Effect.
The uplink inner-loop power control adjusts the UE transmit power in order to keep the received
uplink signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) at a given SIR target.
The serving cells (cells in the active set) estimate signal-to-interference ratio SIRest of the received
uplink DPCH. TPC commands are generated in the serving cells and transmitted once per slot
according to the following rule:
- SIRest > SIRtarget then the TPC command to transmit is "0"
- SIRest < SIRtarget then the TPC command to transmit is "1"
Upon reception of one or more TPC commands in a slot, the UE derives a single TPC command
(TPC_cmd) for each slot, combining multiple TPC commands if more than one is received in a slot.
Two algorithms are supported by the UE for deriving a TPC_cmd. Which of these two algorithms is
used is determined by a UE-specific higher-layer parameter, "PowerControlAlgorithm", and is under
the control of the UTRAN. If "PowerControlAlgorithm" indicates "algorithm1", then the layer 1
parameter PCA shall take the value 1 and if "PowerControlAlgorithm" indicates "algorithm2" then
PCA shall take the value 2.
If PCA has the value 1, Algorithm 1 shall be used for processing TPC commands.
If PCA has the value 2, Algorithm 2 shall be used for processing TPC commands.
(Algorithm 1 and 2 are described in section 5.1.2.2.2 and 5.1.2.2.3 in 3GPP TS25.214 V3.3.0.)
The step size ATPC is a layer 1 parameter which is derived from the UE-specific higher-layer
parameter "TPC-StepSize" which is under the control of the UTRAN. If "TPC-StepSize" has the value
"dB1", then the layer 1 parameter ATPC shall take the value 1 dB and if "TPC-StepSize" has the value
"dB2", then ATPC shall take the value 2 dB. The step size for the UL power control is thus 1 or 2 dB.
After deriving of the combined TPC command TPC_cmd using one of the two supported algorithms,
the UE shall adjust the transmit power of the uplink DPCCH with a step of DPCCH (in dB) which is
given by:
DPCCH = ATPC*ATPC_cmd.
Node B
Outer loop
Open loop
Inner loop
Closed Loop = Inner Loop + Outer Loop
Figure 13: Different UL power control mechanisms
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2.7.1.2.2 Downlink closed loop power control
In Downlink both the inner and outer loop of the closed loop power control are performed in the
UE. The UE generates TPC commands to control the network transmit power and send them in the
TPC field of the uplink DPCCH. The UE checks the downlink power control mode (DPC_MODE)
before generating the TPC command:
DPC_MODE = 0: The UE sends a unique TPC command in each slot and the TPC command
generated is transmitted in the first available TPC field in the uplink DPCCH
DPC_MODE = 1: The UE repeats the same TPC command over 3 slots and the new TPC
command is transmitted such that there is a new command at the beginning of
the frame. This mode is also called Slow Power control. Its advantage is a
higher precision of the TPC command.
Note: DPC_MODE=1 shall not be used in 3GR1.1 because 3GPP specs are not finalized.
The DPC_MODE parameter is a UE specific parameter controlled by the UTRAN.
The power control step size ATPC can take four values: 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2 dB. It is mandatory for
UTRAN to support ATPC of 1 dB, while support of other step sizes is optional.
In case of congestion (commanded power not available), UTRAN may disregard the TPC commands
from the UE.
2.7.1.3 Open Loop Power Control
The open loop power control is relevant for physical channels that support common transport
channels. In the definition of TS 25.214 V3.3.0 this is the UL PRACH. This physical channel is used
by the UE for establishing a connection to the network or sending small amounts of data. The Open
Loop Power control consists in setting the transmit power by measuring the path loss of the direct
link and adding the interference level of the node B and a constant value.
Method:
On the BCCH, the node-B will indicate the transmit power of the PCCPCH (and also the required
SIR). By measuring the received power-level, the UE can find the downlink pathloss including fading.
From this path loss estimation and the knowledge of the uplink interference level and the required
SIR, the transmit power needed on the PRACH channel can be determined.
2.7.1.4 Site selection diversity transmit power control
Site selection diversity transmit power control (SSDT) is another macro diversity method in soft
handover mode. This method is optional in UTRAN.
Operation is summarized as follows. The UE selects one of the cells from its active set to be
primary, all other cells are classed as non primary. The main objective is to transmit on the
downlink from the primary cell, thus reducing the interference caused by multiple transmissions in a
soft handover mode. A second objective is to achieve fast site selection without network intervention,
thus maintaining the advantage of the soft handover. In order to select a primary cell, each cell is
assigned a temporary identification (ID) and UE periodically informs a primary cell ID to the
connecting cells. The non-primary cells selected by UE switch off the transmission power. The
primary cell ID is delivered by UE to the active cells via uplink FBI field. SSDT activation, SSDT
termination and ID assignment are all carried out by higher layer signaling
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2.8 HO types & events
Definition: The list of cells involved in the soft/softer HO is called Active Set. The maximum size of
the active set can be defined.
2.8.1 Hard handover
The hard handover (HO) is comparable to the HO procedure of GSM. The mobile is always
connected to only one base station (Node B). When performing the HO to another Node B, the
connection to the former Node B is released.
All connections using a FACH channel (Fast Allocation CHannel, without power control and only for
short packages) or a DSCH (Downlink Shared CHannel, best channel for packet switched services)
must use the hard HO. They can not benefit from soft HO gains.
Other hard HO:
Inter-system HO between e.g. UTRA and GSM
Inter-frequency HO between different UTRA carriers
Within 3GR1.1 no compressed mode is possible, which is necessary for hard handover. Hard
handover and support of DSCH are not included in 3GR1.1. This release is also not offering Inter-
RNC cell reselection in idle mode.
2.8.2 Soft handover
Packet switched communications using a DCH channel and all circuit switched communications are
able to perform a soft HO. Soft HO means, that the mobile receives the same signal from more
than one Node B and its transmitted signal is processed by more than one Node B. The number of
Node Bs to which the UE is connected is called the Active Set. This is increasing the number of
received multipaths in UL and DL and thus is leading to diversity gain (see chapter 2.8.4). If a Node
B is put into the active set of a mobile is depending on the pilot E
c
/I
0
. The general scheme of SHO
can be seen in Figure 14.
For the description of the exemplary Soft Handover algorithm presented in this section the following
parameters are used (AS means Active Set):
AS_Th
Threshold for macro diversity (max difference for best signal in AS and candidate signal)
AS_Th_Hyst
Hysteresis for the above threshold AS_Th
AS_Rep_Hyst
Replacement Hysteresis
,T
Time to Trigger
AS_Max_Size
Maximum size of Active Set
The following figure describes this Soft Handover Algorithm.
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AS_Th AS_Th_Hyst
As_Rep_Hyst
As_Th + As_Th_Hyst
Cell 1 Connected
Event 1A
Add Cell 2
Event 1C
Replace Cell 1 with Cell 3
Event 1B
Remove Cell 3
CPICH 1
CPICH 2
CPICH 3
Time
Measurement
Quantity
,T ,T ,T
Figure 14: Example of SHO algorithm
As described in the figure above:
If Meas_Sign is below (Best_Ss - As_Th - As_Th_Hyst) for a period of ,T remove Worst cell in
the Active Set.
If Meas_Sign is greater than (Best_Ss - As_Th + As_Th_Hyst) for a period of ,T and the Active
Set is not full add Best cell outside the Active Set in the Active Set.
If Active Set is full and Best_Cand_Ss is greater than (Worst_Old_Ss + As_Rep_Hyst) for a
period of ,T add Best cell outside Active Set and Remove Worst cell in the Active Set.
Where:
Best_Ss the best measured cell present in the Active Set
Worst_Old_Ss the worst measured cell present in the Active Set
Best_Cand_Set the best measured cell present in the monitored set
Meas_Sign the measured and filtered signal
In Figure 14 three different reporting events are used (1A, 1B, 1C). All standardized triggering
events are given in chapter 2.8.5.
An example for a possible SHO algorithm is given hereafter:
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Meas_Sign > Best_Ss
As_Th
as_Th_Hyst
for a period of , ,, ,T
Yes
No
(Event 1B)
Remove Worst_Bs in
the Active Set
Meas_Sign > Best_Ss As_Th
+ as_Th_Hyst
for a period of , ,, ,T
No
Yes
(Event 1A)
Add Best_Bs in the Active
Set
Best_Cand_Ss > Worst_Old_Ss +
As_Rep_Hyst
for a period of , ,, ,T
Yes
(Event 1C)
No
Active Set Full
No
Yes
Add Best BS in Active
Set and Remove Worst
Bs from th Active Set
Begin
Figure 15: Flowchart of an simple SHO algorithm
2.8.3 Softer handover
A softer HO is a soft HO between cells of the same Node B, thus sectors of the same site. As this is
not improving the multipath conditions as much as soft HO does, the diversity gain is smaller.
2.8.4 Power control in soft(er) handover
In SHO, the UE has established more than one radio link. This requires special power control
functionality to identify the correct power control command.
2.8.4.1 Downlink PC in SHO
This is leading to the reception of more than one Power Control command in downlink (one from
each Node B in the active set). If at least one of the Node Bs in the active set is sending a power
down command, the UE will reduce its output power. It is enough, if one of the Node Bs is received
correctly.
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2.8.4.2 Uplink PC in SHO
In uplink, the UE is transmitting only one power control command for all connected Node Bs,
leading to the same power up/down steps of all connected Node Bs. If at least one link has good
quality (the SIR target is met), the UE sends a power down command.
2.8.4.2.1 Power drifting
Due to UL transmission errors it is possible, that not all Node Bs in the active set receive the same
power control command. This is leading to power drifting: some Node Bs perform a power up,
some a power down. This is degrading the performance of the SHO and should be avoided. Main
reason is that the Node Bs detect the PC commands independently and no MRC or selection
combining can be done (would cause to much delay). Thus the error rate for PC commands can be
higher than for transmitted user data.
2.8.5 Reporting events for Soft Handover and measurement reports
To find out the best cell or cells within UMTS, the UE measures the CPICH of all received neighbor
cells. The UE is told by UTRAN witch reporting events shall force the mobile to generate a
measurement report and sent it to the SRNC. This is different from GSM, where a measurement
report was generated at fixed time intervals (480 ms). So by using less reporting events within the
handover algorithms is leading to less measurement reports sent over the air interface.
In this chapter all HO events defined in 3GPP for intra-frequency measurements are listed. The HO
algorithms using this events are not standardized, but have to use reporting events out of the pool
given by 3GPP [25.331].
Intra frequency reporting events
1A A primary CPICH enters the reporting range
- A measured CPICH stronger than the best CPICH minus the reporting range
- Periodically reporting possible if cell is not added to active set due to any reason (cell addition
failure)
1B A primary CPICH leaves the reporting range
1C A nonactive primary CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH
- Non-active means, not in active set yet
- Periodic reporting possible if weakest cell is not removed from active set (cell replacement failure)
1D Change of best cell
1E A primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold
1F A primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold
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To additionally reduce the number of sent measurement reports, the system can apply two different
features for each of the triggering events separately:
A hysteresis value
Time-to-trigger (the event condition must be fulfilled for a certain time before the event itself
is triggered)
For each cell an individual offset can be applied to force or delay a the event triggering by
adding/subtracting the offset to the measured CPICH level at the UE.
2.8.6 Filtering E
C
/N
0
measures out of raw measures
According to [OPNET] and [25.331] the E
C
/N
0
measurements taken by the UE every timeslot (15
times per 10ms) on the CPICH of a neighbor cell are filtered by the following formula:
Equation 1: Filtering the measurements
Ec/Io
filtered
(n) = F * Ec/Io
averaged
(n) + ( 1 F ) * Ec/Io
filtered
(n -1)
Ec/Io
filtered
(n) The filtered measurement for radio frame n
Ec/Io
averaged
(n) The measurement averaged over the last radio frame n
F F=(1/2)
1/k
with k being transmitted by the UTRAN: k=(0,1,2,39,11,13,15,17,19)
As shown in [OPNET] we can convert the F(k) into an averaging period for the measurements. This
averaging period of the measurements can be compared to the averaging window size used for
averaging the raw measurements in GSM.
In the following table, we have the relation for some values of k, F and averaging period
Table 4: Impact of parameter F on averaging period
K F Averaging period
0 1 0.01 s
1 0.7071 0.014 s
9 0.0442 0.226 s
11 0.0221 0.452 s
13 0.0110 0.905 s
15 0.0055 1.810 s
17 0.0028 3.620 s
Simulations done in [OPNET] are leading to the conclusion that a averaging period of approximately
0.5s (k=11) is optimal for SHO performance.
2.9 Receive & Transmit diversity
In downlink the Node B is able to use space transmit diversity to compensate the missing space
diversity of the UE receive path. So transmit diversity exists only in downlink, contrary to receive
diversity which is possible in both directions. Find hereafter more information about he different
diversity schemes.
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2.9.1 Receiver diversity mechanisms
2.9.1.1 Uplink receiver diversi ty
Three different uplink receiver diversity mechanisms are possible:
- MRC diversity at the Node B due to antenna diversity gain
- MRC diversity in Softer HO
- Selection Diversity in Soft HO
Each of the three mechanisms is explained in a separate chapter afterwards.
2.9.1.1.1 MRC diversity at the Node B due to antenna diversity gain
If for one sector at the Node B two antennas are installed, both received signals can be combined by
using Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC). This is the so called antenna diversity already known
from GSM.
2.9.1.1.2 MRC diversity in Softer HO
As Softer HO is the HO between two sectors of the same Node B, the Node B can use MRC to
combine the received signals of the same communication of the two sectors. As the antennas of the
sectors in the regular case are located close to each other (similar to the distance the antennas of
one sector have to each other) the benefit of this additional diversity is quite small. The difference in
the received multipaths between the two sectors will not be big enough to benefit from the additional
MRC.
2.9.1.1.3 Selection Diversity in Soft HO
In case of Soft HO (HO between two cells not belonging to the same site/Node B) the difference in
the received multipath profiles is much bigger than in case of Softer HO. One can think, that this is
leading to a high diversity gain, but unfortunately the combining of the two signals has to be done
at the RNC. To be able to do MRC at the RNC, high bit rates on the I
ub
interface are required (e.g.
1.152 Mbit/s for a 144 Mbit/s LDD service because of 8 bit quantization instead of 1 bit
quantization per symbol). Up to now the require info for doing MRC at the RNC is not transmitted,
thus the RNC can only select the better signal out of the received ones (on a frame per frame basis),
it can not use the different received signals to improve the received ones. This kind of diversity is
called selection diversity.
2.9.1.2 Downlink receiver diversity
In downlink the UE is the receiver. As the UE has only one antenna for signal reception, no antenna
diversity takes place. Due to the implemented RAKE receiver the UE is able to benefit strongly from a
multipath environment by applying MRC. As the probability to have several multipaths is higher for
big distances between the transmit antennas, most benefit is expected from diversity during Soft HO.
For Softer HO the diversity gain due to multipath propagation is expected to be less.
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2.9.2 Downlink Transmit diversity mechanisms
The aim of transmit diversity is to increase the capacity of the downlink transmission. Indeed, two Rx
antennas are usually used in the Node B receiver for RX diversity. It would be also possible to use
several antennas in the UE, but this is not expected to be the case, since the extra complexity of
having several antennas in the UE would increase significantly the UE cost, weight and decrease the
autonomy that is not desirable. Moreover, antennas spatially separated are not possible for small
handsets, only polarization diversity would be possible. Transmit diversity aims to replace the
missing antenna diversity in the UE receiver by a kind of antenna diversity in the Node B transmitter,
thus enabling to improve the downlink performance and to avoid that the downlink limits the cell
range.
We can group transmit diversity techniques in two categories:
The Open Loop transmit diversity consists in using two techniques:
- The STTD (Space Time Transmit Diversity) is a coding in time and space to
permit the receiver to demodulate the data without additional complexity compared
to the non-diversity case.
- The TSTD (Time Switch Transmit Diversity) consists in transmitting the
signal alternatively on each antenna every slot.
The Closed Loop transmit diversity (feedback mode) consists in weighting the signals transmitted
by the two antennas. Contrary to the open loop TX diversity, the UE sends periodically weighting
information to the Node B. These weights inform the Node B the how to adjust the amplitudes
and the phases of the two transmission antennas. Two modes are possible: feedback modes 1
and 2.
Table 5 summarizes which TX diversity type is allowed on which physical channel type.
Table 5: Application of TX diversity modes on downlink physical channel types
Physical channel type Open loop mode Closed loop
TSTD STTD Mode
PCCPCH X
SCH X
SCCPCH X
DPCH X X
PICH X
PDSCH X X
AICH X
CSICH X
Note 1: Simultaneous use of STTD and closed loop modes on the same physical channel is not
allowed.
Note 2: If TX diversity is applied on any of the downlink physical channels it shall also be applied
on PCCPCH and SCH.
Note 3: The transmit diversity mode used for a PDSCH frame shall be the same as the
transmit diversity mode used for the DPCH associated with this PDSCH frame. During
the duration of the PDSCH frame, and within the slot prior to the PDSCH frame, the
transmit diversity mode (open loop or closed loop) on the associated DPCH may not
change. However, changing from closed loop mode 1 to mode 2 or vice versa, is
allowed.
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2.9.2.1 Open loop downlink transmit diversity
2.9.2.1.1 Space time block coding based transmit antenna diversity (STTD)
STTD is optional for the UTRAN, but its implementation is mandatory at the UE (and is of course
deactivated if UTRAN does not support STTD transmit diversity). The main advantages of STTD
include the use of the same orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) code as non-diversity
scheme for both antennas. Thus complexity at the UE to despread the signals coming from the two
antennas with two channelization codes is not increased. The STTD can be applied on DPDCH, P-
CCPCH, S-CCPCH, AICH, and PICH channels.
The STTD encoding is applied on TPC, TFCI and Data symbols of the DPCH. Then, the DPCCH pilot
patterns defined by the standard are encoded and time multiplexed. The same spreading and
scrambling codes are used for both antennas. These spread and scrambled signals are transmitted
on antennas one and two after shaping by the FIR (emission Filter Impulse Response) and translating
in high frequency by the RF part (see Figure 16)
ENC
Data
INT
M
U
X
TPC
TFCI
M
U
X STTD
Encoder
Ant.2
Ant.1
Pilots
Ant.2
Ant.1
FIR RF
Ant.1
Spread /
Scrambling
FIR RF
Ant.2
Figure 16: Schematic Representation of STTD
The diversity gain provided by STTD is manifested by a reduction of the required received
downlink E
b
/N
0
.
2.9.2.1.2 Time switched transmi t diversity for SCH (TSTD)
Figure 17 illustrates the structure of the SCH transmitted by the TSTD scheme. In even numbered
slots signals are transmitted on antenna 1, and in odd numbered slots signals are transmitted on
antenna 2.

Antenna 1
Antenna 2
ac
s
i,0
ac
p

ac
s
i,1
ac
p

ac
s
i,14
ac
p
Slot #0 Slot #1
Slot #14
ac
s
i,2
ac
p
Slot #2
(Tx OFF)
(Tx OFF)
(Tx OFF)
(Tx OFF)
(Tx OFF)
(Tx OFF)
(Tx OFF)
(Tx OFF)
Figure 17: Structure of SCH transmitted by TSTD scheme
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2.9.2.2 Closed loop downlink t ransmit diversity for DPCH transmission
The aim of transmit diversity is to maximize the received power at the UE. This is done by
transmitting the same signal with different amplitudes and phase shifts from two different antennas
(of the same site). The optimal weighting factors are determined by the UE and sent back to the
Node B by via the FBI field of the UL DPCCH.
The general transmitter structure to support closed loop mode transmit diversity for DPCH
transmission is shown in Figure 18. Channel coding, interleaving and spreading are done as in
non-diversity mode. The spread complex valued signal is fed to both TX antenna branches, and
weighted with antenna specific weight factors w
1
and w
2
. The weight factors are complex valued
signals (i.e., w
i
= a
i
+ jb
i
) in general, modifying amplitude and phase of the signal.
Spread/scramble
w
1
w
2
DPCH
DPCCH
DPDCH
Rx
Rx

CPICH
1
Tx

CPICH
2
Ant
1
Ant
2
Tx
Weight Generation
w
1
w
2
Determine FBI message
from Uplink DPCCH
Figure 18: DL transmitter structure for closed loop mode transmit diversity
2.10 CODECs supported by UTRAN
The GSM and UMTS standards define currently six different CODEC Types [26.103]:
Table 6: CODECS supported by the UTRAN
Name of the CODEC speech data bit rate
GSM Full Rate 13.0 kbit/s
GSM Half Rate 5.6 kbit/s
GSM Enhanced Full Rate 12.2 kbit/s
GSM Full Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate 4.75 12.2 kbit/s
GSM Half Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate 4.75 7.95 kbit/s
UMTS Adaptive Multi-Rate 4.75 12.2 kbit/s
Each of the six mentioned CODECS will be explained in more detail in this chapter.
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2.10.1 Fixed Rate CODECs
For all three fixed rate CODECS, DTX may be enabled in uplink and in downlink independently of
each other. DTX on or off is defined by the network on a cell basis and can not be negotiated at call
setup or during the call.
- GSM Full Rate
The GSM Full Rate CODEC Type supports one fixed CODEC Mode with 13.0 kBit/s.
- GSM Half Rate
The GSM Half Rate CODEC Type supports one fixed CODEC Mode with 5.60 kBit/s.
- GSM Enhanced Full Rate
The GSM Enhanced Full Rate CODEC Type supports one fixed mode with 12.2 kBit/s.
2.10.2 Adaptive Multi Rate CODECs
Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) is a new CODEC defined by ETSI. This technology relies on a set of pre-
defined "CODEC modes", each one providing optimum performance under specific radio
conditions. AMR is therefore a technology allowing for the real-time optimisation of the speech
coding scheme with respect to current radio propagation conditions. With CODECs such as FR and
EFR, the share of throughput given to speech coding and channel coding (speech protection) are
fixed trade-offs.
AMR is able to adapt the sharing speech information / speech protection (CODEC mode
adaptation) to current radio conditions, which can vary in a large scale, depending on location,
speed, interference, :
When radio conditions are very good, speech protection is reduced and the speech information
share is increased in order to improve speech quality,
When radio conditions are bad, speech protection share is increased to always keep the best
possible quality.
The CODEC mode adaptation is made up to each speech frame. This adaptation is illustrated in
Figure 19:
Figure 19: Functionality of the GSM AMR CODECs
- GSM Full Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate
The GSM Full Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate provides eight data rates in kbit/s:
12.2 10.2 7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75
- GSM Half Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate
The GSM Half Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate provides six data rates in kbit/s:
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7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75
- UMTS Adaptive Multi-Rate
The UMTS Adaptive Multi-Rate provides eight data rates in kbit/s:
12.2 10.2 7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75
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3 CHANNEL TYPES AND RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Referenced documents
[Proc] UMTS Radio Procedures Pascal Pagani (PCS-F)
[Channels] UMTS Channels Celine Moignard (PCS-F)
[25.211] Physical Channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels3GPP
TS 25.211 V3.4.0 (Release 1999)
[WCDMA] WCDMA for UMTS, Holma & Toskala, John Wiley & Sons 2000,
ISBN 0 471 72051 8
[RAC&RLC] UTRAN Radio Admission control and Radio Load Control. P.Pagani
[OTC] Alcatel/Motorola document: UTRAN System Feature Requirements And Architecture
Specifications, FRAS Documents: Part 2: Overview of Telecom Functions, version 1.4
http://slsy1b.stgl.sel.alcatel.de/umts/homepage/
[25.213] Spreading and modulation (FDD). 3GPP TS 25.213 V3.2.0 (Release 1999)
[SysDesign] UTRAN system Design Document Ed.7, 3BK 10240 0005 DSZZA
The UTRA radio interface is layered into three protocol layers [Proc]:
Physical layer (L1)
Data link layer (L2)
Network layer (L3)
Layer 2 is split into following sub-layers: Medium Access Control (MAC), Radio Link Control (RLC),
Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) and Broadcast/Multicast Control (BMC).
Layer 3 is partitioned into sub-layers where the lowest sub-layer, denoted as Radio Resource Control
(RRC), interfaces with layer 2 and terminates in the UTRAN. The next sub-layer provides 'Duplication
avoidance' functionality.
The higher layer signaling such as Mobility Management (MM) and Call Control (CC) follows a
protocol architecture, which is similar to the current ITU-R protocol architecture, ITU-R M.1035.
Figure 20 shows a simple overview of the radio interface protocol architecture.
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MAC
MM
Duplication Avoidance
RRC
BMC PDCP
RLC
PHY Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
CC
Logical
Channels
Transport
Channels
Figure 20: Radio Interface Protocol Architecture
3.1 Overview on channel t ypes and names
In UMTS three different channel types for data transmission and signaling are defined:
Physical channels (Layer 1)
Transport channels (Interface between layer 1 and 2)
Logical channels (Interface between layer 2 and 3)
Each of these channel types and the mapping between them will be described in more detail
hereafter.
3.1.1 Physical channels
Physical channels are channels really transmitted over the air. They are carrying transport channels
within their frames and time slots. Find all physical channels in FDD mode in Table 7. Closer
investigation of the physical channels is done in chapter 3.2 on page 43.
Table 7: Physical channels
Physical channel
AICH Acquisition Indication Channel
CPICH Common Pilot Channel
CSICH CPCH Status Indication Channel
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Physical channel
DPCH
DPCCH & DPDCH
Dedicated Physical Channel
Dedicated Physical Control Channel & Dedicated Physical
Data Channel
DL-DPCCH for CPCH DL- Dedicated Physical Control Channel
PCCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel
PCPCH Physical Common Packet Channel
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PICH Paging Indication Channel
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel
SCCPCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
SCH Synchronization Channel
3.1.2 Transport channels
Transport channels are used as interface between Layer 1 and Layer 2 of the radio network
architecture. They are divided into
Common transport channels (all except DCH)
Dedicated transport channels (only DCH)
Coded Composite Traffic Channels (CCTrCH)
What common or dedicated transport channels are defined is summarized in Table 8. There is also
a short description of each channel given.
The CCTrCH is used to multiplex several transport channels into one new transport channel. This
CCTrCH is than mapped to one or several physical channels depending on the required bit rate. A
CCTrCH must fulfil the following criteria:
- A maximum of 5 transport channels can be multiplexed to one CCTrCH
- Only transport channels with the same active set can be mapped to one CCTrCH
- Different CCTrCHs can not be mapped onto the same physical channel
- Dedicated and common transport channels can not be multiplexed into the same CCTrCH
- For the common transport channels, only the FACH and PCH may belong to the same CCTrCH.
There are hence two types of CCTrCH:
- CCTrCH of dedicated type, corresponding to the result of coding and multiplexing of one or several
DCHs.
- CCTrCH of common type, corresponding to the result of the coding and multiplexing of a common
channel, RACH in the uplink, DSCH ,BCH, or FACH/PCH for the downlink.
The reason for using CCTrCHs is to provide a more efficient usage of resources. Due to multiplexing
of several channels into one channel and splitting of this new channel into pieces with the right size
for fitting into a physical channel, the physical channel are used more efficient.
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Table 8: Common and dedicated transport channels
Transport channels
RACH Random Access Channel
The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink transport channel. The RACH is always
received from the entire cell. The RACH is characterized by a collision risk and by being
transmitted using open loop power control.
The RACH is intended to be used to carry control information from the terminal, such as
requests to set up a connection. It can also be used to sent small amounts of packet data from
the terminal to the network.
CPCH Common Packet Channel
The Common Packet Channel (CPCH) is an uplink transport channel and is a extension to the
RACH. The CPCH is associated with a downlink DPCCH with special slot format (for fast
power control commands transmission and CPCH signaling). Before transmission on CPCH
starts, the FACH in downlink is used to provide power control and CPCH control commands.
In the physical layer the main differences from the RACH are the use of fast power control
(inner loop power control), a physical layer based collision detection mechanism and a CPCH
status monitoring procedure.
FACH Forward Access Channel
The Forward Access Channel (FACH) is a downlink transport channel. The first FACH is
transmitted over the entire cell with low data rate. Additional FACHs in the cell can be
transmitted over only a part of the cell (e.g. beam forming antennas) using higher data rates.
The FACH is not allowed to use fast PC (inner loop PC). It can be used to transmit packet data
to the UE.
DSCH Downlink Shared Channel
The Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) is a transport channel intended to carry dedicated user
data and/or control information; it can be shared by several users. In many aspects it is
similar to the FACH, but DSCH supports the fast power control as well as variable bit rate
open a frame-by-frame basis. The DSCH can be transmitted only over a part of the cell. It can
employ the different transmit diversity modes used by the associated downlink DCH. The
DSCH is always associated with a downlink DCH.
BCH Broadcast Channel
The Broadcast Channel (BCH) is a downlink transport channel that is used to broadcast
system- and cell-specific information. The BCH is always transmitted over the entire cell and
has a single transport format.
The broadcast channel carries information like random access codes and access slots in the
cell, or types of used transmit diversity. As it is mandatory to receive the BCH transport
channel to register to the corresponding cell, the BCH must be transmitted with relatively high
power.
PCH Paging Channel
The Paging Channel (PCH) is a downlink transport channel. The PCH is always transmitted
over the entire cell to be able to initiated a communication with the UE. The PCH is sent by all
cells within the location area of the mobile. The transmission of the PCH is associated with the
transmission of physical-layer generated Paging Indicators, to support efficient sleep-mode
procedures.
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Transport channels
DCH Dedicated Channel
The Dedicated Channel is a downlink or uplink transport channel. The DCH is transmitted
over the entire cell or over only a part of the cell using e.g. beam-forming antennas.
The contents of the DCH transport channel are not visible to the physical layer, thus the DCH
can carry user data and control information as well. The UTRAN will set the physical layer
parameters depending on DCH carrying control or user data. The DCH supports
Fast power control
Fast data rate change on a frame-by-frame basis
Soft HO
3.1.3 Logical channels
Logical channels are used as interface between Layer 2 and Layer 3 of the radio network
architecture.
Table 9: Logical control channels
Logical control channels
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel (DL)
System control information is broadcasted on the BCCH
PCCH Paging Control Channel (DL)
Paging information is broadcasted on the PCH channel.
CCCH Common Control Channel (DL & UL))
A bi-directional channel for transmitting control information between the network and UEs.
The logical CCCH channel is always mapped onto RACH/FACH transport channels.
DCCH Dedicated Control Channel (DL&UL)
The DCCH is a bi-directional channel, that transmits dedicated control information between
UE and UTRAN. The DCCH is established during RRC connection establishment procedure.
Table 10: Logical traffic channels
Logical traffic channels
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel (DL&UL)
The DTCH carries user data. It can exist in UL & DL.
CTCH Common Traffic Channel (UL)
A common downlink traffic channel to transfer dedicated user information to all or a group
of UEs.
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3.1.4 Mapping between different channel types
CCCH
CPCH DCH
DCCH
DTCH
PCH BCH FACH DSCH DCH
PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH
DCCH
DTCH
UPLINK DOWNLINK
LOGICAL
CHANNELS
TRANSPORT
CHANNELS
PRACH
DPCCH
DPDCH
SCCPCH PCCPCH PDSCH
DPCCH
DPDCH
PHYSICAL
CHANNELS
PCPCH
SCH CPICH AICH PICH CSICH CD/CA-ICH
Standalone physical channels
without connection to transport layer
RACH
Figure 21: Mapping between logical, transport and physical channels
3.2 The physical channels
In this chapter the physical channels will be explained. They are separated into UL and DL channels,
chapter 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 respectively.
3.2.1 The physical channels in Uplink
Physical Channels in UL
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel
The PRACH is used to carry the RACH transport channel.
PCPCH Physical Common Packet Channel
The PCPCH is used to carry the CPCH transport channel.
DPCH
(DPCCH/DPDCH)
Dedicated Physical Channel
The DPCH is a summary of the two physical channels DPDCH and DPCCH.
The DPCCH carries user dedicated control information and the DPDCH
carries user dedicated data.
3.2.1.1 DPCH (DPDCH & DPCCH) in UL
There are two types of uplink DPCH, the uplink DPDCH and the uplink DPCCH. The DPDCH and
the DPCCH are I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame. This is different from the downlink,
where DPDCH and DPCCH are time multiplexed on the same branch.
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The uplink DPDCH is used to carry the DCH transport channel. There may be zero, one, or several
uplink DPDCHs on each radio link.
The uplink DPCCH is used to carry control information generated at Layer 1. There is one and only
one uplink DPCCH on each radio link.
Figure 22 shows the frame structure of the uplink dedicated physical channels. Each radio frame of
length 10 ms is split into 15 slots, each of length T
slot
= 2560 chips, corresponding to one power-
control period.
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
TPC
N
TPC
bits
Data
N
data
bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10 bits
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
DPDCH
DPCCH
FBI
N
FBI
bits
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
T
slot
= 2560 chips, N
data
= 10*2
k
bits (k=0..6)
Figure 22: Frame structure for uplink DPDCH/DPCCH
The control bits of the DPCCH are explained hereafter.
Pilot: The (mandatory) pilot bits are used for channel estimation for coherent detection. By
estimating the channel conditions, the receiver in the Node B can optimize its receiver
parameters. If the pilot bits on the DPCCH are not sufficient for channel estimation,
the CPICH (Common Pilot Channel) bits can be used for support.
TFCI: The (optional) Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI) informs the receiver
about the instantaneous transport format combination of the transport channels
mapped to the simultaneously transmitted uplink DPDCH of the radio frame.
FBI: The (optional) Feedback Indicator (FBI) is used to adjust the closed loop transmit
diversity parameters.
TPC: The Transmit Power control (TPC) carries in uplink the power control commands for
the Node B transmitter.
3.2.1.2 PRACH
The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink transport channel that is used to carry control
information and user packets from the User Equipment (UE) to the Serving RNC (SRNC). When the
UE wishes to send information on the RACH, it listens to the logical Broadcast Control Channel
(BCCH) of the serving cell to learn the access parameters (and specifically the information
controlling the random access channel utilization). Using this access information, the UE initiates
sending the RACH preamble. After the UE has completed its preamble transmission on the RACH, it
listens to the Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH) to determine if the Node B received the RACH
preamble without error. Assuming that the Node B has indicated successful reception, the UE then
transmits the message part of the RACH. The UE sets the power level based on parameters received
on the BCCH. If the UE does not get a successful indication, it will retransmit the preamble after
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using an algorithm to provide a random delay. The Node B accepts the message part of the logical
RACH and sends DCCH and User Data to the SRNC and CCCH to the CRNC.
The random-access transmission is based on a Slotted ALOHA approach with fast acquisition
indication. The UE can start the transmission at a number of well-defined time-offsets, denoted
access slots. There are 15 access slots per two frames and they are spaced 5120 chips (2 slots!)
apart.
Figure 23 shows the access slot numbers and their spacing to each other. Information on what
access slots are available in the current cell is given by higher layers.
#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14
5120 chips
radio frame: 10 ms radio frame: 10 ms
Access slot #0 Random Access Transmission
Access slot #1
Access slot #7
Access slot #14
Random Access Transmission
Random Access Transmission
Random Access Transmission Access slot #8
Figure 23: RACH access slot numbers and their spacing
The structure of the random-access transmission is shown in Figure 24. The random-access
transmission consists of one or several preambles of length 4096 chips and a message of length 10
ms.
Message part Preamble
4096 chips 10 ms
Preamble Preamble
Figure 24: Structure of the random-access transmission
Figure 25 shows the structure of the random-access message part. The 10 ms message is split into
15 slots, each of length T
slot
= 2560 chips. Each slot consists of two parts, a data part that carries
Layer 2 information and a control part that carries Layer 1 control information. The data and control
parts are transmitted in parallel.
The data part consists of 10*2
k
bits, where k=0,1,2,3. This corresponds to a spreading factor of
256, 128, 64, and 32 respectively for the message data part.
The control part consists of 8 known pilot bits to support channel estimation for coherent detection
and 2 TFCI bits. This corresponds to a spreading factor of 256 for the message control part. The
TFCI value corresponds to a certain transport format of the current random-access message.
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Pilot
N
pilot
bits
Data
N
data
bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10*2
k
bits (k=0..3)
Random-access messageT
RACH
= 10 ms
Data
Control
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
Figure 25: Structure of the random-access message part
This structure implies a (small) risk for collisions on the RACH. However, because of the used
preamble codes and random scrambling codes used on random access channels, it is possible to
have up to 80 random-access attempts within a 10 ms frame.
3.2.1.3 PCPCH
The PCPCH is used to carry the CPCH.
The CPCH transmission is based on DSMA-CD (Digital Sense Multiple Access Collision Detection)
approach with fast acquisition indication. The UE can start transmission at the beginning of a
number of well-defined time-intervals, relative to the frame boundary of the received BCH of the
current cell. The access slot timing and structure is identical to the RACH. The structure of the CPCH
access transmission is shown in Figure 26. The CPCH access transmission consists of one or several
Access Preambles [A-P] of length 4096 chips, one Collision Detection Preamble (CD-P) of length
4096 chips, a DPCCH Power Control Preamble (PC-P) which is either 0 slots or 8 slots in length,
and a message of variable length Nx10 ms.
4096 chips
P0
P1
Pj Pj
Collision Detection
Preamble
Access Preamble Control Part
Data part
0 or 8 slots N*10 msec
Message Part
Figure 26: Structure of the CPCH access transmission
The frame structure and possible slot formats of the PCPCH can be found in [25.211].
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3.2.2 The physical channels in DL
Table 11: Summary of downlink physical channels
Physical downlink channels
DPCH
(DPDCH & DPCCH)
Dedicated Physical Channel
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) and Dedicated Physical Control Channel
(DPCCH) are time multiplexed on the same DPCH.
See more details in 3.2.2.1
DL-DPCCH for CPCH DL- Dedicated Physical Control Channel
This special DPCCH is always associated with a CPCH for PC and signaling of the CPCH.
CPICH
(P-CPICH & S-CPICH)
Common Pilot Channel
The CPICH consists of two sub-channels, the primary CPICH (P-CPICH) and the secondary
CPICH (S-CPICH). Find more information in 3.2.2.2
PCCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel
It is used to carry the BCH transport channel. See 3.2.2.3
SCCPCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
used to carry to FACH and PCH. See 3.2.2.4
SCH Synchronization channel
The SCH is needed for the cell search of the mobile and consists of a Primary SCH and a
Secondary SCH, which are sent in parallel. They are time multiplexed with the PCCPCH.
See 3.2.2.5.
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared channel
The PDSCH is used to carry the DSCH. A certain code for channelization is given to the
PDSCH for one frame. During this frame all slots are allocated to one UE. The UE can
change every frame. Different UEs can be code multiplexed, using codes from the same
OVSF root during one frame. A UE knows when it has to decode the PDSCH by the DPCH
which is necessarily associated with a PDSCH connection of each UE. See 3.2.2.6.
AICH Acquisition Indication Channel:
The AICH is used to sent an acknowledgement to the UE after correct reception of the
RACH. The AICH is not visible to higher layers, thus directly controlled by the physical
layer. It has a spreading factor of 256 and consists of 15 repeated consecutive access slots
of 5120 chips duration (20 ms frame). 4096 chips are used by the AICH and for the other
1024 chips the transmission is either off, or they are used by the CSICH or other possible
future physical channels. See more information in [25.211]
PICH Page Indication Channel
The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to
carry the paging indicators. The PICH is always associated with an S-CCPCH to which a
PCH transport channel is mapped.
Once a PI message has been detected on the PICH, the UE decodes the next PCH frame
transmitted on the SCCPCH whether there is a paging message intended for it.
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Physical downlink channels
AP-AICH
CD/CA-ICH
CSICH
CPCH Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel
CPCH Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel
CPCH Status Indication Channel
These physical channels have been specified for the CPCH access procedure. They carry
no transport channels, but only information needed in the CPCH access procedure. See
[25.211], [WCDMA]
Note: Find more information on all physical channels in [25.211]
3.2.2.1 Downlink DPCH
The main difference of DL DPCCH compared to UL DPCH is, that the DPDCH and DPCCH are time
multiplexed and both are transmitted on I and Q branch of the transmitter (QPSK modulation).
Having the same symbol rate in UL and DL, the QPSK is leading to nearly (minus multiplexed
control bit rate) doubled possible bit rate for user data in DL.
Closed loop power control is used and two kinds of transmit diversity are possible: Closed loop and
STTD open loop.
Figure 9 shows the frame structure of the downlink DPCH. Each frame of length 10 ms is split into
15 slots, each of length T
slot
= 2560 chips, corresponding to one power-control period.
One radio frame, T
f
= 10 ms
TPC
N
TPC
bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10*2
k
bits (k=0..7)
Data2
N
data2
bits
DPDCH
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
Data1
N
data1
bits
DPDCH DPCCH DPCCH
Figure 27: Frame structure for downlink DPCH
The parameter k in Figure 27 determines the total number of bits per downlink DPCH slot. It is
related to the spreading factor SF of the physical channel as SF = 512/2
k
. The spreading factor may
thus range from 512 down to 4.
The exact number of bits of the different downlink DPCH fields (N
pilot
, N
TPC
, N
TFCI
, N
data1
and N
data2
) is
given in [25.211]. What slot format to use is configured by higher layers and can also be
reconfigured by higher layers.
There are basically two types of downlink Dedicated Physical Channels; those that include TFCI (e.g.
for several simultaneous services) and those that do not include TFCI (e.g. for fixed-rate services). It
is the UTRAN that determines if a TFCI should be transmitted.
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3.2.2.2 CPICH Common Pilot channel
The common pilot channel is an unmodulated code channel, which is scrambled by the cell specific
scrambling code. The CPICH is for aiding the channel estimation for dedicated channels and for
providing the channel estimation reference for common channels. Two types of CPICH are defined,
the primary and the secondary common pilot channel (P-CPICH & S-CPICH).
3.2.2.2.1 Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH)
The P-CPICH is used for performing measurements for handover and cell selection/reselection.
The Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) has the following characteristics:
The same channelization code is always used for the P-CPICH
The P-CPICH is scrambled by the primary scrambling code of the cell
There is one and only one P-CPICH per cell
The P-CPICH is broadcast over the entire cell
The Primary CPICH is the phase reference for the following downlink channels: SCH, Primary
CCPCH, AICH, PICH. The Primary CPICH is also the default phase reference for all other downlink
physical channels.
3.2.2.2.2 SCPICH - Secondary Common Pilot Channel
A Secondary Common Pilot Channel (S-CPICH) has the following characteristics:
An arbitrary channelization code of SF=256 is used for the S-CPICH
A S-CPICH is scrambled by either the primary or a secondary scrambling code
There may be zero, one, or several S-CPICH per cell
A S-CPICH may be transmitted over the entire cell or only over a part of the cell (e.g. beam forming antennas)
A Secondary CPICH may be the reference for the Secondary CCPCH and the downlink DPCH. If this is the
case, the UE is informed about this by higher-layer signalling.
3.2.2.3 PCCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel
The Primary CCPCH is a fixed rate (30 kbit/s, SF=256) downlink physical channels used to carry the
BCH transport channel.
Figure 15 shows the frame structure of the Primary CCPCH. The frame structure differs from the
downlink DPCH in that no TPC commands, no TFCI and no pilot bits are transmitted. The Primary
CCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each slot. Instead, Primary SCH and
Secondary SCH are transmitted during this period
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Data
18 bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips , 20 bits
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
(Tx OFF)
256 chips
Figure 28: PCCPCH frame structure
3.2.2.4 SCCPCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
The Secondary CCPCH is used to carry the FACH and PCH. There are two types of SCCPCH: those
that include TFCI and those that do not include TFCI. It is the UTRAN that determines if a TFCI
should be transmitted, hence making it mandatory for all UEs to support the use of TFCI. The set of
possible rates for the Secondary CCPCH is the same as for the downlink DPCH. The frame structure
of the Secondary CCPCH is shown in Figure 29.
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 20*2
k
bits (k=0..6)
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
Data
N
data
bits
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
Figure 29: SCCPCH frame structure
The parameter k in Figure 29 determines the total number of bits per SCCPCH slot. It is related to
the spreading factor SF of the physical channel as SF = 256/2
k
. The spreading factor range is from
256 down to 4. The values for the number of bits per field are given in [25.211].
The FACH and PCH can be mapped to the same or to separate Secondary CCPCHs. If FACH and
PCH are mapped to the same Secondary CCPCH, they can be mapped to the same frame. The
main difference between a CCPCH and a downlink dedicated physical channel is that a CCPCH is
not inner-loop power controlled. The main difference between the Primary and Secondary CCPCH is
that the transport channel mapped to the Primary CCPCH (BCH) can only have a fixed predefined
transport format combination, while the Secondary CCPCH support multiple transport format
combinations using TFCI. Furthermore, a Primary CCPCH is transmitted over the entire cell while a
Secondary CCPCH may be transmitted in a narrow lobe in the same way as a dedicated physical
channel (only valid for a Secondary CCPCH carrying the FACH).
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3.2.2.5 SCH Synchronization Channel
The Synchronization Channel (SCH) is a downlink signal used for cell search. The SCH consists of
two sub channels, the Primary and Secondary SCH. The 10 ms radio frames of the Primary and
Secondary SCH are divided into 15 slots, each of length 2560 chips.
Figure 30 illustrates the structure of the SCH radio frame.
Primary
SCH
Secondary
SCH
256 chips
2560 chips
One 10 ms SCH radio frame
ac
s
i ,0
ac
p
ac
s
i,1
ac
p
ac
s
i ,14
ac
p
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #14
Figure 30: Structure of Synchronization Channel (SCH)
The Primary SCH consists of a modulated code of length 256 chips, the Primary Synchronization
Code (PSC) denoted c
p
in
Figure 30, transmitted once every slot. The PSC is the same for every cell in the system.
The Secondary SCH consists of repeatedly transmitting a length 15 sequence of modulated codes of
length 256 chips, the Secondary Synchronization Codes (SSC), transmitted in parallel with the
Primary SCH. The SSC is denoted c
s
i,k
in
Figure 30, where I = 0, 1, , 63 is the number of the scrambling code group, and k = 0, 1, , 14
is the slot number. Each SSC is chosen from a set of 16 different codes of length 256. This sequence
on the Secondary SCH indicates which of the code groups the cell's downlink scrambling code
belongs to.
The primary and secondary synchronization codes are modulated by the symbol as shown in figure
18, which indicates the presence/ absence of STTD encoding on the P-CCPCH and is given by the
following table:
P-CCPCH STTD encoded a = +1
P-CCPCH not STTD encoded a = -1
The SCH itself can have TSTD transmit diversity.
3.2.2.6 PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
A PDSCH is allocated on a radio frame basis to a single UE. Within one radio frame, UTRAN may
allocate different PDSCHs under the same PDSCH root channelization code to different UEs based
on code multiplexing. Within the same radio frame, multiple parallel PDSCHs, with the same
spreading factor, may be allocated to a single UE. This is a special case of multicode transmission.
All the PDSCHs under the same PDSCH root channelization code are operated with radio frame
synchronization.
PDSCHs allocated to the same UE on different radio frames may have different spreading factors.
The frame and slot structure of the PDSCH are shown on Figure 31.
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Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 20*2
k
bits (k=0..6)
Data
N
data
bits
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
Figure 31: Frame structure for the PDSCH
For each radio frame, each PDSCH is associated with one downlink DPCH. The PDSCH and
associated DPCH do not necessarily have the same spreading factors and are not necessarily frame
aligned.
All relevant Layer 1 control information is transmitted on the DPCCH part of the associated DPCH,
i.e. the PDSCH does not carry Layer 1 information. To indicate for UE that there is data to decode
on the PDSCH, two signaling methods are possible, either using the TFCI field of the associated
DPCH, or higher layer signaling carried on the associated DPCH.
In case of TFCI based signaling, the TFCI informs the UE of the instantaneous transport format
parameters related to the PDSCH as well as the channelization code of the PDSCH. In the other
case, the information is given by higher layer signaling. The channel bit rates and symbol rates for
PDSCH are given in Table 12.
Table 12: Slot formats of DPSCH with possible spreading factors
Slot format #i Channel Bit
Rate (kbps)
Channel
Symbol Rate
(ksps)
SF Bits/
Frame
Bits/ Slot Ndata
0 30 15 256 300 20 20
1 60 30 128 600 40 40
2 120 60 64 1200 80 80
3 240 120 32 2400 160 160
4 480 240 16 4800 320 320
5 960 480 8 9600 640 640
6 1920 960 4 19200 1280 1280
3.3 Radio resource management functions
Radio resource management (RRM) is responsible for the utilization of the air interface resources.
RRM is needed to guarantee quality of service (QoS), to maintain the planned coverage area and to
offer high capacity. Radio Resource Management is split in the following functions:
- Power control
aims at maintaining the right level of power to and from each mobile. This is further split in
closed loop and open loop power control - explained in chapter 2.
- Radio admission control (RAC)
is a CRNC function, checking whether new calls can be accepted with the service characteristics
required by the users, and maintaining the quality of already established calls in the cells of that
CRNC. It is explained in section 0 of this chapter. RAC itself is part of the Connection admission
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control which is split into Call/Connection Admission Control of the ATM network part (CAC)
and RAC.
- Traffic volume measurement
function supervises the user data flow, in order to adapt the allocated radio resource to the
amount of data sent.
- Radio access bearer establishment, configuration and release
addresses the procedures of establishment of radio resources. It includes handling of radio
parameters.
- Radio resource allocation and management
function is in charge of allocating the channelization codes and temporary user identifiers used
in the UTRAN. This includes the problem of reshuffling the code tree, so as to enable high bit
rate connections.
- Radio load control
function aims at avoiding radio congestion. The section also indicates actions taken in case a
radio congestion situation occurs.
- Radio channel coding and decoding
describes the functions performed in the Node B to cope with the CDMA air interface. Among
other, this includes interleaving, rate matching, discontinuous transmission handling,
compressed mode handling, and of course, mapping to physical channels.
- Packet scheduling, multiplexing and retransmission
addresses the complex issue of dynamic optimization of resources both in downlink and uplink,
in particular the use of common and shared channels.
- RACH detection and handling
is devoted to the resource management aspects related to the Random Access Channel.
Table 13 shows which elements of the RAN are involved in the execution of each Radio resource
management (RRM) function.
Table 13 Radio resource management functions
Function
N
o
d
e
B
C
R
N
C
S
R
N
C
U
E
Radio Resource Management
a) RF Power control Closed Loop
RF Power Control, UL/DL Inner Loop
X X
RF Power Control, UL Open Loop
X X
b) RF Power Control, UL/DL Outer Loop (= QOS control)
X X
c) Radio Admission Control
X
d) Traffic Volume Measurements per UE
X
e) Traffic Volume Measurements on common channels
X
f) Radio Access Bearer Establishment, Reconfiguration, and Release
X
g) Radio Resource Allocation and Management
X
h) Radio Load Control
Radio Overload Prevention X
Radio Overload handling X
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Function
N
o
d
e
B
C
R
N
C
S
R
N
C
U
E
Radio Resource Management
i) Radio Channel Coding/Decoding
X X
j) NRT Services Scheduling, Multiplexing and Retransmission
CH scheduling X
CH scheduling X
Scheduling control on RACH X
AC on DCH X
transmission X X
k) RACH management
CH detection and control X X
CH handling for CCCH X
CH handling for DCCH and user data X
CI detection X
In this version of the document besides Power Control in chapter 2, only the Radio Admission
Control function RAC is explained in more detail.
3.3.1 Radio Admission Control
In the CDMA system, since the uplink and downlink are asymmetric, the RAC algorithm is different
for uplink and downlink. When the both RAC algorithm admit, the connection can be established.
The RAC part is in accordance with [SysDesign].
3.3.1.1 Admission control for uplink
Three types of admission control are desirable to be considered.
- Received power admission control
- Active user based admission control
- Channel element based admission control
3.3.1.1.1 Received power admission control
This algorithm is based on the noise rise calculation. The Node B always measures the noise rise.
When the establishment of the new connection is requested, the RAC function makes a judgement
whether to grant the request by comparing the average actual noise rise in a certain period,
assumed increment of noise rise caused by adding the new connection and the threshold noise rise
value predetermined.
This algorithm is highly reliable because it is based on the actual measurement value. However, it is
not easy to precisely analyze the increment of noise rise when the new connection is added because
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the increment of the interference from the adjacent Node B, which is caused by adding the new
connection in question, should be taken into account.
To develop this algorithm, the following parameters will be needed.
- The actual noise rise measured by Node B
- The time of period to be used for averaging*
- The threshold value*
- The increments of noise rise for every service according to the actual noise rise at a given
time*
The parameters marked with asterisk should be able to change by software.
3.3.1.1.2 Active user based admission control
This algorithm is based on the number of active users. The RAC function makes a judgement
whether to grant the request by comparing the number of active users assumed after the new
connection is established and the maximum number of active users calculated logically. Since there
are several services and its capacity is different respectively, the calculation of total number of active
uses is complicated. One method is to decide a certain service as the standard, convert the number
of active user of the other services to that corresponding to the standard service.
This algorithm is the one based on the theory and the result of simulation, and used to complement
the noise rise based algorithm which is based on the actual measurement value
To develop this algorithm, the following parameters will be needed.
- The number of active users of each service in presence
- The weight to convert the number of active users of a certain service to that of the standard
service*
- The maximum number of active user of the standard service*
The parameters marked with asterisk should be able to change by software.
3.3.1.1.3 Channel element based admission control
This algorithm is based on the number of BB channels. The RAC function makes a judgement
whether to grant the request by comparing the number of BB channels used and the number of BB
channels available. It is necessary to consider that some BB channels should be reserved for the
handover users in the adjacent Node B according to the handover ratio.
To develop this algorithm, the following parameters will be needed.
- The number of BB channels to be used
- The number of BB channels reserved for handover user*
- The total number of BB channels that the Node B has
The parameters marked with asterisk should be able to change by software.
3.3.1.2 Admission Control for Downlink
Admission Control for Downlink shall have the three following parts:
- Transmit power based admission control
- Active user based admission control
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- Channel element based admission control
3.3.1.2.1 Transmit power based admission control
This algorithm is based on the transmit power available. The RAC function makes a judgement
whether to grant the request by comparing the transmit power available, which equals to the
difference between the maximum transmit power and the average transmit power used, and the
required transmit power for the new connection.
To develop this algorithm, the following parameters will be needed.
- The transmit power used
- The time of period to be used for averaging*
- The maximum transmit power
- The transmit power required for the new connection*
The parameters marked with asterisk should be able to change by software.
3.3.1.2.2 Active user based admission control
Same as uplink.
3.3.1.2.3 Channel element based admission control
Same as uplink.
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4 UMTS SERVICES AND TRAFFIC MODELING
This chapter is dedicated to the traffic modeling in the network dimensioning approach.
REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
[Agin_LL] Summary of UTRA/FDD Link Lever Performance Results, P. Agin,
Ref: TD/SYT/pag/740.99
[SysDesign] UTRAN System Design Document Ed.7, 3BK 10240 0005 DSZZA
RELATED DOCUMENTS
[Asp] Theory of Traffic Modelling, Version 1.5, X. Asperge, MND internal document
[ETSI] ETSI document TR101 112 v3.2.0. (1998-04), formerly UMTS 30.03 version 3.2.0.
[MND1] UMTS Radio Interface Dimensioning, S. Joga, MND internal document
[MND4] UMTS Radio Dimensioning Overview, Y. Dupuch and A. Grtner, MND internal
document
[POM] A page-oriented WWW traffic model for wireless system simulations, A. Reyes-Lecuona,
E. Gonzalez-Parada, E. Casilari, J.C. Casasola and A. Diaz-Estrella in 16
th
International Telegraphic Congress, Vol 2, pp 1271-1280, Edinburgh, June 1999
[Prob] "Probabilits", Jacques Neveu, Script of Ecole Polytechnique, Edition 1997
The chapter describes the UMTS multiservice concepts including the different service definitions and
traffic models.
In contrary to second generation mobile radio systems, where one single type of quality criteria
designed for speech determines the radio design process, for UMTS a multitude of different bearer
services with different quality requirements have to be taken into account. Each service needs a
different portion of the available resource, the air interface, dependent on parameters like the bit-
rate, the maximum delay and the tolerable maximum bit error rate. Additionally, the user activity for
different services shows different statistical behaviour which has to be described by according
stochastical traffic models in order to judge the expected traffic created by the service mix.
Since in a CDMA system the cell range is traffic dependent, reliable traffic models play an important
role in the UTRA/FDD radio design.
In a CDMA system, a user is only taking resources (capacity) from the network if he is causing
interference for the other users, meaning that he is emitting (contribution to uplink interference) or
receiving (contribution to the downlink interference). Therefore, even for circuit switched services,
where the user is assigned a circuit switched channel for the whole time of the connection, he does
not block resources
2
when he is not emitting (resp. receiving). Thats why the notion of service
activity has been introduced, described by the activity factor.
An additional aspect of the UMTS system consists in the multiservice. Due to the fact that users of
different services are dynamically using resources from the same pool, there is a certain trunking
efficiency compared to a scenario where a given capacity is divided a priori between different

2
except the channelization codes
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services. In the latter case, one can dimension the required resources for the different services
separately, in the former case, a common approach has to be found taking into account the traffic
mix.
4.1 UMTS Services
The notion of service is used within the UMTS world with a variety of different meanings. At a first
glance, one would associate the word service with the user application, like web-browsing or e-
mail. The following list represents an exemplary choice of such service applications:
Personal Communications
Voice
Voice over IP protocol
Voice mail
E-mail (without attachment)
Text / SMS messaging
Multimedia messages:
Still images, video, text, sound
Conversion of media
Video telephony / conference
Mobile office
Internet access, browsing
Intranet access, browsing
Corporate database access
E-mail with possible attachments
Rapid File/Data transfer
Collaborative working (tele-presence) (tele-work)
Agenda synchronisation with PDA
Expert on line
Remote diagnostics / maintenance (e.g. network administrator)
Location based services
Navigation services (position)
Traffic information (depending on where the car is and goes)
Tourist information / virtual tourist guide
Maps, images download (e.g. of neighbouring sites)
Time table / schedule information (train schedules)
Locator services
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Fleet management (positioning and follow-up) (fleet management: taxis, trucks)
Telemetry
Remote health monitoring
Remote data acquisition and transfer (e.g. gathering weather forecast data)
Remote monitoring & control
Remote surveillance / alarm
E-commerce
On-line banking
E-cash integrated in the mobile
Electronic ticketing
Interactive shopping, delivery
Intelligent brokering
Information services
Yellow pages
Push & pull news / information (launching search for information)
E-newspaper
Health
Education, training
Entertainment
Sports news
Interactive games
Gambling
E-magazines
Audio on demand
Video-clips on demand
However, in order to predict the impact of such a service application on coverage and capacity,
other attributes have to be examined. In this context, a service is defined by the following
characteristics, which will be explained in detail in the next chapters:
- the connection type (circuit switched or packet switched)
- the user bit rate(s)
- the required QoS and the related radio quality in terms of E
b
/N
0
for uplink and downlink
- the required GoS for this service
- the statistical behaviour described by the according traffic model and its parameters
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4.2 Traffic Modelling
It has to be mentioned that the notion of traffic model is used for two different aspect of traffic:
- On a first level, traffic model refers to modelling the statistical behaviour of one user using one
given service: It gives probability density functions to reflect the user traffic generation. For better
distinction, this could be called microscopic traffic model.
- On a second level, traffic model refers to the statistical modelling of the behaviour of a
multitude of users using a limited resource in order to define the necessary resource allocation.
Since in the UMTS system, users of different services with different microscopic traffic models are
sharing the same resource, an overall traffic model approach is necessary. This overall model is
called macroscopic traffic model.
4.2.1 Microscopic Traffic Models
Looking at the exemplary list of service applications, one understands intuitively that the statistical
behaviour of the resource utilisation is different for each service. For example an active web user clicks
once in a while to download a page, generating small uplink traffic and very bursty downlink traffic, leaving
blank times in between, which would allow to give the resource to another user at the same time, whereas a
video conference user blocks his uplink and downlink for the whole time of the session. However, it seems
quite clear that it is impossible to reflect the statistical behaviour of each user of every thinkable service
application in analytical or even simulative prediction. Therefore, only a few traffic models are used for
analyse purpose, each of them represented by a set of parameters. Depending on the traffic model, one needs
therefore a different number and type of parameters to characterise a service entirely. In the course of this
paper, one distinguishes between circuit switched and packet switched traffic model.
In UMTS network predictions using simulations (e.g. Monte Carlo simulations), the subscribers (which are
potential users) of the different services are distributed randomly (according to a distribution function) on a
given area. Then, the behaviour of each of them is simulated according to the microscopic traffic model
applied for the relevant service, so that at a snapshot in time, the position and number of active users and
their service is determined. The following calculations are therefore deterministic, no macroscopic traffic
model is needed. Radio Resource control algorithms decide over blocking and delay, so that after a
sufficiently high number of simulation runs, blocking resp. delay statistics can be elaborated to decide if the
GoS is fulfilled for each service.
4.2.2 Macroscopic Traffic Models
In case of analytical predictions, we have to assure that the common pool of resources is sufficient
to satisfy the traffic with the required GoS for each service by a macroscopic traffic model, taking
into account the behaviour of all subscribers using the different services.
The according example for a macroscopic traffic model in GSM is the good old Erlang B law for
voice, which produces for a given traffic intensity and number of available voice channels the
according blocking probability, resp. gives the number of needed channels to treat the given traffic
intensity with a required blocking probability. However, the example is not really applicable since it
is dealing with monoservice.
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4.3 Service Definition
4.3.1 Circuit Switched Services
The following table gives an overview on the input parameters defining a circuit switched service.
Bit rate
User bit rate for the circuit connection
QoS and Radio
quality
BER and associated E
b
/N
0
[dB] per multipath environment for uplink
BER and associated E
b
/N
0
[dB] per multipath environment for downlink
GoS Maximum acceptable Blocking Percentage
Microscopic Activity Factor for uplink
Activity Factor for downlink
Session inter-arrival time in sec
Session length in sec
Traffic Modelling
Parameter
Macroscopic Traffic intensity in Erlang within the cell
respectively:
Number of subscribers N within the given cell and traffic
intensity per subscriber (in mErlang)
4.3.1.1 Bit rate:
A circuit switched connection implies a constantly available traffic channel of a given channel
bandwidth in both uplink and downlink direction. Therefore, for characterisation of a circuit switched
contains only one user bit rate
3
, which is the effective bit rate (information bit rate) of this circuit
channel.
The bit rates 64, 144 and 384 kbit/s for circuit switched data and 8kbit/s for speech have been
defined by 3GPP as reference bit rates in order to be able to compare simulation results of different
3GPP members. Within a real UMTS system, there is a high granularity of possible user bit rates, so
that any other user bit rate together with any other BER requirement could occur. However, it is quite
clear that a prediction gets very complicated if one allows this granularity in service, so that in
general, service applications are mapped on the above bit rates for prediction purpose.
For the product release 3G R1.1 (see [SYSDESIGN]), the following bit rates are intended to be
implemented:
Speech will be implemented with the conversational AMR (adaptive multirate)
Speech Bit rate (Uplink / Downlink) kbit/s
Type Conversational AMR 4.75 12.2 / 4.75 12.2
The 9 AMR modes specified in TS26.071 are supported, and the AMR mode to be used can be
configured by O&M.

3
The notion of user bit rate referes to the effective bit rate at RLC level, meaning without error
correction or channel codin bits. It is not to be confused with the channel bit rate
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Additionally, the following circuit switched service is intended to be implemented in 3G R1.1
Circuit switched data Bit rate (Uplink / Downlink) kbit/s
Type Conversational 64/64
This type of service is intended to support ISDN services from CS domain, and a residual BER of 10
-6
is thus allowed.
4.3.1.2 Radio Quality and QoS
The required radio quality is given by a E
b
/N
0
target value for uplink and one for downlink. E
b
represents the energy per information bit and N
0
represents the overall noise (thermal noise, intra-
cell and extra-cell interference) after the Rake receiver. The E
b
/N
0
is measured in the receiver after
the data demodulation. The E
b
/N
0
target value is required to achieve a certain BER (Bit error rate).
The mapping of BER and E
b
/N
0
is dependent on the particular multipath and propagation
conditions, which also depend on the mobile speed, and on the used equipment. This means as
those conditions vary the E
b
/N
0
quality parameter also varies.
Alcatel has performed link level simulations which give for speech
4
(8 and 12.2 kbit/s) and circuit
switched data (64, 144 and 384 kbit/s) for the 3GPP defined propagation environments Pedestrian
A and Vehicular A in combination with the mobile velocities 3, 50 and 120km/h the required radio
qualities for uplink and downlink [Agin_LL]. The performance is expressed as the average received
E
b
/N
0
required to reach the required quality which was assumed to be a BER of 10
-3
for speech
service and a BER of 10
-6
for circuit switched services. Please refer to Annex A and B for the
according result tables.
In 3GPP notation, the above mentioned circuit switched data services along with the BER
requirement are often referred to as LCD (Long Constrained Delay) data services.
4.3.1.3 Grade of Service (GoS)
The GoS for a circuit switched service is generally given in terms of maximal allowed blocking
probability in [%].
4.3.1.4 Microscopic Traffic Model
The traffic model applied to circuit switched services is a traditional birth-death process, also known
as Erlang-B-model. It is described by the following parameters:
Session inter-arrival time 1/ (in seconds)
time between the beginning of two consecutive sessions, it is an exponentially distributed random
variable.
Session length 1/ (in seconds):
duration of the session, it is also an exponentially distributed random variable.

4
Speech is a classical circuit-switched service
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t
I n t e r - a r r i v a l t i m e :
e x p o n e n t i a l , p a r a m e t e r 1 / a v e r a g e t i m e
S e s s i o n l e n g t h :
e x p o n e n t i a l , p a r a m e t e r 1 / a v e r a g e l e n g t h
Please note that the traffic intensity per user r which is an input of the macroscopic model, can be
derived out of these parameters:

H
Note that the parameters are identical on both uplink and downlink for circuit services, which is not
true for packet services.
For the circuit switched connections, where a constant traffic channel is elaborated, an activity factor
o can be given. For example for speech which is a circuit switched service, the voice activity factor is
around 0.5, which means, that the channel is used only half of the time, because a user talking via
the downlink means a listening user in the uplink and vice versa. A listening and therefore not
transmitting user doesn't cause interference, which has to be taken into account for capacity
calculations. The application of the activity factor is also treated by the traffic model.
Activity factor:
ratio between emitting periods within the session ant the total session duration, therefore probability
to emit
4.3.2 Packet Switched Services
It has to be noted that uplink and downlink must be studied separately because asymmetry may
induces strong variations on the parameters between uplink and downlink.
Uplink: Mean User bit rate
Peak User bit rate
Minimum User bit rate
Bit rate
Downlink: Mean User bit rate
Peak User bit rate
Minimum User bit rate
Uplink:
BLER and associated E
b
/N
0
[dB] per multipath environment QoS and Radio
quality
Downlink BLER and associated E
b
/N
0
[dB] per multipath environment for
downlink
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Uplink:
acceptable maximum delay time d
UL
x%
and quantile x%
(in x% of the cases, the delay has to be lower than or equal
to d
x%
.)
GoS
Downlink
acceptable maximum delay time d
DL
x%
and quantile x%
(in x% of the cases, the delay has to be lower than or equal
to d
x%
.)
Microscopic Dependent on Traffic Model.
For page oriented model:
mean inter-arrival time
mean number of pages per session
standard deviation of the number of pages per
session,
mean reading time
standard deviation of reading time
minimum page size
mean page size
mean inter packet time
packet multimodal distribution
Please note that only the mean page size is used later on in our
macroscopic model
Traffic Modelling
Parameter
Macroscopic Data Volume per busy hour V (in kbit/busy hour) per
subscriber
Number of subscriber N
4.3.2.1 Bit rates
Packet switched services are normally variable bit rate services and can therefore be described by
the mean bit rate and the peak bit rate. Sometimes, the minimum bit rate is given as well. Peak bit
rate and minimum bit rate are instantaneous bit rates. The mean bit rate is referring to the average
over the transmitting time, meaning that times where the user isnt sending anything are not taken
for the average.
Additionally, it has to be noted that the uplink bit rate can be completely different from the downlink
bit rate of the according service.
Alcatel has performed simulations on packet switched services where the bit rate is modeled as
being constant in the simulations, but with a lower rate than the peak bit rate (peak bit rates of 64,
144 and 384 kbps are modeled as a constant bit rate of 30.4, 60.8 and 243.2 kbps). This constant
bit rate is equivalent to the mean bit rate.
Please note that this effective bit rate does not yet include the retransmission rate for erroneous
packets. Since BLER of 0.1 (see 4.3.2.2) has been acceptable value in the simulations, a
retransmission of 10% of the blocks has to be taken into account additionally when looking at the
effective rate for the user.
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In 3GPP notation, the above mentioned packet switched data services are often referred to as
UDD (Unconstrained Delay Data) services.
In the Evolium product release 3G R1.1, the following bit rates are intended to be implemented
[SysDesign]:
Packet Switched Data Bit rate (Uplink / Downlink) kbit/s
Type Background 64/128
64/384
384/384
4.3.2.2 QoS and Radio Quality
Alcatel has performed link level simulations which give for packet switched services with the peak bit
rates of 64, 144 and 384 kbps the 3GPP defined propagation environments Pedestrian A and
Vehicular A in combination with the mobile velocities 3, 50 and 120km/h the required radio
qualities for uplink and downlink [Agin_LL].
The performance is expressed as the average received E
b
/N
0
required to reach the quality of service
(QoS). The required QoS was assumed to be a BLER (Block Error Rate) of 0.1 for packet switched
services. Thanks to the retransmission of corrupted blocks, this BLER is acceptable. The user receives
only non-erroneous packets. Please note that the retransmission rate of the packets is not yet
included in the above user bit rate.
4.3.2.3 Grade of Service
The GoS is given in terms of delay. However, we are not talking about a maximum acceptable
delay, since in a packet system, the delay could reach infinity in very rare cases (this would be equal
to a blocking of the packet), but we are referring to a percentile delay d
x%
, which induces that in x%
of the cases, the delay has to be lower than or equal to d
x%
.
The acceptable delay may be different for uplink and downlink.
4.3.2.4 Microscopic Traffic Models
There are a multitude of traffic models for the traffic generated by a packet user, mainly depending
on the service application. It is intuitive that the statistical behaviour of a web user who asks from
time to time for a page is different than from an e-mail user, who is sending e-mails with or without
attachment by one click. However, as said already before, the number of different applied traffic
models raises the complexity of prediction. In the following, the so called page oriented model
(POM) for web-like service is explained shortly. For other models as the ETSI model or the page
oriented model for e-mail traffic, please refer to [Asp].
4.3.2.4.1 The Page-Oriented Web-Browsing Model
A three-level structure was created, considering session, page and packet levels based on behaviour
of WWW users. The scheme is the following:
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- Session level:
Session inter-arrival time: time between the beginning of two consecutive sessions, it is an
exponentially distributed random variable.
Number of pages per session: number of web pages browsed by the user, it is a log-
normal-distributed integer random variable.
- Page level:
Time between pages (or reading time): corresponds to the time during which the user
reads one page, it is a gamma-distributed random variable.
Page size: the total amount of information in bytes transferred per page, it is a Pareto-
distributed random variable. Values can be different on the uplink and downlink.
- Packet level:
Packet inter-arrival time: time between two consecutive packets inside the same page.
Uplink and downlink packets are treated separately. It is an exponentially distributed random
variable.
Packet size: number of bytes contained in each packet. It is a random variable following a
multimodal distribution. Again, uplink and downlink packets are considered separately with two
different multimodal distributions. The transmission time of a packet equals its size divided by
the transmission bit rate (expressed in bytes per second).
In the simulation, a page must be entirely downloaded before reading: the sum of the sizes of the
packets of one page equals the size of the page (all sizes expressed in the same unit, for instance
bytes).
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Session level
Packet level
Page level
Page size:
Pareto
Reading time:
Gamma law
Session inter-arrival time:
exponential
Packet size:
multimodal
Inter-packet time:
exponential
Number of pages:
log-normal
The sum of the blue packet sizes equals the yellow page size (in bytes)
t
t
t
On the whole, nine parameters (mean inter-arrival time, mean number of pages per session,
standard deviation of the number of pages per session, mean reading time, standard deviation of
reading time, minimum page size, mean page size, mean inter packet time, packet multimodal
distribution) are required to define completely a service. It has to be noted that those parameter are
not easily being obtained to fit to a given service application.
The page oriented model is suitable as a basis to achieve simulation results, however its far to
complex to be applied on a analytical macroscopic model.
4.4 Macroscopic Traffic Model for Link Budget ANalysis
4.4.1 Assumptions
Ideally the model would be based on the whole protocols stack, and on the admission control and
resource management procedures. But it is impossible to fit the reality with a simple analytical
model.
A resource C (bandwidth for example) is shared between the different users of the different services.
A user of a CS service requiring a given amount of resource is only accepted if there is enough
remaining resource. A user of a PS service is served if the amount of resource required is lower than
the remaining resource, or joins the queue.
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C
User CS
User PS
enough space ?
blocked
no
no
queued
yes
Figure 32: Users sharing a resource C. (no priority; blocking
for CS users, queuing for PS users)
The only difference between PS and CS services in the model is that the first are queued and the
second are blocked when there is not enough resource. This is a simplification because packet
handling in an IP network is very different. When there is not enough bandwidth, the packet is not
necessarily queued, but transmitted with a lower bit rate. With the described model, a packet can
only be sent at maximum bit rate. If the bandwidth is not sufficient, the packet waits.
4.4.2 Concept
For the traffic treatment , we are using the property of a CDMA network, that a user is only using
network capacity if he is generating interference for the others:
In a first step, we determine how many connections of one service we accept at maximum within a
given cell, so that in any possible case, the blocking (for circuit switched) and delay requirements (for
packet switched) are maintained. This corresponds to the classical reservation of channels for traffic
dimensioning. However, the term reservation is deliberately avoided, since a channel is only
existing if a user is really transmitting (resp. receiving).
One could interpret this calculation as a kind of admission control (for CS) resp. radio resource
control (for PS), since already at this stage, we are determining a certain number of calls (according
to GoS requirements) are blocked resp. delayed. We are referring to this step as the acceptance
step of the macroscopic model.
In a second step, we will take into account the fact that not necessarily all of these accepted
channels will be on air by treating the number of emitting channels for each service as a random
variable. This makes the uplink load as well as the downlink transmit power (which are both
dependent on the interference in the cell and therefore on the number of emitting channels per
service) also random variables. By setting an according probability threshold, the UMTS service
coverage predictions can be executed to cover most of the GoS without taking an unrealistic worst
case. This step is further on called the outage step.
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This approach takes into the trunking efficiency between the different services into account, since the
probabilistic contribution of users of different services is maintained until the overall parameters
(uplink load and downlink power) are calculated.
The overall process is illustrated in Figure 33.
CS 1
CS 2
PS 1
PS 2
PS 3
Acceptance
Step:
GoS:
blocking (CS)
delay (PS)
Number of
communications
per service,
occupation rate
Outage
step:
statistics
of cell load
(UL)
of power
(DL)
x (99%)
Figure 33 Process of Macroscopic Traffic Model
The traffic model is applied within each iteration of the link budget process (see chapter 5), meaning
for a fixed cell radius.
4.4.3 Inputs of the Macroscopic Traffic Model
4.4.3.1 Circuit Switched Services
The inputs given to the traffic model for each circuit service k by the planner are:
- traffic intensity H HH H
k
per subscriber (in mErlang)
- blocking probability
5
P
k
block_thr
- Number of subscribers per sqkm
Since within one iteration of the link budget, the cell radius is fixed, this input can be transformed
into
Number of subscribers of service k N
k
within the given cell
The total traffic intensity within the cell is given by
k
N H H

5
Please note that the outage step increases the non-served and therefore blocked calls, so that the
probability should be lower than the one given by the operator. An estimation for the
combined outage probability is given in [MND1]
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4.4.3.2 Packet Switched Services
It has to be noted that for one service, the traffic parameters have to be given separately for uplink
and downlink, since no closed circuit is given. (We may need more channels of the same service in
the downlink than in the uplink). So all calculations have to be executed twice, once for uplink and
once for downlink.
All parameters have to be given for each service k and one determined link. For convenience, it has
been renounced to use the indices k, UL and DL for each parameter.
The packet switched input we will get for the traffic model from the for each packet switched service
k operator are
- Number of subscriber per sqkm, from which we can derive within the iteration of the link budget
process
6
(see chapter 5)
Number of subscriber N
- For the Uplink
- Uplink data volume per busy hour V
UL
k
(in kbit/busy hour) per subscriber
- acceptable maximum delay time d
k
UL

and quantile x
k
UL
% (in x
k
UL
% of the cases, the delay has
to be lower than or equal to d
k
UL
.)
- For the Downlink
- Downlink data volume per busy hour V
DL
k
(in kbit/busy hour) per subscriber
- acceptable maximum delay time d
k
DL

and quantile x
k
DL
% (in x
k
DL
% of the cases, the delay has
to be lower than or equal to d
k
DL
.)
4.4.4 Outputs of the Macroscopic Traffic Model
4.4.4.1 Uplink
If we know the number of emitting users per service in the uplink, we can derive the cell load and,
after a few calculation steps, the minimum required received level of one mobile station of a service
k at the Node B, which is the input for the cell range prediction (see [MND1] and chapter 5)
The number of emitting users being a random variable, the cell load gets also a random variable.
The cell load comprises contributions of all services. A statistical treatment of the cell load therefore
allows to treat the trunking efficiency coming from a multiservice environment and the service
activity. However, in order to perform the dimensioning, an according threshold has to be defined
within the cumulative distribution function of this random variable, in order to derive the
dimensioning cell load value.
We have to compute the probability density function (pdf) and cumulative distribution function (cdf)
of the random variable cell load
UL
x
~
.

6
within one iteration of the link budget process, the cell range is fixed
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Then, the value of x
UL
is the value for which )
~
(
UL UL
x x P = H.
(H is defined in order to satisfy the GoS requirements, see [MND1].
Figure 34 illustrates this procedure. If we dimensioned at 100%, including all thinkable worst cases,
we perform an overdimensioning. By accepting for example only 1% of global outage in the outage
step, the dimensioning cell load decreases considerably, which means an enormous gain in cell
range standing against an only very small additional outage.
0
100%
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
o
f

t
h
e

t
r
a
f
f
i
c

m
i
x
99%
Cell Load X
Dimensioning point
Figure 34 Finding the dimensioning point at p=H in the cdf of the cell load (outage step)
The result of the traffic model (applied within the one iteration of the dimensioning process,
meaning for a given cell radius) is therefore for the uplink
a determined value x
UL
for the uplink cell load respecting all GoS requirements
4.4.4.2 Downlink
As the uplink cell load, the downlink transmission power P
Tot
DL
is calculated in a statistical way. The
downlink power does not only depend on the number and type of communications, but also on the
location of the according users and the fact if they are in soft handover or not. The probabilistic
impact of the users location and the shadowing (which determines the soft handover state) is
eleminated by an averaging and weighting procedure (see [MND1]) so that the transmission power
then can be given as a random variable which only depends on the traffic inputs.
The probability density function (pdf) and therefore the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of
DL
Tot
P
~
can be derived and then treated analogously to the uplink cell load.
The result of the traffic model (applied within the one iteration of the dimensioning process,
meaning for a given cell radius) is therefore for the downlink
a determined value P
tot
respecting all GoS requirements
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4.5 ANNEX A: Required E
b
/N
0
For Speech service
Note: Simulation results are constantly subject to change due to equipment and parameters
modifications. In order to use the most recent results, please refer to MCD/TD/SYT result documents
(see [Agin_LL])
4.5.1 Speech 8 kbit/s
Environment Speed Uplink Downlink
(km/h) 1 antenna 2 antennas 1 antenna
3 7.7 5.1 6.8
6 7.9 5.2 7.1
10 8.0 5.3 7.2
Vehicular A 25 8.1 5.4 7.2
50 8.3 5.5 7.4
120 8.9 6.3 7.6
200 9.5 7.0 8.4
350 11.1 8.5 10.4
3 7.2 4.2 6.5
6 7.7 4.8 7.1
Pedestrian A 10 7.8 4.7 7.6
25 8.2 4.8 8
50 8.6 5.0 8.3
120 9.1 5.8 8.5
Table 14: Rx E
b
/N
0
required for a BER of 10
-3
in speech 8 kbps
4.5.2 Speech 12.2 kbit/s
Environment Speed Uplink Downlink
(km/h) 1 antenna 2 antennas 1 antenna
3 6.9 4.1 6.1
Vehicular A 50 7.4 4.5 6.8
120 8.1 5.2 7.2
3 6.3 3.4 6.1
Pedestrian A 50 7.9 4.2 7.9
120 8.5 5.0 8.5
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Table 15: Rx E
b
/N
0
required for a BER of 10
-3
in speech 12.2 kbps
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4.6 ANNEX B: Required E
b
/N
0
for Circuit switched services
Note: Simulation results are constantly subject to change due to equipment and parameters
modifications. In order to use the most recent results, please refer to MCD/TD/SYT result documents
(see [Agin_LL])
The mention NA indicates that the result is not available yet. The symbol -- indicates that the
target BER cannot be reached for reasonable values of E
b
/N
0
.
4.6.1 CS 64 kbit/s
Environment Speed Uplink Downlink
(km/h) 1 antenna 2 antennas 1 antenna
3 5.4 2.5 5.4
Vehicular A 50 6.0 2.9 6.1
120 6.9 3.9 7.1
3 5.5 2.0 5.5
Pedestrian A 50 7.2 2.6 7.8
120 7.6 3.6 8.0
Table 16: E
b
/N
0
required for a BER of 10
-6
in CS 64 kbps
4.6.2 CS 144 kbps
Environment Speed Uplink Downlink
(km/h) 1 antenna 2 antennas 1 antenna
3 4.8 1.8 4.6
Vehicular A 50 5.4 2.2 5.4
120 6.4 3.0 6.0
3 5.4 1.3 4.5
7
Pedestrian A 50 6.8 2.4 7.6
120 7.0 2.8 --
Table 17: E
b
/N
0
required for a BER of 10
-6
in CS 144 kbps

7
For these simulations, the channel estimation was performed with the DPCCH instead of CPICH
(otherwise, the target BER could not be reached).
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4.6.3 CS 384 kbit/s
Environment Speed Uplink Downlink
(km/h) 1 antenna 2 antennas 1 antenna
3 3.7
2
0.7 4.5
8
Vehicular A 50 5.2 1.5 5.8
120 6.6 2.2 6.5
3 NA 0.2 5.0
1
Pedestrian A 50 NA 1.8 --
120 7.3 2.3 --
Table 18: E
b
/N
0
required for a BER of 10
-6
in CS 384 kbps

8
These simulations were performed with 6 fingers for the rake receiver instead of 4 (otherwise the
target BER could not be reached). In other situations, the performance gain with 6 fingers
instead of 4 is expected to be low (~0.2 dB).
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4.7 Annex C: Required E
b
/N
0
for Packet Switched Services
Note: Simulation results are constantly subject to change due to equipment and parameters
modifications. In order to use the most recent results, please refer to MCD/TD/SYT result documents
(see [Agin_LL])
4.7.1 PS 64 kbit/s
Environment Speed Uplink Downlink
(km/h) 1 antenna 2 antennas 1 antenna
3 4.2 1.4 4.2
Vehicular A 50 4.7 1.9 4.7
120 5.6 2.8 5.1
3 3.7 0.8 3.8
Pedestrian A 50 4.9 1.5 5.4
120 5.7 2.3 6.0
Table 19: E
b
/N
0
required for a BLER of 0.1 in PS 64 kbps
4.7.2 PS 144 kbit/s
Environment Speed Uplink Downlink
(km/h) 1 antenna 2 antennas 1 antenna
3 3.5 0.8 3.5
Vehicular A 50 4.0 1.2 4.2
120 4.9 2.2 4.7
3 3.0 0.1 3.1
Pedestrian A 50 4.2 0.7 5.0
120 5.0 1.7 5.6
Table 20: E
b
/N
0
required for a BLER of 0.1 in PS 144 kbps
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4.7.3 PS 384 kbit/s
Environment Speed Uplink Downlink
(km/h) 1 antenna 2 antennas 1 antenna
3 2.8 -0.2 3.2
Vehicular A 50 3.3 0.2 4.1
120 4.0 1.0 4.8
3 2.1 -0.8 2.7
Pedestrian A 50 3.5 -0.2 5.1
120 4.2 0.6 6.1
Table 21: E
b
/N
0
required for a BLER of 0.1 in PS 384 kbps
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5 LINK BUDGET AND I NITIAL NETWORK DESIGN
Referenced Documents
[MND1] UMTS Radio Interface Dimensioning, S. Joga, MND internal document
Related Documents
[MND2] Radio Network Dimensioning, Y. Dupuch, MND internal document
[MND3] UMTS Radio Network Dimensioning, A. Grtner and E. Salomon, MND internal document
[MND4] UMTS Radio Dimensioning Overview, Y. Dupuch and A. Grtner, MND internal document
[A955V6] A955 V6 Specification: Calculations for Link Budget Based Planning Module for UMTS, A.
Grtner, PCS internal draft
[TD1] UTRAN Link budget parameters, N. Billy, Evolium Document, Draft version,
ref. MCD/TD/SYT/NBI/200xxx
The chapter gives an overview on the iterative UMTS link budget process. It is not in the scope of this
description to deliver the entire set of equations, which are described in [MND1].
We know from GSM planning that a planner has to elaborate a link budget to estimate the expected
cell radius in a given environment before starting a detailed radio network planning procedure. In
GSM, this link budget elaboration constitutes a relatively simple operation and can be performed
manually, since it is dealing purely with propagation parameters.
In UMTS, the situation gets much more complex and an iterative tool is needed to perform the cell
range analysis. This is due to the fact that in CDMA, the cell radius depends on the traffic. Taking
the uplink as an example, as the number of users or offered traffic load increases, the total noise at
the Base Station increases. Interference from other users in CDMA can be thought of as noise to a
reference user. If the reference user is already using the maximum allowed power on the uplink, too
many users at the cell will cause the reference users signal to be received with an insufficient margin
above the noise level at the Base Station. This phenomenon leads to the reference user no longer
being covered by the Base Station, or in essence, a reduction in the coverage area of a cell. This
dependence of the cell coverage radius on the loading can lead to an iterative procedure to balance
the coverage radius with the offered traffic.
5.1 Multiservice link budget
The link budget is a key element in the dimensioning process. It is used to derive the maximum
allowable path loss and therefore the cell radius. This section introduces the concept implemented in
the tool AIRMUST [MND1] that allows to analyze and to bring a solution for the Uplink and
Downlink. Both uplink and downlink analysis will result in a cell range value. The final cell range of
the overall process is the smaller of the two. If this is the uplink range, the system is uplink limited, if
its the downlink range, the system is downlink limited.
For the dimensioning, a completely homogenous network with a hexagonal cell structure, a
homogenous morphostructure, flat topographical environment and homogenous user distribution
are assumed. Therefore, one cell is representative for the whole network, meaning that all
parameters are valid for all cells. However, impact from other cells (interference, soft handover) is
taken into account.
In the following, both the uplink iteration process and the downlink iteration process are described
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as an overview. If the reader is interested in the equations behind each step, he should refer to
[MND1].
5.1.1 Uplink Analysis
A link budget is conventionally performed for one mobile located at the edge of the cell and
therefore transmitting at maximal power. Since in a multiservice environment, there are different
types of mobiles with different service characteristics, the link budget has to be elaborated for one
mobile of each service type.
The main target of the uplink is to figure out the increase of the interference level due to the traffic
available in the cell. The curve below shows the relation between the traffic load (in per cent) and
the interference level (noise rise in dB). The point where the interference goes to infinity is called the
pole capacity. The cell load is giving a percentage of air interface loading relational to that pole
capacity.
Interference curve
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Load
Noise
rise
(dB)
Figure 35 Interference noise rise over cell load
The interference in a cell depends on the thermal noise, on narrow band and wide band
interference from another system, other users in the same cell and users from all the others cells.
The intra-cell interference perceived by a mobile in the uplink is independent of the location of the
other mobiles thanks to an effective power control, so that for the uplink link budget elaboration the
mobile distribution is not relevant.
Once the level of interference has been calculated, the next step is to calculate the maximum
allowable path loss (MAPL) in order to derive the cell radius.
For a given cell load, the uplink maximal allowable pathloss for a service i depends on its E
b
/N
0
requirements, its user bit rate and the maximal mobile transmitting power for this service. This
means that in general, one will obtain different uplink coverage ranges for the different service
types.
By adjusting the mobile transmitting power, different coverage scenarios can be achieved. Service
specific gains, losses and margins have to be integrated if not all mobiles are suffering from the
same losses and taking advantage of the same gains, and/or if different margins are applied to
different services. This can be the case e.g. for soft handover gains as well as body losses and even
penetration margins, see section 5.2.1.1 for exemplary values.
The strategy adopted in the dimensioning of the uplink is to provide one common cell boundary.
Hence depending on the type of service proposed and the volume of traffic associated, the idea is to
find the limiting service (i.e. the service which reach its maximum power capabilities) and then match
all the other UE power to this service limiting cell range
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5.1.1.1 Uplink Iteration Process
The iteration is started by assuming an interference noise rise value within the cell of i
0dB
=3dB to be
generated by the total traffic within the cell. For this fixed value, a link budget for each service can
be calculated, assuming a reference user i of the according service transmitting with maximum UE
power (which places him virtually at the edge of the cell).
This is done by calculating according to Equation 2 the minimum required level for this service at the
Node B and by applying all relevant gains, margins and losses on the maximum mobile transmit
power in order to deduce the maximum allowable path loss (MAPL), shown in Equation 3.
The sensitivity has to be calculated for a reference user i of each service k:
Required_level
i
= NF + 10log(N
0
) + 10log(i
0
i
)+ 10log[(E
b
/N
0
)
k
]+ 10log(R
k
)
Equation 2: Uplink minimum required level for a user i using service k
Where: Required_level Required level in dBm
N
0
Thermal noise density
10log(N
0
)=-174dBm/Hz (valid at 20C equal to
293K)
k
o
N
b
E

:
service k required E
b
/N
0
(non-logarithmic figure)
Note:
kdB
o
N
b
E

=10log[(E
b
/N
0
)
k
]
R
k
: Service k bit rate
NF Node B Noise figure in dB
(NF is sometimes also referred to as noise factor. )
i
0
i
noise rise due to interference (non logarithmic figure)
Note: i
0dB
=10log(i
0
i
)
For the maximum allowable pathloss, we get:
MAPL
i
= P
k
UL
Required_Level
i
5Losses - 5 Margins + 5 Gains
Equation 3: Uplink MAPL for user i using service k
where P
k
UL
is the mobile power valid for service k (in dBm) and Losses, Margins and Gains are given
in dB.
The smallest MAPL of all services is then chosen as the limiting one. (Taking this MAPL as the
dimensioning one implies that the other services wont emit at maximum power)
Applying a propagation model (e. g. the well known Hata formula), one can derive the according
cell range.
Now, for each service, the traffic (number of subscribers for each service) per cell can be deduced,
since the number of subscriber per sqkm is known. Applying the traffic model described in detail in
chapter 4 for circuit switched and packet switched services, one can derive in the acceptance step
the number of reserved channels per service as well as their occupancy probability.
In the outage step of the traffic model, the uplink cell load x
UL
is calculated in a statistical way. The
cell load is treated as a random variable:
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c
UL
k
o
b
c
UL
k
o
b
R
R
UL
k
N
E
R
R
UL
k
N
E
k
k
UL UL
B f x
. 1
.
1
~
1




Where: f
UL
other cell to same cell interference ratio for Uplink
B
k
Random variable: number of emitting channels of
service k
k
o
N
b
E

:
service k required E
b
/N
0
R
k
: Service k bit rate
R
c
: Chip rate
K: Number of services
Following the traffic model, the probability density function (pdf) and the cumulative distribution
function (cdf) of the cell load can be derived. The dimensioning point (e.g. 99%) is chosen, and the
cell load x
UL
is derived at this point out of the cdf. Please refer to chapter 4 for more details on this
process.
Once the cell load is determined, the according interference noise rise can be derived.
) . ).( (
c
UL
k
o
b
R
R
k
N
E
UL
i
o
x
i

1 1
1
Equation 4: Uplink noise rise due to interference perceived by user i of service k
Please note that the perceived interference is different for users of different services. Therefore, the
limiting service has to be detected in each iteration.
In case we have n carriers, the cell load is assumed to be divided equally between the carriers, so
that each of them treats a cell load of x
UL
/n. Since we are looking at one carrier by the equations, we
have to replace x
UL
by x
UL
/n in Equation 4.
We are now at the end of one iteration step and have to compare the interference value with the
previous value. If the difference between the values is not small enough to be in a defined
convergence interval , we have to redo the above calculations with a new interference value. In case
of convergence, the radius calculated in the last iteration step is our uplink determined cell radius,
which remains to be compared with the downlink determined radius, in order to find the limiting
one. Figure 35 visualizes the uplink iteration process.
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Assumption for
interference:
Ico=3dB
Calculate UL cell
range with Max UE
power for all services
Choose limiting cell
range
Deduce mean traffic
per cell (knowing
nb of sub/sqkm)
Application of
macroscopic traffic and
cell load calculation X
UL
(e.g.@99%)
Interference
calculation
I
c
=f(X
UL)
Comparison with
previous
interference value.
Convergence?
NO
Current cell radius
is UL cell radius
YES
Adapt I
c
Figure 36 Uplink Iteration Process
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5.1.2 Downlink Analysis
One of the main target of the downlink analysis consists in finding the maximum number of mobile
that can be connected to the base station with a good quality of service. However, contrary to the
uplink analysis, for the downlink the position of the users has to be known, since the distance from
the base station impacts the power share allocated to the mobile and hence both intracell and
extracell interference.
5.1.2.1 Downlink Iteration Process
Intuitively, one would assume a uniform distribution of users. In the dimensioning approach, this
uniform distribution is approximated by a distribution of the users on concentric rings around the
base station.
In the following, the outline of the procedure is given:
As a starting point in the iteration, a cell range R is assumed.
If the total emitted power of the node B is known, the received power that a mobile of a certain
service j would require at a given distance r from the node B can be calculated:
) ( ) ( ) ( r b P r a r P
j tot j j

Equation 5 Required power for a mobile of service j at location r
with





) (
1
) (
) (
1
) (
& , 0
r n Attenuatio W F N r b
r f r a
m l g
j I
C
j I
C
j
j I
C
j I
C
j
G
G
G
where
f(r)
other cell to same cell interference ratio at location r for downlink
(C/I)
j
required C/I for service j
C/I depends on E
b
/N
0
in the following way, depending on SHO status (in
non-logarithmic figures:

c
DL
j
o
b
R
R
DL
j
N
E
j I
C
. for mobiles not in SHO

gain SHO
I
C
c
DL
j
o
b
R
R
DL
j
N
E
j
_
1
. for mobiles in SHO
(SHO_gain is the gain on the required E
b
/N
0
given in non-logarithmic
figures)
G GG G
orthogonality factor
N
0
Thermal Noise
F Downlink Noise Factor (non-logarithmic)
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W
Bandwidth
and
Attenuation
g,l&m
(r) contains the pathloss attenuation according to Hata and all gains, losses and
margins
As a starting value for calculations, we can take for P
tot
the maximum available power. It has to
adapted in each iteration.
As you can see above, the required power depends on the handover status of the mobile.
Weighting the resulting power values with the corresponding distribution and taking into account
mobiles being in SHO and mobiles not being in SHO is resulting for a given location in a received
power per user per service. Now, we can perform an averaging over all mobiles of each service j
connected to our node B, and get a mean required power Pj for a user of service j. (For the
weighting and averaging procedure, please refer to [MND1]).
The mean transmitted power has to be calculated also for the common channels SCH and CPICH.
Since we have assumed a cell range, we can derive by our traffic model (see chapter 4) base station
power distribution.
As shown in chapter 4, the total required power at the node B is a random variable:
This random variable can be described by its pdf and cdf.
Keep in mind that we are looking in this context only at the statistic power variations due to traffic
whereas the power variations due to propagation (shadowing, fading) are treated by margins in the
power calculations.
In the cdf (which is only valid for the assumed cell range), there are now two possibilities:
Case 1:
The 100% are reached already below the maximum allowed power (which is in general 43dBm for
one carrier). This means that the maximum available power is never required and we have still
unused power resources, so that we can increase the cell radius and start the next iteration step.
Figure 37 shows an example for this case.
0
100 %
Power in dBm
40dB (<43dB!)
cdf of DL
power
Figure 37 Example for power cdf: 100% value is reached for a value lower than the max. DL power
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Case 2:
A probability value lower than 100% corresponds to the maximum allowed power. This value is
compared to a target value for this probability (e.g. 99%) which we had fixed beforehand. If the
target value is not yet reached, we redo the iteration with a smaller cell range. If the value already
converged to our target value, the current radius is our downlink radius
0
100 %
Power in dBm
cdf of DL
power
43dBm
75%<<99%
Figure 38 Example for power cdf: max. DL power corresponds to a value lower than 100%
In other words: we are checking if the power value at 99% is equal to our 43dBm. If not, we have to
adapt the radius accordingly and redo the iteration process until this is the case.
In the case that we have more than one carrier, we have to increase the available power
accordingly. E.g. for two carriers, we are assuming within the calculations to have an equivalent
power of 46dBm. However, the calculations change since the power for the common channels is
needed in each of the carriers, so that it has to be counted n times for n carriers.
Figure 39 shows the downlink process schematically.
If we have found the uplink radius being the limiting one, we can derive for the downlink by the
same process the actual transmit power for this radius at the 99% point (this has been done in the
exemplary link budget of chapter 5.2.5. in which you will find a total DL transmit power of 41.3
dBm, which is lower than the maximum available power of 43 dBm)
Please keep in mind that, although this procedure does not seem to be too complicate, the
equations and calculations behind are very complex. Additionally, we need as an input previous
simulative results for the soft handover probabilities and the extracell interference factor at each
examined location.
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Assumption of
cell range R
Power calculation for
one user of each service
at each position
Deduce the mean
power per user per
service
Calculate the cdf of the
total power P to t applying
the macroscopic traffic
model
Calculation of P to t at
99% according to
the traffic model
Adapt cell
range
Pto t @ 99% equal
to maximum
allowed power?
Current cell range
is DL cell range
NO
YES
Figure 39 Downlink Iteration Process
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5.2 Link Budget Parameters
5.2.1 Input Parameters for Link Budget Process
5.2.1.1 Service Inputs
5.2.1.1.1 Circuit Switched Services
The parameters characterizing a circuit switched service have been defined in detail in chapter 4.
Table 22 recalls those parameters needed as an input for the link budget process for each circuit
switched service.
Bit rate
User bit rate for the circuit connection
QoS and Radio
quality
E
b
/N
0
[dB] for uplink
E
b
/N
0
[dB] for downlink
Note that we have to chose one multipath environment for the link
budget
GoS Maximum acceptable Blocking Percentage
Microscopic Activity Factor for uplink
Activity Factor for downlink
Traffic Modelling
Parameter
Macroscopic - Number of subscribers per sqkm
- traffic intensity per subscriber (in mErlang)
respectively
- Volume in kbit per busy hour
Table 22 Description of circuit switched service parameters
In addition, we have to provide the information, if soft handover is used (this wouldnt be the case if
DSCH
9
channels are used, which is theoretically possible, even if it does not make a lot of sense for
circuit switched services). For the SHO case, we have to give the according soft handover gain.
For each service, a penetration margin and a body loss have to be defined. It is considered, that
there is no body loss with a mobile being held away from the body, which is true for most data
applications. Therefore a margin of 3 dB is taken only for speech application and 0 dB for all the
other services.
Table 23 gives a list of the required input parameters along with exemplary values for two services
(speech 12.2 kbit/s and circuit switched data 64 kbit/s)

9
DCH (Dedicated channel) means one code per connection, DSCH (Downlink Shared Channel)
means sharing of code between different connections
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User traffic parameters
Bearer throughput (kb/s)
Traffic (speech: mErlang ; data: kbits @ BH)
Blocking probability
Subscribers
Number of subs per km2
transmission parameters
Eb/N0 (dB)
Soft handover use (DCH or DSCH mode)
DL SHO Eb/N0 gain
Penetration margin (dB)
Body loss (dB)
Activity factor (%)
Maximum mobile Tx power (dBm)
TRUE eech 12.2 TRUE CS 64
UL DL UL DL
5.7 7.8 4.2 7.1
- TRUE - TRUE
- 2.5 - 2.5
21 - 24 -
20
12.2
40 mE
2%
0
100%
202
20
64
6000 kbits
2%
3
60%
2000
Service 2 Service 3
speech 12.2 kb/s CS 64 kb/s
Table 23 Input Parameter to be given for each circuit service with exemplary values for speech 12.2
kbit/s and CS64kbit/s
5.2.1.1.2 Packet Switched Services
The parameters characterizing a packet switched service have been defined in detail in chapter 4.
recalls those parameters needed as an input for the link budget process for each packet switched
service.
Uplink: Peak User bit rate
Bit rate
Downlink: Peak User bit rate
Uplink:
E
b
/N
0
[dB] for uplink
(note: only one multipath environment is treated in the
prediction)
QoS and
Radio quality
Downlink E
b
/N
0
[dB] for downlink
(note: only one multipath environment is treated in the
prediction)
Uplink:
acceptable maximum delay time d
UL
x%
and quantile x%
(in x% of the cases, the delay has to be lower than or equal
to d
x%
.)
GoS
Downlink
acceptable maximum delay time d
DL
x%
and quantile x%
(in x% of the cases, the delay has to be lower than or equal
to d
x%
.)
Microscopic
mean packet size
mean number of packets per page
Note that in the link budget approach, these parameters are
assumed to be equal for all packet switched services.
Traffic
Modelling
Parameter
Macroscopic Data Volume per busy hour V (in kbit/busy hour) per
subscriber
Number of subscriber N per sqkm
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In addition, the information is needed if DCH or DSCH channels
10
are used for the according
packet service. There is soft handover in DCH mode and only hard handover in DSCH mode.
User traffic parameters
Bearer throughput (kb/s)
Volume (kbits @ BH)
Delay (sec)
Quantile for delay
Subscribers
Number of subs per km2
Transmission parameters
Eb/N0 (dB)
Soft handover use (DCH or DSCH mode)
DL SHO Eb/N0 gain
Penetration margin (dB)
Body loss (dB)
Activity factor (%)
Maximum mobile Tx power (dBm)
TRUE PS 144 TRUE PS 384
UL DL UL DL
5000 15000 1340 4000
2.2 4.8 1.7 4.7
- TRUE - TRUE
- 2.5 - 2.5
24 - 24 -
0
100%
20
0
100%
384
0.5
90%
40
20
1
90%
200
Service 2
144
Service 3
PS 144 kb/s PS 384 kb/s
Table 24 Input Parameter to be given for each packet switched service with exemplary values for
PS144kbit/s and 384 kbit/s
Traffic assumption Unit Value
Packet size Bytes 1000
Number of packets per page
-
25
Table 25 Packet switched traffic model parameters (valid for all packet switched services) with typical
values
5.2.1.1.3 Additional traffic modelling inputs
As described in chapter 4, as an additional input, the global outage probability has to be given. In
this implementation, it is the same for uplink and downlink.
Admission control and outage QoS Unit Value
Global Outage probability % 1.00%
Figure 40 Input for Traffic Model
5.2.2 Transmission Paramet ers
Table 26 shows the radio input parameters along with typical values. Please note that the
shadowing resp. fading margin for the downlink is lower than the margin for the uplink. This is due
to the fact that the DL margin is referring to the total transmit power distributed among all mobiles.
The variance of this power around the mean value is much lower than for one specific connection,
which is quite intuitive to understand: when one mobile is in a deep fade and therefore needs more
power, there a good chances that another mobile happens to have at the same moment excellent
propagation condition and needs less power, so that the total power is not affected. Alcatel has

10
Please refer to chapter 3 for more information on the channel structure
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performed simulations to determine the according shadowing margin for a required coverage
probability. Please refer to [TD1] for a more detailed explanations on the fading margins.
A specific CDMA parameters is the interference factor f which gives the ratio between intracell
interference and extracell interference in uplink. Note that in downlink, this factor is location
dependent. The link budget tool AIRMUST therefore also needs the simulation results for this
downlink function as an input. Another downlink relevant parameter is the orthogonality factor f
which is dependent on the selected multipath environment. This orthogonality factor is a measure for
the loss of orthogonality between the code signals in the downlink. An orthogonality factor of 0
means perfect orthogonality, an orthogonality factor of 1 means complete non-orthogonality.
Transmission parameters Unit Value
Thermal noise dBm/Hz -174
Chip rate kCh/s 3840
Shadowing standard deviation dB 8
UL shadowing margin dB 4.8
UL Rayleigh fading margin dB 1.9
UL f (I_extra / I_intra) - 0.7
DL fading margin on Total Tx Power dB 2
Orthogonality factor - 0.4
Minimum coupling loss (MCL) dB 80
Table 26 Transmission input parameter with typical values
5.2.3 UE specific parameters
Table 27 gives the mobile specific input values.
UE characteristics Unit Value
Antenna gain dB 0
Cable and connector losses dB 0
Noise factor dB 8
Table 27 UE specific input parameters with typical values
5.2.4 Node B Specific Parameters
Table 28 shows the node B specific and antenna system related parameters. Please note that the use
of an MHA (Mast Head Amplifier) reduces the global noise figure of the reception chain. Please refer
to chapter 7 for detailed explanation on the MHA use.
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Node B Unit Value
Maximum Power dBm 43
Cable and Connector Losses dB 3
NodeB noise factor dB 4
MHA:
MHA use TRU
MHA Noise figure dB 2.5
MHA gain dB 15
Global receiver noise factor dB 2.80
Antenna gain :
tri-sectorised dB 17
omni dB 11
bi-sectorised dB 17
hexa-sectorised dB 20
Table 28 Node B specific input parameters with typical values
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5.2.5 Exemplary Link Budget
Figure 41 presents an exemplary result of the multiservice link budget process including the services
speech (12.2 kbit/s), CS 64 kbit/s, PS 144kbit/s and PS 384 kbit/s, in urban area, using tri-
sectorized sites. The link budget is uplink limited (i.e. DL power is reduced to fit the MAPL). The lines
containing parameters which are not described in the input parameter section are explained
hereafter.
Figure 41 Exemplary Link Budget
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The processing gain represents the ratio between chiprate and user bit rate in dB, meaning:
Processing Gain= 10log(R
c
/R
b
). It is given for UL and DL.
This line gives the mean downlink transmit power required in average for one user of the according
service. It is the result of the weighting over the power values of all user locations and all handover
states.
The downlink transmit power dedicated to the common channels SCH and CPICH. In the current
implementation, it is calculated as a percentage (15%) of the total transmitted downlink power in W,
then transferred into dBm
For the uplink, this entry gives for each service the total transmit power (in dBm) of a mobile of this
service which is located at the edge of the cell. One can detect the limiting service out of this link
budget entry, which is the one transmitting at maximum mobile power.
For the downlink, this entry gives the total base station power (in dBm) dedicated to traffic channels.
This is a pure downlink entry. It gives the total transmitted base station power in dBm including
traffic and common channels.
This line gives the total TX EIRP (meaning TX power minus cable losses plus antenna gain) for uplink
(per service for a user located at the edge of the cell) and downlink in dBm.
This line gives the result for the minimum required received level per connection per service
(sensitivity), for uplink and downlink in dBm. Please note that this is the reference sensitivity valid for
an non-interfered case.
These lines give the minimum required received level for the common channels in downlink in dBm.
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This downlink entry gives for each service the percentage of users that are in soft handover with the
examined nodeB, where this node B provides the best of all SHO links.
This downlink entry gives for each service the percentage of users that are in soft handover with the
examined nodeB, but where this node B does not provide the best of all SHO links.
This uplink entry gives the convergence result for the noise rise caused by interference.
This entry gives the uplink cell load x
UL
and the downlink cell load x
DL
(for definition of DL cell load,
please refer to [MND1]
The uplink individual load per service is given by


c
UL
k
o
b
c
UL
k
o
b
R
R
UL
k
N
E
R
R
UL
k
N
E
. 1
.

and is used to calculate the


uplink cell load distribution (see section 5.1.1.1)
This line gives the resulting traffic intensity for each service within each sector of the cell. (If the
surface of the sector is known, the intensity can be derived out of the number of subscribers per
sqkm and the service inputs). The traffic intensity is either referring to the Erlang B law (for circuit
switched services) or to the Erlang C law on page level (for packet switched services). This parameter
is directly related to the macroscopic traffic modelling approach, to understand it better, please refer
to chapter 4.
This line gives the resulting GoS. For packet switched services, is gives the resulting percentile delay
in seconds, whereas for circuit switched services, it gives the resulting total blocking probability per
service.
This line gives the number of carriers required to achieve the shown result.
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This line gives the resulting maximum allowable pathloss. Please note that it is the limiting pathloss
(either DL or UL limited, if UL is the limiting link, it is the pathloss of the limiting service). All other
transmit powers have been adapted to fit to this pathloss.
This is the resulting cell range in km.
This is the resulting site area, including the area of all sectors of the site (calculated with the
standard hexagonal area relations).
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6 CELL PLANNING WITH PLANNING TOOL
References
[SFRAS2] Alcatel SFRAS Documentation, Part 2, Version 1.4, Overview of telecom functions
3BK 11203 0067 DSZZA, chapter 2.10.6.3
[ILBT4RNP] Linkbudget tool of MND department modified by PCS for planning purposes. The tool
(EXCEL macro) can be obtained by contacting PCS department.
6.1 Introduction
At the time this guideline is written, no 3G planning tool is selected by Alcatel. A workaround using
a combined linkbudget/A955 RNP approach is used until a 3G tool is selected. This workaround is
presented in this chapter.
Further more the UTRA(N) parameters (CMA parameters) which have to be delivered by RNEs to the
OMC people for configuring the UMTS network are not specified for the moment. It is clear, that
code planning will substitute frequency planning in a CDMA network, thus it is explained in more
detail in this chapter.
6.2 Workaround for UMTS cell planning
The workaround presented here was already used to verify the a given UMTS network design for two
different projects: The UMTS study for tele.ring (Austria) in Vienna and the UMTS study for the
Paegas (Poland) network in Ostrava.
Both studies are based on a given GSM network design. The goal of the study is to verify if the
coverage provided by pre-defined sites and a given traffic mix is sufficient. In case of a greenfield
operator the same method can be applied by defining new sites instead of reusing given GSM sites.
6.3 Description of the workaround using the example of Ostrava
In this report the process of validating a given UMTS network design for the Paegas network in
Ostrava is shown. It is proofed, that the cells are able to handle the expected traffic.
6.3.1 Introduction and Process Description
The scope of the UMTS Radio network planning task for Paegas in Ostrava was to verify a given
network structure. Usual radio network planning consists in defining sites, where base stations have
to be installed for getting a radio network fulfilling the given radio requirements.
In this case, existing GSM network sites have to be reused for building up the new UMTS network.
Therefore the planning task consists no longer in searching new sites, but in verifying a given
network for its ability to meet given quality of service requirements.
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The applied network planning methodology mainly consists of 4 steps:
1. Collecting or defining the required input data
2. Use the Alcatel RNP tool A955 to calculate power distribution and strongest server plots
3. Use the ILBT4RNP tool to calculate the allowed size of a cell depending on the given traffic mix.
4. Compare the achieved cells sizes of the two tools and take the more limiting one.
The verification process is very fast and can be applied for other networks too.
6.3.2 Input Data
6.3.2.1 Databases
For the radio network planning part using A955 the morpho structure and the DEM (topo) database
are required. They are used to get a reliable received power prediction.
As existing GSM sites had to be reused, the site, sector and antenna files currently used in Ostrava
have been used to be sure to have no inconsistencies between the UMTS and the GSM site locations.
Some of the GSM sites have been selected to be reused for the UMTS network according to market
requirements and site restrictions. To verify if it is possible to handle the expected UMTS traffic with
the selected cells was exactly the aim of this planning task.
The selected GSM sites are displayed on the topography map in Picture 1.
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Picture 1: Selected sites for the Paegas UMTS network proposal Ostrava
6.3.2.2 Traffic
The following traffic mix in table 2 is given for business users and consumer users.
For Circuit switched services the duration of the call and activity factors are important, for Packet
switched services the transmitted kbit per main busy hour (mbh) are of interest.
The given traffic mix is only valid for the start up phase of the UMTS network!
The subscriber density in subs/km is given per service with the assumption of equality in all regions
within Ostrava.
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Table 29: Traffic mix and Subscriber density table used for the Ostrava UMTS planning
6.3.3 A955 planning step
The A955 radio network planning tool is in this planning context used for calculating the strongest
server areas. For each cell the size of the area is calculated where the cell has the strongest received
power and thus is quite probable the serving cell. One possible output of the tool is shown in the
picture below:
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8
Picture 2: Calculating the service areas of the UMTS cells with A955
The strongest server calculation is based on the fieldstrength prediction of each cell.
6.3.4 ILBT4RNP planning steps
After calculating the cell size with A955 independent from the given traffic, it has to be checked if
these cells can handle the traffic generated in their cell area. Therefore the tool [ILBT4RNP] is used,
which allows to calculate the maximum allowed cell range (and thus cell area) assuming a certain
traffic mix and subscriber densities.
The propagation model used inside ILBT4RNP is of course adapted to the one used in A955. As the
ILBT4RNP does not take into account different morpho classes within one calculation run, a default
morpho class (lower urban) is selected. If the cell size calculated by ILBT4RNP is to small, the
average morpho class of this cell is investigated more deeply and corrected if necessary. Afterwards,
the cell range is recalculated and the cell size comparison is done again.
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6.3.4.1 Propagation model
For information, the path loss prediction algorithm used by ILBT4RNP (simplified Hata Okumura) is
given hereafter:
L= A + B*log(d/km)
With:
A = 46.3 + 33.9*log(f/MHz) 13.82*log(h
BS
) - K
Clutter
B = 44.9 6.55*log(h
BS
)
d distance in km
f frequency in MHz
h
BS
hight of BTS antenna
With the assumptions of h
BS
= 30m and f=2000MHz we get:
A [dB] = 137.79 K
Clutter
B [dB] = 35.22
The morpho correction factor K
Clutter
is selected according to the average morpho class within the cell
if necessary (in the first run, the default morpho class lower urban is used).
6.3.4.2 Input parameters
A summary of all input parameters selected for the Paegas project is given in Picture 3.
The selected E
b
/N
0
targets are derived from simulations of the Technical Department.
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Picture 3: Summary of all input parameters for the link budget calculation with ILBT4RNP
6.3.4.3 ILBT4RNP output
ILBT4RNP is generating numerous output values, but in this context only the following ones have
been used (see also ):
Maximum allowed cell range
UL cell load
DL Transmit Power of the Node B (total for all connections)
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After the calculation ILBT4RNP provides in addition information about the cell range limiting
parameter. In this project it has always been the UL transmit power!
6.3.5 Comparison of the intermediate results
After calculating the cell sizes with A955 and ILBT4RNP, the more limiting cell range has to be
taken. Three scenarios have been distinguished:
1. A955 cell size < ILBT4RNP cell size
2. A955 cell size = ILBT4RNP cell size
3. A955 cell size > ILBT4RNP cell size
More explanations for each case are given below:
1. In the first case, nothing has to be done, as the traffic generated within the cell can be handled
according to ILBT4RNP.
2. There is a tolerance factor of 10% applied for comparing the two calculated cell areas. If the
difference is below this tolerance, no action is performed to adapt them, because they are
equal taking the accuracy of the results into account.
3. If the cell size calculated by A955 is bigger than the one calculated by ILBT4RNP, the users at the
cell border will not be able to be connected to the network because of the weak UL transmit
power. Therefore the size of these cells is adapted according the max. allowed cell range
calculated by ILBT4RNP.
After performing the necessary changes within the network, the new cell sizes are recalculated
(because changing the size of one cell has of course influence on the surrounding cells also). The
new cell sizes are again compared to the allowed ones and again modified if necessary.
In the Ostrava UMTS network project only two iterations have been necessary to achieve cells sizes
below the allowed threshold given by ILBT4RNP. 8 cells still are bigger than allowed by the traffic
mix (e.g. Nakladni 3 -> see Table 30). This does not mean, that there will be coverage holes after
installing the UMTS network, but during main busy hour not all services (according the given traffic
mix) are available at the same time.
An extract of the used comparison table is shown in Table 30:
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Table 30: Part of the table used for the comparison of the different results
.
In Table 30 it can be seen, that in most cases the allowed cell range is 0.91 km. This is due to the
fact, that we use the default morpho class lower urban if there is no need for modification. For
modified morpho values other cell ranges appear. E.g. Nakladni 3 has an average morpho
correction factor of 13 (instead of 5), thus the cell range is 1.53 km (instead of 0.91 km).
Sites which are not part of the city area itself (rural sites) have been excluded from the investigation
by setting a rural site flag. Of course sites located at the border of the network have a much
bigger strongest server area than sites in the middle of the network. Assuming a constant traffic mix
over the whole area is then leading to an overload of this rural sites. The coverage area (strongest
server area) of these cells has been modified by restricting the maximum allowed cell range to the
one given by ILBT4RNP. Thus, the cell areas shown in the strongest server plot (Picture 2), are
reflecting the real service areas which can be expected after installing the network.
6.3.6 Results & Conclusion of the workaround
The proposed network design for the Paegas UMTS network is in most cases able to handle the
expected traffic. In total nine cells will not be able to handle all the traffic during main busy hour.
This gap can be filled by optimization/densification works.
6.4 Code planning instead of frequency planning
In GSM the different communications are separated by time and frequency. This is no longer the
case for a CDMA based system like UMTS. Each communication is using the same frequency
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bandwidth if only one 5MHz frequency band is used in the network. The communications are
separated by scrambling codes and channelization codes. The channelization codes are managed
by the UTRAN itself and thus dont have to be planned by the RNE. Scrambling codes are allocated
in the UL again by the UTRAN, but in DL they have to be assigned by the RNE.
In total there are 8192 DL scrambling codes available for normal operation. For compressed mode
operation (during inter frequency measurements and handovers) additionally 16384 scrambling
codes can be used by the system. The 8192 DL scrambling codes for normal operation are
subdivided into primary scrambling codes (512) and corresponding secondary scrambling codes
(7680). To each primary scrambling 15 secondary ones are associated. Together they are
constituting a scrambling code group of 16 codes [SFRAS2]. The 512 primary scrambling codes are
additionally subdivided into 64 subgroups for speeding up the call setup process.
As the allocation of secondary scrambling codes is done by the URTRAN, the RNE only has to plan
the primary scrambling code which is always used for CPICH and PCCPCH.
In UMTS the RNE must allocate for each cell one, and only one (primary) scrambling code. As there
are 512 primary scrambling codes available, it is no problem to assign to cells primary scrambling
codes which are not used by cells in the vicinity of the cell (which are receivable).
The rule to be applied when assigning primary scrambling codes is:
Try to maximize the distance between cells using the same primary scrambling code.
When using a planning tool, this function will for sure be implemented.
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7 ANTENNA ENGINEERING
REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
[AntRules] Antenna Engineering Rules, U.Birkel
3DF 00995 0000 PGZZA
[SiteShare] Site Sharing GSM/UMTS RF Aspects, F. Falke, A. Grtner and K. Daniel;
3DC 21019 0005 TQZZA
[CoLoc] Co-Location of GSM1800 and UMTS/FDD Sites, A. Grtner
Deliverable for Bouygues UMTS Project, Co-location workgroup
[Perf_TD] UTRA/FDD PERFORMANCE FOR SPEECH SERVICE WITH TRANSMIT DIVERSITY,
P. Agin, TD/SYT draft document
[Perf_SP] UTRA/FDD PERFORMANCE FOR SPEECH SERVICE
P. Agin, TD/SYT/pag/640.99
[ANXU] 3G UMTS ANTENNA NETWORK WITH INTEGRATED DIPLEXER ANXU, R. Krukenberg
3BK11240 0002 DSZZA
7.1 Introduction
This document is a guideline on UMTS antenna engineering. It constitutes a complement for
document [AntRules], treating all UMTS specific antenna engineering aspects by maintaining the
validity of the general (non-GSM specific) antenna engineering rules described in [AntRules]. The
knowledge of [AntRules] is therefore a mandatory precondition to use this document.
7.2 Antenna Tilt
Since UMTS is an interference limited system, a reduction of the interference brings directly benefits
concerning coverage and capacity. In order to reduce the downlink intercell interference, the
application of antenna downtilts constitutes a good solution. In [AntRules], the concept is described
in detail.
7.3 Diversity Aspects
7.3.1 RX Diversity
As described in [AntRules], one can achieve a RX diversity gain through two uncorrelated reception
branches.
In a UMTS system, this gain is manifested by a reduction of the required received uplink Eb/No. This
is shown exemplarily in Table 31 by simulation results for an 8 kb/s voice channel. The simulation
assumption was that the two RX signals were completely uncorrelated.
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Environment Speed Uplink
(km/h) 1 antenna 2 antennas Div. Gain
3 7.7 5.1 2.6
6 7.9 5.2 2.7
10 8.0 5.3 2.7
Vehicular A 25 8.1 5.4 2.7
50 8.3 5.5 2.8
120 8.9 6.3 2.6
200 9.5 7.0 2.5
350 11.1 8.5 2.6
3 7.2 4.2 3.0
6 7.7 4.8 2.9
Pedestrian A 10 7.8 4.7 3.1
25 8.2 4.8 3.4
50 8.6 5.0 3.6
120 9.1 5.8 3.3
Table 31: Rx E
b
/N
0
required for a BER of 10
-3
in speech 8 kbps and corresponding diversity gain
For an AWGN (additive white gaussian noise) channel, i.e. a channel with a constant power and
additive white gaussian noise, the antenna diversity gain is 3 dB. Indeed the noise of the two
reception antennas being uncorrelated, a maximum ratio combining of the signals of the two
antennas enables to decrease the overall noise variance of 3 dB.
For multipath channels like Pedestrian A and Vehicular A, the antenna diversity gain may be even
larger. Indeed, since the Rayleigh fadings of the two antennas are uncorrelated, when the received
power is small for one of the antenna, there is a good probability that it is larger for the other
antenna. Thus, antenna diversity enables to decrease the received power variations, which has a
positive impact on performance.
Thus, the larger the received signal power variations (or more generally the SIR variations when the
interference is not constant) without antenna diversity, the larger the antenna diversity gain.
For low speeds, the power control performs efficiently. Thus, the channel power variations are pretty
small and the channel is close to an AWGN channel. Therefore, the antenna diversity gain is close
to 3 dB. It can be a little lower than 3 dB, because of the extra noise due to interchip interference
that is not AWGN. This effect is more visible in Vehicular A where the interchip interference is
significant. An additional aspect which decreases the gain in reality is the fact that the decorrelation
between the antennas is not ideal in most of the cases.
For medium to large speeds, the power control does not work properly anymore. Therefore, the
channel variations are larger and the antenna diversity gain is (slightly) larger. This effect is more
visible in Pedestrian A where channel variations are large.
Finally, the antenna diversity gain is larger in Pedestrian A than in Vehicular A since the channel
power variations are larger and the interchip interference is lower in Pedestrian A.
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The RX diversity gain therefore depends on the service, on the multipath profile and on the velocity.
TD/SYT provides simulation results for different services. [Perf_TD], [Perf_SP] give the results for
speech.
In order to benefit, in a real system from gains which are in the same order of magnitude as given
in the simulations, one has to assure the decorrelation of the two reception branches by space
diversity or polarization diversity (see [AntRules]). For space diversity, this decorrelation can be
achieved by applying the same separation rules as given in [AntRules]:
The distance where the two antennas can be assumed to be decorrelated is
- for horizontal separation: d
H
=20i, this means d
H
=3m for UMTS/FDD
- for vertical separation d
V
=15i, this means d
V
=2.25m for UMTS/FDD
According to [AntRules], a second condition has to be fulfilled: d>antenna height/10, where d is the
distance between the antennas
As in GSM, cross polarized antennas should be used in urban and suburban areas, whereas two
separated vertical polarized antennas should be used in rural areas for space diversity.
Outlook:
More than two antennas could be used in the future, allowing an additional gain of approximately 3
dB. The potential gain of receive antenna diversity with 2, 3 or 4 perfectly uncorrelated antennas is
shown in Figure 42 for exemplarily for Pedestrian A environment and a speed of 3km/h. The
indicated BER is measured at the output of the channel decoder.
1e-006
1e-005
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10
B
E
R
Rx Eb/N0
Speech 8 kbps, Pedestrian A, 3 km/h, Uplink
1 rx antenna
2 rx antennas
3 rx antennas
4 rx antennas
Figure 42: Receive antenna gain for Speech 8 kbps service in Pedestrian A, 3 km/h
7.3.2 TX STTD Diversity Gain
An introduction to the UMTS transmit diversity techniques can be found in chapter 2. As TSTD is only
applied for the SCH channel and closed loop diversity is not included in the MBS V1, in this chapter
only the expected gain due to STTD is given.
The diversity gain provided by STTD is manifested by a reduction of the required received downlink
E
b
/N
0
. The following table shows the effect exemplarily for a 8kb/s voice channel and the ETSI
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defined multipath environments Vehicular A and Pedestrian A (see [Perf_TD]). TD/SYT link level
simulations will provide values also for other services soon.
Downlink
Environment
Speed
(km/h)
Without Tx
diversity
STTD
3 6.8 6.6
6 7.1 6.9
10 7.2 7.0
Vehicular A 25 7.2 6.9
50 7.4 7.1
120 7.6 7.5
200 8.4 8.2
350 10.4 10.0
3 6.5 6.3
6 7.1 6.6
Pedestrian A 10 7.6 6.9
25 8 7.0
50 8.3 7.3
120 8.5 7.7
Table 32: Received E
b
/N
0
required for a BER of 10
-3
in speech 8 kbps
Please note that using TX diversity has an additional advantage: Instead of using one TX branch with
maximal power of 25W (43dBm), we can now use two TX branches with 25W (43dBm) each, which
means that we have a gain of 3dB in the power budget. However, this is not a diversity gain since
we are merely doubling the TX power.
Now, what does the TX diversity technique mean for antenna engineering? In order to benefit from
the transmit diversity gain, we need two TX antennas per carrier which can be looked at as being
uncorrelated. This is given by two vertical polarised antennas which are separated by a certain
distance (space diversity). The according separation rules can be found in chapter 7.3.1 and in
[AntRules]. Also the signals coming from the two branches of a cross polarised antenna can be
looked at as being decorrelated (polarisation diversity). Therefore for operation with duplexer, we
can use each RX diversity antenna also for transmission with TX diversity.
7.4 ANXU (Antenna Network for UMTS)
The antenna network for UMTS (ANXU) will be integrated in the UMTS node B. It connects up to 2
transmitters to 2 antennas and distributes received signals to the receivers. The ANXU is splitted in
two identical parts A and B.
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The diplexer filters are designed to decouple the transmit and receive bands in order to use one
antenna for the received and transmitted signals.
The two receiving branches are containing low noise amplifiers (LNA) with software adjustable gain,
remote DC feeds and power splitters for the connection of up to three receivers, providing signals
for all diversity pathes. The possibility of supplying an external MHA (Mast Head Amplifier Unit) for
the receive path is integrated.
Figure 43 gives a schematic representation of the ANXU antenna network.
3 way RX Splitter
A
3 way RX Splitter
B
LNA B
LNA A
Diplexer
Diplexer
Antenna B Antenna A
Filterblock B Filterblock A
TX_B_in TX_A_in
RXA/B1
RXA/B2
RXA/B3
Figure 43 Schematic Representation of ANXU
7.4.1 Single Carrier Configuration with Transmit Diversity
If the downlink diversity is activated, two TX branches are needed for one carrier
11
. Therefore, we
need one ANXU per carrier. Figure 44 shows schematically the according configuration. All 6 RX
output ports provide RX diversity information for carrier f1, which are combined in the RAKE receiver.

11
Keep in mind that we have at maximum 3 carriers for a UMTS/FDD sector (2 for some operators,
e.g. in Germany)
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f1
STTD
Encoder
ANXU
ANTA ANTB
Figure 44:Configuration for Single Carrier Application with Downlink Diversity
7.4.2 Dual Single Carrier Configuration
In the case that no downlink diversity is desired, one can use the ANXU for 2 carriers (f1 and f2).
Figure 45 shows the according configuration.
f1
ANXU
ANTA ANTB
f2
Figure 45 Configuration for Application for 2 carriers without Downlink Diversity
7.5 MHA (Mast Head Amplifier)
Low-noise antenna pre-amplifiers installed near the antennas are sometimes used in cellular
systems. They are referred to as "Tower Mounted Amplifiers" (TMA) or "Mast Head Amplifier" (MHA).
A masthead amplifier can be used at a UMTS base station (node B) to improve the effective receiver
system noise figure when a long length of feeder cable is used, which will be explained in detail
below. The reduction in the receiver system noise figure is translated into an improvement in the
uplink power budget. This can be interpreted as compensating the losses of the feeder and
connectors between the antenna and the input of the base station.
2x25W
2x25W
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BTS /
Node B
Feeder
Antenna
Tx / Rx
Duplexer
Duplexer
Tx Rx
MHA
Figure 46: Schematic representation of MHA application
For RX or RX/TX antenna diversity operation, the configuration has to be doubled (two MHAs, i.e.
one for each antenna)
Within the MHA, the shown diplexers separate and recombine the signals on the Rx and Tx paths.
They also provide sufficient out-of-band filtering and isolation between the two paths. Only the Rx
signals get amplified, thus, improving the quality of the uplink branch. In contrast, the MHA causes
an additional attenuation of ca. 1 dB on the Tx path.
In case MHAs are present in the system, they have to be considered for the design of the antenna
system. For the downlink, the additional loss of 1dB has to be taken into account. For the uplink,
unfortunately, the impact cannot be treated by adding a simple MHA gain within the power budget.
Since the MHA reduces the total noise figure of the reception chain, one has to apply the total noise
figure of the reception chain in the calculations. The reception chain contains as elements the MHA,
node B, cables and connectors, and perhaps diplexers or filters. The calculations can be done by the
Friess Formula:
DX cable MHA
BS
cable MHA
DX
MHA
cable
MHA tot
g g g
n
g g
n
g
n
n n


1 1 1
Equation 6: Friess Formula with MHA
with
10
10
element
NF
element
n and
10
10
element
G
element
g
where NF
element
is the noise figures in dB and G
element
is the gain in dB of the corresponding element
(note that a loss is a negative gain!). The index element can be MHA, cable (denotes cables and
connectors), DX (denotes diplexer or filter) or BS (denotes node B). If there are no diplexers or filters
in the chain, n
DX
and g
DX
are set to 1.
In case we have no MHA, the Friess Formula becomes:
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DX cable
BS
cable
DX
cable tot
g g
n
g
n
n n


1 1
Equation 7 Friess Formula without MHA
Example:
Element Noise Figure (NF) Gain
MHA 2dB
12dB
Cable 25m
2dB -2dB
Node B (incl. ANXU)
4dB
No diplexers or filters are used in the example.
Applying the Friess Formula, we get:
Noise Figure of MHA & cable & nodeB Noise Figure of cable & node B
2.5dB 6dB
7.6 GSM and UMTS/FDD Co-location
Providers operating already a GSM system cannot afford to simply add new sites for the UMTS
system. The existing GSM sites have to be re-used. Even new operators might be confronted with
sites already equipped with base stations of another operator. However, using the same site for both
systems is far from being trivial from the RF point of view. The most challenging aspect of UMTS
Antenna Engineering is therefore to find antenna system solutions to make the co-location of UMTS
Node Bs with existing GSM BTSs possible, for both GSM 900 and GSM 1800.
7.6.1 RF Requirements
7.6.1.1 Interference Mechanism
Co-location of systems may cause interference resulting in performance degradation. In order to
minimize this performance degradation to an acceptable defined level, decoupling requirements
between the systems have to be met.
The most important interference mechanisms are:
- Transmitter noise/ spurious emissions
The transmitter noise floor or transmitter spurious of system "A" within the receive band of
system "B" causes interference of system "Bs" receiver and vice versa. This could be
avoided by increasing the stop band attenuation of system "As" antenna network in the
transmit path for the receive band of system "B", or by increasing decoupling between the
two systems, either the air decoupling or the decoupling provided by the diplexer.
- Receiver blocking
Transmit signals of system "A" are blocking the receiver of system "B" and vice versa.
Although the transmit signals of system A are received by B out-of-band (meaning not
within Bs receive band), they can lead to a desensitization if they are too strong. This
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could be avoided by increasing the stopband (out-of-band) attenuation of system "Bs"
antenna network in the receive path for transmit frequencies of system "A", or by
increasing the decoupling between the two systems (air or diplexer decoupling).
- Intermodulation products
Intermodulation products are interfering the receivers of one or both systems. Significant
intermodulation products are generated in nonlinear devices (especially mixers and
amplifiers but also connectors), if two ore more strong signals are applied. In our case the
strong signals could be different transmit carriers either from system "A" or from system "B"
or a combination of system "As" and "Bs" transmit carriers. For the consideration within
this document, it is assumed that the TREs performance to avoid intermodulation is
already fixed. Not considered are interference mechanisms within one system, because
they occur also without co-location.
7.6.1.2 Decoupling requirements
For the co-located systems, an antenna decoupling resp. diplexer decoupling of at least 30dB can
be assumed, no matter if the decoupling is provided by single band antennas, dual band antennas
or diplexers. According to measurements [CoLoc], even side-by-side installations of single band
antennas provide this value. Therefore, only decoupling requirements exceeding 30dB are judged as
critical in the following and require adapted solutions. In the decoupling tables below, the value of
30dB is therefore indicated even if a lower decoupling value would already be sufficient. All
decoupling values are referring to an isolation between the antenna connectors. For calculation of
the required decoupling, different cases are distinguished which look at the Alcatel equipment
performance (EVOLIUM GSM and EVOLIUM UMTS) and the equipment performance according
to GSM 05.05 and 3G TS 25.104 recommendation.
TX/ RX
TRE
Feeder
TX/ RX
UMTS Node B
ANC
TRE
Antenna
connectors
Antenna system
ANC
GSM BTS
Figure 47: Decoupling Reference Point
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7.6.1.2.1 Decoupling Requirements due to Spurious Emissions
7.6.1.2.1.1 Co-located GSM1800 and UMTS sites
The spurious emissions resp. the transmitter noise floor are most critical in case of co-located GSM
1800 UMTS sites.
The limiting factor for decoupling requirements results from the GSM 1800 transmitter noise floor,
the spurious emissions respectively, of the GSM 1800 BTS within the UMTS receive band.
There are historical reasons for that: At the time GSM 1800 was specified, no one expected an
UMTS system working in the adjacent band. Therefore, the filter requirements for the GSM 1800 BTS
are rather inadequate. According to the ETSI recommendation GSM 05.05, spurious emissions
within a bandwidth of 3 MHz in the UMTS band have to be below 30 dBm at the antenna
connector. Note: Between GSM systems 98 dBm is specified. After mapping this requirement on
3.84 MHz, which is the effective carrier bandwidth of UMTS, the maximum interference may reach
-29 dBm. This is much higher than the interference level acceptable by the UMTS Node B.
For calculation of the required decoupling, two cases are distinguished. One includes the Alcatel
EVOLIUM GSM 1800 equipment performance, the other is based on the GSM 05.05
recommendation.
Spurious emissions
ETSI: < -29 dBm
Alcatel : < -67 dBm
TX/ RX
EVOLIUM
TM
BTS 1800
ANC:
UMTS band attenuation: 40 dB
TRE-level:
TX spurious emissions:
< -27 dBm
Feeder
TX/ RX
UMTS Node B
Antenna Connection
Network
Transceiver-level
Limiting interference level:
< - 114 dBm
Antenna
connectors
Antenna system
ANC: Antenna Network Combiner
TRE: Transceiver Equipment
Figure 48: Conditions for noise / spurious emission GSM 1800 UMTS
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To determine the decoupling requirements, an acceptable degradation of the Node B sensitivity of
0.4dB (caused by the spurious emissions) has been assumed
12
.
Equipment type ETSI specifications (GSM 05.05) Alcatel EVOLIUM GSM 1800 BTS
Spurious
emissions
(at BTS antenna
connector)
- 29 dBm TX, spurious emissions: - 27 dBm
ANC, attenuation in UMTS band: 40
dB
- 27 dBm 40 dB = - 67 dBm
Limiting
interference
level
Noise at UMTS receiver without GSM 1800 impact:
Thermal noise (-108 dBm) plus receiver noise figure (4 dB), i.e. 104 dBm
(P
noise
[dBm] = -174 dBm + System Noise Figure [dB] + 10 log (BW [Hz])
Degradation of sensitivity by 0.4 dB acceptable (level 10 dB below noise floor)
-104 dBm 10 dB = -114 dBm
Required
decoupling
- 29 dBm decoupling = -114 dBm
Decoupling = 85 dB
-67 dBm decoupling = -114 dBm
Decoupling = 47 dB
Table 33: Decoupling calculation for GSM1800 transmitter noise/ spurious emissions within UMTS
receive band.
The calculation shows that a standard antenna decoupling of 30 dB is not sufficient for co-located
GSM 1800 and UMTS systems. Additional measures have to be performed, presented later in this
document.
The spurious emissions of the UMTS node B within the GSM1800 are not critical. Therefore, a
decoupling of 30dB from the UMTS antenna connector towards the GSM1800 antenna connector is
sufficient.
The resulting decoupling requirements are shown in Table 34.
Required decoupling
from ... to
GSM 1800
(05.05)
GSM 1800
(Alcatel)
UMTS (TS
25.104)
UMTS (Alcatel)
GSM 1800 (05.05) 85dB 85dB
GSM 1800
(Alcatel)
47dB 47dB
UMTS (TS 25.104) 30dB 30dB
UMTS (Alcatel) 30dB 30dB
Table 34 Decoupling requirements due to spurious emissions for GSM1800 UMTS co-location
Therefore, the 2 rightmost columns represent the limiting decoupling requirements.
7.6.1.2.1.2 Co-located GSM900 and UMTS sites

12
Rule of thumb:
0.1/0.2/0.4/1.0 dB degradation, if spurious level is 16/13/10/6 dB below noise floor
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For the combination GSM 900 UMTS, 30 dB antenna decoupling is enough for transmitter noise/
spurious emission conditions.
The resulting decoupling requirements are shown in Table 35.
Required decoupling
from to
GSM 900
(05.05)
GSM 900
(Alcatel)
UMTS (TS
25.104)
UMTS (Alcatel)
GSM 900 (05.05) 30 dB
(1)
30dB
(1)
GSM 900 (Alcatel) 30dB 30dB
UMTS (TS 25.104) 30dB 30dB
UMTS (Alcatel) 30dB 30dB
Table 35 Decoupling requirements due to spurious emissions for GSM 900 UMTS co-location
Note: The ANC of the EVOLIUM GSM 900 BTS provides with 65 dB attenuation in the 2 GHz band sufficient
decoupling for co-located UMTS sites. It can be assumed, that also other standard ETSI equipment with their
integrated antenna network complies with the decoupling demand, but this has to be checked.
7.6.1.3 Receiver blocking
For this interference mechanism, the receiver out-of-band blocking characteristic measured at the
antenna connector of the BTS/ Node B is very important. The minimum system decoupling
requirements are indicated in the next table:
BTS
or
Node B
TX power
Antenna Antenna
RX blocking
TX power
BTS
or
Node B
Decoupling
Figure 49: Receiver blocking, principle
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GSM 900 (RX) GSM 1800 (RX) UMTS (RX)
Specification
according to:
GSM
05.05
Alcatel GSM
05.05
Alcatel 3G TS
25.104
Alcatel
GSM 05.05 46 dB 30 dB 61 dB 30 dB
GSM 900 (TX)

Alcatel 46 dB 30 dB 61 dB 30 dB
GSM 05.05 39 dB 30 dB 62 dB 30 dB
GSM 1800 (TX)

Alcatel 39 dB 30 dB 62 dB 30 dB
3G TS
25.104
35 dB 30 dB 43 dB 30 dB
UMTS (TX)
Alcatel 35 dB 30 dB 43 dB 30 dB
It is assumed, that the decoupling provided by the antenna/diplexer system is at least 30 dB. In fact,
using Alcatel EVOLIUM equipment requires for certain combinations even less isolation than stated
here.
Table 36: Decoupling requirements
The significant improvement of the Alcatel EVOLIUM equipment results from the integrated
antenna network filters.
Link budget examples in the following sub-chapters give an overview about the relation between
antenna decoupling and the blocking level.
7.6.1.3.1 Receiver blocking between GSM 1800 and UMTS
Link budget Value
GSM 1800 TX output power (high power) 46.7 dBm
Assumed antenna decoupling - 30 dB
Assumed feeder and connector loss 0 dB
UMTS received power (@ 1800 MHz) 16.7 dBm
Specification ETSI Alcatel
UMTS blocking limit -15 dBm 20 dBm

Blocking limit fulfilled No Yes


Table 37: Link budget for blocking evaluation, GSM 1800 blocks receiver of UMTS

Value is based on ETSI blocking limits in addition with the integrated antenna network filters of the
EVOLIUM equipment.
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Link budget Value
UMTS Node B TX output power 43.0 dBm
Assumed antenna decoupling - 30 dB
Assumed feeder and connector loss 0 dB
GSM 1800 received power (@ 2000 MHz) 13.0 dBm
Specification ETSI Alcatel
GSM 1800 blocking limit 0 dBm 25 dBm

Blocking limit fulfilled No Yes


Table 38: Link budget for blocking evaluation, UMTS blocks receiver of GSM1800
7.6.1.3.2 Receiver blocking between GSM 900 and UMTS
Link budget Value
GSM 900 TX output power 46.0 dBm
Assumed antenna decoupling - 30 dB
Assumed feeder and connector loss 0 dB
UMTS received power (@ 900 MHz) 16.0 dBm
Specification ETSI Alcatel
UMTS blocking limit -15 dBm 25 dBm
Blocking limit fulfilled Yes Yes
Table 39: Link budget for blocking evaluation, GSM 900 blocks receiver of UMTS

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Link budget Value
UMTS Node B TX output power 43.0 dBm
Assumed antenna decoupling - 30 dB
Assumed feeder and connector loss 0 dB
GSM 900 received power (@ 2000 MHz) 13.0 dBm
Specification ETSI Alcatel
GSM 900 blocking 8 dBm 35dBm
Blocking limit fulfilled Yes Yes
Table 40: Link budget for blocking evaluation, UMTS blocks receiver of GSM900
7.6.1.3.3 Receiver blocking conclusion
Receiver blocking is no problem for co-located Alcatel equipment assuming an antenna decoupling
of 30 dB (and even less). Co-location with equipment from other suppliers needs to be checked
case-by-case.
7.6.1.4 Intermodulation
7.6.1.4.1 The basics
Intermodulation, also called non-linear distortion, is generated in non-linear devices. The transfer
characteristic of such devices, e.g. the V-I characteristic of a semiconductor diode or the output
versus input power characteristic of an amplifier, is non-linear. At high power levels, even
connectors exhibit non-linear effects.
Figure 50 shows an amplifiers transfer curve as an example. At low input levels, the output signal is
almost a linear function of the input signal. With increasing input level, the output level will be less
than expected and eventually be limited to the saturated output power of the amplifier e.g. due to
power supply constraints.
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-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15
25
30
35
40
45
50
Input power in dBm
O
u
t
p
u
t

p
o
w
e
r

i
n

d
B
m
Figure 50: Non-linear transfer characteristic of a power amplifier
Such a transfer curve could be approximated by a power series:
V
out
(t) = C1 V
in
(t) + C2 V
in
(t)
2
+ C3 V
in
(t)
3
+ C4 V
in
(t)
4
+ ...
The output signal of a non-linear device will not have the same shape as the input signal. Its
frequency spectrum will have more components than the input signal. The new frequency
components are either harmonics of the input frequencies or a combination of the input components
(mixing). These new frequencies are called intermodulation products. If the input signal is made up
of two sinewave signals with frequencies f
1
and f
2
, the output signal will contain frequency
components at
f
IM
= m f
1
+ n f
2
with m, n = 0, +1, +2, +3, ...
The sum of (the unsigned) n and m is called the order of the intermodulation product, e.g.
f
IM
= 2 f
1

-
1 f
2
is called a third-order intermodulation product (IM3). Third-order intermodulation
products arise from the third degree and higher odd degree power series term of the transfer curve.
Figure 51 shows a output spectrum with intermodulation products up to third order. The frequencies
f
1
and f
2
are the two tone excitations at the input of the device.
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Figure 51: Two tone output spectrum with intermodulation products up to third order
The level of a specific intermodulation component depends on the coefficients of the power series
contributing to this component, and the input power level applied to the non-linear device. Typically,
high-order intermodulation products have lower levels than low-order intermodulation products.
Because of the higher order power series terms from which the intermodulation products will be
generated, the levels of the intermodulation products will rise more than linear with the input signal
level, e.g. third-order terms will rise by 3 dB if the input signal is raised by 1 dB. This is the reason
why intermodulation products are not a problem at low input power levels for a given device, but at
high input levels they might. The ratio of wanted signal to intermodulation product decreases with
increasing input signal level.
A typical scenario for co-located base stations is shown in Figure 52 below:
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TX/ RX
Feeder
Diplexer
Antennas
GSM BTS
ANC
TRE TRE
UMTS Node B
ANXU
TRE TRE
TX/ RX TX/ RX
ANC
TRE TRE
ANXU
TRE TRE
TX/ RX
Feeder
Dual-band antenna
Diplexer
Diplexer
Air decoupling
GSM BTS UMTS Node B
Figure 52: Air decoupling (left side) and diplexer decoupling (right side) for co-located sites
Either air decoupling or diplexer decoupling is used to fulfil the decoupling requirements at the BTS
resp. Node B connectors. In any case, the antennas are used for reception as well as for
transmission, the TX/RX duplexer function is integrated within the antenna network combiner (ANC)
module.
It is assumed, that each system itself (not co-located) fulfils the requirements on intermodulation
performance in order not to degrade its own receivers. Only intermodulation mechanisms due to
the interaction of both systems are considered.
The reference point for intermodulation products inside a used receive channel is the BTS antenna
connector. As long as the interfering signal level is well below the systems noise floor, almost no
receiver degradation will occur. As a rule of thumb the following degradation of the reference
sensitivity will occur:
- 0.1 dB degradation, if intermodulation level is 16 dB below noise floor
- 0.2 dB degradation, if intermodulation level is 13 dB below noise floor
- 0.4 dB degradation, if intermodulation level is 10 dB below noise floor
- 1.0 dB degradation, if intermodulation level is 6 dB below noise floor
The noise floor of the system is determined by
P
noise
[dBm] = -174 dBm + System Noise Figure [dB] + 10 log (Receive Channel
Bandwidth [Hz])
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For a typical receiver with a noise figure of 4 dB the noise floor is
117.0 dBm for a GSM system
104.2 dBm for a UMTS system.
Intermodulation problems due to co-location might rise, if transmit carriers from the co-located
system "A" generate intermodulation products falling into a used receive channel of system "B" or
vice versa. Also a combination of transmit frequencies of both systems might fall into a used receive
channel of either system "B" or system "A."
7.6.1.4.2 Lowest order intermodulation products which might fall inside a used
receive channel
Only co-located systems of different types are taken into account in this chapter.
In the table below, the lowest order intermodulation products, which might fall inside a used RX
channel, are listed. Intermodulation between the own systems transmit frequencies and the co-
located systems transmit frequencies as well as intermodulation between the co-located systems
transmit frequencies which could impact the own system have been taken into account.
Co-location Intermodulation products
GSM 1800 UMTS 3
rd
order: GSM 1800 TX within UMTS RX band
(e.g. 2 x 1879.8 MHz 1 x 1820 MHz = 1939.6 MHz)
10
th
order: GSM 1800 and UMTS TX within GSM 1800 RX band
(e.g. 5 x 2153 MHz 5 x 1810 MHz = 1715 MHz)
12
th
order: GSM 1800 and UMTS TX within UMTS RX band
(e.g. 6 x 2167.4 MHz 6 x 1837.8 MHz = 1977.6 MHz)
GSM 900 UMTS 4
th
order: GSM 900 TX within UMTS RX
(e.g. 3 x 959.8 MHz 1 x 935.2 = 1944.2 MHz)
9
th
order: GSM 900 and UMTS TX within GSM 900 band
(e.g. 3 x 2167.6 MHz 6 x 935.4 MHz = 890.4 MHz)
12
th
order: GSM 900 and UMTS TX within UMTS RX band
(e.g. 9 x 930 MHz 3 x 2140 MHz = 1950 MHz)
Table 41: Intermodulation products
The impact of Intermodulation products of order 6 and higher can be neglected.
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7.6.1.4.3 Conclusion of Intermodulation interference
The intermodulation interference is particularly important for co-located GSM 1800 and UMTS
systems. Especially the third-order intermodulation products (IM3) of GSM 1800 transmitters may
cause interference within the UMTS receive band. This means that IM3 products may occur within
the UMTS receive band up to the frequency of 1955 MHz. This is the worst case valid for a GSM
1800/ UMTS co-located site, where the lowest (f
1
= 1805 MHz) and highest (f
2
= 1880 MHz) GSM
1800 frequency are used (f
IM
= -1 f
1
+ 2 f
2
) on the same site. Therefore, it is recommended for
GSM 1800 operators to choose UMTS frequencies above f
IM
, where in any case no IM3 products of
the own GSM 1800 frequencies occur.
The probability, that a third order intermodulation product falls into the UMTS receiver band (lower
than 1955 MHz) is very low. This is illustrated by the following equations:
f
IM
= -1 f
1
+ 2 f
2
< 1920 MHz
f
1
< f
2
-1 f
1
+ f
2
= A; On site used GSM 1800 frequency band
f
IM
= , ,, , + f
2
< 1920 MHz
, ,, , < 1920 MHz - f
2
f
2 max
= 1880 MHz
, ,, , < 40 MHZ
If the GSM 1800 frequency band used within the same site is smaller than 40 MHz (which
corresponds to 200 GSM carrier frequencies), no IM3 products fall in the UMTS receive band. This is
also valid for a larger used GSM 1800 frequency band, when the highest GSM 1800 frequency is
lower than 1880 MHz (f
2 max
<1880 MHz).
Thus, intermodulation interference is in most cases not relevant, because a distance between lowest
and highest carrier frequency of 40 MHz will hardly be used within the same site.
In cases intermodulation products are falling in a used receive band, decoupling requirements have
to be derived accordingly. The following example should show how this can be done in a defined
case:
EXAMPLE:
GSM 1800 TX:
f
1
= 1879.8 MHz and f
2
= 1820 MHz, P = 46 dBm each at antenna connector
UMTS RX:
f = 1939.6 MHz
The third-order intermodulation product of the GSM 1800 transmitters falls into the UMTS receive
band (2 * 1879.8 MHz 1820 MHz = 1936.6 MHz). The UMTS receivers noise floor is assumed
to be 104 dBm. Allowing 0.4 dB UMTS receiver degradation the acceptable intermodulation level
at the UMTS antenna connector is approximately 114 dBm within the 3.84 MHz channel
bandwidth.
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Case 1: Intermodulation in the GSM 1800 transmitters
According to the GSM recommendation 05.05, the inband intermodulation attenuation has
to be 70 dBc
13
in 300 kHz bandwidth. For a transmit power of 46 dBm, this means an
intermodulation power of -24 dBm. The TX filter within the ANC module of the Alcatel
EVOLIUM GSM 1800 BTS suppresses this level by at least additional 40dB within the
UMTS receive band. At the GSM 1800 antenna connector the intermodulation level is
therefore 64 dBm. To achieve the required intermodulation level of 114 dBm at the
UMTS antenna connector, an additional attenuation of 50 dB by the GSM/ UMTS diplexer
or air decoupling is required. An additional margin of 5 to 10 dB should be taken into
account, because the total intermodulation power is distributed over a 600 kHz bandwidth
(additional 3 dB) and more than one GSM intermodulation product may fall inside a UMTS
receive channel. The required decoupling therefore would be 55 dB to 60 dB.
Case 2: Intermodulation in the UMTS receiver
According to the ETSI G3PP specification TS 25.104, the inband interfering signal level for
the UMTS receiver has to be 48 dBm. At this interfering level a wanted signal with a level
of -115 dBm can be received. An additional margin of 5 dB for the interfering level is taken
into account in order not to degrade a wanted signal at a level of 124 dBm (reference
sensitivity level, Alcatel). The allowed interfere level without UMTS receive filter would be
48dBm 5 dB = -53 dBm. For GSM 1800 transmit signals the Alcatel receive filter will
provide 90 dB suppression. With this filter the allowed interfere level at the UMTS antenna
connector is +37 dBm. Therefore 9 dB decoupling is already sufficient (TX power = 46
dBm). This is less than in case 1.
Case 3: Intermodulation at the diplexer
In the case where a diplexer is used, the GSM transmitters have power levels of about
46 dBm at the antenna connector of the diplexer The allowed intermodulation power level
is 114 dBm
14
. The attenuation has to be 160 dBc. This value is very critical for the
diplexer and the antenna system. It is suggested to avoid this scenario by careful frequency
planning.

13
dBc referes to a value below carrier, meaning that the useful power of the carrier is the
reference power, the dBc values indicate the difference in dB compared with this carrier power
14
This acceptable interference power is derived analogously to the calculation in chapter 7.6.1.2.1
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7.6.1.5 Summary on the requi red decoupling
In order to prevent performance degradation for co-located mobile systems, Alcatel proposes due to
the three interference mechanisms the following decoupling requirements:
GSM 900 (RX) GSM 1800 (RX) UMTS (RX)
Specificatio
n according
to:
GSM
05.05
Alcatel GSM
05.05
Alcatel 3G TS
25.104
Alcatel
GSM 05.05 85 dB
GSM
spurious
85 dB
GSM
spurious
GSM 900 (TX)
Alcatel 61 dB
Blocking
30 dB
GSM 05.05 85 dB
GSM
spurious
85 dB
GSM
spurious
GSM 1800 (TX)

Alcatel 62 dB
Blocking
47 dB
GSM
spurious
3G TS
25.104
35 dB
Blocking
30 dB 43 dB
Blocking
30 dB
UMTS (TX)
Alcatel 35 dB
Blocking
30 dB 43 dB
Blocking
30 dB
It is assumed, that the decoupling provided by the antenna/diplexer system is at least 30 dB. In fact, using
Alcatel EVOLIUM equipment requires for certain combinations even less isolation than those 30dB
Intermodulation (if applicable) has to be treated case by case
Table 42: Required decoupling
7.6.2 Antenna System Soluti ons
7.6.2.1 Dual Band Sites
7.6.2.1.1 GSM1800 with UMTS
7.6.2.1.1.1 Air decoupling with Single Band Antennas
Figure 53 shows a schematic representation of the air decoupling configuration for single band
antennas. A feeder cable to a GSM 1800 single-band antenna connects the GSM 1800 BTS.
Similar, an extra feeder cable to an UMTS single-band antenna connects the UMTS node B.
It has to be noted that this configuration has to be doubled for the second antenna branch (keep in
mind that we have mandatory RX diversity for UMTS).
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GSM 1800
BTS
UMTS
Node B
Feeder Feeder
air decoupling
GSM 1800 antenna UMTS antenna
Figure 53: Schematic representation of air decoupling
The antennas are separated either by a vertical distance d
v
or by a horizontal distance d
h
(see Figure
54).
GSM 1800
d
h
UMTS
d
v
GSM 1800
UMTS
Figure 54: Horizontal and vertical distance of antennas
In case of Alcatel EVOLIUM GSM 1800 equipment is used, the decoupling between GSM 1800
transmit port and UMTS receive port has to be 47 dB. Taking into account a feeder cable loss of
2 dB for each feeder cable, the pure air decoupling has to provide 43 dB of isolation.
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In case of a GSM 1800 BTS fulfilling only the ETSI requirements, the air decoupling has to be 81 dB,
which is much more difficult to obtain.
In order to determine the required minimum distance between the antenna panels, decoupling
measurements have been performed in co-operation with RFS Celwave. As typical examples, two
cross-polarized single-band antennas have been used, both antennas with 17 dBi gain and a
horizontal beamwidth of 65 degree (APX206515-2T for UMTS, APX186515-2T for GSM 1800,
supplier: RFS/ CELWAVE).
7.6.2.1.1.1.1 Horizontal antenna separation
Figure 55 shows the decoupling between the -45 branch of the GSM 1800 antenna and the +45
branch of the UMTS antenna, as a function of the frequency, for different horizontal distances, which
has to be found the limiting one of all combination of -45 and +45 branches. It has to be noted,
that the indicated coupling distances were measured between the two vertical middle axes of the
antennas. This means that the coupling distance of 20cm according to Figure 55 refers to the side
by side position which is given as d
h
= 0 m according to Figure 54.
Converted into a formula, this leads to:
d
h
= coupling distance minus 0.2 m.
Coupling Distance (cm)
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
1.7 1.7625 1.825 1.8875 1.95 2.0125 2.075 2.1375 2.2
Frequency (GHz)
C
o
u
p
l
i
n
g
(
d
B
)
20
50
100
150
200
Figure 55: Decoupling between -45 plane of GSM 1800 antenna and +45 plane of UMTS antenna
over frequency for different horizontal distances
One can see that the two antennas side by side already offer a decoupling of 40 dB, a result which
can be expected for the GSM 1800/ UMTS dual band antenna as well. Currently, the antenna
suppliers specify their dual-band antennas with 30 dB decoupling only.
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To be better than 43 dB for all relevant frequencies, the coupling distance has to be more than 0.5
m (d
h
= 0.3 m). With respect to a certain security/error margin, a minimum coupling distance of 1.0
m (d
h
= 0.8 m) for horizontal separation is recommended
15
.
A decoupling of 81dB cannot be achieved by air decoupling with realistic antenna distances.
Therefore, the pure air decoupling solution cannot be applied for a GSM1800 equipment which
only fulfills the ETSI requirements. However, if one wishes to use a single band antenna solution in
this case, an external filter may be added to the GSM1800 BTS which reduces the decoupling
requirements (see chapter 7.6.2.1.1.3.1)
7.6.2.1.1.1.2 Vertical antenna separation
Figure 56 shows as an example the decoupling between the -45 branch of the GSM 1800 antenna
and the +45 branch of the UMTS antenna, as a function of the frequency, for different vertical
distances. It has to be noted, that the distances are measured between the horizontal middle axes of
the two antennas. This means if one wants to map the represented distances on the distance d
v
indicated in Figure 54, which is the distance between the top of the UMTS antenna and the bottom
of the GSM 1800 antenna, one has to subtract 1.3 m, which is the length of each antenna.
The according formula is:
d
v
= coupling distance minus 1.3 m.
Coupling Distance (cm)
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
1.7 1.7625 1.825 1.8875 1.95 2.0125 2.075 2.1375 2.2
Frequency (GHz)
C
o
u
p
l
i
n
g
(
d
B
)
150
200
250
300
Figure 56: Decoupling between -45 plane of GSM 1800 antenna and +45 plane of UMTS antenna
over frequency for different vertical distances
To achieve a decoupling of more than 43 dB within the UMTS frequencies, the coupling distance has
to be wider than 1.5 m (d
v
= 0.2 m). With respect to a certain security/error margin, a minimum
coupling distance of 2.0 m (d
v
= 0.7 m) for vertical separation is recommended
16
.

15
Please note that these values only apply for sector antennas with the same main beam direction.
16
Please note that these values only apply for sector antennas with the same main beam direction.
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The measurement examples indicate, that an air decoupling of > 81 dB for equipment only fulfilling
the ETSI requirements cannot be achieved for the majority of sites, as the antennas have to be too
far apart from each other.
7.6.2.1.1.2 Broadband Antenna with Diplexer
The required decoupling between the two systems can also be achieved by using a diplexer. It can
be used in combination with a broadband antenna which can be realised for GSM 1800 and UMTS
since the according bands are so close together in spectrum.
Figure 57 shows the schematic representation of a solution using a BTS-side diplexer, one feeder
cable and a GSM1800/UMTS broadband antenna. This combination has to be doubled for the
second antenna branch.
The diplexer has to provide 47 dB (in case of Alcatel EVOLIUM GSM 1800 equipment, 85 dB for
ETSI equipment) from the GSM 1800 transmit port to the UMTS receive port. From the UMTS
transmit port to the GSM 1800 receive port, 30 dB of isolation is required.
The main advantage of the configuration is the need for only one feeder cable and one antenna
panel. A disadvantage could be the fact of having the same antenna characteristics for the GSM
1800 and the UMTS band. No different electrical downtilt can be chosen for the two systems.
GSM 1800
BTS
UMTS
Node B
Feeder
Broadband antenna
Diplexer
Figure 57: Schematic representation of the configuration with diplexer and broadband antenna
7.6.2.1.1.3 Dual Band Antennas
7.6.2.1.1.3.1 GSM1800/UMTS Dual Band Antenna with Additional Filters
A dual band antenna is in fact nothing else than two single band antennas within one panel.
According to most antenna suppliers specification, a decoupling of 30dB between the GSM 1800
antenna and the UMTS antenna within this panel can be assumed. However, from Table 42 we
know that this is not sufficient, so that we have to reduce the decoupling requirements. This can be
done by an external filter.
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The configuration shown schematically in Figure 58 includes an external filter directly after the
GSM 1800 BTS, two feeder cables and a GSM 1800/ UMTS dual-band antenna. Again, this
combination has to be doubled for the second antenna branch.
GSM 1800
BTS
UMTS
Node B
Feeder
Dualband antenna
Filter
Feeder
Figure 58: Schematic representation of configuration with an external filter, two feeder cables and a
GSM1800/ UMTS dual-band antenna
The filter has to reduce the spurious emissions of the GSM 1800 BTS within the UMTS receive band
to achieve the required isolation, while relaxing the antenna decoupling value to 30 dB. Feeder
cable losses of 2 dB per feeder cable are taken into account.
The filter (with f
c
= 1900 MHz) lets pass the whole GSM 1800 receive and transmit frequencies, but
provides sufficient attenuation within the UMTS band.
The stopband (=out-of-band) attenuation o which has to be guaranteed is dependent on the
performance of the filter integrated within the GSM 1800 BTS, and therefore on the spurious output
power P
spur
. The power received from GSM 1800 spurious emissions within the UMTS band at the
UMTS receive port shall not be higher than 114 dBm. Cable Loss L
cable
is assumed to be 2 dB per
cable.
According to the ETSI requirements of GSM 05.05, the spurious emission P
spur
within the bandwidth
of one UMTS carrier is below 29 dBm. For Alcatel GSM 1800 EVOLIUM equipment 67 dBm can
be assumed, please refer to Table 33: Decoupling calculation for GSM1800 transmitter noise/
spurious emissions.
For the received spurious power, the following equation is valid:
dBm 114 2
air cable spur rec
a L P P =

air cable spur required
a L P 2 P
max
rec
=
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ETSI specifications Alcatel EVOLIUM GSM1800
equipment
P
spur
= -29 dBm P
spur
= -67 dBm
P
rec,max
= -114 dBm
L
cable
= 4 dB
a
air
= 30 dB
o
required
= 51 dB o
required
= 13 dB
Table 43: Required filter characteristics
In order to be on the safe side for the filter specification, an additional margin of 5 dB should be
considered resulting in an attenuation of 56 dB for the ETSI case, 18 dB for the Alcatel equipment
respectively.
As a side effect, such a filter reduces the decoupling requirement for blocking of the GSM 1800 RX
by the UMTS TX.
It has to be noted that such a filter may also be used to reduce the decoupling requirements and
therefore the required decoupling distance for the single band antenna solution described in chapter
7.6.2.1.1.1
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7.6.2.1.1.3.2 GSM1800/UMTS Dual Band Antenna with Two Diplexers
The configuration consists of one BTS-side diplexer, one feeder cable, one antenna side diplexer
(preferably integrated in the antenna panel) and a GSM 1800/UMTS dual band antenna consisting
of two antennas within one panel. This combination has to be doubled for the second antenna
branch.
GSM 1800
BTS
UMTS
Node B
Feeder
Dualband antenna
Diplexer
Diplexer
Figure 59: Schematic representation of configuration with two diplexers and a GSM 1800/ UMTS
dual-band antenna
The BTS-side diplexer has to provide 47 dB of decoupling from GSM 1800 transmit port to UMTS
receive port (in case of Alcatel EVOLIUM GSM 1800 equipment). For the antenna side diplexer, a
decoupling value of 30 dB is largely sufficient.
The advantages of the configuration are that gain and electrical tilt can be chosen differently for
GSM 1800 and UMTS. The disadvantage is the necessity of implementing two diplexers.
7.6.2.1.1.4 Summary on GSM1800/UMTS Solutions
Description Advantage Disadvantage Comment
Single band antennas
with air decoupling,
two feeders
Existing GSM1800
antenna system does
not have to be
modified
Different mechanical
and electrical downtilt
for GSM1800 and
UMTS antenna
possible
High visual impact of
additional UMTS
antenna
High antenna
distance required
Two feeder cables
required
For GSM 1800
equipment which only
fulfills ETSI
requirements
concerning spurious,
this solution is not
possible
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Broadband antenna
with one diplexer and
one feeder
Only one feeder
cable required
Low visual impact
(existing GSM1800
antenna can be
replaced by
broadband antenna)
No different
mechanical or
electrical downtilt for
GSM1800 and UMTS
diplexer required
Dual band antenna with
two feeders and
external filter
Different electrical
downtilt possible
No diplexer required
Low visual impact
(existing GSM1800
antenna can be
replaced by dual
band antenna)
Two feeder cables
required
No different
mechanical downtilt
External filter
required
Dual band antenna with
one feeder and two
diplexers
Only one feeder
cable required
Different electrical
downtilt possible
Low visual impact
Two diplexers
required (one of them
with high decoupling
requirements,
therefore expensive)
No different
mechanical downtilt
7.6.2.1.2 GSM900 with UMTS
7.6.2.1.2.1 Air decoupling with Single Band Antennas
For the combination of GSM 900 with UMTS, concerning the installation of single-band antennas,
no special conditions have to be considered, since 30dB of decoupling are easily obtained. For
sector antennas installed in the same main beam direction, in most cases, side by side installation
of panel antennas is possible. To be on the secure side, the following values are recommended:
Vertical separation: d
v
=0.3m
Horizontal separation: d
v
=0.5m (only for sector antennas!)
If omni antennas are used, horizontal separation is not recommended since the antenna gain
increases the required separation drastically.
7.6.2.1.2.2 GSM900/UMTS Dual Band Antennas
A GSM 900/UMTS dual band antenna offers 30dB of decoupling at minimum (according to
antenna suppliers specification). Therefore, one can choose either a solution with two feeder cables
and without diplexers or with a common feeder cable and two diplexers. Please refer to chapter
7.6.2.2 for a detailed explanation.
7.6.2.1.2.3 Summary on GSM900/UMTS Solutions
Description Advantage Disadvantage
Single band antennas with air
decoupling, two feeders
Existing GSM900 antenna
system does not have to be
modified
High visual impact of
additional UMTS antenna
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Different mechanical and
electrical downtilt for
GSM900 and UMTS antenna
possible
Two feeder cables required
Dual band antenna with two
feeders
Different electrical downtilt
possible
No diplexer required
Low visual impact
Two feeder cables required
No different mechanical
downtilt
Dual band antenna with one
feeder and two diplexers
Only one feeder cable
required
Different electrical downtilt
possible
Low visual impact
Two diplexers required
No different mechanical
downtilt
7.6.2.2 Feeder Sharing
Dual-band systems are realized either with separated single-band antennas or dual-band antennas.
For the combination of GSM1800 and UMTS, the third option consists in a broadband antenna.
However, if the antenna system supports diversity (note that RX diversity is mandatory for UMTS) at
least two antenna branches per BTS sector and mobile system are necessary. This results in four
antenna branches for a dual-band BTS sector (except the solution with broadband antennas for
GSM 1800 and UMTS, not further described in this document). Thus, without feeder sharing, four
feeder cables are necessary. By using additional diplexers, two shared feeder cables are sufficient.
The following example with a cross-polarized dual-band antenna describes the feeder sharing.
Dual-band antennas are characterized by being suitable for both frequency ranges with separate
input connectors. This leads to a double number of antenna connectors, compared to a
corresponding single-band antenna; four connectors for dual-polarized dual-band antenna.
Feeder
Dual-band
antenna
-45 +45
Diplexer Diplexer
Diplexer Diplexer
Feeder
Dual-band
antenna
With
integrated
diplexers
Without
diplexers
Dual-band
Dual-band
Diplexers
at BTS
location
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Figure 60: Dual-band antenna, with and without diplexer application
By upgrading the dual-band antennas with additional diplexers (often integrated in the antenna
radome), the number of antenna connectors will be reduced by a factor of two. The required feeder
system will be the same as for a single-band antenna system. This kind of application requires
further base station diplexers with a corresponding resplit function.
The additional costs for the diplexers will be justified, if the reduced expenditure of the feeder system
is predominant. Especially for the case of migrating a single-band to a dual-band system, the
existing feeder system can be used ensuring a fast installation during retrofit. It has to be checked,
however, whether the feeder cable fulfils the demands for both systems in terms of losses (the feeder
attenuation increases with higher frequencies).
Note that for the broadband antenna solution, feeder sharing is the only thinkable solution since
there is only one diplexer which is logically installed at the BTS side.
7.6.2.3 Triple Band Sites
With respect to the visual impact, triple-band antenna systems will be preferably realized either with
single-band and dual-band antennas or with triple-band antennas. Nevertheless, configurations
with mono-band antennas are also feasible. The conditions concerning the decoupling requirements
can be taken from the dual-band co-located sites.
7.6.2.3.1 With dual-band antennas
In cases dual-band antennas are used the following variants are possible:
- GSM 900 single-band antenna, GSM 1800 / UMTS dual-band antenna
- GSM 900 / GSM 1800 dual-band antenna, UMTS single-band antenna
- GSM 900 / UMTS dual-band antenna, GSM 1800 single-band antenna
The preferred configuration is dependent on the existing antenna system and the evolution steps to a
triple-band site. The network planning aspects pose a further requirement on the antenna
arrangement.
7.6.2.3.2 With triple-band antennas
Triple-band antennas are necessary for those existing antenna sites using only one antenna per
sector and where additional panels are not allowed due to the visual impact.
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GSM 1800
BTS
UMTS
Node B
Triple-band antenna
GSM 900
BTS
Feeder
Connection Matrix
Figure 61: Triple-band antenna
An isolation of 30 dB is not enough for the decoupling between GSM 1800 and UMTS. Therefore
additional components must be implemented in order to fulfil the decoupling requirements (use of
diplexer), or to decrease the decoupling requirements (use of GSM 1800 TX filter).
The connection possibilities are the same as already presented for the dual-band sites GSM 1800
and UMTS. Figure 62 reminds the diplexer and filter solution:
Feeder
Filter
Feeder
Feeder
Diplexer
Diplexer
GSM 1800 GSM 1800 UMTS UMTS
Diplexer application Filter application
Connection matrix
Figure 62: Connection possibilities for triple-band antenna
7.6.2.3.3 Feeder Sharing
A separated triple-band antenna system with diversity support needs at least six feeders per sector.
With feeder sharing, this amount can be reduced. The minimum number per sector is two.
In order to fulfil the need to have only two feeder cables per sector for all three bands, the use of
triplexers are necessary. The following picture illustrates the triplexer application consisting of two
diplexers in combination with a triple-band antenna.
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GSM 900
Triple-band
antenna
GSM 1800 UMTS
Diplexer
Diplexer
Triplexer
Diplexer
Diplexer
Triplexer
GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS
Feeder system
Antenna system
BTS systems
Figure 63:Triplexer application
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If only diplexing between two mobile systems is applied, please refer to 7.6.2.1, four antenna feeder
cables per sector are then required.
One representative application is the diplexing of the GSM 1800 and UMTS mobile system. This
leads to separated feeder cables between the GSM 900 and the GSM1800/ UMTS systems. Further
benefits are:
- Flexible choice of the feeder type (because the feeder attenuation increases with the
frequency)
- Diplexers improve at the same the decoupling between the systems which is, as we
know, critical between GSM1800 and UMTS
GSM 900
Triple-band
antenna
GSM 1800 UMTS
Diplexer
Diplexer
GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS
Feeder system
Antenna system
BTS systems
Figure 64: GSM 1800 / UMTS diplexing at triple-band site
7.6.2.3.3.1 Additional losses
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The feeder sharing benefits have to be paid for with slightly increased losses in the feeder system.
The next table collects the additional losses:
Component Loss
Diplexer GSM 900 - GSM 1800 0.3 dB
Diplexer GSM 900 - GSM1800 / UMTS 0.3 dB
Diplexer GSM 900 - UMTS 0.3 dB
Diplexer GSM 1800 - UMTS 0.5 dB
GSM 1800 filter 0.4 dB
Table 44: Feeder sharing losses
The feeder sharing influence on feeders system performance is clarified with the following example
(Figure 65)
- Task: An existing GSM 900 antenna system shall be extended to a triple-band GSM 900/
GSM 1800/ UMTS system.
- Condition: Because of space constraints, the existing feeder cables have to be shared for
all frequency bands.
- Solution: Use of diplexers (triplexers) for feeder sharing.
GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS
Diplexer
Diplexer
Triplexer
Diplexer
Diplexer
Triplexer
GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS
Antenna systems
BTS systems
GSM 900
GSM 900
Feeder system
Figure 65: Feeder sharing task
Influence of feeder sharing (losses in dB)
Components GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS
2 Diplexers GSM 900-GSM
1800
0.6 0.6 0.6
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Influence of feeder sharing (losses in dB)
2 Diplexers GSM 1800-UMTS 1.0 1.0
Additional losses
(jumpers, connectors)
0.5 0.5 0.5
Total loss 1.1 2.1
1)
2.1
1)
Table 45: Example for additional losses
Note: Remark: GSM1800/ UMTS signals have 50 % more signal attenuation compared with GSM 900
signals over the same feeder cable.
7.6.2.3.4 Antenna Feeders
Apart from the higher loss experienced in the 2GHz band compared with the 900 and 1800MHz
GSM bands, UTRAN networks impose no additional restrictions on the choice of antenna feeder
cable compared to those applicable to GSM networks.
When upgrading an existing 1800MHz antenna system (or dual 900/1800MHz band) for
simultaneous operation at 2GHz, the additional frequency dependent feeder loss is unlikely to be
significant. It is normally possible to use the existing 1800MHz feeder for both services, provided
that the additional loss associated with the dual (GSM/UMTS) band diplexers (cross-band couplers)
is acceptable.
Using an existing 900 MHz band feeder for UMTS services may introduce unacceptable loss except
where the feeder length is relatively short. The combination of longitudinal loss in the feeder
together with insertion losses in the two dual (GSM/UMTS) band diplexers (one at each end of the
feeder) may become unacceptable.
Factors to be taken into account when considering a common antenna feeder system for a
UMTS/GSM network are the same as for a dual band GSM 900/1800MHz network. The following
table compares attenuation of common types of antenna feeder at 900MHz, 1800MHz, and
2000MHz:
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Foam Dielectric Cable
Nom. Diameter Attenuation at 894 MHz Attenuation at 1.7 GHz Attenuation at 2 GHz

0.72dB for 10m length


1.80dB for 25m length
3.61dB for 50m length
7.22dB for 100m length
1.03dB for 10m length
2.57dB for 25m length
5.15dB for 50m length
10.3dB for 100m length
1.13dB for 10m length
2.82dB for 25m length
5.65dB for 50m length
11.3dB for 100m length
7/8
0.40dB for 10m length
1.01dB for 25m length
2.01dB for 50m length
4.03dB for 100m length
0.59dB for 10m length
1.47dB for 25m length
2.93dB for 50m length
5.87dB for 100m length
0.65dB for 10m length
1.61dB for 25m length
3.23dB for 50m length
6.46dB for 100m length
1
0.30dB for 10m length
0.74dB for 25m length
1.49dB for 50m length
2.98dB for 100m length
0.42dB for 10m length
1.05dB for 25m length
2.10dB for 50m length
4.21dB for 100m length
0.48dB for 10m length
1.19dB for 25m length
2.38dB for 50m length
4.77dB for 100m length
Table 46 Comparison of antenna feeder loss
7.6.2.3.5 MHA in Co-location Configurations
A MHA "transforms" the BTS input to the antenna connector of the MHA, compensating for the
feeder losses. The calculation of the respective required decoupling is similar to the process
described in the document so far. The differences:
- For the noise / spurious response calculation, the feeder loss can no longer be taken into
consideration for reducing the interference signal.
- The signal delivered by the MHA to the BTS receiver can be higher, resulting in blocking.
- The low noise amplifier in the MHA has its own blocking limit to be considered.
In the following, two GSM/UMTS co-location configurations with MHA are shown.
7.6.2.3.6 One feeder cable with UMTS Mast Head Unit
Since in GSM, we are for most power budgets not uplink limited thanks to the high sensitivity of the
EVOLIUM
TM
BTS, a configuration where only the UMTS part (which benefits from a RX loss reduction)
is equipped with a mast head amplifier does make sense.
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Diplexer
GSM
BTS
UMTS
BTS
ANXU
Ground Equipment
Feeder Cable
RF RF + DC DC Feed
GSM UMTS
Feeder Cable
Diplexer
RF
Dual Band Antenna
GSM UMTS
UMTS
MHA
Duplexer
Duplexer
LNA
Mast Head Unit
RF + DC
Figure 66 Configuration with one feeder cable and UMTS mast head unit
7.6.2.3.7 Two feeder cables with GSM and UMTS Mast Head Unit
GSM
BTS
UMTS
BTS
ANXU
Ground Equipment
Feeder
Cables
RF + DC
RF + DC
DC Feeds
GSM UMTS
ANCG/
Bias T
UMTS Feeder Cable
GSM
MHA
Dual Band Antenna
GSM
UMTS
UMTS
MHA
Duplexer
Duplexer
LNA
Mast Head Units
RF + DC
GSM Feeder Cable
Duplexer
Duplexer
RF + DC
LNA
Figure 67: Configuration with two feeder cables and mast head unit for GSM and UMTS
Since the ANCG does not incorporate a DC Feed for a Mast Head Unit, a Bias T has to be introduced to
assure the DC feed by the feeder cable.
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7.6.3 Outlook to the future: Smart antennas (beam-forming)
The beam-forming concept consists in covering each sector by narrow beams with larger antenna
gain than conventional antenna diversity where each antenna covers the whole sector. This
technique relies on a linear antennas array (also known as smart antennas) in which the antennas
spacing is of the order of half the wavelength (about 7.5 cm in UMTS).
4 beams
4 beams
Figure 68: Adaptive beam-forming (on the left) vs. fixed beam-forming (on the right)
As illustrated in the figure, two main types of beam-forming exist:
- Fixed beam-forming that consists in having several fixed beams covering each sector and
selecting the antenna that receives the signal with largest power,
- Adaptive beam-forming (also called adaptive arrays) where the received signals on the different
antennas are weighted and combined to maximize the signal-to-interference ratio. It enables to
have a large antenna gain in the direction of the useful signal and a low antenna gain in the
direction of interferers. A simplified algorithm is also possible where only the signal-to-noise
ratio is maximized, which enables to decrease the complexity but reduces the performance gain.
The advantage of fixed beam-forming is to have a lower complexity: no weight estimation is
required and the data estimation is performed only once (whatever the number of antennas)
compared to as many times as the number of antennas for the adaptive beam-forming. However,
the performance gain of adaptive beam forming is larger since it enables to get a diversity gain in
addition to the larger antenna gain achieved by both techniques.
Beam-forming may be used in uplink and in downlink. However, since in the FDD mode of UMTS,
the downlink and uplink are on different frequency carriers, the fast fadings of both links are not
correlated. Therefore, the best antenna (fixed beam-forming) or the optimum weights (adaptive
beam-forming) estimated from the uplink signal cannot be used in downlink. A solution consists in
using uplink weights averaged over a sufficient period of time (typically 100 ms) in downlink in order
to remove the impact of fast fading and retrieve the correlation between uplink and downlink
signals. However, in this case, the performance gain is lower than in uplink.
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8 PRODUCTS AND MIGRATION STRATEGIES
References
[MIG02] Migration Strategies towards 3G & Products Draft 02
[UMTSRM] UMTS Roadmap: Status November 2000
[RNCV1] Evolium UMTS Radio Network Controller
pd_RNC_LCEd1.doc
[MBSV1 MBS V1 Features List (internal)
[FL0] Technical Feature List (R1,R2,R3) FL0.7U_EC Technical.xls
Status: November 2000
[UMTSLB] Typical link budgets for UMTS FDD macrocells
UMTS-link-budget-Eb2.doc)
[GPRSRNP] GPRS/E-GPRS RNP aspectsRef. Nr.: 3DF 0095 0005 UAZZA
[OMCV1] Evolium UMTS OMC-R Product description
Ref. Nr: 3DC 2176 0005 TQZZA
[MMSN] Migration to multiservice Networks ( K.Daniel)
Migation_to_GERAN.ppt
[SysDesign] UTRAN system Design Document Ed.7, 3BK 10240 0005 DSZZA
[RadPerf] UTRAN Radio Performance Requirement, 3BK112400014DSZZA
Both the technical feature list and the roadmap are from November 2000, they might vary
in a short/long term
8.1 Introduction
This document describes the radio access network migration from the second generation of mobile
communications (GSM, GPRS) towards the third one (UMTS, E-GPRS) as proposed by Alcatel. While
GSM is based on a circuit switched concept, GPRS has been introduced to provide end-to-end
packet-switched data transmission. With E-GPRS the next step of the GPRS evolution is introduced,
by enhancing data rates with the Edge feature [GPRS-RNP].
The Radio Access Network (RAN) evolution, which is divided in several releases is described, as well
as the related Alcatel products for each RAN release. The key features provided in each RAN release
are also pointed out in this document. In the last section migration strategies for incumbent
operators and Greenfield operators are given.
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8.2 ROADMAP: RADIO ACCESS NETWORK EVOLUTION
The Alcatel/Fujitsu view on the evolution of the RAN towards 3G (UMTS/E-GPRS) consists of three
releases, called 3GR1 or R1, 3GR2 or R2 and 3GR3 or R3. With each release new products and
features are provided, the roadmap is shown in figure 1. Each of these releases will be described in
the following sections.
The table given in Annex A summarizes further RNP relevant features planned for the three UMTS
releases [FL0].
Node B
RNC
OMC
Releases
V1
V2
V2
V1
V1
V2
3GR1.1 R1.2 R1.3 R2.0 R2.1 R3
P
R
O
D
U
C
T
S
Figure 69 Alcatel RAN Migration Roadmap (Status November 2000)
8.2.1 RELEASE 1: UMTS OVERLAY NETWORK
The first release called 3GR1 is based on the 3GPP Release of March and June 2000 specifications.
At this stage, an UMTS layer, able to operate UTRA-FDD only, will be deployed as overlay and
independent of the existing GSM/GPRS network.
This network release will be developed in three phases, which are called R1.1, R1.2 and R1.3,
introducing new hardware elements and new features.
The Node Bs are called the MBS V1 (i.e. Version 1 of the Multistandard Base Station), although it
is only UMTS capable, as well as the RNCs and OMC-Rs.
In the last phase of the 3GR1 release (R1.3) the V2 Multi-standard Base station will be available. It
will be able to allow GSM and UMTS TRXs in the same cabinet.
In the 2G layer, GPRS functionality can be achieved with the HW releases G1 and G2 (basic GPRS
capabilities) and G3 to G5 of Evolium HW equipment and the B6.2 SW release. The MFS, SGSN
and GGSN are also part of the GPRS network. For more information on the 2G layer refer to
[GPRSRNP].
Site sharing, and therefore transmission resources sharing, between Node B and BTS, is also
possible and recommended in order to save costs. For more information about site sharing see
chapter 7 of this guideline.
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The most important supported features of Release R1 are listed in Table 47. Please see reference
[FL0] to see the complete technical feature list:
Feature Release/Phase
FDD mode R1.1
Compatibility with UMTS 3GPP version March 00 R1.1
Compatibility with UMTS 3GPP version June 00 R1.2
Power control R1.1
Adaptive Multirate Codec R1.1
STTD (Space Time Transmit Diversity) R1.1
Soft & softer HO R1.1
Intra cell hard HO R1.1
Inter cell- Intra RNC cell reselection R1.1
Inter cell- Inter RNC hard HO and cell reselection R1.1
UMTS GSM circuit HO R1.2
UMTS GPRS packet HO R1.2
Table 47: 3GR1 RAN most important features. Ref[FL0]
Note that handover between UMTS and GSM or UMTS and GPRS are only possible in one direction
with Release R1.2.
Figure 2 shows the RAN architecture of the 3GR1.1 release implemented as an overlay network in
case of GSM/GPRS/UMTS coexistence.
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UMTS RNC
UMTS RNC
Iur
Iub
Iub
Iub
MSC/VLR
SGSN
Gn?
Iu-CS
Iu-PS
Node B
Node B
Node B
UMTS OMC-R
BTS
BTS
GSM OMC-R
Abis
Abis
GGSN
IP network
(Internet)
GPRS
backbone
BSC/MFS
X.25
X.25
IRouter
Gb
A
Circuit core
network
(PSTN)
Figure 70: RAN architecture of the 3GR1.1 release (GSM/GPRS/UMTS) coexistence
8.2.2 RELEASE 2: UMTS/GSM NETWORK INTEGRATION
With release 2 a first integration between both networks takes place, with the introduction of the real
multi-standard equipment. The operation and maintenance functions can be carried out by one
OMC-R (V2) . Further with the introduction of the multi-standard RNC V2 and MBS V2 the same
platform can be used for GSM and UMTS as shown in figure 3. The network layer protocol can be
ATM with IP. The main features introduced with this release are summarized in table 2.
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RNC/BSC
GSM/UMTS
(RNC V2)
MSC/VLR
SGSN
Gn
Iu-CS
Iu-PS
Node B
(MBS V1)
Node B/BTS
(MBS V2)
GSM OMC-R
BTS
BTS
BSC/MFS
GGSN
IP network
(Internet)
GPRS
backbone
Circuit Core
Network
(PSTN)
Gb
UMTS/GSM
OMC-R V2
Figure 71: Release 3GR2.1(R2.1) integrated RAN architecture
Feature Release
Queuing (Radio resource management) R2.0
Priority(Radio resource management) R2.0
Inter-cell Intra RNC hard HO R2.0
GSM circuit- UMTS HO R2.0
Support of micro-cellular and hierarchical cell structure R2.0
GPRS packet UMTS HO R2.0
SSDT (Site Selection Diversity Transmission) R2.0
Node B overload detection R2.0
RNC overload detection R2.0
Table 48: Release 3GR2 mean features. Ref [FL0]
8.2.3 RELEASE 3GR3: UNIFIED RAN ARCHITECTURE
This radio access network release architecture is based on the release 5 of the September 2000
status of the 3GPP specifications.
This RAN architecture is common for UMTS and GSM/GPRS systems. Both UTRA-TDD and UTRA-
FDD modes can be supported.
GERAN (GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network) will be also supported by this network release being
connected to the UMTS and to the GSM core network.
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The transport layer protocol will be unified for GSM, E-GPRS and UMTS and can be ATM with IP (as
recommended by Alcatel).
The radio access network structure for the third release is shown in
Figure 72.
RNC/BSC
GSM/UMTS
MSC/VLR
SGSN
Gn Node B
(MBS V1)
Node B/BTS
(MBS V2)
BTS
Iu-CS
Iu-PS/Gb
GGSN
IP network
(Internet)
GPRS
backbone
Circuit Core
network
(PSTN)
UMTS/GSM
OMC-R V2
Figure 72 uniform RAN structure for the 3GR3 release
Other features planned for this network release are : Microcells and associated Micro Node B,
interference cancellation, Multi User Detection as well as the usage of Adaptive Array Antennas.
8.2.4 What is GERAN?
+ GERAN (GSM-EDGE Radio Access Network): GERAN is a terrestrial RAN, that will be connected
to an UMTS and a GSM core network, to offer multimedia services using GSM/EDGE radio
technology.
+ GERAN is recommended for:
GSM operators that will not get an UMTS license
GSM-UMTS operators to provide UMTS-like features at a lower cost
+ GERAN standardization:
- GERAN standards formerly handled by ETSI as GSM standards
- GERAN now part of 3GPP and therefore follows 3GPP release schedule
R4 target: March 2001
R5 target: December 2001
- Technical Specification Group GERAN deals with both: GSM, GPRS, EDGE specifications
(pre-R99) and, pure GERAN specifications (R4 and beyond)
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Iu-ps
Gb
A
Iu-cs (ffs)
MS
Um
GSM/UMTS
Core Network
BTS
BSC
BTS
BSC
Iur
GERAN
Figure 73 GERAN architecture
GERAN is planned to be supported with the 3GR3 Alcatel radio access network release.
GERAN is a platform that provides the four UMTS bearer classes: conversational, streaming,
interactive and background.
8.2.5 Interoperability in a multi-vendor environment
In the 3GPP specifications, the UMTS radio access network (UTRAN) interfaces (Iub, Iur, Iu) are fully
specified, therefore no compatibility problems should appear when combining equipment from
different suppliers in the same network.
However, there are not any compatibility tests results available, which demonstrate that UMTS
equipment from different suppliers can be used within the same network without problems.
8.3 PRODUCTS
Along the migration process from GSM into UMTS new network elements are planned to be
introduced for a certain network release. However the RNC V2, OMC-R V2 and the Micro Node B
are neither fully specified nor developed and should be mentioned in this document only for an
outlook.
8.3.1 Evolium Node B (MBS V1)
The Evolium Node B is officially called MBS V1 (Multi-standard Base Station Version 1) for
marketing reasons, although it can support only UMTS FDD mode. The main features are described
hereafter, for more information see Annex B.
Developed by Fujitsu
UMTS capable
Evolium single Rack
Indoor and outdoor configurations available
Up to 6 TRX, 6 sectors
Base band (BB) board capacity limited (4 boards needed, for a minimal 3*1, 16 AMR Channels)
DSCH function not supported
Multi-standard not possible
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Available for 3GR1 R1.1 release
IP transport possible
Can be extended by carriers, sectors or BB processing capacity
8.3.1.1 Possible configurations within one cabinet
An overview on all available configurations according to [SysDesign] is given in Table 49
Table 49: Available MBS1 configurations within one cabinet for 3GR1.1.
Configuration Tx power per.. Required no of modules
Sectors
Carriers
/sector
Tx
diversity
sector
[W]
carrier
[W]
TRX TPA ANXU
no 20 20 1 1 1 1
yes 20 20 1 2 1
no 14 7 2 1 1 2
yes 14 7 2 2 1
1
3 yes 12.6 4.2 3 2 1
no 20 20 2 2 2 1
yes 20 20 2 4 2
no 14 7 4 2 2 2
yes 14 7 4 4 2
2
3 yes 12.6 4.2 6 4 2
no 20 20 3 3 3 1
yes 20 20 3 6 3
no 14 7 6 3 3
3
2
yes 14 7 6 6 3
4 1 no 20 20 4 4 4
6 1 no 20 20 6 6 6
Note:TPA = Transmit Power Amplifier / ANXU = Integrated Antenna Network for UMTS
8.3.1.2 Baseband board capabilities
The Node B can have a maximum of 9 BB modules in 3GR1.1, desirable to have 18 modules in the
future.
The BB module has two modes, Dedicated channel mode and Common channel mode, and it
can be changed by the software. The processing capacity of one BB module in each mode is as
follows (see Table 50)
Table 50: Baseband board capabilities
Mode Processing capacity
Dedicated
channel mode
One of the following set of DCH can be processed by one module,
- 16 DCHs for AMR voice or
- 4 DCHs for 64kbps service or
- 2 DCHs for 128kbps service or
- 1 DCH for 384kbps service
The mixed traffic of the three services from the top in the above list also can be processed by
one module. In this case, if the following formula is satisfied, the one BB module shall be
able to process it.
A*(1/16) + B*(1/4) + C*(1/2) <= 1
where, A = No of AMR, B = No of 64k, C = No of 128k.
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Mode Processing capacity
Any DCH on any BB module can be assigned to any sector carrier freely.
Common
channel mode
One module can process the following set of common channel as the maximum
- 2 P-CCPCHs
- 4 S-CCPCHs
- 8 AICHs
- 2 CPICHs
- 2 PICHs
- 2 SCHs
- 16 PRACHs
This set of common channels on one BB module can be applied to only one sector-carrier.
In case the enhanced BB (capacity increased version) module is released, the Node B can operate
different type of BB modules simultaneously.
Baseband modules can be added/removed during normal operation of the Node B.
8.3.1.3 Radio performance values of MBS V1
Radio performance data of the MBSV1 in release 3GR1.1 are given hereafter.
Radio feature Performance
Supported UL frequency band
Supported DL frequency band
1920 1980 MHz
2110 2170 MHz
The TX amplifier is able to amplify a 20 MHz bandwidth
without software modification.
FDD TX/RX separation 190 MHz
Charrier spacing 5MHz, possibility to fine tune in 200kHz steps
Output power of Node B 2 dB for normal conditions, 2.5 for extreme cond.
PC step size for inner loop 0.5 dB / 1 dB
Max. power of dedicated channel
Min. power of dedicated channel
Max. power of NodeB
Min. power of NodeB
P_DedChannel_max = P_NodeB_max - 3 dB
P_DedChannel_min = P_NodeB_max 28 dB
P_NodeB_max
P_NodeB_min = P_NodeB_max 18 dB
CPICH power accuracy Within 2.1 dB compared to what is included in signaling
message
Occupied bandwidth >99% of the transmitted spectrum are within 5MHz
Spectrum emission mask Is given in [RadPerf]
Adjacent channel emissions 5 MHz: ACLR > 45 dB
10 MHz: ACLR > 50 dB
ACLR = Adjacent channel leakage power ratio
Spurious emission Overall < -13 dBm
1850-1910 MHz < -96 dBm at TX antenna connector
1920-1980 MHz < -96 dBm at TX antenna connector
921 960 MHz < -68 dBm to protect GSM 900 MS RX
876 915 MHz < -98 dBm to protect GSM 900 BS RX
1805 1880 MHz < -77 dBm to protect GSM 1800 MS RX
1710 1785 MHz > -100 dBm to protect GSM 1800 BTS RX
For spurious emissions to adjacent channels of UMTS FDD see
[RadPerf]
Sensitivities Guaranteed at antenna connector:
121.5 dBm with BER<0.001 / no RX diversity
124 dBm with BER<0.001 / with RX diversity
Typical is 1 dB better.
C/I requirements for a 12.2 Kbit/s
channel:
Co-channel: C=-91 dBm , I=-73dBm -> C/I=-18dBm
Adj.-Channel: C=-115 dBm , I=-52dBm -> C/I=-63dBm
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Radio feature Performance
Blocking characteristics
(interferer more than one channel
apart)
1900-2000MHz:
C=-115dBm, I=-40dBm -> C/I=-75dB (interferer is a
WCDMA signal with one code)
1-1900MHz and 2000-12750 MHz:
C=-115dBm, I=-15dBm -> C/I=-100dB (interferer is a CW
carrier)
Receiver performance Total noise figure <4dB, typical <3dB
ANXU mandatory, MHA optional
Transmit diversity STTD is applied to PCCPCH, SCCPCH, DPCH, AICH, PICH
TSTD is applied to SCH only.
Redundancy of TRX modules In case of failure of an TRX module, the calls are moved to
another TRX module of another sector, while maintaining the
same RX and TX antennas. Thus it looks like two sectors
became one.
Find more details in [RadPerf].
8.3.1.4 Iub interface to RNC
An E1 link is used to connect the MBS V1 to the RNC.
Type Rate
[Mbps]
Ports
/module
Modules/
Node B
Term.
[ohm]
E1 2.048 4 1 75, 120
8.3.2 Evolium MBS V2
The Evolium Multi-standard Base Station Version 2 will be available for the release R1.3. UMTS
modules will be plugged into the EVOLIUM GSM BTS. That way , the former Evolium BTS becomes
the Evolium MBS V2, that is, GSM BTS and UMTS Node B capabilities within the same cabinet. The
main features of this product are listed below:
Developed by Alcatel
Multistandard (UMTS/GSM capable): 3 * 2 GSM + 3 * 1 UMTS in one rack, additional UMTS
equipment in second rack
Up to 12 TRXs per Node B
Up to 6 sector per Node B
Up to 3 TRXs per sector
BB (Base Band processing) board capacity increased (64 AMR channels per board).
IP addressing possible
Not compatible with MBS V1(BB boards incompatible): Control /BB different and PA/ TRX
different.
In Annex C a complete feature list of the MBS V2 is provided.
8.3.3 RNC V1
The first version of the Evolium Radio Network controller will be only UMTS capable, and delivered
for the first RAN release. The main features and listed below:
Developed by Alcatel/ Fujitsu
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UMTS RNC in 2 cabinets
Built around ATM switch.
Hardware not optimized
Traffic capacity: 500 Erlang + 6 MB/s data
In order to see the RNC V1 complete feature list see Annex D.
8.3.4 RNC Evolution
In the Roadmap shown in section 8.2, one can observe, that a RNC V2 is planned to be available
for the RAN release 3GR2. The features of RNC V2 are still under development, and it is not yet
much known about them. Anyway it will be a Multistandard RNC, that means, the same RNC will be
used for GSM/GPRS and UMTS.
On the other hand, the UMTS RNC V1 can be upgraded in order to increase its capacity.
8.3.5 OMC
The definitive features that will belong to the V2 OMC, are not yet consolidated, that is why not
much information is provided about this element.
8.3.5.1 OMC V1
Developed by Alcatel-Fujitsu
Delivered with release 3GR1
UMTS compatible
Made of 2 subsystems:
- Element Manager (EM) , on Fujitsu platform: carries out fault management and
equipment management.
- RNO: Carries out QoS follow up and radio configuration management. It is the UMTS
adaptation of the GSM application today delivered by Alcatel in GSM networks.
- PM_DB: Performance Measurements handling. This database relies on METRICA
software.
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Radio Network
Configuration and
QoS Monitoring
PM Database
UMTS
OMC-R
Fault and Equipment
Management
RNC NodeB
PM_DB
EM
RNO-U
Figure 74 OMC V1 structure
Configurations:
An UMTS OMC-R configuration is always made of one RNO-U server , one PM-DB server and
one or several EM servers
R N O - U
P M - D B
E M E M
I P
N e t w o r k
U s e r T e r m i n a l s
L A N
Figure 75 Example of OMC-R configuration with 2 EM servers
Dimensioning
UMTS OMC-R
configuration
Number of
EM servers
Maximum number of RNC/NodeB/cells/carriers
Large 1 EM 1 4 RNC/ 500 NodeB / 1500 cells / 1500 carriers
Large 2 EM 2 8 RNC/ 1000 NodeB / 3000 cells / 3000 carriers
Large 3 EM 3 12 RNC/ 1500 NodeB / 4500 cells / 4500 carriers
Large 4 EM 4 16 RNC/ 2000 NodeB / 6000 cells / 6000 carriers
Large 5 EM 5 20 RNC/ 2500 NodeB / 7500 cells / 7500 carriers
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Table 51 Capacities of the UMTS OMC-R (V1) different configurations. Ref [OMCV1]
8.3.5.2 OMC V2
GSM and UMTS capable
Not yet developed, different scenarios are being considered:
- OMC directly connected to the RNC & Node B
Possible reuse of EM installed H/W being analyzed
- OMC connected to the EM
RNO / NPA
Centralized fault and equipment management
8.4 MIGRATION STRATEGI ES RECOMMENDED BY ALCATEL
In this chapter will be distinguished between two kinds of operators:
- Incumbent operators, which are considered here, are those who already have a GSM (2G)
license and now have got an UMTS license as well
- Greenfield operators or new entrants are operators, who only have a UMTS license.
However, both of them are going to face the fact that nowadays mobile (GSM) subscribers are used
to get nearly nationwide coverage and large roaming possibilities, and they are not going to
abandon this to get multimedia services. Therefore, an interoperability between GSM/GPRS/E-GPRS
and UMTS becomes obligatory.
The following application strategy is recommended for the different technologies.
+ EDGE shall be used for small/medium cities (preferably in suburban areas)
+ UTRA FDD & E-GPRS for big towns with suburban and dense urban areas
+ UTRA TDD & E-GPRS for microcell layer, indoor coverage
+ GSM/GPRS for preferably rural areas and voice in all environments
Alcatel proposes different strategies for incumbent and for new entrants, they are described
hereafter.
8.4.1 Migration strategy recommended for incumbent operators
These operators already own a GSM network, either supplied by Alcatel or by another vendor. In
this section we are only going to consider that the existing GSM equipment has been supplied by
Alcatel.
The migration process proposed for these operators involves three steps:
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Step 1: Existing GSM network enhancement by introducing GPRS network wide
In this step packet-switched data services can be introduced network wide by the introduction of
GPRS. Exemplary cell ranges for GSM and GPRS are given in Table 52 and Table 53 for TU 50.
Note that the given cell ranges are considered as being coverage driven and they are unlike in
UMTS independent of the traffic.
However, the achievable throughputs in these cells depend on the Carrier to Interferer Ratio (C/I)
and are therefore dependent on the operators bandwidth and traffic. Thus the given bit rates are
only valid under specific radio conditions according to [GPRSRNP].
900, No FH, TU 50
G3 step 1 BTS G4 BTS
C.S. CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4
Max. bit Rate (Kbit/s) 8 12 14.4 20 8 12 14.4 20
urban, flat 3.52 2.72 2.38 1.37 3.78 2.92 2.56 1.37
urban, hilly 1.79 1.37 1.21 0.69 1.90 1.49 1.29 0.69
suburban, flat 5.70 4.39 3.86 2.23 6.12 4.72 4.15 2.23
suburban, hilly 3.24 2.48 2.18 1.25 3.46 2.67 2.34 1.25
forest, flat 7.40 5.71 5.01 2.89 7.95 6.14 5.39 2.89
forest, hilly 5.12 3.92 3.46 1.99 5.46 4.22 3.70 1.99
open area, flat 19.72 15.21 13.36 7.71 21.19 16.36 14.38 7.71
open area, hilly 13.64 10.46 9.22 5.29 14.57 11.24 9.86 5.29
Table 52 GPRS 900 cell ranges in [km] coverage driven (no interference considered) [GPRSRNP]
1800, No FH, TU 50
G3 step 1 BTS G4 BTS
C.S. CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4
Max. bit Rate (Kbit/s) 8 12 14.4 20 8 12 14.4 20
Urban, flat 2.11 1.63 1.43 n.a 2.11 1.63 1.43 n.a
urban, hilly 1.06 0.82 0.72 n.a 1.06 0.82 0.72 n.a
suburban, flat 3.43 2.64 2.32 n.a 3.43 2.64 2.32 n.a
suburban, hilly 1.92 1.49 1.31 n.a 1.92 1.49 1.31 n.a
forest, flat 4.45 3.43 3.02 n.a 4.45 3.43 3.02 n.a
forest, hilly 3.06 2.36 2.07 n.a 3.06 2.36 2.07 n.a
open area, flat 11.87 9.15 8.04 n.a 11.87 9.15 8.04 n.a
open area, hilly 8.15 6.29 5.51 n.a 8.15 6.29 5.51 n.a
Table 53 GPRS 1800 cell ranges in [km] coverage driven (no interference considered) [GPRSRNP]
Step 2: Introduce E-GPRS in suburban and urban areas
In this step the GSM/GPRS spectral efficiency is enhanced and data services at higher bit rates can
be introduced especially in suburban and urban areas.
Exemplary cell ranges are given in table 9 for TU 50. The given bit rates are possible only under
specific radio conditions according to [GPRSRNP].
G4 step 2 BTS
MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9
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Max. Bit rate
(Kbit/s)
8.8 11.2 14.8 17.6 22.4 29.6 44.8 54.4 59.2
urban, flat 4.20 3.69 2.85 1.98 1.66 1.45 0.92 0.86 0.64
urban, hilly 2.12 1.87 1.44 1.00 0.84 0.73 0.47 0.44 0.32
suburban, flat 6.81 5.99 4.60 3.21 2.69 2.36 1.49 1.40 1.04
suburban, hilly 3.82 3.37 2.60 1.82 1.52 1.33 0.84 0.79 0.59
forest, flat 8.84 7.78 5.98 4.18 3.49 3.06 1.94 1.82 1.35
forest, hilly 6.03 5.33 4.11 2.88 2.39 2.10 1.33 1.25 0.93
open area, flat 23.57 20.74 15.94 11.13 9.30 8.16 5.17 4.85 3.60
open area, hilly 16.08 14.21 10.95 7.67 6.37 5.59 3.54 3.32 2.47
Table 54: Typical cell ranges for E-GPRS 900, coverage driven (no interference considered)
[GPRSRNP]
G4 step 2 BTS
MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9
Max. Bit Rate
(kbit/s)
8.8 11.2 14.8 17.6 22.4 29.6 44.8 54.4 59.2
urban, flat 1.98 1.76 1.37 0.84 0.94 0.79 0.43 0.39 n.a
urban, hilly 1.00 0.90 0.69 0.43 0.47 0.40 0.22 0.20 n.a
suburban, flat 3.22 2.86 2.23 1.37 1.52 1.29 0.69 0.63 n.a
suburban, hilly 1.81 1.62 1.25 0.77 0.86 0.73 0.39 0.35 n.a
forest, flat 4.18 3.72 2.89 1.78 1.97 1.67 0.90 0.81 n.a
forest, hilly 2.86 2.57 1.98 1.22 1.36 1.15 0.62 0.56 n.a
open area, flat 11.15 9.92 7.70 4.75 5.25 4.45 2.39 2.17 n.a
open area,
hilly
7.61 6.84 5.27 3.25 3.61 3.07 1.65 1.50 n.a
Table 55: Typical cell ranges for E-GPRS 1800, coverage driven (no interference considered)
[GPRSRNP]
Step 3: Introduce UMTS in urban and dense urban areas
To achieve high quality multimedia services, UMTS is the most convenient technology, as it provides
high bit rates and large capacity at the same time.
As explained in section 8.2 UMTS will be developed at first as an overlay network, and then, when
the multistandard base stations are available, GSM-UMTS BTS/Node B will be available in the same
cabinet .
In order to save costs site sharing can be also accomplished, for more details about this issue please
refer to chapter 7 of this guideline.
E-GPRS and GPRS/GSM are good complements for the UMTS technology, mainly in the first years
of UMTS operation, where UMTS will be only deployed in urban areas, while E-GPRS, and
GPRS/GSM will provide overall coverage.
Figure 10 shows the typical coverage scenario for an incumbent operator. GSM/GPRS coverage is
introduced networkwide according to step 1. Then E-GPRS is introduced in suburban and urban
areas where data services are required. In cities where high bitrate services become necessary UMTS
will be applied according to step 3.
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GSM/GPRS
UMTS
E-GPRS
Figure 76 Coverage scenario for incumbent operators.
In case of UMTS the achievable cell ranges are dependant on the cell loading. Exemplary cell
ranges and achievable bitrates are given in Table 56.
With increasing data traffic densification strategies like cell sectorisation, microcells carriers or cells
addition must be carried out, similar as it is done for voice in the case of GSM. For more
information about this topic please refer to chapter 9 of this guideline.
8.4.2 Migration strategy recommended for greenfield operators
Greenfield operators which only have a 3G license will be interested in a rapid deployment of their
UMTS network, in order to get as many subscribers as possible. In this case it does not make sense
to deploy E-GPRS first. The network deployment will take place in two steps:
Step 1: UMTS deployment in urban areas:
They will start deploying UMTS only in urban areas, where the demand for multimedia services is
much higher. In order to be able to offer full coverage to their subscribers, they will probably need
to use incumbent operators networks for the not yet covered zones. Therefore they can make
roaming agreements for E-GPRS or GPRS services with other operators, which do not have an UMTS
license and which can benefit from the opportunity to offer multimedia services to their customers.
Step 2: Overall UMTS coverage
The initially deployed UMTS network will be extended to suburban and rural areas. Further network
densification strategies as described in chapter 9 might become necessary in the dense urban areas
to handle increasing traffic.
Exemplary (macro) cell ranges, the site area and the number of subscribers (UE) per carrier of the
Node Bs are summarized below in Table 56.
Dense urban Urban Sub-urban Rural
Range Area Range Area Range Area Range Area
km Km
UE per
carrier
km Km
UE per
carrier
Km Km
UE per
carrier
km Km
UE per
carrier
Lightly
loaded
0.43 0.37 334 0.64 0.80 334 1.89 6.95 248 5.08 50.24 130
Typically
loaded
0.41 0.32 493 0.60 0.70 493 1.76 6.00 360 4.77 44.38 174
Fully
loaded
0.38 0.29 630 0.57 0.63 630 1.71 5.71 426 4.67 42.47 234
Table 56: Approximate cell ranges and UE density per carrier for UMTS [UMTSLB]
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Figure 77 shows an approximated coverage scenario for Greenfield operators. Such operators will try
to deploy an UMTS network as fast as possible. This process will take much time and will be very
costly, therefore they will just start developing an UMTS network in the main urban areas, where the
need for high bit rate multimedia services is large. For the rest of the territory they will need roaming
arrangements with operators that have a 2G network , either with incumbent operators or with GSM
operators that did not get a 3G license. These networks will be also opened to the presence of
MVNOs (Mobile Virtual Network Operators) in order to share license fees and even investment costs
with other operators and start adding, as soon as possible, subscribers and traffic for their network .
GSM/GPRS
UMTS
E-GPRS
Figure 77 coverage scenario for Greenfield operators
8.5 Annex A
In this annex , features regarding transmission interfaces (Iub, Iu, Iur), physical and transport
channels, channel coding, radio resource management, traffic management, Tele-services, bearer
services and security are listed. Ref [FL0].
TRANSMISSION interfaces Release Comment
Iub Transmission
Iub open for equipment from other providers 2.0
Iub star 1.1
Iub cascade (VP cross connection by Node B) 2.0 For V1 and V2 Node B
Iub cascade (AAL2 switching by Node B) NP
Iub redundancy (duplicated VP on duplicated physical interface) 2.0
GSM in AAL1 circuit emulation 1.2
Iu Transmission
Iu open 1.2
Iu CS SS7 1.1
Iu PS SS7 1.1
Iu PS SCTP/IP NP
Iu CS up to 64 kbps bearer 1.1
Iu PS up to 384 kbps bearer 1.1
Iu CS and Iu PS multiplexed on the same physical interface 1.1
Iu CS and Iu PS multiplexed on different physical interfaces 1.2
O&M flow multiplexed with Iu on the same physical interface NP
Iur Transmission
Iur open 1.2
Iur SS7 1.1
Iur SCTP/IP NP
Up to 16 Iur interfaces towards 16 RNC 1.1
Iur and Iu multiplexed on the same physical interface 1.1
Iur and Iu multiplexed on different physical interfaces NP
PHYSICAL CHANNELS NP
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First set 1.1 PCPICH / PCCPCH /
SCCPCH / PRACH /
DPDCH / DPCCH / SCH
/PICH
Second set 2.0
Transport Channels
DCH 1.1
DCH(DRAC) NP
FAUSCH NP
BCH 1.1
RACH 1.1
FACH 1.1
PCH 1.1
CPCH 2.0
DSCH 2.0
One radio access bearer per CCTrCH 1.1
Multiple radio access bearers on one CCTrCH 1.1
Multicode 1.1
CHANNEL CODING
32 Kbps Convolutional DCH/DCH 1.1
64 Kbps Turbo DCH/DCH 1.1
128 Kbps Turbo DCH/DCH 1.1
144 Kbps Turbo DCH/DCH 2.0
384 Kbps Turbo DCH/DCH 1.1
Error indication mechanisms from L1 1.1
Change of transport channel due to QoS 2.0
CRC attachment 1.1
Radio interface acc. To 3GPP TS25.212) 1.1
Compressed mode
Puncturing NP
Reduction of SF by 2 1.2
Higher layer scheduling NP
Downlink Primary and Secondary scrambling code 1.1
Uplink Scrambling codes
Long scrambling 1.1
Short scrambling 2.0
RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Queuing 2.0
Classmark handling (FDD only, FDD+TDD, GSM+UMTS) 1.2 Associated with
UMTS/GSM HO
Power Control
Open Loop Power Control 1.1
Closed Loop Power Control 1.1
Downlink Closed Loop Power Control 1.1
Slow Downlink Closed Loop Power Control 1.1
Downlink Closed Loop Power Control in compressed mode 1.1
Downlink Power balancing 1.1
Uplink Closed Loop Power Control 1.1
Code-tree de-fragmentation 2.0
Priority 2.0
Adaptive Multirate Codec (AMR) 1.1
Transmit Diversity scheme 1.1
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
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Support of microcellular and hierarchical cell structure 2.0
Multiband solutions NP
Intelligent traffic management NP
Location Service NP
BEARER SERVICES
AMR 1.1 Variable up to 12.2
Conversational 1.1 64/64
Streaming 1.2 14.4/14.4, 28.8/28.8,
57.6/57.6, 0/64, 64/0
Interactive 1.2 64/128, 64/384, 384/384
Background 1.1 64/128, 64/384, 384/384
Multi RAB 1.1
AMR + Interactive or Background 1.1
Conversational + Interactive or Background 1.1
TELESERVICES
Emergency call 1.1
Short Message Service
SMS MT/PP 1.1
SMS MO/PP 1.1
SMS CB 2.0
SECURITY
Authentication 1.1
Encryption 1.1
8.6 Annex B
In this annex , the features of the Multistandard Base Station first version (MBS V1) are listed. Ref
[FL0].
Features of MBS V1 Release Comments
Multicarrier TPA with 20 W TX power 1.1
Support of improved HW 2.1
RX noise figure < 4 dB 1.1
RX sensitivity of -121 dBm (for 12.2 kbps channel, BER < 0.001) 1.1
Support of up to 6 TPA per Node B 1.1
Support of up to 6 TRX per Node B 1.1
Support of up to 9 TRX per Node B 2.1 Only reasonable together
with V2 BB board and
change of BB / COM
Support of up to 2 TRX per sector 1.1
Support of up to 3 TRX per sector 2.1 See 70 11 40
Support of up 6 sectors per Node B 1.1
Multi Standard UMTS/GSM configuration NP
Evolium MEDI indoor cabinet for indoor configurations 1.1
Evolium MEDI outdoor cabinet for outdoor configurations 1.1
RX diversity 1.1
TX diversity 1.1
BB part redundancy 1.1 Load sharing
PA part redundancy 1.1 Using TX diversity
TRX part redundancy NP
COM part redundancy 1.1
Plug & play - HW ready 1.1
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Features of MBS V1 Release Comments
Plug & play SW NP
Support of BB modules V1 1.1 16 AMR channels
Support of upgraded BB modules V1 2.1 64 AMR channels +
DSCH
E1 physical interface (3) 1.1
E3 physical interface (2) 1.2
STM1 physical interface (optical) 1.2
STM1 physical interface (electrical) NP
VC4/STM1 1.2
VC3/STM1 NP Only if Orange
AAL1 circuit emulation (2 possible circuit E1 as input) 1.2
8.7 Annex C
In this annex , the features of the Multistandard Base Station second version (MBS V2) are listed. Ref
[FL0].
Features of MBS V2 Release Comments
Multicarrier TPA with 30 W TX power 1.3 Maximum possible
output power per
cabinet?
RX noise figure < 4 dB 1.3
RX sensitivity of -121 dBm (for 12.2 kbps channel, BER <
0.011)
1.3
Support of up to 6 TPA per Cabinet 1.3
Support of up to 12 TRX per Node B 1.3
Support of up to 3 TRX per sector 1.3
Support of up 6 sectors per Node B 1.3
Multi Standard UMTS/GSM configuration 1.3
Evolium MEDI indoor cabinet for indoor configurations 1.3
Evolium MEDI outdoor cabinet for outdoor configurations 1.3
Multi Rack configuration 1.3
RX diversity 1.3
TX diversity 1.3
BB part redundancy 1.3
RF part redundancy 1.3 Using TX diversity
TRX part redundancy 1.3
Plug & play - HW ready 1.3
Plug & play SW 2.0
Support of BB modules V2 1.3 64 AMR channels +
DSCH
E1 physical interface 1.3
IMA nXE1 1.3
E3 physical interface 1.3
STM1 physical interface (optical) 1.3
STM1 physical interface (electrical) 1.3
Ethernet 101/10 BaseT physical interface for traffic 1.3 Only in IP option of
R'00
VC4/STM1 1.3
VC3/STM1 NP Only if Orange
AAL1 circuit emulation 1.3
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8.8 Annex D
In this annex , the features of the Radio Network Controller first version (RNC V1) are listed. Ref
[FL0].
Features of RNC V1 Release Comments
500 Erlangs + 6 Mbps 1.1
1000 Erlangs + 12 Mbps 1.1
2000 Erlangs + 24 Mbps 2.0
3000 Erlangs + 36 Mbps 2.0
SPU module increased capacity NP
DHT module increased capacity NP
Support of 96 Node B 1.1
Support of 256 Node B 1.2
Support of 512 Node B NP
Clock extraction from STM1 1.1
Stratum 3 clock accuracy level 1.1
Clock extraction from E1 NP
Clock extraction from 2Mhz reference NP
Defense mechanism for Control Unit 2.0 COM 2N, MMUX 6+1
APS mechanism - STM1 redundancy in transmission
network
1.2 APS 1+1
Plug & play - HW ready 1.1
Plug & Play SW NP
E1 physical interface Iub 1.2
E3 physical interface Iub 1.2 Only if Orange
VC4/STM1 Iub interface 1.2
VC3/STM1 Iub interface NP Only if Orange
VC4/STM1 optical interface Iub, Iu and Iur 1.1
VC4/STM1 electrical interface Iub, Iu and Iur 2.0
ATM Mux/Demux of O&M VC from/to Node B 1.1
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9 DENSIFICATION STRATEGIES
References
[WFU] WCDMA for UMTS. Radio Access for third Generation Mobile Communications. H.
Holma, A. Toskala. Ed. J.Wiley & Sons. Edition 2000.
[ASMC] Activation Strategy for Microcellular Networks
Doc. Ref:3DF 00 995 0000 UFZZA. Nov.98
[CapImp] Alcatel Offer to CG SAT. Capacity Improvement. Doc. Ref.: MAR 80595. Nov.98
9.1 Introduction
A satisfactory UMTS network performance can turn by time into a non-satisfactory one, if after the
initial network deployment, the traffic increases considerably.
In this chapter, a description of the different strategies that improve networks architecture
performance is carried out. It mainly focuses on the downlink capacity due to the following reasons:
- In UMTS, the downlink capacity is assumed to be more important that the uplink capacity
because of asymmetric downloading type of traffic.
Empty cells are rather uplink limited (i.e. MS are running out of power in case of large cell ranges),
but when the traffic increases, the cell sizes are shrinking and the downlink becomes limiting
because the Node B needs an extraordinary amount of power to serve all mobiles (i.e. the Node Bs
are power limited).
- Figure 78 shows this effect quantitative for a macrocell. The maximum pathloss decreases as the
cell load and the traffic increases.
145
147
149
151
153
155
157
159
161
163
165
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
0
1
0
0
0
Cell Load [Kbps]
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

p
a
t
h

l
o
s
s

[
d
B
]
downlink
uplink
Coverage is
uplink
limited
Capacity is
downlink
limited
Figure 78: Example of coverage vs. capacity relation in downlink and uplink in macrocells
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- The downlink air interface capacity is smaller than the uplink one: receiver techniques, like
receiver antenna diversity and multi-user detection, can be used in the base station but not in the
mobile station.
The WCDMA capacity is limited by interference. If the interference level increases, the capacity
decreases. The main causes of downlink capacity decrease are:
- Traffic increase: After some time of successfully system performance, the number of UMTS
subscribers increases so that the up to date capacity resources are not able to satisfy such a high
demand.
- Orthogonality of channelization codes : Due to the multipath channel behavior, the
orthogonality between channelization codes is partially lost and the intra-cell user interfere with
each other causing intra-cell interference and reducing the downlink capacity.
- Number of channelization codes: The number of channelization codes available is limited within
a scrambling code. If the Spreading Factor is SF, the maximum number of channelization codes
is SF. This code limitation can affect the downlink capacity if the propagation environment is
favorable, and the network planning and hardware support such a high capacity, that all
channelization codes available must be utilized. That is, normally you will run out of DL power
before you run out of channelization codes.
If the downlink interference increases due to traffic increase or to any of the causes that have been
already mentioned, it will result in downlink power shortage. The power will not be enough to serve
all users. Therefore certain active users, depending on the admission control algorithm, will be
dropped (for example the mobile demanding the largest power share). In other words, the cell
surface will shrink due to cell breathing phenomenon and some holes will appear in the network,
where not only coverage but also high capacity is needed. The process mentioned before is
illustrated in Figure 79.
A A
D D
B B
C C
Initial status
Traffic
increase
A A
B B
D D
C C
Consequences of traffic
increase: cell breathing
Insufficient coverage
Figure 79 Coverage reduction due to traffic increase in a UMTS network
9.2 Densification strategies
When the demand for UMTS services increases, the capacity of the networks will have to be adapted
to the new market requirements.
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There are some different methods to alleviate the capacity loss of a network, some of them are more
costly than others, and therefore a certain hierarchy is established in order to apply the easy ones
first and the costly ones as a last resort, in order to save unnecessary costs. Such methods are listed
hereafter:
If the maximum capacity is limited by the amount of interference in the air interface, soft capacity
improvement strategies can be applied, these are listed hereafter:
Traffic management: this includes network fine tuning (e.g. BSS parameters) and GSM/UMTS
traffic management. For example, in case the GSM cells are unloaded, while UMTS is overloaded,
it can be an option to transfer the UMTS voice traffic to the GSM layer by according BSS
parameter settings.
Transmit diversity (see chapter 2 of these guidelines for more information about this topic)
Lower bit rate codec (see chapter 2 of these guidelines for more information about this topic)
If the previous mentioned solutions are insufficient more effective densification strategies must be
applied. Whereas the last one is the most costly one but also the most effective one.
- Adding carriers
- Sectorization
- Adding cells
- Micro-cells
A description of each one of these densification strategies is provided in the next sections.
9.2.1 Adding carriers
If the operators frequency allocation allows, the operator can take another carrier into use. W-
CDMA supports efficient inter-frequency handovers (see Chapter 2 of these guidelines for more info)
and several carriers can be utilized to balance the loading and to enhance the capacity per site.
+ Advantages
It is a very cost efficient method, if the new carrier is available.
It is possible to share one power amplifier between several carriers. This provides a more efficient
use of the power amplifier, since the loading can be divided between two carriers and the total
required transmission power per user is reduced, increasing the capacity.
+ Disadvantages
The license for a further carrier must be available.
9.2.2 Sectorization
Sectorization consists on dividing cells into two (formerly used for specific coverage scenarios), three
(for densification), or even six (has been used in IS-95 CDMA) sub-cells or sectors.
The former omni-directional antenna is substituted by a double- or triple- or six- panel antenna
system; and the original base station equipment is extended to a two-, three- or six-sector
configuration. This is shown in the Figure 80. Due to the sectorization, the traffic per cell (one third
of the old omni cell) decreases and therefore the cells sizes increase again.
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Omni site
Node B
Tri-sector site
Sector 1
Sector 2
Sector 3
Node B 1
Node B 2
Node B 3
Figure 80 Principle of cell sectorization
+ Advantages
1. Sectorized sites simultaneously offer advantages in terms of coverage and in terms of capacity:
Firstly, the radio coverage provided by panel antennas is much easier to tune and to adapt to
terrain and building contours; secondly, sectored sites are less sensitive to interference from
other sites.
In an ideal case N sectors would give N times more capacity, but in practice the sectorization
efficiency is typically about 90%. This means that upgrading the site from an omni-site to a
three-sector site gives a capacity increase of about 2.7, and to a six-sector site a capacity
increase of about 5.4 [WFU]. The increased number of sectors also brings improved coverage
through a higher antenna gain.
2. Site sectorization process is also attractive in terms of operational costs, since more capacity can
be added without any need for finding and renting new sites.
+ Disadvantages
If the number of sectors is increased, the antennas must be replaced and therefore the radio
network design changes. As the number of antennas increases, there might be problems due to
visual impact and civil works.
9.2.3 Adding cells
Adding cells or cell splitting pertains to the same class of network optimization processes than cell
sectorization and is considered the next step in densification.
If the UMTS traffic density grows significantly, the cells surfaces will shrink due to the breathing cell
phenomenon in order to be able to provide the active subscribers with the adequate quality of
service. This will cause the appearance of coverage holes in high traffic density areas, due to the
fact that the Node B downlink power is not enough to serve all the mobiles. Therefore new Node Bs
will be introduced where more capacity is needed.
+ Advantages
The site density is increased, hence enhancing the offered capacity, supposing that each splitted or
added cell is provided with the same number of channels as each original cell.
+ Drawbacks
1. Cell splitting can be exploited up to the point in which Node Bs become so close to each other
that the overall network performance starts worsening:
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- The soft handover areas are so large that the higher handover activity would negatively affect
the network capacity (smallest site distances tbd).
- The amount of inter cell interference would also significantly increase, and this would also cause
a capacity diminution, due to the increasing signaling load.
Hence, beyond a certain limit, it is recommended to implement other spatial densification strategies,
such as microcellular solutions.
2. New sites have to be acquired.
3. Even if only a few cells have been split it is necessary a new code allocation?
9.2.4 Microcells
In a UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, a combination of macrocells and microcells in a lower
layer can be used in order to solve situations where the macrocell capacity is insufficient. These
situations, in which microcells may be required, are the following:
- To provide coverage and a higher capacity in hot spots like a shopping mall, a stadium or a
business area.
- To provide indoor coverage and capacity.
+ Advantages
With microcells, different traffic capacity gains can be achieved, depending on the available
channels and the street layout of the considered traffic area.
The amount of intercell interference is lower and the orthogonality of the downlink codes higher in
the microcells where there is less multipath propagation than in macrocells. On the other hand, less
multipath propagation gives less multipath diversity and therefore we assume there is a higher E
b
/N
0
requirement in microcells than in macrocells. In the Table 57 below exemplary simulation results of
data throughputs in micro and macrocellular environments are shown.
Assumptions in the throughputs calculations
Macrocell Microcell
Downlink orthogonality 0.6 0.95
Other cell interference factor 0.65 0.2
UL Eb/No 1.5 dB 1.5 dB
UL loading 60% 60 %
DL Eb/No 5.5 dB 8.0 dB
DL loading 80% 80%
Data throughput in macro and microcell environments per sector per carrier
Macrocell Microcell
Uplink 1040 kbps 1430 kbps
Downlink 660 kbps 1440 kbps
Table 57 Comparison between microcell and macrocell environments [WFU]
The simulation results of Table 57 show that in macrocells the uplink throughput is much higher
than the downlink one, while in microcells the downlink and uplink capacities are quite balanced.
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The downlink capacity depends more on the propagation and multipath environment that does the
uplink one. The reason is the application of the orthogonal codes.
+ Drawbacks
In opposite to the conventional macrocells, microcells are characterized by an antenna installation
below the rooftop level. Due to the fact that this reduces the minimum distance to the mobiles, the
risk of interference is increased, as the Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) becomes more critical.
The worst case would be a mobile, served by a macrocell and transmitting at its maximum power
(24 dBm), getting near a full loaded micro Node B with receiving maximum sensitivity. In this
scenario, if the distance between the mobile and the micro Node B considerably decreases this may
result in the blocking of the micro Node B. This scenario is shown in Figure 81.
Macro-Cell
Micro-Cell
Interference
Figure 81 Microcells scenario , interference between the macro and microcell layer
9.2.4.1 Microcells and macrocells on the same channel
If this option is chosen, one must take into account the side effects of this method. First, the
overlapping of the coverage zones of the macro and the microcell if both work within the same
carrier will bring pilot pollution
17
and therefore interference rises, if a handover between both cells
can not be performed. Hence , the macrocell capacity is reduced, and the addition of the microcell
does not represent a linear capacity raise .
It would be also possible to make a handover to the microcell every time that the macro cell is pilot
polluted, but such a measure would only bring a rise in the handover percentage, that causes a
capacity reduction as well.
9.2.4.2 Microcells and macrocells on different channels
In this case, there are various possibilities to consider, they are summarized hereafter:
Option Nr. Macrocell Layer Microcell layer
1 FDD FDD
2 FDD TDD
Table 58: Possible hierarchical cells layers configuration
Note: TDD is not available in 3GR1.x.
Although in both cases adjacent channel interference problems would appear (see Chapter 10
Multioperator Environment for more information) the option 2 is the recommended one by Alcatel

17
If in the macro cell the received Ec/Io coming from the micro cell is higher than a certain
threshold, the micro cell will be considered as a pilot polluter
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(see Chapter 8 Migration Strategies for more information). Apart from these issues, there are
some other subjects that one must observe when deploying either option 1 or 2
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10 MULTI OPERATOR ENVIRONMENT
References:
[SitSha] Site Sharing GSM-UMTS. RF aspects
Ref: 3DC 21019 0005 TQZZA, Ed. 02
[25.492] RF system scenarios TR 25.942 V.2.1.3 (2000-03).3GPP 3G TSG RAN R99
[SysPerf] UTRAN Radio Performance Requirement, 3BK112400014DSZZA
10.1 Introduction
Adjacent channel interference will affect all wide band systems where guard bands are not possible.
We can distinguish between four kinds of ACI sources:
- Multi-operator coexistence FDD-FDD (treated in the present document)
- Multi-mode coexistence TDD-FDD (not content of this guideline)
- UMTS-GSM (see chapter 7 of these guidelines) coexistence
- Multi-operator coexistence TDD-TDD (not content of this guideline)
In the present document, the Adjacent Channel Interference (ACI) phenomenon caused from Multi-
operator coexistence FDD-FDD will be treated. Their causes and effects on the network performance
will be pointed out, as well as possible solutions and their impact on the network planning strategy
to be carried out.
10.2 Adjacent channel inter ference in case of UMTS FDD-FDD co-existence
The adjacent channel interference is caused by transmitting non-ideal and imperfect receiver
filtering. In UL and DL the adjacent channel performance is limited by the performance of the
mobile. In the UL the main source of ACI is the non-linear power amplifier in the UE, which
introduces adjacent channel leakage power. In the DL the limiting factor for ACI is the receiver
selectivity of the WCDMA terminal.
The co-existence between two operators using adjacent bands has been taken into account in the
scenarios of simulations used for specifying the equipment (node B and UE) radio requirements in
the 3GPP/WG4 [25.492]. These simulations are referring to co-existence scenarios where the
adjacent band operators are not necessarily sharing the same sites but merely operating in the same
region.
Adjacent Channel Leakage power Ratio (ACLR) is the ratio of the transmitted power to the power
measured in an adjacent channel. According to [SysPerf], the ACLR shall be higher than the value
specified in Table 59 for uplink and downlink.
Adjacent channel relative to UE
channel frequency separation
ACLR limit
5 MHz 45 dB
10 MHz 50 dB
Table 59Requirements for adjacent channel performance [SysPerf]
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NOTE: Requirement on the UE is planned to be reconsidered when the state of the art technology
progresses.
10.2.1 Capacity Loss due to adjacent operators co-existence
10.2.1.1 Uplink case
The uplink case denotes the interference coming from UTRA FDD mobiles of an operator A to the
UTRA FDD Node B of an operator B as shown in figure 1.
In the uplink, the adjacent channel interference causes noise rise, meaning an increase of the
wideband interference level over the thermal noise in the Node B reception of operator B. The effect
of the adjacent channel interference can be seen as a reduced uplink capacity.
Some Monte Carlo system simulations have been performed to quantify the capacity loss due to the
presence of an operator in the adjacent band in different co-existence scenarios. For detailed
description of the simulated scenarios please refer to [25.942].
Mobile OperatorA: high
transmission Power
Macro cell
operator A
Macro cell
operator B
Signal
Interference
Figure 82 Macrocell to Macrocell uplink adjacent channel interference scenario
Table 60 shows exemplary the uplink capacity losses for the FDD macro/ FDD macro case, which
can reach up to 13% in some scenarios.
The Adjacent Channel Interference Power Ratio (ACIR) given in Table 60 is defined as the ratio of
the total power transmitted from a source (Node B OR UE) to the total interference power affecting a
victim receiver. The occurring interference corresponds to an approximate cell load as given in Table
60. Two different scenarios have been investigated:
- Intermediate case, where the second system Node Bs are located at a half-cell radius shift
respect to the first system ones
- Worst Case, where the second system Node Bs are located at the cell border of the first system
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Intermediate case Worst case ACIR
[dB]
Min Max Average Min Max Average
25 9.31% 8.18% 8.85% 13.00% 11.55% 12.25%
30 3.15% 2.60% 2.91% 4.58% 3.80% 4.19%
35 1.11% 0.93% 1.02% 1.43% 1.10% 1.34%
40 0.47% 0.30% 0.35% 0.50% 0.30% 0.43%
Table 60: Uplink capacity loss in % for the FDD macro/ FDD macro case.
10.2.1.2 Downlink case
The downlink case denotes the interference from UTRA FDD Node B of an operator B to a UTRA
FDD UE belonging to an operator A.
Operator As mobile is receiving adjacent channel interference in the downlink from operator Bs
Node B, this will bring the need to increase the downlink power of operator B allocated to that
connection in order to compensate the increased interference in the UE reception. This power
increase will allow that mobile to interfere with all other connections of this cell, that is why it is
preferable to drop that connection in downlink before the mobile gets extremely close to the
operator Bs Node B and causes additionally interference in the uplink connections of operator B
(Figure 83).
Mobile OperatorA
Macro cell
operator A
Macro cell
operator B
Mobile OperatorB
Signal Interference
Figure 83 Macro to macro downlink adjacent channel interference scenario
Table 61 shows exemplary the downlink capacity losses for the FDD macro/ FDD macro case, which
can be up to 15% in some scenarios. The same definitions as for Table 2 are valid. The occurring
interference corresponds to an approximate cell load as given in Table 61.
ACIR [dB] Intermediate case Worst case
Min Max Average Min Max Average
25 13.46% 6.50% 10.88% 15.30% 9.00% 13.28%
30 5.84% 2.60% 4.70% 7.16% 4.50% 6.16%
35 2.27% 1.00% 1.79% 2.80% 1.80% 2.32%
40 0.91% 0.10% 0.59% 1.29% 0.82% 0.99%
Table 61: Downlink capacity loss in % for the FDD macro/ FDD macro case.
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10.2.1.3 How can it be avoided?
In order to avoid a decrease of the system performance, some strategies can be carried out when
planning the network:
Large minimum coupling loss: It is recommended to maintain a coupling loss between Node B and
UE antennas as high as possible by choosing appropriate Node B antenna locations, antenna
patterns etc.
Node B co-location: Different operators should try to co-locate their Node Bs. Therefore, there will
not be large power differences at the both operators Node Bs and the adjacent channel attenuation
will be enough to fulfil the ACLR requirements (see Table 59) causing no adjacent channel
interference problems.
Adjustment of carrier spacing: Frequency coordination between the operators should be done where
ever possible. The nominal WCDMA carrier spacing is 5 MHz, but can be adjusted within a 200 kHz
raster according to the requirements of the adjacent channel interference.
Inter-frequency HO: Refer chapter 2 of this guideline.
Desensitization: Reduces the sensitivity of the Node B receiver, i.e. increases the noise figure of the Node
B RF parts, making the Node B receiver less sensitive. This would also bring a considerable cell
range reduction; therefore this method is only recommended for small cells without UL coverage
problems.
10.2.2 Dead zones
The dead zone area has been defined in RAN4 as the area close to a Node B, where UEs
operating in a neighboring frequency f1 receive and provoke a high level of downlink and uplink
interference as described in the previous two sections. This may result in a loss of communication.
Note that dead zone areas exist in pure macrocell scenarios as well as in macro/micro scenarios,
however the latter are usually more critical since the UE can get much closer to a microcell antenna,
causing a small coupling loss between UE and Node B.
Serving cell (Operator A)
Interfering cell (Operator B)
Dead zone area
f1
f2
Figure 84 Dead Zone schematic representation
Therefore, if we can avoid large power differences of own mobiles and other mobiles at the Node
Bs, we get enough adjacent channel attenuation and therefore reduce the ACI problems. This can
be done by avoiding scenarios where a mobile is far away from its serving cell (belonging to
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operator A) but very close to a node B of operator B which then leads to minimizing the
phenomenon of dead zones.
The solution consists therefore in a co-location of node Bs of two operators. This means that site
sharing has a positive impact of the performance of both operators systems if the RF requirements
of the previous chapters are fulfilled. Please refer to chapter 7 of this guideline.
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11 MEASUREMENTS
[GenTest] Generic Test Plan for UMTS Field Trial
[SiteShare] Site Sharing GSM-UMTS: RF Aspects, chapter 2.3
Ref. Nr.: 3DC210190005TQZZA
[BouyguesCoLoc] [Bouygues Co-Location Tests]
[Calibration Guide Line] [3DF009934000PGZZA]
This chapter is currently designed to give an idea what kind of test cases can be interesting to focus
on.
Some of the interesting test cases are shown in this chapter more detailed and in section 11.8 a list
of all test cases are available.
11.1 Measurements for Prediction Model Calibration
In the network planning of cellular networks usually macrocell prediction models are used for cell
planning. These models are based on empirical propagation formulas in combination with a
correction factor used to model the influence of the morpho structure.
These correction factors need to be adapted to the required region by a process of propagation
model calibration . Basic input for this calibration are analogue field strength measurements. This
measurement type is described in the calibration guide line [3DF009934000PGZZA]. An analogue
test transmitter providing a simple CW signal will be installed in a region which represents the
typical morpho structure there. While driving around this station the received field strength will be
monitored and mapped to the position. Based on the calculated path loss the propagation model
will be adapted to the measured values.
In terms of pathloss calculation the same procedure is required for UMTS networks to adapt the
used prediction model to the morpho structure. Compared to a GSM network additional effects have
to be considered later on in a UMTS network planning process. The most important ones in case of
wave propagation are as follows:
- The signal used is a wide band signal.
- The wide band receiver is using multipath reception.
- The frequency band is higher than for GSM
In case of additional gain the following facts have to be considered:
- The number of used received paths are depending on UE HO status (number of cells in active
set) due to limited number of receiver fingers.
- The cell load is affecting the cell coverage by creation of interference (cell breathing).
- Fast PC may compensate the influence of fading.
- Additional gain may expected if the UE is in soft HO state.
All these facts are effecting an additional gain to the received signal strength and has to be
considered in addition to the standard wave propagation.
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Therefor this chapter will give you some ideas about the required measurements to investigate these
effects.
11.2 Measurements of Cell Coverage
The following tests are based on [GenTest]. As mentioned above the cell coverage is depending on
cell load plus interference and takes advantage of additional effects of UMTS technology like HO
gain or PC gain. Thereby we have to distinguish between UL and DL direction. The following
chapters will describe how to measure these gains.
11.2.1 Coverage of Pilot Channel in DL Compared to GSM BCCH Channel
This type of measurement is used to investigate the gain of the Rake receiver using multipath
reception compared to standard GSM receivers. The measured channel is the CPICH for UMTS,
which is transmitted by the Node B with full power and a BCCH for GSM. We investigate the effect
of the pathloss and the multipath profile in different environments.
The measured entities are RSCP on CPICH with BLER / BER for WCDMA and RXLEV on BCCH with
RXQUAL for GSM. The measurement should be done in the same environment for the Node B and
the BTS. Best case would be a co-located installation. In that case driving the same route would be
possible.
A call will be established and the measurement starts at the Node B and is going faraway to the cell
border. A call drop marks the end of the coverage area. Both measurements can be compared in a
map to find the coverage range or putting the quality values in a graph along the distance MS - BS.
Due to the fact that the UL in WCDMA networks will be more critical than the DL (cell breathing
depending on traffic load) the measurement should be repeated in a high traffic situation with
simulated load. This can be done by feeding in noise into the Node B receiver using an AWGN
generator. An earlier call drop due to bad quality in UL will be expected.
11.2.2 Impact of Service Type on Coverage
The received signal quality of the UE depends on their receiver sensitivity which is defined: Receiver
sensitivity = Thermal noise density + NF+ PG + M
i
+
0
N
E
b
With:
- Thermal noise density = -174 dBm
- NF: Noise figure, characteristic of the equipment
- PG = Processing gain
j c
R R /
- R
c
= chip rate (system), R
j
= Bit rate depending on used service j
- M
i
= Interference margin depending on interference coming from intra-cell and inter-cell
interference
-
0
N
E
b
= Required energy per user bit (
b
E ) over noise (
0
N )
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Due to the fact that the processing gain depends on the data rate, the required reception power and
even the required SIR will be different for each service bearer. Thus achievable coverage is different.
A comparison with planning data will be performed for each service supported by the UMTS
network. From the measurements default margins can be extracted for the use in RNP.
The measured entities are Ec/Io, RSCP on DPDCH and BLER, BER of the DL transport channel.
A service will be established and the measurement starts at the BTS and is going faraway to the cell
border. The end of the coverage area is marked by a service drop. This procedure is repeated for
each service type.
Note: The formula given above for the receiver sensitivity is valid for a mono service case.
11.2.3 Investigation on HO Gain
11.2.3.1 Soft Handover Gain
Soft handover occurs when the UE is in communication with 2 Node Bs located at different sites. The
gain achieved by the soft handover is a gain in terms of achieved quality and in term of required
power. The quality is evaluated by the BLER or the BER according to the type of service, which is
considered. Since the achievable BLER or BER depend also on the decoding function, the handover
gain in terms of quality is related to the SIR gain. Since the handover is expected to improve the
reception with a higher diversity, the combining gain reduces the required power. To test this gain,
closed loop and open loop TPC (Transmit Power Control) should be enabled.
To test soft handover performance, two tests are performed. In the first test case, only one Node B is
switched on. In the second test case, both Node Bs are switched on. The UE is slowly moved over the
area. Set up one UE and all the Node Bs. Position the UE where it can receive the greatest number
of pilot channels, CPICH. This is equivalent to the location, where the number of radio links in the
active set is maximal and will determine the number of cells in soft handover in the overlap area.
Then, the UE is slowly moved until radio links are deleted.
The following measurements are performed:
Node B
- We can compare the SIR versus BLER (or BER) with handover and the SIR versus BLER (or BER)
without handover. Measurements on the radio links are available in the NBAP message,
DEDICATED_MEASUREMENT_REPORTING. Following measurements can be performed in FDD
mode: SIR value, SIR error value, transmitted code power value.
- Handover gain
= (UL SIR on RL1 before addition of RL2) (UL SIR on RL1 after addition of RL)
or
= (DL transmitted code power value on RL1 before addition of RL2) (DL transmitted code power
value on RL1 after addition of RL2)
- Measurements: RSSI on the UTRA carrier, SIR/SIR_error on each RL, BLER (BLER is calculated
from number of CRC error counted at Node-B), BER, transmitted code power value on RL1,
transmitted code power value on RL2 and transmit power at Node-B
RNC
- On the uplink and in the case of soft handover and not softer handover, we can compare the
BLER and BER at each Node B and the BLER and BER after combining at the RNC.
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- Measurements: BLER and BER at RNC
UE
- On the downlink, the gain consists in the reduction of emitted power on a former radio link after
the addition of a new radio link.
- Handover gain = UE-received code strength on RL1 with handover UE-received code strength
on RL1 without handover = Node B-transmitted code strength on RL1 with handover Node B-
transmitted code strength on RL1 without handover
- Measurements: BLER, BER, UE-transmitted power, UE-received power
11.2.3.2 Softer Handover Gain
Softer handover gain will be measured using a similar method to that used for soft handover. Two
sectors of the same Node B with the biggest coverage overlap will be chosen. Softer handover
occurs when the UE is in communication with 2 sectors of one Node B.
Like in the soft handover case, the gain achieved by the softer handover is a gain in term of
achieved quality and in term of required power.
To test softer handover performance, two tests are performed. In both test cases, only one Node B is
turned on. In the first test case, only one sector is turned on. In the second test case, all the sectors
are turned on. The UE is slowly moved over the area. Position the UE where it can receive the
biggest number of pilot channels, CPICH. This is equivalent to the location, where the number of
radio links in the active set is maximal and will determine the number of sectors in softer handover
in the overlap area. Then, the UE is moved until one RL is dropped out of the active set.
Following measurements are performed:
Node-B side
- We can compare the SIR versus BLER (or BER) in softer handover and the SIR versus BLER (or
BER) with only one RL. Measurements on the radio links are available in the NBAP message,
DEDICATED_MEASUREMENT_REPORTING. Following measurements can be performed in FDD
mode: SIR value, SIR error value, transmitted code power value.
- Handover gain
= (UL SIR on RL1 before addition of RL2) (UL SIR on RL1 after addition of RL)
or
= (DL transmitted code power value on RL1 before addition of RL2) (DL transmitted code
power value on RL1 after addition of RL2)
- Measurements: RSSI on the UTRA carrier, SIR/SIR_error on each RL, BLER (BLER is calculated
from number of CRC error counted at Node-B), BER, transmitted code power value on RL1,
transmitted code power value on RL2 and transmit power at Node-B
RNC side
No measurement is performed. There is no softer handover gain at RNC side.
UE side
- On the downlink, the gain consists of the reduction of emitted power on a former radio link after
the addition of a new radio link
- Handover gain = (UE-received code strength on RL1 with handover) (UE-received code
strength on RL1 without handover) = (Node B-transmitted code strength on RL1 with handover)
(Node B-transmitted code strength on RL1 without handover)
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- Measurements: BLER, BER, UE-transmitted power, UE-received power.
11.2.3.3 Influence of the UE Speed
One could imagine that the UE speed could damage the quality of the reception and then, the soft
handover zone will become larger for a fast UE. For this test, the overlap zone is already known
from previous tests. In the first test case, only one Node B is switched on. In the second test case,
both Node Bs are switched on. The UE is driven fast over the area. For both test cases, same
measurements as for soft/softer handover are performed.
Compare the results with those obtained with a slow UE.
11.2.3.4 Influence of the Interference Level
One could imagine varying the pilot strength by modifying the interference level. Noise could be
added for loading purpose at the Node Bs side. This could not be done at the MS-SIM side since it
would damage the pilot of both Node Bs. For this test, the overlap zone is already known from
previous tests. In the first test case, only one Node B is switched on and the interference level is
artificially raised. In the second test case, both Node Bs are switched on, and the increased
interference level is kept at the first Node B. The UE is driven slowly over the area. For both test
cases, same measurements as for soft/softer handover are performed.
Compare the results with those obtained with a Node B without interference.
11.2.4 Investigation on Power Control
11.2.4.1 Open Loop Power Control
Open Loop power control is performed both in the UTRAN and UE to set the initial power for
transmission.
In the uplink, open loop power control is used by the UE in order to set the transmission power of
the PRACH. The initial power of the UE during random access is set using UE measurements on the
PCCPCH and broadcast system information. The UE estimates the path loss by measuring the
received power of P-CCPCH, and emits the required power in order for the Node B to receive the
target power level.
In the downlink, open loop power control sets the initial power of the downlink DCH channels using
measurement reports from the UE.
The path loss indicated in the UE measurement reports should be compared with the path loss
computed from the measurements of the drive test system on the CPICH. This test is done within the
propagation tests.
11.2.4.2 Closed Loop Power Control
Downlink and uplink inner loop power control are located in both the UTRAN and UE.
The closed loop power control consists of an inner and outer loop.
Inner loop (UL)
- If SIR > SIR_target, then the Node B should set the TPC bits in the next transmitted downlink slot
period such that the UE will lower its transmit power,
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- If SIR < SIR_target, the Node B should set the TPC bits in the next transmitted downlink slot
period such that the UE will increase its transmit power.
Outer Loop
Outer loop power control will be performed at the SRNC. Outer loop power control adjusts the
SIR_target for the inner loop comparison. The adjustment is based on frame quality information. The
target SIR is sent periodically from the SRNC to each serving Node B.
In downlink, the Node B emits Transmit Power Control (TPC) commands permitting to power up or
down the UE power, after comparing the received SIR with the target SIR. The UE has the capability
of changing the output power with a step size of 1, 2 and 3 dB according to the value of TPC, in the
slot immediately after the TPC_cmd can be derived. The transmitter output power step due to inner
loop power control shall be within the range shown under.
For the downlink inner power control, each UE can also emit TPC commands towards the Node B,
which can change Node Bs emitting power.
First, we consider the case, where there is only one radio link in the active set. Either, all the other
cells are shut down for this experiment, or there is the possibility to forbid a CPICH to trigger a RL
addition. Therefore, there is only one Node B, which is sending TPC commands to the UE and is
receiving TPC commands from it. Following measurements are performed both at the Node B and
at the UE: received SIR [dB], target SIR [dB], received BLER [%], received BER [%].
We can perform a test with an activated handover. The handover tests have shown areas, on which
there are several RL. We can compare the power measurements in this area. If this area is a softer
handover area, same measurements as above are performed since there is always only one Node B
interacting with the UE. If this area is a soft handover area, the RNC must perform selection among
frames coming from the Node Bs. Therefore, received BLER [%], received BER [%] must be measured
after RNC selection. Furthermore, each Node B will send its own TPC bits. The UE must cope with all
the indications.
From the distribution of the power control error, the average power control error and standard
deviation of TPC error can be obtained.
The target SIR parameters are set by UTRAN on the Node B according to measurements (BLER/BER).
Different sets of parameters could be tested. After a connection has been established, collect
received SIR measurements at Node B and at UE, and target SIR measurements at RNC, along the
route. The speed is constant and low. The same procedure shall be performed twice: once with the
outer loop power control enabled, once the outer loop power control disabled.
Calculate the Power Control error distribution according to:
Power Control error = SIR
Target
SIR
Received
Calculate the average transmission power control error, and the standard deviation.
So the accuracy of the Power Control can be estimated and the effects of the outer loop power
control studied.
11.2.4.3 Influence of the Propagation Environment
When low diversity is provided, more variations of the transmitted power are observed and the
average transmitted power is higher. Simulations have shown that the gain from the fast power
control is larger for those cases where only a little multipath diversity is available, like in the
pedestrian environment.
The following procedure is performed twice: once with the Power Control disabled and once with the
Power Control enabled. The UE initiates the service close to the Node B. Measurements of the
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transmit and receive powers are performed at the Node B and at the UE, while the UE moves at a
constant slow speed away from the NodeB. Measurements are continued until the call is dropped at
cell edge. If possible, take measurements of the received SIR. Various propagation environments
should be investigated: various multipath profile (indication at the RAKE receiver at the UE side and
at the DCT at the Node B side), dense urban, urban and rural environment.
The Node Bs receive and transmit power profiles are plotted against the distance to the Node B,
preferentially on a map. A comparison can be done between the results without Power Control and
when the Power Control is active. The first group of graphs will show the decrease of received power
due to the increasing pathloss. On the second group of graphs, one should see the increase in both
received and emitted power due to the Power Control.
11.2.4.4 Influence of the UE Speed
Simulations have shown that the gain from the fast power control is larger for low UE speed than for
high UE speed. Fast power control is expected to compensate fast fading. This compensation causes
peaks in the transmission power. For UE speed exceeding 50km/h, inaccuracies in the SIR
estimation, power control signaling errors and the delay in power control loop degrade the
performances of the fast power control. The maximum cell range is obtained when the UE is
transmitting full constant power, i.e. without the gain of fast power control.
The following procedure is performed twice: once with the Power Control disabled and once with the
Power Control enabled. The UE initiates the service close to the Node B. Measurements of the
transmit and receive powers are performed at the Node B and at the UE, while the UE moves at
constant high speed away from the Node B. Measurements are continued until the call is dropped at
cell edge. If possible, take measurements of the received SIR. This test must be done in an
environment, which has been formerly investigated at a low speed. Several UE speeds may be
investigated.
The Node Bs receive and transmit power profiles are plotted against the distance to the Node B,
preferentially on a map.
11.3 Interference Measurements
The adjacent channel interference must be considered in any wideband system where large guard
bands are not possible.
11.3.1 Dead zones
Danger of Dead Zones in case of operator co-existence
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Serving cell (Operator A)
Interfering cell (Operator B)
Dead zone area
f1
f2 of an other operator
Figure 85: Showing operators co-existence causing dead zones
The own frequency f1 of an UE could not be received if being nearby to a Node B of an other
operator having the adjacent frequency f2 (see Figure 85).
The effect is that frequency f1 has not the sufficient quality in the cell center with the frequency f2, so
an other operator generates a service area hole, a so-called dead zone. As summary, dead zones
can exist in a coexistence of at least two operators.
A solution would be a Co-location of UMTS operators, which avoids the occurrence of dead zones
Methods for measurements:
With the output powers of the wanted and interfering Node B set to the maximum Node B TX power,
the UE is brought close to the adjacent channel interfering Node B.
The first test consists in measuring the CPICH reception for the two Node Bs with the drive test
system and noting the cell selection done by the UE along a given road.
The second test consists in forcing the adjacent Node B to emit OCNS at full power on the adjacent
band. Then, the UE is driven together with the drive test system along the test road. A
communication is established with the serving Node-B. It must be studied if the cell range,
meaning the limit for the reception, is influenced by the adjacent OCNS. The CPICH Ec/Io is also
measured.
11.3.2 Influence of the Interference Level
One could imagine varying the interference level in order to degrade the RF conditions. If OCNS is
added at the Node Bs side to emulate cell load on DL, the received SIR is decreased.
The UE initiates the service close to the Node B. Measurements of the transmit and receive powers
are performed at the Node B and at the UE, while the UE moves at a constant high speed away
from the NodeB. Measurements are continued until the call is dropped at cell edge. If possible, take
measurements of the received SIR. This test must be done in an environment, which has been
formerly investigated without adding interference. Several interference levels may be investigated.
The Node Bs receive and transmit power profiles are plotted against the distance to the Node B,
preferentially on a map for various noise level.
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11.4 Trial Measurements
11.4.1 Co-Siting with GSM
The document [SiteShare] presents a complete study of this topic. The required decoupling is given.
In order to prevent performance degradation for co-located mobile systems, Alcatel proposes due to
the three interference mechanisms the following decoupling requirements, see chapter 7:
Table 62: Decoupling requirements
GSM 900 (RX) GSM 1800 (RX) UMTS (RX)
Specification
according to:
GSM
05.05
Alcatel GSM
05.05
Alcatel 3G TS
25.104
Alcatel
GSM 05.05 46 dB
Blocking
30 dB 85 dB
GSM
spurious
85 dB
GSM
spurious
GSM 900 (TX)

Alcatel 46 dB
Blocking
30 dB 61 dB
Blocking
30 dB
GSM 05.05 39 dB
Blocking
30 dB 85 dB
GSM
spurious
85 dB
GSM
spurious
GSM 1800 (TX)

Alcatel 39 dB
Blocking
30 dB 62 dB
Blocking
47 dB
GSM
spurious
3G TS
25.104
35 dB
Blocking
30 dB 43 dB
Blocking
30 dB
UMTS (TX)
Alcatel 35 dB
Blocking
30 dB 43 dB
Blocking
30 dB
Note: It is assumed, that the decoupling provided by the antenna/diplexer system is at least 30 dB. In fact, using Alcatel
EVOLIUM equipment requires for certain combinations even less isolation than those 30dB. Intermodulation is
suppressed by frequency planning.
Isolation by using a diplexer for a dual-band antenna for GSM1800 and UMTS
Isolation by using two diplexers for a dual-band antenna for GSM1800 and UMTS
Filter for a dual-band antenna for GSM1800 and UMTS
The following measurements may applied:
- Measurement for GSM system
- Spurious emission received in UL
- Worse Rxlev, Rxqual distribution in DL / UL driving a specified route
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- Measurement for UMTS system
- Spurious emission received in UL
- Increase of RSSI at BTS site
- Worse UL BLER values driving the referenced route
- Higher UE power required
A more detailed description of co-siting test is given in [BouyguesCoLoc].
11.4.2 Code Multiplex
11.4.2.1 Test COD1: Orthogonality of Scrambling Codes on Downlink (Intercell)
No theoretical result is available about the orthogonality of scrambling codes on downlink.
One could imagine testing the effect of code selection within one code family and from two different
code families for two neighbouring cells in order to measure the interference between different
downlink scrambling codes.
The first Node B is assigned first PSC from a particular group. The second Node B is turned off. The
UE is stationary inside the overlap area of 2 Nodes B. The CPICH RSCP, RSSI and Ec/No are
measured. Then, the second Node B is assigned a different PSC from the same group and is turned
on. Same measurements are performed. After all 8 PSC of the group have been tested, the adjacent
group of 8 PSC can then be selected and assigned to the second Node B. This test can be repeated
with other combinations of code groups.
The averaged Ec/No values (y-axis) are plotted against the second Node Bs PSC 1, 2, 38 (of the
same group) on the x-axis, whereby the first Node B PSC is fixed. The baseline averaged Ec/No
value for the case when only the first Node B was on-air is also shown on the plot.
In a second plot, the averaged Ec/No values are plotted against the second PSC 1, 2, 3 8 (of a
adjacent group). More plots would be obtained if more PSC from different groups have been
assigned to the second Node B.
If desired, the measurement of averaged Ec/No can be performed at different UE speed using the
above combinations of PSC between two Nodes B.
Expected results: code-mapping strategy
11.4.2.2 Test COD2: Orthogonality on Spreading Codes on DL (Intracell)
The parameter will be derived from interference measurements by comparing the values obtained
with or without the effect of the orthogonality. Two procedures have been developed, and it could be
interesting to compare the values given by each method.
Method 1:
The ETSI gives a theoretical method to derive the parameter from Eb/No computations.
Two simulations are made, one with white Gaussian noise and one with intra-cell interference. The
BER is then plotted as a function of Eb/No and Eb/Io respectively. These curves may differ
significantly, where the Eb/Io curve is to the left of the Eb/No curve. A difference of 10 dB means
that a given Eb/Io gives the same BER as Eb/No = Eb/Io + 10. Consequently, a certain Io in the
system simulations is equivalent to having 10 dB less No in the link-level simulations. Hence, it is
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possible to say that the orthogonality removes 90% of the interference, or in other words an
orthogonality factor of 10% is obtained (10% of the interference remains).
This test requires two series of measurements in the same conditions. The values of Eb/No will be
measured by the UE (MS-SIM or drive test system) under different interference levels and the BER will
be measured accordingly. In order to be able to measure different levels of BER, the Power Control
feature shall be switched off. The variations of Eb/No are performed while increasing the noise. In
the first case, the noise is generated by an AWGN simulator, in the second case by a UMTS signal
generator. The noise can be fed at the Node B level or at the UE, both solutions are described
below.
Measurement under real path conditions:
As we are testing the loss in the orthogonality due to the multipath propagation, a first solution
would be to simulate the noise/UMTS signal from the Node B.
This solution would give the best results, as the real multipath would be used, which would allow
specific measurements, for example under different UE speeds.
Test scenario:
The UE is at a given distance from the Node B. The Power Control is switched off. A connection is
established and the PN 9/15 signal (standardized signal) is sent from the Node B.
A first series of measurements of Eb/No and the received BER is performed, the signal being
disturbed by increasing AWGN (until the communication is dropped).
The connection is re-established. A second series of measurements of the same parameters Eb/Io
and BER is performed, the noise being generated by the synchronized UMTS signal generator, with
increasing power until the communication drops.
This procedure can be also repeated for different environments and at different speeds if possible on
the same cell radius. Tests at different distances from the Node B can also be performed.
For testing in the lab, if the UMTS signal generator is connected directly to the UE, a fading
simulator has to be added, with the suitable parameters in order to simulate the multipath
conditions.
Results:
For each environment/speed, plot the BER in function of Eb/No for both noise generators, i.e.
OCNS and AWGN, on a same graph.
The horizontal shift between the two curves represents the gain due to the orthogonality. As an
example, a difference of 5 dB means that a given interference Io with UMTS signals gives the same
quality as the gaussian noise No = Io 5 dB. o corresponds to the part of the remaining
interference, so o= 5 dB = 0,32.
Method 2:
The UE shall perform regularly mandatory measurements. The following gives the way the
parameter o is derived from these measurements.
S
k,i
is the power of the signal spread with the code k after transmission to the UE i with the pathloss
L
i
, depending on the propagation environment and the UE position on the cell area. For
simplification, we consider that no UE is in SHO.
ISCP: Interference Signal Code Power
RSSI: Received Signal strength Indicator
RSCP: Received Signal Code Power
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ISCP
j
= o x L (k=j) S
k,i
+ I
ext
+ N
thermal
, j being the code under study, here: j = CPICH
RSSI
i
= L (k) S
k,i
+ I
ext
+ N
thermal
RSSI
i
= L (k) S
k,i
+ ISCP
j
- o x L (k=j) S
k,i
RSSI
i
- ISCP
j
= L (k) S
k,i
- o x L (k=j) S
k,i
RSSI
i
- ISCP
j
= o x S
j,i
+ (1-o) x L (k) S
k,i
L (k) S
k,i
= P
tot
L
i
S
j,i
= RSCP
j,i
RSCP
j,i
= P
j
L
i
RSSI
i
- ISCP
j
= o x RSCP
j,i
+ (1-o) x P
tot
RSCP
j,i
/ P
j
Per definition, SIR = RSCP/ ISCP and RSCP
j,i
/ RSSI= (Ec/No)
j,i
P
j
is a system parameter.
P
tot
is measured at the Node Bs antenna connector.
i tot
0
c
i tot
P P
SIR
1
N
E
1
P P

|
|
|
|
|

\
|

= =
SF is the spreading factor of the considered DPCH on downlink.
P
t
is the transmitted power on the considered DPCH on downlink.
m i i
DPCH
m i
CPICH
i
i
Pt Ptot
SIR
SF Pt
Io Ec
P
Ptot
,
,
) (


=
Since we will compute the value from several measurements, the accuracy of the measurements
must be known to check the validity of the method.
Test scenario:
The emit power of the CPICH is fixed. A communication is established between the UE and the Node
B. Measurements of the CPICH Ec/No and the CPICH SIR are performed, while the total emit power
at the Node B is measured thanks to a power meter. This procedure is repeated for different
environments, and at different speeds. The effect of the distance from the Node B and of the
services bitrate can also be studied.
The equation above is used to calculate the value of the parameter o for each environment/speed.
11.5 Network Acceptance Procedure
Acceptance tests must be specified clearly in the contract. The metholody of testing and the
acceptance criteria must be clearly specified. This step can often be the bottleneck to obtaining the
final payments, as well as the prospect of future expansion contract.
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Acceptance tests can be conducted on a cluster, RNC or MSC basis. The cluster-based acceptance is
preferred as this allows for independent clusters test to be completed, even though other cells on the
RNC or MSC are not ready. In general, it is also easier to pass the cluster-based acceptance tests
than RNC-based or MSC-based tests, since the cell counts are smaller. The RNS performance
during busy hours would require further investigations.
The methodology of testing must be documented clearly. The equipment used to collect data must
be calibrated and easy to set up. The equipment setup must be able to perform consistently, from
one run to another.
The acceptance criteria must be logical, specific and easy to quantify. For example, to determine
the data throughput from a cluster of cells, it may be important to clearly state the quality level
(Ec/Io), time of the day and measurement duration when collecting the field data. Subsequent data
post-processing can then filter out the relevant data and compare them against the acceptance
criteria.
Responsibility: Network planning and network optimization department
Input to NP: Existing network design, field data, acceptance criteria
Output of NP: Verifications
Task of NP: Consultancy
11.6 QoS Measurements
When the UMTS Network is in operation, its performance can be observed by measurements, and
the result of those measurements can be used to visualize and optimize network performance.
11.7 Recommended Measurement Tools for Air Interface Measurements
- UMTS Drive test tool E7476A from Agilent which supports the following measurement entities:
Primary Sync Channel Ec, Ec/Io, Eb, Eb/Io
Secondary Sync Channel Ec, Ec/Io, Eb, Eb/Io
Scrambling Code: Peak Ec, Peak Ec/Io, Peak Eb, Peak Eb/Io
Scrambling Code: Aggregate Ec, Aggregate Ec/Io, Aggregate Eb, Aggregate Eb/Io
Delay spread
Carrier Frequency Error
Time Stamp
Position
- Mobil Station Simulator or test mobile supporting the measurements as specify in 3GPP.
- AWGN generator to feed in noise in to a Node B
- Protocol Analyzer for NBAP message trace
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11.8 Possible Measurement s
Test cases which could be planned during the set-up of a network or for existing network. These test
cases are given in the following list.
UMTS PROPAGATION
COVERAGE WITH THE PILOT AND THE SYNCHRONISATION CHANNELS
CELL SELECTION
COVERAGE IN TERMS OF SERVICE
INTERFERENCE ON ADJACENT CHANNEL
CO-SITTING WITH GSM
CODE MULTIPLEX
ORTHOGONALITY OF SCRAMBLING CODES ON DOWNLINK (INTERCELL)
ORTHOGONALITY ON SPREADING CODES ON DL (INTRACELL)
POWER CONTROL
OPEN LOOP POWER CONTROL
CLOSED LOOP POWER CONTROL
INFLUENCE OF THE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT
INFLUENCE OF THE UE SPEED
INFLUENCE OF THE INTERFERENCE LEVEL
SOFT HANDOVER
NEIGHBOURING CELL SEARCH
NEIGHBOURING CELL SEARCH IN CASE OF SOFT HANDOVER
NEIGHBOURING CELL SEARCH IN CASE OF SOFTER HANDOVER
SOFT HANDOVER AREA
SOFTER HANDOVER AREA
SOFT HANDOVER GAIN
SOFTER HANDOVER GAIN
INFLUENCE OF THE UE SPEED
INFLUENCE OF THE INTERFERENCE LEVEL
TUNING OF THE PARAMETERS
CAPACITY AND PERFORMANCES
PERFORMANCE IN AN UNLOADED NETWORK
CAPACITY IN A LOADED NETWORK
TEST SET OF THE DIFFERENT SERVICE BEARERS
AMR(12.2KBPS)-CODED VOICE SERVICE FOR ORIGINATING CALL
AMR(12.2KBPS)- CODED VOICE SERVICE FOR TERMINATING CALL
DATA(384KBPS) SERVICE
COMPARISON GSM/UMTS, MEASUREMENT OF THE
CPICH DETECTION AREA
CPICH DETECTION ON A LOADED CELL
UMTS COVERAGE FOR VOICE SERVICE
UMTS COVERAGE FOR VOICE ON ONE LOADED CELL
UMTS COVERAGE FOR DATA -384KBPS SERVICE
UMTS COVERAGE FOR DATA -384KBPS ON A LOADED CELL
MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF SOFT HANDOVER
MEASUREMENT OF THE SHO ZONES
TUNING OF THE PARAMETER HYTERISIS
TUNING OF THE PARAMETER REPORTING RANGE
TUNING OF THE PARAMETER REPORTING DEACTIVATION THRESHOLD
BEHAVIOUR OF MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF POWER CONTROL
INFLUENCE OF THE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT
INFLUENCE OF THE UE SPEED
INFLUENCE OF THE TPC STEPO SIZE
TEST OF THE DIFFERENT SERVICE BEARERS
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AMR(12.2KBPS)-CODED VOICE SERVICE FOR ORIGINATING CALL
AMR(12.2KBPS)-CODED VOICE SERVICE FOR TERMINATING CALL
DATA(384KBPS) SERVICE
COMPARISON GSM/UMTS
MEASUREMENT OF THE CPICH DETECTION AREA
MEASUREMENT OF THE CPICH DETECTION ON A LOADED CELL
MEASUREMENT OF THE UMTS COVERAGE FOR VOICE SERVICE
MEASUREMENT OF THE UMTS COVERAGE FOR VOICE ON ONE LOADED CELL
MEASUREMENT OF THE UMTS COVERAGE FOR DATA-384KBPS SERVICE
MEASUREMENT OF THE UMTS COVERAGE FOR DATA-384KBPS ON A LOADED CELL
MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF SOFT HANDOVER
MEASUREMENT OF THE SHO ZONES
TUNING OF THE PARAMETER HYSTERESIS
TUNING OF THE PARAMETER REPORTING RANGE
TUNING OF THE PARAMETER REPORTING DEACTIVATION THRESHOLD
BEHAVIOUR AND MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF POWER CONTROL
INFLUENCE OF THE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT
INFLUENCE OF THE MOBILE SPEED
INFLUENCE OF THE TPC STEP SIZE
CHARACTERISATION OF SOFT HANDOVER DL GAIN
REFERENCE TEST WITH NO SHO
INFLUENCE OF THE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT WITH ACTIVATED SHO
INFLUENCE OF THE MOBILE SPEED WITH ACTIVATED SHO
CHARACTERISATION OF SOFTER HANDOVER DL GAIN
INFLUENCE OF THE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT WITH ACTIVATED SHO
INFLUENCE OF THE MOBILE SPEED WITH ACTIVATED SHO
VARIATION OF SOFT HANDOVER RATE IN FUNCTION OF TILT
INFLUENCE OF THE TILT ON SHO AREA
IMPACT OF PROPAGATION ON SENSITIVITY
UE SENSIBILITY FOR VOICE WITHOUT INTERFERENCE
UE SENSIBILITY FOR DATA 384KBPS WITHOUT INTERFERENCE
UE SENSIBILITY FOR VOICE WITH INTERFERENCE
UE SENSIBILITY FOR DATA 384KBPS WITH INTERFERENCE
CHARACTERISATION OF POWER IN DL
POWER ON DL FOR VOICE ON AN UNLOADED CELL
POWER ON DL FOR DATA-384KBPS ON AN UNLOADED CELL
POWER ON DL FOR VOICE ON A LOADED CELL
POWER ON DL FOR DATA-384KBPS ON A LOADED CELL
TEST SET: ACCESSIBILITY AND FILE TRANSFER
RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR DATA(384KBPS) SERVICE
END-TO-END DELAY FOR DATA(384KBPS) SERVICE
DATA SERVICES
FILE TRANSFER
WEB AND WAP
MAILING SERVICES
STREAMING AUDIO/VIDEO
CHAT , ICQ , NEWS
PERFORMANCE OF TCP ON THE RADIO CHANNEL
TUNING OF MTU (MAXIMUM TRANSMISSION UNIT)
TUNING OF RECEIVER WINDOW SIZE, IN NUMBER OF MSS (MAXIMUM SEGMENT SIZE)
TUNING OF IRTO (INITIAL RETRANSMISSION TIME OUT)
PERFORMANCE OF TRAFFIC WEB
TEST SET: CONFORMANCE TESTING
UMTS TX SPURIOUS EMISSIONS
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UMTS RX BLOCKING LEVEL
REFERENCE SENSITIVITY LEVEL
TEST SET: CO-LOCATION TESTS
ANTENNA DECOUPLING
GSM1800 REFERENCE MEASUREMENT
UMTS DISTURBANCES ON GSM1800 NETWORK
UMTS REFERENCE MEASUREMENT
DCS DISTURBANCES ON UMTS NETWORK
TEST SET: INTERFACE IU-PS BETWEEN RNS AND 3G-SGSN
UE INITIAL MESSAGE AND RAB ASSIGNMENT / RAB RELEASE
PAGING AND RAB ASSIGNMENT / RAB RELEASE
IU RELEASE REQUEST
DIRECT TRANSFER
DATA VOLUME REPORT
TEST SET: INTERFACE IU-CS BETWEEN RNS AND 3G- MSC/VLR
UE INITIAL MESSAGE AND RAB ASSIGNMENT / RAB RELEASE
PAGING AND RAB ASSIGNMENT / RAB RELEASE
IU RELEASE REQUEST
DIRECT TRANSFER
PROCEDURES FOR MOBILITY MANAGEMENT (MM) FOR CS SERVICES
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR CS SERVICES: IMSI ATTACH
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR CS SERVICES: IMSI DETACH
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR CS SERVICES: AUTHENTICATION
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR CS SERVICES: IDENTIFICATION
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR CS SERVICES: TMSI REALLOCATION
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR CS SERVICES: NORMAL LOCATION UPDATE
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR CS SERVICES: PERIODIC LOCATION UPDATE
PROCEDURES FOR MM FOR PS SERVICES
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR PS SERVICES: GPRS ATTACH
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR PS SERVICES: GPRS DETACH
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR PS SERVICES: AUTHENTICATION
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR PS SERVICES: IDENTIFICATION
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR PS SERVICES: TMSI REALLOCATION
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR PS SERVICES: NORMAL ROUTING AREA UPDATE
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT FOR PS SERVICES: PERIODIC ROUTING AREA UPDATE
CALL CONTROL AND SESSION MANAGEMENT
CALL CONTROL PROCEDURES FOR CS
PDP CONTEXT ACTIVATION/DEACTIVATION
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GLOSSARY/TERMINOLOGY
NYD Not yet defined in the current version of the document.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Explanations for all abbreviations used in 3GPP are given in [21.905]. Abbreviations used in this
document are given hereafter.
Abbreviation Full meaning
ACI Adjacent Channel Interference
ACLR Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
AI Acquisition Indicator
AICH Acquisition Indicator Channel
AIO All-In-One
AMR Adaptive Multirate
ANC Evolium Evolution Duplexer and Combiner Stage
ANXU Antenna Network for UMTS
AP Access Preamble
AP-AICH Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel
API Access Preamble Indicator
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
ASC Access Service Class
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise
BB Base Band
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
BCH Broadcast Channel
BER Bit Error Rate
BLER Block Error Rate
BSC Base Station Controller
BSS Base Station System
BTS Base Transceiver Station
C- Control-
CA Channel Assignment
CAI Channel Assignment Indicator
CC Call Control
CCC CPCH Control Command
CCCH Common Control Channel
CCH Control Channel
CCPCH Common Control Physical Channel
CCTrCH Coded Composite Transport Channel
CD Collision Detection
CD/CA-ICH Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel
CDF Cumulative Density Function
CDI Collision Detection Indicator
CN Core Network
CPCH Common Packet Channel
CPICH Common Pilot Channel
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRNC Controlling Radio Network Controller
CS Circuit Switched
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Abbreviation Full meaning
CSICH CPCH Status Indicator Channel
DC Dedicated Control (SAP)
DCA Dynamic Channel Allocation
DCCH Dedicated Control Channel
DCH Dedicated Channel
DEM Digital Elevation Model
DL Downlink
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel
DPCH Dedicated Physical Channel
DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel
DRNC Drift Radio Network Controller
DS-CDMA Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access
DSCH Downlink Shared Channel
DSMA-CD Digital Sense Multiple Access - Collison Detection
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel
DTX Discontinuous Transmission
Ec/No Received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
ETSI European Telecommunications Standardization Institute
FACH Forward Access Channel
FAUSCH Fast Uplink Signalling Channel
FBI Feedback Information
FCS Frame Check Sequence
FDD Frequency Division Duplex
FEC Forward Error Correction
FER Frame Error Rate
FSW Frame Synchronization Word
GC General Control (SAP)
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMSC Gateway MSC
GoS Grade of Service
GSM Global System for Mobile Communication
HLR Home Location Register
HO Handover
ICH Indicator Channel
IM Intermodulation
ISC International Switching Centre
ISCP Interference Signal Code Power
ITU International Telecommunication Union
kbps kilo-bits per second
L1 Layer 1 (physical layer)
L2 Layer 2 (data link layer)
L3 Layer 3 (network layer)
LAC Link Access Control
LAI Location Area Identity
LNA Low Noise Amplifier
MAC Medium Access Control
MBS Multi-Standard Base Station
Mcps Mega Chip Per Second
MHA Mast Head Amplifier
MM Mobility Management
MND Mobile Network Design (Department within MCD)
MS Mobile Station
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Abbreviation Full meaning
MSC A 2 generation Mobile Switching Center only supporting the A interface
MUI Mobile User Identifier
OCCCH ODMA Common Control Channel
ODCCH ODMA Dedicated Control Channel
ODCH ODMA Dedicated Channel
ODMA Opportunity Driven Multiple Access
ODMA Opportunity Driven Multiple Access
ODTCH ODMA Dedicated Traffic Channel
ORACH ODMA Random Access Channel
OVSF Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (codes)
PC Power control
PCCH Paging Control Channel
PCCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel
PCH Paging Channel
PCPCH Physical Common Packet Channel
PCS Professional Customer Services (Department within MCD)
PDF Probability Density Function
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PHY Physical layer
PhyCH Physical Channels
PI Paging Indication
PICH Page Indicator Channel
PMP Point to Multipoint
POM Page Oriented Model
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel
PS Packet Switched
PSC Primary Synchronisation Code
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
QoS Quality of Service
QPSK Quaternary Phase Shift Keying
RACH Random Access Channel
RF Radio Frequency
RL Radio Link
RLC Radio Link Control
RNC Radio Network Controller
RNS Radio Network Subsystem
RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identity
RRC Radio Resource Control
RSCP Received Signal Code Power
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator
RX Receive
SAP Service Access Point
SCCC Serial Concatenated Convolutional Code
SCCH Synchronisation Control Channel
SCCPCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
SCH Synchronisation Channel
SDU Service Data Unit
SF Spreading Factor
SFN System Frame Number
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SI Status Indicator
SIR Signal-to-Interference Ratio
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Abbreviation Full meaning
SRNC Serving Radio Network Controller
SRNS Serving Radio Network Subsystem
SSC Secondary Synchronisation Code
SSDT Site Selection Diversity TPC
STTD Space Time Transmit Diversity
TBD To be defined
TCH Traffic Channel
TDD Time Division Duplex
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TFCI Transport Format Combination Indicator
TFI Transport Format Indicator
TMA Tower Mounted Amplifier
TMSI Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
TPC Transmit Power Control
TSTD Time Switched Transmit Diversity
TX Transmit
U- User-
UE User Equipment
UE/MS A terminal that supports USIM, SIM, the Uu interface and the Um interface
UER User Equipment with ODMA relay operation enabled
UL Uplink
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
URA UTRAN Registration Area
USIM UMTS Subscriber Identity Module
UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
Uu UMTS Air Interface
VLR Visitor Location Register
VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
WCDMA Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access
List of Figures & List of Tables (TBD)
Index (TBD)
END OF DOCUMENT