You are on page 1of 14

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Characterization and Investigation of Tensile and Compression Test on Sisal Fibre Reinforcement Epoxy Composite Materials Used as Orthopaedic Implant
Dr. K R Dinesh1 , Jagadish S P 2, Dr. A Thimmanagouda3 , Dr. Neeta Hatapaki4,
1 Principal and Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineeing College, Raichur, India 2 Assistant Professor, Research Scholar-VTU Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rao bahadur y mahabaleswarappa engg college, Bellary, India 3 Professor and Head Department of Industrial Production Engineering, Rao Bahadur Y Mahabaleswarappa Engg. College,Bellary, India

Senior Medical Officer, Govt. Wellesly TB & Chest disease Hospital, Vijayanagar Institute of Medical College, Bellary

Abstract
This paper constitutes the Tensile strength and compression strength of 10%,20% and 30% Natural (Sisal) fibre reinforcement epoxy composite materials used as bio-material. An attempt has been made to develop 10%, 20% and 30% sisal fibre reinforcement epoxy composite materials with low density and economical, according to ASTM D 3039 and ASTM D-1621 using resin -LY556 as a matrix material and hardener -HY 951 with 10%, 20% and 30% Sisal fibres as the reinforcement material (with fiber weight fraction) using hand layup fabrication technique. The Tensile strength and compression strength tests were conducted on the varying percentage standard samples prepared. It is found that appreciable improvements in Tensile strength, compression strength properties of the 30% natural (sisal) fibers reinforced epoxy composites (SFRECM) when compared with 10 % and 20% SFRECM. This study suggests 30% SFRECM can be used for different applications in the human body bone replacement or orthopaedic implant. But according to literature survey the human femur bone mean tensile strength in males is 39.744.80 MPa and in female it is 30.087.96 MPa. The mean compressive strength in males is found to be 141.615.91 MPa and in females it is observed to be 118.9118.99 MPa .,In this research work it is found that the Tensile strength of 30% Natural (Sisal) fiber reinforcement epoxy composite material is 77 N/mm2 but compression strength of 30% Natural (Sisal) fiber reinforcement epoxy composite material is 64.66 N/mm2.And hence in this work Tensile strength of 30% Natural (Sisal) fiber reinforcement epoxy composite material is matches the femur bone tensile strength but compression strength will not match .Hence further work is require by increasing the % of Weight fraction of sisal fiber to fabricate the specimen and ultimately it reaches to the femur bone compression strength.

Keywords: Hand layup Fabrication Technique, Tensile strength and compression strength, Bio-Material, 10%, 20% and 30% Sisal fibre Reinforcement epoxy Composite Materials (SFRECM), Orthopaedic applications, femur bone.

1. INTRODUCTION
A biomaterial is a material that interacts with human tissue and body fluids to treat, improve, or replace anatomical element(s) of the human body. Biomaterial devices used in orthopaedics are commonly called implants; these are manufactured for a great number of orthopaedic applications.Biological materials such as human bone allografts (transplants of tissue between genetically different individuals) are considered to be biomaterials because they are used in many cases in orthopaedic surgery. Biocompatibility is the primary characteristic that a medical device should have in any orthopaedic application; that is, it must not adversely affect the local and systemic host environment of interaction (bone, soft tissues,ionic composition of plasma, as well as intra- and extracellular fluids)[1,2]. 1.1Femur Bone:- Femur is the thigh bone of the human body[32], which bears the maximum load while running ,walking, lifting the load, standing, jumping, Dancing other sports activities, and it is susceptible to fracture in High Velocity road traffic accidents, a fall from height and Natural disasters. In old age the osteoporotic femur may have

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 376

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
fractures like intertrochantric, subtrochantric and neck of femur, even with trivial trauma like slip in the bath room,fall from the bed and tripping. According to literature survey femur bone outside layer will have thick surface ie,compact bone,inside of femur layer will have thin surface ie,Cancellus bone [3],from these bone we have to collect the mechanical properties like tensile ,Compression, Bending strength and Wear properties of the bone.In this research work Characterizing the 10%,20% and 30% (Weight fraction) natural Sisal fibre material with Epoxy resin LY-556 and compare the Experimental results with orthopaedic field /Femur bone.

Fig 1.1: Anatomy of femur: a) a schematic representation of the hip bone, b) the ball-and-socket joint of a femur attached through a ligament and c) a detail histology of the femur where the spongy bone exhibits a large range of porosity[3]:

Fig 1.2: Typical compact bone with Haversian system (a), schematic view of the orientation of collagen and HAp crystal within bone matrix (b) and preferred mode of orientation along the longitudinal direction[3,4]. 1.2 .Mechanical Properties of Femur Bone:Table 1.1 : Statistical analysis of Femur bones mechanical strength for both male and female [33]. Mechanical Test 30 years 31 50 51 70 years > 70 P value (13) years (15) years (13) (14) Tensile Strength MPa 43.443.62 39.824.29 33.166.43 30.167.09 < 0.001 Compresive strength MPa 155.89.53 142.3712.12 124.4415.40 115.2912.94 < 0.001 D.T. Reilly et.al.in 1974,They found compact bone will have compressive strength of 170 N/mm2 and Tensile strength of 120 N/mm2 and Trabecular Bone will have Tensile strength of 2.2 N/mm2 [5]. Literature Survey: The Bone, which is a natural composite material, consists mainly of collagen fibers and an inorganic bone mineral matrix in the form of small crystal called apatite. Collagen is the main fibrous protein, the composite of mineral component in the body. Cartilage is a collagen based tissue which contains large protein saccharit molecules that form a gel in which collagen fibrous are bonded [1,2,38].No health risk of Sisal fibre [6], Utilization of Sisal in orthopaedics [18], natural fibres represent an environmentally friendly alternative by virtue of several attractive attributes that include lower density, lower cost, non-toxicity, ease of processing, renewability and recyclability [19-21] ,Biocomposite materials based on biopolymers and natural fibers used as bone implants[12].Much of natural product obtained from plants having own medicinal values such as biologically active phytochemicals are normally present in leaves, roots, barks and flowers [22] and there are number of medicinal plants which possess anti fertility property [23]. Nanocomposites have its own importance such as ZnO is an ecofriendly material and non toxic for human bodies and also used in biomedical applications [24]. Hybrid Polymer Matrix Composites are used for Biomedical Applications [28]. It is found that red mud particulates results in improvement of erosion wear resistance of both the bamboo and glass fiber composites [29]. A Bio-material is defined as any systemically, pharmacologically inert substance or combination of substances utilized for implantation within or incorporation with a living system to supplement or replace functions of living tissues or organs. Biomaterial devices used in orthopedics are commonly called implants; these are manufactured for a great number of orthopaedic applications [16]. Wear behaviour due to the presence of both particulate fillers and the reinforcing fibers[26]. The field of corrosion in biological systems is young and fertile as man knows only little about his physiology and its interactions with the foreign body is much more complicated and hence the mission will continue [30].Finally current used orthopaedic implants have the tendencies to fail after long period of usage, due to the corrosion issue of implant in the human body[27], The main fundamental requirements that orthopedic devices must fulfill in order to function adequately are summarized as follows. It should be Biocompatibility, Appropriate Design and Manufacturability of Implants, Mechanical and

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 377

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
Biological Stabilities. Corrosion Resistance. Resistance to Implant Wear and Aseptic Loosening. Properties of Biomaterials [7], Requirements of Biomaterials are It must be inert or specifically interactive. It must be Biocompatible. Mechanically and chemically stable. Biodegradable. Processable (for manufacturability): It must be machinable, moldable, and extrudable.Nonthrombogenic (if blood contracting). Sterilizable. Non-carcinogenic, non-pyrogenic, nontoxic, non-allergenic, blood compatible, non-inflammatory. Physical Characteristics Requirements: Strength, Toughness, Elasticity, Corrosion-resistance, Wear resistance, Long term stability.[8]:Ways in Which Materials Can Fail are Corrosion ,Fatigue ,Wear [9,10,25] Corrosion: Gradual degradation of material by electro-chemical attack, when placed in the electrolytic environment of the body. Corrosion can be minimized by, Choosing a corrosion resistant material ,Treating the surface with a passivating layer prior to use ,Not using combinations of metals in close proximity,Careful operating technique to reduce surface scratching. ,Using non modular implants. Wear : The removal of material from solid surfaces by mechanical action[10].Effects of wear: Most predominant in joint prostheses. Joint wears out but prior to this, the particles produced by wear (metal or polyethylene or cement particles) are phagocytosed by osteoclasts causing osteolysis and therefore loosening of components. The fracture moments in femur throughout skeletal development ranged from 20 Nm (for a pediatric specimen) to 630 Nm(for an adult male)[31]. When Femur Bone is subjected to Mechanical tests and found that the overall trend is towards higher toughness during both tensile and compressive tests. The mean tensile strength in males is 39.744.80 MPa and in female it is 30.087.96 MPa. The mean compressive strength in males is found to be 141.615.91 MPa and in females it is observed to be 118.9118.99 MPa. This data is of an averaged over an age of 19 83 years which includes both male and female [33]. Density of Cortical bone 2.0208 (g/cm3) and Trabecular bone is 1.3712 (g/cm3)[34,37]. The cortical bone in the femoral neck is relatively highly loaded in the osteoporotic case, cortical bone might play a larger role in load transfer and bone strength than often suggested and should be accounted for in analyses of bone strength[35].They found analysis of predicting the load-bearing capacities of human femurs using quantitative computer tomography (QCT)-based beam theory[36]. The goals of the present Research work are: 1. To produce the Bio-composite materials of different compositions 2. To report Tensile and compression properties to femur bone. 3. To study Tensile and compression properties of biomaterials. 4. To compare results of Tensile and compression with different compositions of Bio-composite material to orthopaedic field/Femur Bone. The paper is organized as follows. In section 1, Introduction of biomaterials and requirements are listed. In section 2, the method of preparation of composite materials is explained. In section 3, gives the detail of Tensile and compression of experimental process. In section 4 Results of experimental process for different specimen are tabulated. In section 5, conclusions and future scope of paper are listed.

2. METHODOLOGY
Fabrication Method and Preparation of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite Each layer of fabric was pre-impregnated with matrix material which is prepared by mixing general purpose (polyester) Epoxy resin (LY556), accelerator and catalyst in the weight ratio of 1:0.02:0.026 respectively and these layers were placed one over the other in the mould with care to maintain practically achieved tolerance on fabric alignment. Casting was cured under light pressure for 2 hours before removal from the mould.Hand lay-up technique is used [09, 10,11,13] to prepare specimen as shown in Fig.1. 2.1 Natural Fibre Preparation:- Here continuous fibre with random orientation is used for fabricate the natural fibre composites. First the natural fibres are cleaned in the distilled water. The cleaned natural fibres are dried in the sun light. The dried natural fibres are again cleaned by chemical cleaning process. In chemical cleaning process the 80% sodium hydroxide is mixed with 20% distilled water. The dried natural fibres dipped in the diluted sodium hydroxide solution. Its again dried in sun light .The dried natural fibres are cut in the length of 500mm by manually. The cut natural fibres are used in fabricate the natural(Sisal)fibre reinforced epoxy composite material (SFRECM).

Fig 2.1 Sisal Fibre

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 378

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
Materials Used for Fabrication Work:- Natural fiber-(sisal fibre), Epoxy resin LY556 and Hardener HY 951. 2.2 Requirements For Fabricate Natural Fibre Composites Epoxy resin,Hardener,Natural Fibre,Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH),Weighing Machine,Roller,Bowl, Stirrer,Oven or Furnace to dry the specimen 2.3 Fabrication Process: this mould and loose the clamps and remove the fabricated material and for this material Zip some coat is applied to fill the pits or blow holes after this go for annealing process for dry the material by maintaining the temperature of 82 for an 15 minutes and take out the material Mould Preparation And Fabrication Process For 20mm in Tensile, Compression,: Take the Top mould or Die which is made up of Cast Iron of size 360mm 300mm

rectangular shape And similarly Take the Bottom mould or Die which is made up of Cast Iron of size 360mm 300mm 20mm mm in rectangular shape and place these moulds one above the other and tight these plates by means of 2 CClamps. Surrounding Die very thick rubber sheet is used to prevent the material and to avoid air or blow holes on the specimens and this rubber sheet is withstand up to temperature of 100 The working surface was cleaned with thinner to remove dirt and a thin coat of wax is applied on the surface to get smooth finish. Then a thin coat of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is applied for easy removal of mould. sisal fabrics are cut to the required dimensions for test specimen preimpregnated with matrix material and placed one over the other in the mould. Take this mould and place in oven/furnace for annealing process up to one hour by maintaining the temperature of 80 after completion of this process take the mould for hot blow-up process by maintaining 99 upto 2 hours for dry the material. take from furnace and wait for one hour and cut the material according to required size i.e. as per ASTM standards. After this go for finishing process by means smooth filing. Hand lay-up technique is used to prepare specimen as shown in Fig. 2.3. The working surface was cleaned with thinner to remove dirt and a thin coat of wax is applied on the surface to get smooth finish. Then a thin coat of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is applied for easy removal of mould. sisal fabrics are cut to the required dimensions for test specimen pre-impregnated with matrix material and placed one over the other in the mould. Casting was cured under light pressure for 2 hours before removal of mould. All test specimens were molded and prepared according to ASTM-D3039(250x25x3) and ASTM-D-1621(50x50x3) standard to avoid edge and cutting effect, thereby minimizing stress concentration effect. Specimen length, width, gauge length, depth and configuration for each test, test specimens are showed in the Fig 3.1, 3.2

Fig. 2.3: Hand lay-up technique

Fig.2.4 Furnace for annealing

Fig.2.5 Mixing process The present invention focuses on fabrication of natural fiber (sisal fibre) reinforced epoxy composite material round rod with epoxy resin Grade LY556 and Hardener HY 951, instead of orthopaedics alloys such as titanium, cobalt chrome,

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 379

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
stainless steel, and zirconium, this plate material can be used for internal and external fixation on human body for fractured bone or orthopaedic implant [7] or any other suitable Bio-medical field. 3.1. Compositions of the selected materials There are three different compositions of the composite materials have been selected for the characterisations of composite materials are as follows: Composition:- Proportion (Fibre weight Fraction) of Sisal Fibre 1) 10% Sisal Fibre + 80% Resin +10% Hardener.Similarly take & Weight the 20% and 30% sisal fibre by means of Electronic Weighing machine for Fabrication work. (Proportion of resin, accelerator and catalyst in the weight ratio of 1:0.02:0.026) The resin and hardener were taken in the ratio of 10: 1 parts by weight, respectively. Then, a pre-calculated amount of hardener was mixed with the epoxy resin and stirred for 20 minutes before pouring into the mold. 10% Fibre Fraction

20% Fibre Fraction

30% Fibre Fraction

Figure.3.1 shows the Tensile specimen of 10%,20% and 30%SFRECM before testing. 10% Fibre Fraction

20% Fibre Fraction

30% Fibre Fraction

Figure.3.2 shows the Compression specimen of 10%,20% and 30%SFRECM before testing. Table3.1 Composition, Mass, Volume and Density of Tensile (with Tab) Specimens:Weight of Volum Mass of Densit Volum Weight Mass Densit of Sisal Fibre e of Sisal y of e of of of y of Sisal used for Sisal Fibre the Epoxy Epoxy( Epoxy( the fibre fabrication Fibre used for Sisal used Resin - Resin - Resin ( used work;wf=m used fabricati Fibre ( for LY556 LY556 r) to g for on work f) fabrica )Wr )mr=w/ gm/ prepar (in fabrica mf=w kg/c tion g cm3 e the Grams) tion /g m3 work specim (for work= Vr ens Tensile we vf use tabs to hold the specimens in machine & Flexible Specimens) %

Sl no

Mass of HardnerHY 951used for fabricatio n work

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 380

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
01 10 %(No of specim ens =03) 20 % (No of specim ens =03) 30 %(No of specim ens =03) 25gms l= 25c m3 25m 2.54 0.10 250 ml=25 0cm3 250 ml= 391 gms 39.8 5 9 0.15 25 ml=25c m3= 22.5

02

25x1+(25 x10/100)=2 7.5gms

27.5 ml= 27.5 cm3

2.80 1

0.10

225 ml=22 5cm3

225 ml= 362. 94gms

36.9 9 4

0.16

25 ml=25c m3= 22.5

03

27.5x1+( 27.5x10/10 0)=30.25gm s

30.2 5cm3

3.08 1

0.10

200 ml=20 0cm3

200 ml= 328. 94gms

33.5 2 7

0.16

25 ml=25c m3= 22.5

Volume of specimen :LxWxT;250x25x3=18750mm3 =18.75cm3 Table 3.2 Rule of mixtures/ Volume Fraction:- Volume of specimen :LxWxT250x25x3=18750mm3 Sl Wei Weight Mass Density Mass Mass Sum of Volume no ght of the of the of the Fractio Fractions Mass fraction of Tensile Tensile Tensile ns (Weight Fractions of resin the Test Test Test (Weight Fraction) Tensil (Vr) spec specim specim specime Fractio of Matrix e:Tensile:ime ens(gm ens(gm ns n) of of Wf+Wm= Vr= n(g ) after ) after ( c) Fibre of Tensile = 1 Mr. c/ m) curing( curing( Tensile Wm= wm/ Mc . r after Under Under =Wf= wc curi dry dry wf/ wc ng( conditi conditi Und on) on) er gms gms Wet Wc Mc cond ition ) 0 46.7 4.76 0.25 25/46 391/46 8.90 13.28 1=1 4 8 4.89 0.26 .75 .75=8.37 0% 38.5 48.0 4.63 0.24 =0.534 gms 1 =av =avg 7 45.4 g= = 8=avg 4.76 0.25 =46.75 0 45.3 4.62 0.24 27.50 362.94 8.60 11.98 2=2 4 3 4.67 0.24 /45.69= /45.69=8 0% 12.9 45.8 4.67 0.24 0.60 .00 4 8 =av =avg gms 45.8 g= = 7 4.65 0.24 =av g=45.6 9 0 41.4 4.22 0.22 30.25 328.94 8.57 10.65 3=3 3 2 4.25 0.22 /41.85= /41.85=7 0% 81.6 41.7 4.31 0.22 0.722 .85 9 8 =av =avg

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 381

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
gms 7 42.3 0.22 =av g=41.8 5 Table 3.3 Rule of mixtures/ Volume Fraction:- Volume of specimen :LxWxT250x25x3=18750mm3 =18.75cm3 fiber Fibre Mat Sum Mass( Mass( Sum of volum Volu rix of Weight Weight mass e me Vol Volu fractio fractio fraction Tensile specimens fractio Fract ume me n) n) = n(Vf) ions Frac Fracti Fractio Fractio Wf+ Vf =Vf= tion ons ns ns Wm=1 = 1 vf/ vc s=V /Tensi Of Of Vr le:fibre= Matrix = m= vm/ Vf+ Wf= wf/ =Wm= vc Vm= wc wm/ wc g= 4.26 =

=12.28 10.98 9.65

1. 33 1. 46 1. 66

1 3.33 1 2 1 0.66

14. 66 13. 46 12. 32

2.24 3 2.10 2 1.94 3

0.53 1 0.60 4 0.72 8

8.37 7.95 7.86

8.904 8.556 8.591

From these experimental results it shows that by increasing the % of (Weight Fraction)Sisal fibre it decreases the weight of the specimens and also it decreases the density of the specimen. 3.2To find the Volume Fraction of Fibre:- The volume fraction of fiber was calculated by a method which enables the rule of mixtures to be applied and the measured composite properties to be analysed. The method involves measuring the density of the composite ( c) of mass (Mc) at a given mass fraction of the resin (Mr) Volume fraction of resin (Vr) was calculated using the formula [39]: Vr= Mr. c/ Mc. r;where r is the density of resin in g/cm3;Then the fiber volume fraction is determined;Vf = 1 Vr.;Vr= Mr. c/ Mc. r Vr=39.85X.25/4.76X0.159=9.96/.756=13.28; Vf = 1 Vr.;Vf = 1-14.49= -12.28 Volume Fractions:1).Fibre Volume Fractions=Vf= vf/ vc = (Volume of Fibre/Volume of Composite) Vf=25/18.75=1.33 2).Matrix Volume Fractions=Vm= vm/ vc = (Volume of Matrix /Volume of Composite) Vm=250/18.75=13.33 3).Sum of Volume Fractions:- Vf +Vm=1; vf+ vm =vc;1.33+13.33=14.66 Mass Fractions:-1).Mass Fractions (Weight Fraction) of Fibre=Wf= wf/ wc = (Mass of Fibre/Mass of Composite) Wf=2.54/4.76 =0.5344 2). Mass Fractions (Weight Fraction) of Matrix= Wm= wm/ wc = (Mass of Matrix/Mass of Composite) Wm=39.85/4.76=8.371 3).Sum of Mass Fractions:- Wf +Wm=1; 0.53+8.371=8.904 wf+ wm =wc; 25+391=416(under wet condition) 4). Mass Fractions and Volume Fractions related as:Wf= x Vf/ =.10x25/.25=10; Wm= x Vm/ Wm=0.159 X 250/.25=39.75/.25=159 Wf +Wm=1; 10+159=169 The Density of composite in terms of mass fractions= 1/ Wf / +Wm / 1/ 10/0.10 + 159/0.159 = 100+1000=110 1/ ; =1/1000=0.00090; From: definition of Fibre and matrix Volume fractions is given by; gm/cm3

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 382

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
S l n o % of Sisal fibre used to prepare the specime ns Table3.4 Mass,Volume and Density of Compression Test Specimens:Weight of Volum Mass Volume of Weight Mass Density Fibre used for e of of Epoxy(Resi of of of the fabrication work fibre Fibre n -LY556) Epoxy Epox Resin ( (in Grams) Cm3 m= used for (gms) y r)=Mas (for w/g fabrication w= m= s/Volum Compression & work mg w/g e=gm/cm 3 Hardness test) w=mg Mass of Hardne r -HY 951 used for fabrica tion work 10 ml=15 gms

10%( 4.50gms 4.50 0.45 125 179. 18. 0.146 No of ml=125cm3 63 31 specime ns =03) 0 20%( 4.5x1+(4.5x10 4.95 0.50 110 166. 16. 0.154 10 2 No of /100)=4.95gms ml=110cm3 20 94 ml=15 specime gms ns =03) 0 30%( 4.95x1+(4.95x 5.45 0.55 100 151. 15. 0.154 10 3 No of 10/100)=5.45gm ml=100cm3 10 40 ml=15 specime s gms ns =03) From this it shows that by increasing the % of Sisal fibre it decreases the weight of the specimens and decreases the density of the specimen. Rule of mixtures/ Volume Fraction calculated by using the formula Vr= Mr. c/ Mc. r Vf = 1 Vr. 1 Table 3.5 Rule of mixtures/ Volume Fraction:- Volume of specimen :LxWxT:50x50x3=7500mm3=7.5 cm3 % of Weight Mass Densit Mass Mass Sum Volume fiber Fibre Matrix Sisal of the of the y of Fractio Fractions of Mass fraction volume Volu Volum fibre specim specim specim ns (Weight Fraction of resin fraction me e Reen(gm) en(gm) en:Mas (Weigh Fraction) s:(Vr) (Vf) Fract Fractio inforce after after s/Volu t of Wf+Wm Vr= Vf = ions ns= d curing curing me Fractio Matrix= =1 Mr. c/ 1 =Vf= Vm= Epoxy dry dry gm/c n) of Wm= wm/ Mc. r Vr vf/ vc vm/ vc Resin conditi conditi m3 Fibre= wc = Compo on) on)kg/ Wf= wf/ site gmf gms wc m=w /g 9.48 0.96 0.12 8.47 6 8 10% 8.89 0.86 0.11 0.49 20.09 20.58 16.51 0. 16.6 (No of avg= 3 5 8 15.51 6 6 specim 8.946 0.90 0.12 ens 6 0 =03) avg= avg= 0.911 0.121 9.28 9.42 9.37 avg= 9.356 0.94 5 0.96 0 0.95 5 avg= 0.956 7 avg= 0.127 8 0.12 6 0.12 0.12 0.52 17.71 18.23 14.62 13.62 0. 66 6 14.6 2 15.3

Sum of Volum e Fracti ons Vf+ Vm=1

17.2 6

20%(N o of specim ens =03)

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 383

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
30%(N o of specim ens =03) 8.38 9.53 8.27 avg= 8.72 0.85 4 0.97 1 0.84 3 avg= 0.889 2 avg= 0.118 9 0.11 3 0.12 0.11 0.61 17.32 17.93 13.36 12.36 0. 72 3 13.3 5 14.0

From these experimental results it shows that by increasing the % of (Weight Fraction) Sisal fibre it decreases the weight of the specimens and also it decreases the density of the specimen.

Fig.3.3:Electronic(Computer Interfaced) Universal Testing Machine of capacity 40 Ton Setup for Tensile Test,Flexibility,Compression and Rockwell machine for hardness test.

4.RESULT AND DISCUSSION


4.1.Results and Graphs for Tensile and Compression Test

Graph 4.1.1.10% SFRECM for Tensile test specimen

Graph 4.1.2.20% SFRECM for Tensile test specimen

Graph 4.1.3.30% SFRECM for Tensile test specimen

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 384

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
Table 4.1.Tabular column shows Graphs Result of Tensile Test of 10% SFRECM. Displacem Peak Maximum ent Breaking Area Ultimate Stress Elongat Load(Fma Displaceme At Fmax Load (kN) (mm2) (kN/mm2) ion-% x) (kN) nt(mm) (mm) 4.460 0.600 4.080 5.400 75.00 0.059=59 N/mm2 1.33% 4.460 5.700 4.640 5.700 75.00 0.062=62 N/mm2 3.80% 4.140 8.500 4.140 8.600 75.00 0.055=55 N/mm2 5.73% 5.460 2.200 5.460 2.200 75.00 0.073=73 N/mm2 1.33% Table 4.2.Tabular column shows Graphs Result of Tensile Test of -20%SFRECM. Sl. No 01 02 03 Peak Load(Fmax ) (kN) 2.660 5.940 6.220 Displacement At Fmax (mm) 3.44 3.400 2.700 Breaking Load (kN) 2.660 5.940 4.300 Maximum Displacement (mm) 3.400 3.500 2.800 Area (mm2 ) 75.00 75.00 75.00 Ultimate Stress (kN/mm2) 0.035 0.079 0.083 Elongati on-% 1.33 1.33 2.00 Yeild Stress (kN/m m2) 0.054 0.061 0.061 Yeild Stress (kN/m m2) 0.054 0.055 0.050 0.061

Sl. No 01 02 03 04

Table 4.3.Tabular column shows Graphs Result of Tensile Test of -30%SFRECM. Sl. No 01 02 03 Peak Load(Fmax ) (kN) 5.800 5.420 5.480 Displacement At Fmax mm) 2.600 3.300 3.5 Breaking Load (kN) 4.22 4.300 4.220 Maximum Displacement (mm) 2.700 3.700 3.700 Area (mm2) 75.00 75.00 75000 Ultimate Stress (kN/mm2) 0.077 0.072 0.073 Elong ation -% 1.33 1.33 1.33 Yield Stress (kN/mm 2) 0.062 0.057 0.063

4.1.Tensile strength:-From experimental results it is found that for 10% SFRECM peak load=5.460kN,we get Ultimate stress=73(N/mm2),similarly for 20% SFRECM peak load=6.220kN,we get Ultimate stress=83(N/mm2), similarly for 30% SFRECM peak load=5.800kN,we get Ultimate stress=77(N/mm2) ,from this conclude that by increasing the weight fraction of sisal fibre it increases the strength of the specimen and From this experimental results the tensile strength of specimen will match the femur bone tensile strength.

Fig:-4.1 Tensile test Specimens after the testing 4.3. Compression Test: Compression tests on composite specimens were carried out according to ASTMD 1621 standard to determine compressive strength and modulus of elasticity for SFREC to observe the behaviour of SFREC under load. The Prepared specimens are showed in the fig 3.2 and tested specimens are shown in Fig.4.2. Table 4.4 Tabular column shows Manually taken readings (without soft copy Graphs Result)of Compression Test of 10%SFRECM. Peak Load Maximum C/S Load Breaking Compressive Strength Sl.No FMAX(kN Displacement Area (kN) Load kN (PKL/Area)(kN/mm2) ) -mm mm2 01 6.00 6.38 6.38 0.2 150.000 0.042=42.53N/mm2 02 7.75 7.92 7.92 0.5 150.000 0.052=52.80N/mm2 03 6.80 7.10 7.10 0.4 150.000 0.047=47.33N/mm2

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 385

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
Table 4.5 Tabular column shows Experimental Results of Mannually taken readings (without soft copy Graphs Result)of Compression Test of -20%SFRECM Peak Load Maximum C/S Load Breaking Compressive Strength Sl.No FMAX(kN Displacement Area (kN) Load kN (PKL/Area)(kN/mm2) ) -mm mm2 01 8.44 8.66 8.66 0.4 150.000 0.057=57.73N/mm2 02 7.53 7.74 7.74 0.4 150.000 0.051=51.6N/mm2 03 8.12 8.15 8.15 0.35 150.000 0.054=54.33N/mm2 Table 4.6 Tabular column shows Manually taken readings (without soft copy Graphs Result)of CompressionTest of 30%SFRECM Peak Load Maximum Load Breaking C/S Area Compressive Strength Sl.No FMAX(kN Displacement (kN) Load kN mm2 (PKL/Area)(kN/mm2) ) -mm 01 9.58 9.6 9.6 0.6 150.000 0.064=64.00N/mm2 02 9.65 9.7 9.7 0.3 150.000 0.064=64.66 N/mm2 03 9.25 9.3 9.3 0.4 150.000 0.062=62.00N/mm2

Fig:-4.2 Compression test Specimens after the testing

Graph 4.1.4.Comparison of peak load of SFRECM for Tensile test

Graph 4.1.5.Comparison of peak load of SFRECM for compressive test

5. CONCLUSIONS
1.From experimental results it is found that sisal fibre will have good tensile strength and compression strength, 2. The main emphasis of the work was on development, testing and characterization of these composites to know their suitability and adaptability for orthopaedic implants

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 386

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
3. From the Tensile test it was found that the Peak load, UTS and % elongation of sisal fiber reinforced Epoxy composite is increasing with increase in the fiber percentage 4. From Tensile test experimental results it is found that for 10% SFRECM peak load=5.460kN,we get Ultimate stress=73(N/mm2) ,similarly for 20% SFRECM peak load=6.220kN,we get Ultimate stress=83(N/mm2),similarly for 30% SFRECM peak load=5.800kN,we get Ultimate stress=77(N/mm2) ,from this conclude that by increasing the weight fraction of sisal fibre it increases the strength of the specimen and these results will match /get the Femur Bone mechanical properties. 5. From the Compression test it was found that the Peak load, break load and compressive strength of sisal fiber reinforced Epoxy composite is increasing with increase in the fiber percentage. 6. From experimental results it is found that for 10% SFRECM peak load=7.920kN,we get Compressive Strength =52.80 (N/mm2) ,similarly for 20% SFRECM peak load=8.66kN,we get Compressive stress=57.73(N/mm2) , similarly for 30% SFRECM peak load=9.7kN,we get Compressive stress=64.66(N/mm2) ,from this conclude that by increasing the weight fraction of sisal fibre it increases the strength of the specimen and if we increase the weight fraction of sisal fibre we will get the Femur Bone Compression strength. 7. From the above experimental results It indicates that the sisal fiber reinforced epoxy composites will have better mechanical properties like tensile properties and Compressive properties by increase in the percentage of the sisal fiber.

6. SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK


1.From the experimental result compression strength of specimen will not match the compression strength of femur bone ,Therefore if we increase the weight fraction of fibre in the fabrication work to prepare the specimen and ultimately increases strength of SFRECM and hence it matches the compression strength of femur bone. Hence, further studies are required for development of better process and modification methods for sisal fibres to improve the bonding between the matrix and fibre. 2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for the specimens to be carried out 3. Corrosion test for the specimens to be conduct. 4. For these (SFRECM) composite materials coating will be done by any suitable different bio-compatible coating material (eg:-calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite) for to use orthopaedic field or can be used for both internal and external fixation on the human body for fractured bone. 5. Finite Element Analysis will be carried out. 6. Research work on hybrid composites (Sisal/Coconut/Banana/Roselle fibre /fibre,jute/sisal-glass, jute/sisal-boron- other conventional fibres) is also limited. or Polyurethane powder/Titanium powder and Detailed research in this area could be carried. Hence, there is a wide scope for future work.

REFERENCES:
[1] M S.Ramakrishna, J. Mayer, E. Wintermantel, Kam W. Leong, paper entitled Biomedical application of polymercomposite materials: a review, Composites science and technology journal, 61 (2001), pp (1189-1224), ELSEVIER. [2] Introduction to Biomaterials in Orthopaedic Surgery, 2009 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Biomaterials in Orthopaedic Surgery (#05233G), www.asminternational.org [3] H. Gray, Anatomy of the human body. pp 95-96, In: Warren HL, editor. Philadelphia: Lea & Febriger, 1918. [4] S.Lees, A model for the distribution of HAP crystallites in bone - a hypothesis, Calcif. Tiss. Int., 27 53-56 (1976). [5] D.T. Reilly, A.H. Burstein, V.H. Frankel,The elastic modulus of bone, J. Biomechanics, 7 271-275 (1974). [6] Yan Li, Yiu-Wing Mai *, Lin Ye paper entitled Sisal Fibre and its composites: a review of recent developments Composites Science and Technology 60 (2000) 20372055 www.elsevier.com/locate/compscitech.[2] [7] Hanumantharaju, H. G., Dr. H. K Shivanand,., "Static analysis of bi-polar femur Bone implant using fea", International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol. 1, No.5, May 2009, pp. 118- 121 [8] Williams, Wiley, New York, 1980, Ch. 36. G. F. Howden, Mechanical Properties of Biomaterials (eds G. W. Hastings & D. F.) [9] MATERIALS DEGRADATION AND ITS CONTROL BY SURFACE ENGINEERING (2nd EDITION) Copyright 2002 by Imperial College Press Wear Mechanisms, Materials Science & Engineering. [10] ASTM Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate, ANSI ASTM B265-95, American Society for Testing and Materials [11] Medical Devices and Services, Vol 13.01, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, 2004 [12] D. CHANDRAMOHAN et al. paper entitled Bio composite materials based on bio polymers and natural fibers contribution as bone implants (ijamsar) international journal of advanced medical sciences and applied research vol no. 1, issue no. 1, 009 012. [13] M.SAKTHIVEl1,S.RAMESH2,1Asst.Professor, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur .2Professor, Sona College of Engineering, Salem paper entitled Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre (Banana,Coir, Sisal) Polymer Composites SCIENCE PARK ISSN: 2321 8045 Vol-1, Issue-1, July 2013.

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 387

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
[14] Girisha.C, Sanjeevamurthy, Gunti Ranga Srinivas paper entitled Sisal/Coconut Coir Natural Fibers Epoxy Composites: Water Absorption and Mechanical Properties International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2012. [15] K. Murali Mohan Rao, K. Mohana Rao, A.V. Ratna Prasad, paper entitled Fabrication and testing of natural fibre composites: Vakka, sisal, bamboo and banana. Journal of Materials and Design, volume 31, (2010), 508513. [16] www.biomaterials.com [17] Girisha.C*1, Sanjeevamurthy2, Gunti Rangasrinivas3 , Manu.S4 paper entitled Mechanical Performance Of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy-Hybrid Composites International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.615-619 [18] D.Chandramohan, * K. Marimuthu, S.Rajesh & M.M.Ravikumar paper entitled Applications of CT/CAD/RPT in the Futuristic Development of Orthopaedics and Fabrication of Plate and Screw Material from Natural Fiber Particle Reinforced Composites for Humerus Bone Fixation A Future Drift Malaysian Journal of Educational Technology Volume 10, Number 2, December 2010. [19] A.K. Bledzk and J. Gassan, Composites reinforced with cellulose-based fibres, Prog.Polym. Sci.24, 211-274 (1999). [20] A.N. Netravali and S. Chabba, paper entitled Composites get greener, Materials Today 6, 22-29 (2003) [21] G. Marsh, paper entitled A guide for green composites, Reinforced Plastics 48, 18-26 (2004). [22] Thillai Sivakumar N and Venkataraman R, paper entitled Der Pharmacia Sinica, 1 (1): 1-6 (2010) [23] Dubey R, Dubey K, Sridhar C and Jayaveera KN , Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2 (2): 11-16(2011). [24] Gangopadhyay A and Sarkar A, Advances in Applied Science Research, 2 (1): 149-152 [25] Chand N. and Dwivedi U.K. 2007c. paper entitled Influence of fiber orientation on high stress wear behavior of sisal fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. Polymer composites, Vol. 28, p. 437-441. [26] Sandhyarani Biswas paper entitled Erosion Wear Behaviour of Copper Slag Filled Short Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.6,No.2,April 2013. [27] Kean-Khoon Chew, Sharif Hussein Sharif Zein*, Abdul Latif Ahmad paper entitled The corrosion scenario in human body: Stainless steel 316L orthopaedic implants Vol.4, No.3,184-188 (2012) Natural Science http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ns.2012.43027. [28] Dr. Mohammed Haneef, 1 Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman, 2 Dr. Mohammed Yunus, 3 Mr. Syed Zameer, 4 Mr. Shanawaz patil, 5 Prof.Tajuddin Yezdani6 paper entitled Hybrid Polymer Matrix Composites for Biomedical Applications International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.2, March-April. 2013 pp-970-979 ISSN: 2249-6645. [29] Sandhyarani Biswas and Alok Satapathy paper entitled A Comparative Study on Erosion Characteristics of Red Mud Filled Bamboo-Epoxy and Glass-Epoxy Composites paper entitled journals of materials and Design,Vol 31, issue04,April 2010.pages 1752-1767. [30] Geetha Manivasagam*, Durgalakshmi Dhinasekaran and Asokamani Rajamanickam Biomedical Implants: Corrosion and its Prevention - A Review Recent Patents on Corrosion Science, 2010, 2, 40- 54 [31] Jason L. Forman.et.al Fracture Tolerance Related to Skeletal Development and Aging Throughout Life: 3-Point Bending of Human Femurs IRC-12-62 IRCOBI Conference 2012 [32] AMRITA FRANCIS1*, et.al.BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FEMUR: A REVIEW Journal of Biomedical and Bioengineering,ISSN: 0976-8084 & E-ISSN: 0976-8092, Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp.-67-70. [33] Raviraj Havaldar1, S. C. Pilli2, B. B. Putti3 1 Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, KLESCET, Belgaum. 2Principal, KLES College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum. 3Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, JNMC, KLE University, Belgaum, Effects of Ageing on Bone Mineral Composition and Bone StrengthIOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSRJDMS) ISSN : 2279-0853 Volume 1, Issue 3 (SepOct. 2012), PP 12-16 www.iosrjournals.org [34] A.E. Yousif 1, M.Y. Aziz 2 1(Professor, College of Engineering, Al-Nahrain University) 2(Graduate Student, Medical Engineering Department, Al-Nahrain University) Biomechanical Analysis of the human femur bone during normal walking and standing upIOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN) ISSN: 2250-3021 Volume 2, Issue 8 (August 2012), PP 13-19 www.iosrjen.org [35] E. Verhulp, B. van Rietbergen , R. Huiskes Load distribution in the healthy and osteoporotic human proximal femur during a fall to the side Bone 42 (2008) 3035, www.elsevier.com/locate/bone [36] TAEYONG LEE,et.al. Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore Novel Approach of Predicting Fracture Load in the Human Proximal Femur Using Non-Invasive QCT Imaging Technique Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 5, May 2009 (_ 2009) pp. 966975 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-009-9670-9 [37] E.M.M. FONSECA, M.J.LIMA, L.M.S. BARREIRA Polytechnic Institute of Bragana Bragana, Portugal,HUMAN FEMUR ASSESSMENT USING ISOTROPIC AND ORTHOTROPIC MATERIALS DEPENDENT OF BONE DENSITY, Paper Ref: S1904_P0345 3rd International Conference on Integrity, Reliability and Failure, Porto/Portugal, 20-24 July 2009

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 388

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847
[38] Tony M. Keaveny University of California, San Francisco, California and University of California, Berkeley, California BONE MECHANICS Source: STANDARD HANDBOOK OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING AND DESIGN [39] Autar K.Kaw,Mechanics of Composite Materials ,CRC Press Boca Raton NewYork pp.151-159 [40] www.azom.com [41] www.efunda.com [42] www.matweb.com [43] www. Google.com

Authors:1 Dr. K R Dinesh, He obtained his M.E Degree from Mysore University (SJCE-Mysore) in 1991 and his Ph.D from University Vishweshwarayya College of Engineering Bangalore. Presently working at the capacity of Principal and Professor Mechanical Engineering at Government Engineering College- Raichur, guiding three Ph.D. students under VTU -Belgaum on composite materials, Bio-implant materials and Tool design, having 22 years of teaching, research and 8 years of research experience and BOE at VTU University level. Papers Publication12 Papers at National level conferences and 6 papers at National/international level journals.

Authors:2 Jagadish S P , He obtained his M.E Degree from Bangalore University -Bangalore in 2010 and pursuing parttime Ph.D from Visvesvaraya technological University Belgaum in Bio-composite materials. Having 10 years of teaching experience, at present he is serving as Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical engineering at RYMEC-Bellary. He has many national and international publications to his credit. Authors:3 Dr. A Thimmanagouda, He obtained his M.Tech Degree from Mysore University (SJCE-Mysore) in 1991 and his Ph.D from S.K.University Ananthpur in 2011.At present he is serving as Professor, and HOD Department of Industrial Production Engineering at RYMEC-Bellary. He served as Principal PD institute of Technology Hospet from 2001 to 2005.He has many national and international publications to his credit. His area of interest is Quality Management and Composite Materials. He is guiding Three Ph.D research Scholars under VTUBelgaum. Authors:4 Dr. Neeta Hatapaki, she obtained M.B.B.S from Rajiv Gandhi University, Banglore, and M.D. in Community Medicine, from KLE University of Medical sciences, Belgaum in May 2012. At present working in RNTCP Program as SR. Medical Officer, at Govt. Wellesly TB & Chest disease Hospital, Vijayanagar Institute of Medical College, Bellary. Completed thesis on Milk Borne Diseses. And presented oral paper on the same topic in National IJCM and IPHA Conference at Karad in 2012.

Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013

Page 389