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Automotive Service Terminology Automotive Service Technicians

Acknowledgements
Winnipeg Technical College and the Department of Labour and Immigration of Manitoba wish to express sincere appreciation to all contributors. Special acknowledgments are extended to the following individuals: Manola Barlow, Independent Contractor Sarah McDowell, Independent Contractor Recognition of Prior Learning Coordinator, Winnipeg Technical College Don Chadney, Motor Vehicle/Mechanical Repair Instructor, Winnipeg Technical College Funding for this project has been provided by The Citizenship and Multicultural Division, Manitoba Department of Labour and Immigration.

Disclaimer
Statements and opinions in this document do not reflect those of Winnipeg Technical College or the project funder, Citizenship and Multicultural Division, Manitoba Department of Labour and Immigration. The information is gathered from a variety of sources and is current and accurate as of the revision date noted. This information is subject to change and will not be further updated. It is the responsibility of the reader to seek current statistics and information. Please contact the Winnipeg Technical College at 989-6500 or www.wtc.mb.ca if you have questions about the contents of this document

Table of Contents
Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Basic Service Tools: Matching--------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Measuring Tools: Matching------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 Essential Terms/ Definitions------------------------------------------------------------------ 9 Essential Systems: Crossword ------------------------------------------------------------ 10 Lubrication and Cooling Systems --------------------------------------------------------- 11 Comprehension Questions ----------------------------------------------------------------- 13 Seals, Bearings, Fittings, Belts and Pulleys -------------------------------------------- 14 Comprehension Questions ----------------------------------------------------------------- 15 Suspension System -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 Suspension System: Matching ------------------------------------------------------------ 19 Steering Systems and Wheel Alignment ------------------------------------------------ 20 Brake System ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 Categorizing Terms--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23 Answer Key------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 Recommended Resources ----------------------------------------------------------------- 26 References ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

Introduction
As a student, studying to be an automotive service technician, you will hear automotive trade terminology everyday. As a result, it is highly recommended that you become familiar with the automotive terminology, before the start date of your program. This will ease some of the workload required of you during the course. This guide mainly focuses on the essential terms for the first three blocks of the course, and does not include all the key words. Self-tests and answer keys have been included in this guide. If you are scoring below 80% on the self-tests, it would be recommended that you go back and review those areas. If you would like to study more in depth, there is a list of recommended books and websites at the back of this package.

Basic Service Tools: Matching


Directions: Write the picture number next to the name of the tool.
Ball-Peen Hammers Chisels/Punches Drill Drill-Bits Hand-Sledge Impact-Wrench Hacksaw Threader-Kit Pliers Wrenches Screwdrivers Socket-Set Soldering-Iron Torque-Wrench Rubber-Mallet Reamers Ratchet-Hand-Puller Strap Soldering-Gun Vise Extension Bar-Set

1.

3.

4.

2. 5. 6. 7. 9. 10. 11. 12. 8.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

Measuring Tools: Matching


Directions: Write the name of the tool next to the picture. Use the words below. Micrometers Calipers Dividers Dial Indicator Dial Calipers Exhaust-Gas-Analyzer Scan-Tool Oscilloscope Feeler-Gauge Gauge Test Light Voltmeter Multimeter Tachometer

1. ________________: Used to make linear measurements. (exact measurements) 2. ________________: Used to measure the size of a hole. (rough measurements)

3. _______________: Good for marking circles and making surface measurements. 4. ________________: Used to read movement in thousandths of an inch. (Common uses: checking end play in shafts, backlash in gear teeth, valve liftetc.) 5. _______________: Taking outside/inside/depth measurements. (very accurate)

6. _______________: Used to measure the amount of various chemicals in the vehicles exhaust.

7. _______________: Hand held electronic device that can communicate with a vehicles computer. 8. ____________________: Shows the electrical activity in the vehicles ignition system and other electrical systems.

9. _________________: Measures how much room there is between parts.

10. _________________: An instrument used for measuring. (Ex., compression, oil pressure, air pressure, etc.) 11. ______________: Indicates if electricity is present/not present.

12. ________________: Used to check voltage between two points in an energized circuit.

13. _________________: Essentially a voltmeter, ammeter and an ohmmeter in one tool.

14. ___________________: Used to measure engine speed.

Essential Terms/Definitions
Brake System - The system in a vehicle that is used to slow or stop the vehicle. Electrical System - Any of the systems and subsystems that make up the automobile wiring harness, such as the lighting system or starting or charging system.1 Engine - A device that burns fuel to produce mechanical power; to convert heat energy into mechanical energy. Fuel System - The system that delivers fuel to the cylinders, consisting of a fuel tank and lines, gauge, fuel pump, carburetor or injectors, and intake manifold or fuel rail. Suspension System - The system that supports the weight of the vehicle and provides for a comfortable and safe ride for the driver and passengers. Transmission System - A gearing device of a vehicle that provides variable ratios between the engine output and the differential input.

***This is not a list of all the systems in the car.***

On the next page there is a test for these words. Try not to look at the definitions while you do the puzzle.

Definitions from Delmars Automotive Dictionary.

Essential Systems: Crossword


Directions: Look at the clues below and write in the word that best matches the clue.

Across 1. supports weight of the vehicle 5. burns fuel, produces power 6. gearing device

Down 2. wiring harness 3. used to stop 4. delivers ________ to the cylinders

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Lubrication and Cooling Systems


The oil pump, filter, hoses, lines and passages in an engine facilitate the oiling of all moving parts. The job of engine oil is to lubricate, cool, seal and clean the engine. Coolant - The fluid that is pumped through the engine to reduce heat. Coolant pump - Circulates coolant through the engine. Cooling Systems - Definition(s)1. A system of parts that circulates coolant through the engine to remove heat. 2. A system to remove heat from a heat generating mechanism. There are two ways to cool an engine - By air or by water. Fan - Draws air through the radiator to lower the temperature of the coolant. Friction - The force that opposes movement between any two objects in contact with each other. There are two kinds of friction - dry and wet. Hoses - Move the coolant to the radiator to the engine. Lubricate - To use a substance such as oil to make a machine operate more easily, or to prevent something from sticking or rubbing.2 Multi-Viscosity Oil (multi-grade, multi-weight, all season, and all-weather oil) Contains polymers. Polymers make the oil thinner when cold and thicker when hot. (E.g.,5W-30, 10W-30, 10W-40, and 20W-50) Oil Filter - Takes most of the impurities out of the oil. Oil Seals - Keep oil in the engine. (gaskets, sealants) Oil Viscosity - Refers to the thickness or fluidity of the oil. Oils that meet low temperature requirements have the letter W following the number. (10W)
2

www.dictionary.cambridge.org

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Radiator - Brings the temperature of the coolant down after it has been circulated through the engine. Thermostat - Regulates the flow of coolant as the engine temperature changes. Three Types of Lubrication Systems - Full pressure system, Splash system and Combination pressure-splash system.

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Comprehension Questions
Directions: Without looking at the previous pages, try to answer these questions. 1.) What facilitates the oiling of all moving parts?

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2.) What takes impurities out of the oil?

______________________________________________________________________ 3.) What are the two ways an engine is cooled?

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 4.) What is the job of the radiator?

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 5.) What is a thermostat?

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 6.) What does viscosity refer to?

______________________________________________________________________ 7.) What type of oil contains polymers?

______________________________________________________________________ 8.) What are the three types of lubrication systems?

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 9.) What are the jobs of engine oil?

______________________________________________________________________ 10.) Which part circulates coolant through the engine?

______________________________________________________________________

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Seals, Bearings, Fittings, Belts & Pulleys


Seals - 1.A device used around a rotating shaft to prevent fluid or vapor leaks. 2. A gasket like material used between two or more parts to prevent fluid or vapor leaks. Bearings - A term used for ball bearing or bushing.

Fittings & Fasteners Bolt & Cap Machine Screws Screws Rods & Studs Washers

Machine Screws

Anchors

Nuts

Plugs

Belts - A device used to drive the water pump and/or other auxiliary devices, such as the alternator, off the engine. Pulley - A wheel shaped, belt driven device used to drive engine accessories.

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Comprehension Questions
1.) What is the main purpose of a seal? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

2.) What is a type of fitting? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

3.) Why are belts and pulleys important? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

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Suspension System
Suspension Systems: The system that supports the weight of the vehicle and provides for a comfortable and safe ride for the driver and passengers.

Sprung weight - weight of all vehicle parts that are supported by the suspension system. The frame, engine drive train, and all parts mounted on the body make up sprung weight. (Weight over the springs) Unsprung weight - refers to all parts of the vehicle that are not supported by the suspension system, such as the wheels tires, steering knuckle and rear axle. (Weight under the springs) Suspension System Components Ball joints - Carries the vehicle load to the wheels while allowing relative movement between the wheel assembly and the frame. (Load-carrying ball joint, follower joint, tension loading and compression loading.)

Body-over-frame construction: Uses a separate steel frame to which the body is bolted at various points. Unibody construction: In which the body sections serve as structural members. (Most common) Control arms and struts - Keeps the wheel assembly in proper position. (Allows the wheel to move up and down, but not in any other direction.) Conventional front suspension - One or two control arms are used at each wheel. Independent Rear Suspensions (IRS) - Rear wheels are independently sprung.

MacPherson Strut front suspension - Most modern vehicles, use this system. More compact than the conventional front suspension system. (Commonly referred to as a strut)

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Shock absorber - A hydraulic device used at each wheel of the suspension system to help control the up, down, and rolling motion of a car body by dampening the oscillation or jounce of the

Solid Rear Axle Suspensions

Springs - Found between the frame and axles. (Three types) Coil Leaf Torsion bar (See picture on previous page.)

springs when the car goes over bumps. Contributes to vehicle safety and passenger comfort. Also referred to as shock. Stabilizer bars - Prevents the car from leaning on corners and helps the car stay level.

Simple straight brace (highlighted) Complex brace (highlighted)

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Suspension System: Matching


Match the correct definition with the term. Write the letter next to the number. __ 1.) Found between the frame and the axle. __ 2.) Most vehicles use this system. __ 3.) Weight over the springs __ 4.) Carries the vehicle load to the wheels while allowing relative movement. __ 5.) The system that supports the weight of the vehicle. __ 6.) One or two control arms are used at each wheel. __ 7.) Prevents the car from leaning on corners. __ 8.) Keeps the wheel assembly in proper position. __ 9.) A hydraulic device used at each wheel. __ 10.) Weight under the springs. __ 11.) Uses a separate steel frame to which the body is bolted at various points. K. Suspension I. Body over frame construction J. Sprung weight F. McPherson Strut front suspension G. Conventional front suspension H. Ball joints D. Unsprung weight E. Shock A. Stabilizer bars B. Control arms/struts C. Springs

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Steering Systems and Wheel Alignment


Alignment Adjustments - Various means are provided for adjusting the different front and rear alignment angles. Caster - The angle between the steering-spindle axis and the wheel vertical as viewed from the side. Front Wheel Adjustments - Most commonly done by loosening the nuts holding the top of the strut tower and sliding the tower in or out. Positive and Negative Camber - Positive camber is provided by angling the top of the wheel away from the vehicle. If the tops of the wheel are closer together than the bottoms, the camber is negative. Power Steering - Designed to reduce effort needed to turn the steering wheel by utilizing hydraulic pressure to strengthen the normal torque in the steering gear. Power Steering Pumps - Provides the hydraulic pressure needed to operate the power steering system. Rack-and-Pinion Steering Gear - A steering assembly that has a gear or pinion at one end of the steering shaft engaging a horizontal-toothed bar or rack having tie rods at either end that are attached to the steering arms. Rear Wheel Adjustments - Using eccentric cams or washers, and using threaded rods. Some designs provide for loosening the rear strut bolts. Steering Axis Inclination (SAI) - The angle of a line through the center of the upper strut mount and lower ball joint in relation to the true vertical centerline of the tire, viewed from the front of the vehicle. Steering System - The mechanism that permits the driver to change vehicle direction by turning a wheel inside the vehicle.

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Steering Wheel - Allows the driver to control steering motion. Thrust Angle - The imaginary line at a right angle (90o) to the rear of the axle. Tie Rod - The linkage between the idler arm or pitman arm and the steering arm. Toe - Is the relative positions of the front and rear of a tire in relation to the other tire on the axle. Toe-Out on Turns - Accomplished by bending both steering arms so that they angle slightly toward the center of the vehicle. Wheel Alignment - The process of measuring and correcting the various angles formed by the front and rear wheels, spindles, and steering arms. Types of wheel alignment: two-wheel and four wheel Worm and Roller Steering Gear - Imparts a rotary motion to a straight line motion.

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Brake System
Standard Brake Systems: Operates with the hydraulic system to stop the vehicle. Anti-lock Brake Systems (ABS) Use electronic and hydraulic components to help prevent wheel lockup during hard braking. Anti-lock brakes allow the driver to maintain directional control while providing maximum braking efficiency. The ABS system does this by pulsing (applying and releasing) quickly.3 There are four main components to an ABS system: Speed sensors, Pump, Valves and Controller. Traction Control Systems Some vehicles are equipped with Traction Control Systems to reduce wheel spin on slippery surfaces. These systems are enhancements of an existing ABS system. These systems reduce engine power and operate the brake system to increase vehicle acceleration and stability on wet, icy, or uneven surfaces.4

3 4

Auto Fundamentals, pg. 445. ibid.

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Steering Systems, Wheel Alignment and Brake Systems: Categorizing Terms


Directions: Write the word under the correct system. Try not to look at the previous pages. After you are done, check your answers. Steering Wheel Alignment Brakes

Word List Steering axis inclination Worm and roller ABS Traction control systems Front/rear adjustments Positive/negative camber Rack and pinion

Speed sensors Disc Directional control Caster Toe Tie rod

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Answer Key
Basic Service Tools: Matching (page 5) 1.) Ball Peen 5.) Drill 9.) Hacksaw 13.) Wrenches 2.) Hand Sledge 6.) Drill-Bits 10.) Vise 14.) Screwdrivers 3.) Rubber Mallet 7.) Reamers 11.) Threader Kit 15.) Socket Set 4.) Chisels/Punches 8.) Impact Wrench 12.) Pliers 16.) Torque Wrench

17.) Extension Bar-Set

18.) Ratchet-Hand-Puller Strap

19.) Soldering Iron 20.) Soldering Gun Measuring Tools: Matching (page 6) 1.) Micrometers 5.) Dial Calipers 8.) Feeler-Gauge 12.) Multimeter 2.) Calipers 3.) Dividers 4.) Dial Indicator

6.) Exhaust-Gas-Analyzer 9.) Gauge 13.) Tachometer

7.) Scan-Tool 11.) Voltmeter

10.) Test Light 14. ) Screw drivers

Essential Systems: Crossword (page 10) 1.) Suspension 4.) Fuel 2.) Electrical 5.) Engine 3.) Brakes 6.) Transmission

Lubrication and Cooling Systems: Comprehension Questions (page 13) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The oil pump, filter, hoses, lines and passages. The oil filter. By air and water. To bring the temperature of the coolant down. To regulate the flow of coolant as the engine temperature changes. The thickness/fluidity of the oil. Multi-viscosity or multi-purpose. Full pressure system, Splash system, Combination-pressure-splash.

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9. 10.

To lubricate, cool, seal and clean the engine. The coolant pump.

Seals, Bearings, Fittings, Belts & Pulleys: Comprehension Questions (page 15) 1. 2. 3. To prevent fluid and vapor leaks. Any names listed under fittings. Without them, an engine will not work.

Suspension System: Matching (page 19) 1.) C 2.) F 3.) J 4.) H 5.) K 6.) G 7.) A 8.) B 9.) E 10.) D 11.) I Steering Systems, Wheel Alignment and Brake Systems: Categorizing Terms (page 22 ) Steering Worm and roller Tie rod Directional control Wheel Alignment Steering axis inclination Front/rear adjustments Positive/negative Camber Speed sensors Caster Toe Brakes ABS Traction control system Disc

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Recommended Resources
Peterson, J., & deKryger, W. (2005). Math for the Automotive Trade 3rd Edition. Albany, New York: Delmar Publishers Inc. Sformo, T., & Sformo, G.M. (2005). Practical Problems in Mathematics for Automotive Technicians 6th Edition. Albany, New York: Delmar Publishers Inc. Stockel, M.W., Stockel M.T., & Johnson, C. (2000). Auto Fundamentals: How and why of design, construction, and operation of automobiles. Applicable to all makes and models. Tinley Park, Illinois: The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. South, D.W., & Dwiggins, B.H. (1997). Delmars Automotive Dictionary. Albany, New York: Delmar Publishers Inc .

References
Cambridge University Press. (2006). Dictionaries Online. Retrieved February 23, 2006, from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ Harris, W. (2006). How car suspensions work. Retrieved February 21, 2006, from http://auto.howstuffworks.com South, D.W., & Dwiggins, B.H. (1997). Delmars Automotive Dictionary. Albany, New York: Thompson Delmar. Stockel, M.W., Stockel M.T., & Johnson, C. (2000). Auto Fundamentals: How and why of design, construction, and operation of automobiles. Applicable to all makes and models. Tinley Park, Illinois: The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

Updated: April 2008

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