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# EKK 320 Chapter 2 Notes

Chap 2.1 to 2.3: Self study a repeat of what has been done EIR and ELX Revise the following concepts: Magnitude (Faradays Law) and Direction (Lenz law) of the induced voltage. Voltage and Current ratio based on turns ration and Sp = Ss Which side is the Primary and which is the Secondary? Circuit model elements: o Resistance of coils o Leakage flux o Excitation current = Magnetisation Current + Core loss Current ! Core loss = hysteresis losses and eddy current losses Voltage Regulation Do example 2.2 Ignore work regarding Short and Open Circuit tests. (Examples 2.3 and 2.4) Chap 2.4: Per unit impedances in single phase Transformer Circuits Per unit system results in impedances being equal irrespective of Prim or Sec side. Show in Example 2.5. Redo example 2.6 our way. Chap 2.5 Three-phase transformers Possible connections Connected to single core Run through Fig. 2.12 o Capital letters for High Voltage o Corresponding line-to-neutral voltages are in phase for Y-Y and !- ! transformers on high and low voltages. o For Y- ! or !-Y The HV VLN leads the LV Vln. VLN = Vln!"# Run through Fig 2.13 but then replace secondary with ! connection. o Point out that voltage rating of each winding would now have to increase to 6.6kV to be able to provide rate voltage to the load. Table 2.1:
! o Note that irrespective of type of Tx connection: !! ! !! ! !!! ! !!!

!!

o Hence base voltages no either side of Tx must have same ratio as the line-to-line voltages. Do example 2.7 o Note that it consists of 3x single phase transformers connected Y- !, o Have them draw a diagram. Refer to Table A.1 Do example 2.8

Chap 2.6: Phase shift and equivalent circuits Need to look at both positive and negative phase sequence phase shifts in prep for fault analysis next semester. Point out sub and super scripts used. Work through Fig 2.14 and corresponding text on p66. Equation 2.35 is the bottom line. Note why HV side is usually Y-connected Phase shifts do not affect power flows. Note sentence middle of p 68. Do example 2.9 Chap 2.7: Auto Transformers Self study Chap 2.8: Ignore Chap 2.9: Tap-changing and regulating transformers Fig 2.21 for voltage magnitude change Fig 2.22 for phase angle change quickly explain along with fig 2.23 Fig 2.24 refers to single line diagram for either type of change. Effect taken into account through use of super position principle. Work through example 2.13: o Looks at change in voltage magnitude o Primary application to change reactive power contributions of transformers Work through example 2.14 o Phase shift adjustment o Primary application to control amount of real power flow Chap 2.10: Advantages of per-unit computations Self read