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Custome Data: Company: Contact: Project Reference: Ansoft Data: AM AE

Inductive Sensing simulation

Problem Description Calculate the inductance of a spiral planar inductor under consideration of eddy effects and the coupling of the loop structures. The suitability of Maxwell 3D should be demonstrated.

Design Name Model Data Parameters len_x len_y space_x space_y thick depth skin_depth_cu dim_reg_x dim_reg_y dim_reg_z Internal parameters num_turns max_offsets

Variation_1 Value 0.1976 0.2601 0.005 0.0049 0.0047 0.0014 0.00058 5.048583 4.0757401 40.28 Units in in in in in in in

Solutions

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f= X= L= At 20 MHz: R= X= L= X/R =

where

= resistivity of conductor = angular frequency of cur = absolute magnetic perme

Inductance

f= X= L= At 20 MHz: R= X= L= X/R =

2.00E+07 Hz 40.054 W 3.19E-07 H

0.98002 40.054 318.7396 40.8705945

W W nH pu

m0=

1.25664E-06

where

1.04E-05 m 1.04E-03 cm 4.11E-04 in 1.72E-08 Ohm-m 1.26E+08 rad/s 1.26E-06 N/A^2 lx= 0.0165 in ly= 0.04855 in N= 9.2 A= 0.000801075 in^2 = 5.16822E-07 m^2 l= 0.1301 in = 0.00330454 m L= 1.66347E-08

= resistivity of conductor = angular frequency of current = 2 frequency = absolute magnetic permeability of conductor

Inductance

The current density J in an infinitely thick plane conductor decreases exponentially with depth from the surface, as follows:

where d is a constant called the skin depth. This is defined as the depth below the surface of the conductor at which the curren

where = resistivity of conductor = angular frequency of current = 2 frequency = absolute magnetic permeability of conductor

The resistance of a flat slab (much thicker than d ) to alternating current is exactly equal to the resistance of a plate of thickness

where L = length of conductor D = diameter of conductor The final approximation above is accurate if D >> d .

depth from the surface, as follows:

ce of the conductor at which the current density decays to 1/e (about 0.37) of the current density at the surface (JS). It can be calculated as

to the resistance of a plate of thickness d to direct current. For long, thin conductors such as wires, the resistance is approximately that of a

he surface (JS). It can be calculated as follows:

the resistance is approximately that of a hollow tube with wall thickness d carrying direct current. For example, for a round wire, the AC resis

r example, for a round wire, the AC resistance is approximately:

m, a dimensionless quantity, is sometimes called volumetric or bulk susceptibility, to distinguish it from p (magnetic mass or Magnetic permeability & susceptibility for selected materials Medium Mumetal Permalloy Transformer iron with =0.01 m Steel Nickel soft ferrite with =0.1 m soft ferrite with =10 m Platinum Aluminum Hydrogen Vacuum Sapphire Copper Water Susceptibility 20,000 [1] 8000 [1] Permeability 25,000 N/A2 10,000 N/A2 at 0.002 T at 0.002 T

4000 [1] 700 [1] 100 [1]

5000 N/A2 875 N/A2 125 N/A2

at 0.002 T at 0.002 T at 0.002 T

source, ferroxcube 5000 N/A2

< 0.1 mT

source, ferroxcube 2.65 104 2.22 105 [2] 8 109 or 2.2 109 [2] 0 2.1 107 6.4 106 or 9.2 106 [2] 8.0 106

2500 N/A2 1.2569701 N/A2 1.2566650 N/A2 1.2566371 N/A2 1.2566371 N/A2 1.2566368 N/A2 1.2566290 N/A2 1.2566270 N/A2

< 0.1 mT

Permeability varies with flux density. Values shown are approximate and valid only at the flux densities shown. Moreover, they a

it from p (magnetic mass or specific susceptibility) and M (molar or molar mass susceptibility).

nsities shown. Moreover, they are given for a zero frequency; in practice, the permeability is generally a function of the frequency.

a function of the frequency.

Table of resistivities
This table shows the resistivity and temperature coefficient of various materials. The values are correct at 20 C (68 F) Temperature coefficient per kelvin * 1.59 10-8 0.0038 1.72 10-8 0.0039 2.44 10-8 0.0034 -8 2.82 10 0.0039 5.6 10-8 0.0045 -7 1.0 10 0.005 0.8 10-7 0.0015 1.1 10-7 0.00392 2.2 10-7 0.0039 -7 4.4 10 0.000002 4.9 10-7 0.00001 9.8 10-7 0.0009 -6 1.10 10 0.0004 3.5 10-5 -0.0005 4.6 10-1 -0.048 6.40 102 -0.075 10 14 10 to 10 nil approximately 1013 nil 1015 nil 7.5 1017 nil 20 approximately 1 10 nil approximately 1 1022 to 1 1024 nil Resistivity (m)

Material Silver[1] Copper[1] Gold[1] Aluminium[1] Tungsten[1] Iron[1] Brass[2] Platinum[1] Lead[1] Manganin[3] Constantan[3] Mercury[3] Nichrome[1][4] Carbon[1][5] Germanium[1][5] Silicon[1][5] Glass[1] Hard rubber[1] Sulfur[1] Quartz (fused)[1] PET Teflon

62893081.8

ues are correct at 20 C (68 F)

magnetic flux becomes much greater and the inductance becomes much greater than the inductance of an identical coil wound

where 0 is the permeability of free space (4 10-7 henrys per metre) r is the relative permeability of the core (dimensionless) N is the number of turns. A is the cross sectional area of the coil in square metres. l is the length of the coil (NOT the wire) in metres. = BA is the flux in webers (B is the flux density, A is the area). i is the current in amperes

he inductance of an identical coil wound in air. The self-inductance L of such a solenoid can be calculated from

Maxwell Profile Project: planar_test Design: Inductor Project Script Solution setup: Setup1 Design variation: depth='0.0014in' len_x='0.1976in' len_y='0.2601in' skin_depth_cu='0.00058in' space_x='0.005in' space_y='0 Task ---Start mesh3d gui Adaptive Pass 1 Solver MCS2 Solver MCS2 adapt Adaptive Pass 2 mesh3d_adapt_FT Solver MCS2 Solver MCS2 adapt Adaptive Pass 3 mesh3d_adapt_FT Solver MCS2 Solver MCS2 adapt Adaptive Pass 4 mesh3d_adapt_FT Solver MCS2 Solver MCS2 adapt Adaptive Pass 5 mesh3d_adapt_FT Solver MCS2 Solver MCS2 adapt Real Time CPU Time Memory Information --------- -------- ------ ----------Time: 02/19/2007 13:40:32, Host DONAU, MAXWELL Version 11.1.1 Desired RAM limit not set. 00:04:47 00:04:42 173 M 194196 tetrahedra Frequency: 2E+007 Hz 00:00:05 00:00:05 91.1 M 152820 matrix, 29MB disk 00:04:23 00:03:10 793 M 414403 matrix, 918MB disk, offcore 00:16:13 00:15:50 760 M 194196 tetrahedra Frequency: 2E+007 Hz 00:01:03 00:00:47 195 M 226143 tetrahedra 00:00:05 00:00:05 91 M 153592 matrix, 29MB disk 00:05:06 00:05:27 762 M 457220 matrix, 1174MB disk, offcore 00:16:42 00:16:23 842 M 226143 tetrahedra Frequency: 2E+007 Hz 00:01:09 00:00:48 236 M 261519 tetrahedra 00:00:05 00:00:05 92.7 M 154726 matrix, 30MB disk 00:07:03 00:08:34 626 M 505236 matrix, 1475MB disk, offcore 00:23:15 00:22:58 932 M 261519 tetrahedra Frequency: 2E+007 Hz 00:01:19 00:00:54 255 M 301415 tetrahedra 00:00:05 00:00:05 94.2 M 157518 matrix, 30MB disk 00:10:28 00:13:05 696 M 561171 matrix, 1845MB disk, offcore 00:18:50 00:18:08 1.01 G 301415 tetrahedra Frequency: 2E+007 Hz 00:01:37 00:01:07 277 M 346549 tetrahedra 00:00:15 00:00:05 98.1 M 163484 matrix, 31MB disk 00:21:04 00:19:03 593 M 627466 matrix, 2234MB disk, offcore 00:30:29 00:23:33 1.13 G 346549 tetrahedra Adaptive Passes converged Elapsed time : 02:46:58 , Maxwell ComEngine Memory : 59.3 M Time: 02/19/2007 16:27:30, Status: Normal Completion

Solution Process Total

02:44:03 02:34:54

Start

Time: 02/19/2007 20:20:50, Host DONAU, MAXWELL Version 11.1.1 Desired RAM limit not set.

Solve executive parameters only Start solving Matrix1

Solver MCS2 Solver MCS2 Solver MRA2 param Solution Process Total

00:00:05 00:00:05 98.6 M 163484 matrix, 31MB disk 00:21:15 00:19:34 538 M 627466 matrix, 2234MB disk, offcore 00:00:00 00:00:00 5.8 M 1 matrix, 0KB disk 00:24:44 00:23:18 1.2 G 346549 tetrahedra Elapsed time : 00:47:01 , Maxwell ComEngine Memory : 59.3 M Time: 02/19/2007 21:07:51, Status: Normal Completion

00:46:04 00:42:57

0.00058in' space_x='0.005in' space_y='0.0049in' thick='0.0047in' UU_depth='0.0014' UU_skin_depth_cu='0.00058'

XWELL Version 11.1.1

ngine Memory : 59.3 M ormal Completion

2:47

XWELL Version 11.1.1

ngine Memory : 59.3 M ormal Completion

0:47 3:34

_cu='0.00058'