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Inductive Sensing simulation

Problem Description Calculate the inductance of a spiral planar inductor under consideration of eddy effects and the coupling of the loop structures. The suitability of Maxwell 3D should be demonstrated.

Design Name Model Data Parameters len_x len_y space_x space_y thick depth skin_depth_cu dim_reg_x dim_reg_y dim_reg_z Internal parameters num_turns max_offsets

Variation_1 Value 0.1976 0.2601 0.005 0.0049 0.0047 0.0014 0.00058 5.048583 4.0757401 40.28 Units in in in in in in in

Solutions

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f= X= L= At 20 MHz: R= X= L= X/R =

where

= resistivity of conductor = angular frequency of cur = absolute magnetic perme

Inductance

f= X= L= At 20 MHz: R= X= L= X/R =

0.98002 40.054 318.7396 40.8705945

W W nH pu

m0=

1.25664E-06

where

1.04E-05 m 1.04E-03 cm 4.11E-04 in 1.72E-08 Ohm-m 1.26E+08 rad/s 1.26E-06 N/A^2 lx= 0.0165 in ly= 0.04855 in N= 9.2 A= 0.000801075 in^2 = 5.16822E-07 m^2 l= 0.1301 in = 0.00330454 m L= 1.66347E-08

= resistivity of conductor = angular frequency of current = 2 frequency = absolute magnetic permeability of conductor

Inductance

The current density J in an infinitely thick plane conductor decreases exponentially with depth from the surface, as follows:

where d is a constant called the skin depth. This is defined as the depth below the surface of the conductor at which the curren

where = resistivity of conductor = angular frequency of current = 2 frequency = absolute magnetic permeability of conductor

The resistance of a flat slab (much thicker than d ) to alternating current is exactly equal to the resistance of a plate of thickness

where L = length of conductor D = diameter of conductor The final approximation above is accurate if D >> d .

depth from the surface, as follows:

ce of the conductor at which the current density decays to 1/e (about 0.37) of the current density at the surface (JS). It can be calculated as

to the resistance of a plate of thickness d to direct current. For long, thin conductors such as wires, the resistance is approximately that of a

he surface (JS). It can be calculated as follows:

the resistance is approximately that of a hollow tube with wall thickness d carrying direct current. For example, for a round wire, the AC resis

r example, for a round wire, the AC resistance is approximately:

m, a dimensionless quantity, is sometimes called volumetric or bulk susceptibility, to distinguish it from p (magnetic mass or Magnetic permeability & susceptibility for selected materials Medium Mumetal Permalloy Transformer iron with =0.01 m Steel Nickel soft ferrite with =0.1 m soft ferrite with =10 m Platinum Aluminum Hydrogen Vacuum Sapphire Copper Water Susceptibility 20,000  8000  Permeability 25,000 N/A2 10,000 N/A2 at 0.002 T at 0.002 T

source, ferroxcube 5000 N/A2

< 0.1 mT

source, ferroxcube 2.65 104 2.22 105  8 109 or 2.2 109  0 2.1 107 6.4 106 or 9.2 106  8.0 106

2500 N/A2 1.2569701 N/A2 1.2566650 N/A2 1.2566371 N/A2 1.2566371 N/A2 1.2566368 N/A2 1.2566290 N/A2 1.2566270 N/A2

< 0.1 mT

Permeability varies with flux density. Values shown are approximate and valid only at the flux densities shown. Moreover, they a

it from p (magnetic mass or specific susceptibility) and M (molar or molar mass susceptibility).

nsities shown. Moreover, they are given for a zero frequency; in practice, the permeability is generally a function of the frequency.

a function of the frequency.

Table of resistivities
This table shows the resistivity and temperature coefficient of various materials. The values are correct at 20 C (68 F) Temperature coefficient per kelvin * 1.59 10-8 0.0038 1.72 10-8 0.0039 2.44 10-8 0.0034 -8 2.82 10 0.0039 5.6 10-8 0.0045 -7 1.0 10 0.005 0.8 10-7 0.0015 1.1 10-7 0.00392 2.2 10-7 0.0039 -7 4.4 10 0.000002 4.9 10-7 0.00001 9.8 10-7 0.0009 -6 1.10 10 0.0004 3.5 10-5 -0.0005 4.6 10-1 -0.048 6.40 102 -0.075 10 14 10 to 10 nil approximately 1013 nil 1015 nil 7.5 1017 nil 20 approximately 1 10 nil approximately 1 1022 to 1 1024 nil Resistivity (m)

Material Silver Copper Gold Aluminium Tungsten Iron Brass Platinum Lead Manganin Constantan Mercury Nichrome Carbon Germanium Silicon Glass Hard rubber Sulfur Quartz (fused) PET Teflon

62893081.8

ues are correct at 20 C (68 F)

magnetic flux becomes much greater and the inductance becomes much greater than the inductance of an identical coil wound

where 0 is the permeability of free space (4 10-7 henrys per metre) r is the relative permeability of the core (dimensionless) N is the number of turns. A is the cross sectional area of the coil in square metres. l is the length of the coil (NOT the wire) in metres. = BA is the flux in webers (B is the flux density, A is the area). i is the current in amperes

he inductance of an identical coil wound in air. The self-inductance L of such a solenoid can be calculated from

Solution Process Total

02:44:03 02:34:54

Start

Time: 02/19/2007 20:20:50, Host DONAU, MAXWELL Version 11.1.1 Desired RAM limit not set.

Solve executive parameters only Start solving Matrix1

Solver MCS2 Solver MCS2 Solver MRA2 param Solution Process Total

00:00:05 00:00:05 98.6 M 163484 matrix, 31MB disk 00:21:15 00:19:34 538 M 627466 matrix, 2234MB disk, offcore 00:00:00 00:00:00 5.8 M 1 matrix, 0KB disk 00:24:44 00:23:18 1.2 G 346549 tetrahedra Elapsed time : 00:47:01 , Maxwell ComEngine Memory : 59.3 M Time: 02/19/2007 21:07:51, Status: Normal Completion

00:46:04 00:42:57

2:47

0:47 3:34

_cu='0.00058'