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Phase Diagrams I

Phase Diagrams
Need to study phase diagrams to
Understand alloying Explain heat treatments and microstructure Understand solidification
Casting and welding

Definition of a Phase
A homogeneous portion of a system that has uniform physical and chemical characteristics Examples are solid, liquid, gas For a solid, allotropes: eg FCC, BCC, HCP are considered different phases

Sugar/Water Phase Diagram

Binary Isomorphous Systems

Two elements

Isomorphous is defined as
The liquid and solid region each contain only one phase

Cu-Ni is a good example

Cu-Ni System

homogeneous liquid solution

Liquid phase is present at all temperatures and compositions above this line

Substitutional solid solution consisting of both Cu and Ni atoms, FCC structure Cu, Ni have nearly identical atomic radii, FCC structure, etc.,..

Solid phase only exists below this line

Melt temperature of pure Ni: 1453

Melting ends at 1320 C Melt temperature of pure Cu: 1085 Amount of liquid phase increases Melting starts at 1280 C

Liquidus Line
Boundary between 100% liquid and the liquid/solid two phase region

Solidus Line
Boundary between 100% solid and the liquid/solid two phase region

Use of Phase Diagrams

Three kinds of information available
Determination of phases
Go to the temperature and composition of interest and read off phase: single phase vs two phase regions

Composition of these phases Percentages or fractions of these phases


Determination of Phase Composition

Single Phase Region
Composition = overall composition
Overall composition = C0

Two Phase Region

Draw a horizontal line at temperature of interest tie line Intersection of the tie line and phase boundaries gives composition

Determination of Phase Amounts

Lever Rule
In two phase region Draw tie line Mark intersection with phase boundaries Mark the overall composition Use Lever Rule:
WL = W = S C Co 100 = 100 R+S C CL R C CL 100 = o 100 R+S C CL

Overall composition = C0

Determination of Phase Amounts (1250 oC)

WL = W = S C Co 100 = 100 R+S C CL R C CL 100 = o 100 R+S C CL
Overall composition = C0

C0 = 35% Ni ; C = 42.5% Ni ; . CL = 315% Ni

Wl = 42.5 35 = 0.68 . 42.5 315 = 68% mass fraction W = 35 315 . = 0.32 42.5 315 . = 32% mass fraction


Derivation of Lever Rule

The sum of the mass fractions of the phases must equal 1 The mass of one of the components (Cu or Ni in this case) that is present in both phases must be equal to the mass of that component in the total alloy

W + WL = 1

W C + WL CL = C0
Simultaneous solution of these two equations leads to the lever rule expression for this particular case

WL =

C Co 100 C C L

W =

Co C L 100 C C L

Equilibrium Cooling
Very slow cooling Continuous readjustment of compositions in both phases Compositions from tieline Amount of solid and liquid at given time can be calculated from lever rule


Non-Equilibrium Cooling
Complete Mixing in Liquid No compositional changes in solid Composition is nonuniform in solid
Coring segregated

Common in castings Non-optimal