u
c
=
c
( )
1
4sin 3
f
f f
i
v v
u
u u
c
=
c
sin
f
i f
v
v u
c
=
c
sin
f
i f
r
r u
c
=
c
cos
f
f
c
=
c
( )
2 1 cos
f
f
u
u
c
=
c
where
initial position magnitude
final position magnitude
initial velocity magnitude
final velocity magnitude
final true anomaly
final flight path angle
gravitational constant
i
f
i i
f
f
f
r
r
v r
v
u
=
=
= =
=
=
=
=
page 2
Elliptical orbits
apoapsis radius with respect to , , r v
( ) ( )
( )
{ }
2
2
2
1 cos 1
2 cos cos
1
a
e e r
e e e
r
e
u
u u
+ + c
= + + +
c
( )( )
( ) ( )
3
2
1 1
2 2
2
2 2
2 1 2 1 cos
1 1 2 cos
a
a e e
r
v
e e e
u
u
+ + +
c
=
c
+ +
( )
2
1 sin
1 cos
a
a e
r
e
u
u
c
=
c +
periapsis radius with respect to , , r v
( ) ( )
( )
{ }
2
2
2
1 cos 1
2 cos cos
1
p
r e e
e e e
r
e
u
u u
c + +
=
c
( )( )
( ) ( )
3
2
1 1
2 2
2
2 2
2 1 2 1 cos
1 1 2 cos
p
a e e
r
v
e e e
u
u
+
c
=
c
+ +
( )
2
1 sin
1 cos
p
a e r
e
u
u
c
=
c +
orbital period with respect to , , r v
( )
2
3 2 3 3
0
a r a av
r r v rv
t t t t t t
c c c
= = = =
c c c
true anomaly with respect to , , r v
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
2
2
2
sin 1 cos
1
1
2sin
1 2 cos
1
cos
2
1 cos
e
r ae e
a e
v e e e
e
e e
u u u
u u
u
u u
u
+ c
=
c
c
=
`
c + +
)
c
= +
`
c +
)
page 3
orbital eccentricity with respect to , , r v
( )
( )
2 2
2
2 2
cos cos
2 cos
sin2
2
e v e
a r
r ea r
e rv
a r
v ea
e r v
ea
u
c +
= =
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
semimajor axis with respect to , , r v
2 2
2
2 2
0
a a a a v a
r r v
c c c
= = =
c c c
semimajor axis, eccentricity, orbital period and apogee radius with respect to periapsis radius
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2
2 1 cos
2 2
1
1
a
p p p
e a r a
r r e r
e
u
 
+ c
= = =
 `

c +
) \ .
cos
p p
e e
r r
u c +
=
c
2
3
p p
a
r r
t t c
=
c
( ) ( )
( )
2
1 cos 2 cos
1
a
p
e e r
r
e
u u + + c
=
c
semimajor axis, eccentricity, orbital period and apogee radius with respect to periapsis velocity
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 cos
3 2
2 1 cos 1
1
p
p p p
p p
p
p p p
a
p p
a a r
a
v r v
e e
v v
a r
v r v
a e r
v v e
u
t
t
u
c
=
c
+ c
=
c
c
=
c
+ + c
=
c
page 4
where
position magnitude
velocity magnitude
flight path angle
true anomaly
orbital eccentricity
periapsis radius
apoapsis radius
semimajor axis
orbital period
p
a
r
v
e
r
r
a
u
t
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
In the following series of equations, x represents the Cartesian state vector consisting of position vector
r, and velocity velocity v.
position vector
T
r
c
( =
c
r
r 0
x
velocity vector
T
v
c
( =
c
v
0 v
x
angular momentum vector
 
c
=
c
h
I v r I
x
angular momentum magnitude
( ) ( )
T T
h
h h
c
( =
c
h I v h r I
x
eccentricity vector
( ) ( )
2 3
1 2
T T T T
v r r
c
(
= +
c
e
I rr vv r v v r I vr
x
specific orbital energy
3 3
2 2
T T
C
r
c
( =
c
r v
x
page 5
sine of flight path angle
( ) ( )
3 3
sin
T T T T
r r v v
c
(
=
c
v I rr r I vv
x
semimajor axis
2 2
3
2 2 a a a a
r
c c
= =
c c
r v
r v
where
, , position vector
position magnitude
, , velocity vector
velocity magnitude
, , angular momentum vector
angular momentum magnitude
orbital ec
T
x y z
T
x y z
T
x y z
r r r
r
v v v
v
h h h
h
( = =
= =
( = =
= =
( = = =
= =
=
r
r
v
v
h r v
r v
e centricity vector
1 0 0
0 1 0 identity matrix
0 0 1
(
(
= =
(
(
I
Hyperbolic orbits
In the following series of equations, x represents the state vector consisting of position vector r, and
velocity velocity v.
3
C is equal to twice the specific (per unit mass) orbital energy.
scaled unit asymptote vector
3
3
3
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
3
3 2 1
2 2
C
C
C C C C
e e C e e
c c c
= +
c c c
      c c c c c c
= + + +
` `
  
c c c c c c
\ . \ . \ . ) )
s s
s
x x x
h e e e
e h e s e
x x x x x x
page 6
The asymptote unit vector of a hyperbolic orbit is given by
cos cos
cos sin
sin
o o
o o
o
=
`
)
s
In this expression, o
1
1
C C
p
h
C
C
   
= =
  ` `
 
\ . \ . + ) )
+
s h e e h e e
where p is the semiparameter of the orbit.