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NAVIGATION IN ICE When a v/l has to advance through ice areas the progress of the ship will be dependent

on: Nature of the ice. Qualities of the vessel; scantling size, ice breaker bow / protection, otive power, anoeuvrabilit!, navigational e"uip ent fitted. #ssistance of tugs / ice breakers, ice convo! facilities. $%pertise and e%perience of &aster / 'fficers. ake a report to ships in the t!pe of ice,

(he &aster of an! v/l co ing upon dangerous ice or conditions for ice accretion is obliged, under )'*#) +, to vicinit! and a co petent authorit!. ,eport to include: position of ice, -&( and date of sighting. &ariners entering ice regions should seek upto date ice reports fro .ce /atrol )ervice. 0)'*#) + ,eg 1 2 3 and #.*.,.).4 .ce li its should be the .ce /atrol. ,eports are

ade twice dail!, together with facsi ile

charts. #dditional reports of ice sightings are also trans itted whenever considered necessar!. &ariners are encouraged to send reports to the arked on navigational charts and an! particular dangers, e.g. single icebergs, should be plotted. 5ourse and speed can oderate speed or alter his course to pass clear of the ice danger.

then be ad6usted accordingl!. &aster is obliged to proceed at a

7actors to be considered when approaching and entering an ice area: )igns of ice in the vicinit!:)ea s oke, .ce blink, #brupt s oothing of sea, ,adar detection, .solated frag ents of ice, 5old sea te perature when in war )ealife e.g. walruses, seals, 8irdlife e.g. land birds sighted .ncreased possibilit! of restricted visibilit!, )peed of vessel, $%tra lookouts, &anual steering, .ce reports, ,adio interference of $lec Nav #ids, $cho sounder affected b! sea te perature levels, .ce distorts shape of coastline, #/5 for ice, therefore harder to #erials / )canners iced up, *ights obscured / di inished b! ice, Navigation arks, particularl! buo!s, a! be re oved, aintain +o!age /lan and assess 9.,s. and $./s. current area,

,efraction errors regarding celestial observations, $ngineroo and crew infor ed,

Watertight doors shut as appropriate, 7re"uent soundings of tanks and bilges, checking for freezing and or da age, $ngines read! for i ediate anoeuvring,

&anoeuvrabilit! affected, +ulnerabilit! of propellers,.ncreased propeller slip,

ICE ACCRETION / ACCUMULATION .n rough weather when the air te perature is below : ;<5 and the sea te perature below =<5 there is a risk of spra! freezing on deck. #ccu ulation of frozen spra! on deck, acco ,eduction in stabilit!. 9a age to uninsulated and undrained pipework. 9a age to oving parts e.g. radar scanners, window wipers. odation or rigging a! lead to:

9a age to hal!ards, aerials, rigging etc due to ice weight. 9anger to crew working e%ternall!. ,eduction in visibilit! through windows. 5argo da age.

.ce accu ulation 7reezing fog.

a! occur due to:

7reezing drizzle / rain. )now. )pra!. Water on deck. >!groscopic cargoes.

.ce accu ulation

a! be reduced or avoided b!:

)eeking war er conditions. )eeking shelter. ,educe ship speed into wind, thereb! reducing spra!. ,un with the wind. /h!sical re oval, >eating devices, 0usuall! in the rigging4, #nti freeze / de-icer spra!s, Weather routeing.

)ee &ariner?s >andbook for .cing No ogra s 0,ate of ice accu ulation4.