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Lesson Plan 1 Christina Sickert & Sean Harkness 4/11/2013 CI 402 Name: The Not-So Great Depression Class/Subject:

Social Studies, 8th grade Date: April 9, 2013 Student Objectives/Outcomes: -Students will analyze and evaluate the causes of the Great Depression -Students will describe various economic aspects and social impacts of the Great Depression -Students will participate in a simulation that will help them gain a personal perspective on this historic era Content Standards -16.A.4a Analyze and report historical events to determine cause and effect relationships -16.C.2c Describe significant economic events including industrialization, immigration, the Great Depression, the shift to a service economy, and the rise of technology that influenced history. -16.A.2c Ask questions and seek answers by collecting and analyzing data from historic documents, images and other literary and nonliterary sources. Materials/Resources/Technology: -Prezi Presentation -Promethium Board -Occupation Cards Teachers Goals: -To ensure that students enhance their knowledge about the Great Depression through the various economic causes and the impacts on social life. -To make logical inferences by taking on a personal perspective and placing it into historical context. 9:51-10:00 Start of Lesson: To begin the lesson, the teachers will ask the students what they know about the Great Depression. The teachers know that the students have already learned about the effects of the Great Depression so they can work backwards to relate what the students know to the lesson that will take place. The teachers will record what each of the students say about their knowledge of the Great Depression on the board. Next, the teachers will inform the students that the lesson today is going to be about the causes of the Great Depression.



Introduction of Lesson: The teachers will explain to the students that the lesson will consist of a short direct instruction using a Prezi presentation in which they will learn about three of the main causes of the Great Depression, followed by a simulation of the domino effect of job loss during the 1930s, and then an analysis of quotes from the book Out of the Dust to show the effects of the Dust Bowl. Also, the list of what the students know about the Great Depression that worked their prior knowledge will be kept on the board so that they can use it as a reference for what they will learn throughout the entire lesson. Lesson Instruction: The lesson will then transition to the Prezi presentation where we discuss and analyze the four main causes that are believed to have lead to the Great Depression. Students will also have a graphic organizer to fill out as we go along. On the first slide, titled Stock Market Crash of 1929, we discuss the first reason that might have lead to the Great Depression. First we will summarize the effects of the Roaring 20s and how this might have caused the stock market to crash: Ask students: Who can summarize what the 20s were like for the class? During the 20s, the confidence of the people of the United States have skyrocketed. We had just gotten back from World War I and the people were enjoying the entertainment the country had to offer. Because of these reasons, people began taking their savings they had hidden in their homes or in the bank, and began investing them in the stock market. Throughout the 20s, the stock market kept booming and even more people were investing. Everyone in all social classes and groups were talking about it and hearing stories of people getting rich from the stock market. When people from the lower classes saw all of these people making money, they wanted to be a part of it as well and take their chance at getting rich. This is when people started buying stock on margin. Buying on margin meant that those who didnt have enough money to buy stock, would put down some of their own money and borrow the other part from banks, but this was extremely risky, which they would soon find out. Profits seemed assured at this time, so much so that banks were putting peoples money in the market, without the customers knowledge. Towards the end of the 20s, there were some signs that pointed towards the crash of the market. Steel production began to slow down, house construction slowed down, as well as car sales. As soon as the market began to fall, people began selling their stocks. They wanted to get out before they lost everything! Everyone was selling and no one was buying, therefore, the stock prices collapsed. Some people lost their entire savings, companies were ruined, and faith in the banks was destroyed.

The second slide is titled, Bank Failures, which discusses the reasons the banks failed during this time: The banks were loaning out more money to people than they actually had available. After the crash, people and countries (like Europe) that the U.S. had given out loans too, couldnt repay them. Americans were in a state of panic, and withdrew all of their money from their banks. In 1933, FDR announced a 3-day bank holiday where all banks would shut down and no transactions would be performed. He wanted to give the people and banks a chance to cool off. This is also where FDR said his famous quote, The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Although this worked for a little, 9,000 banks failed in the 1930s. The third slide is titled, Reduction in Purchasing, which discusses how a reduction in consumption and overproduction lead to the Great Depression: During the 30s, there was an overall reduction in purchasing amongst the American people. People stopped buying goods because many had no money left. At the same time, companies and farmers were still producing goods. Since so much was being produced and nothing was being bought, there was an overproduction of goods. This led to a decrease in the workforce and many people lost their jobs. The unemployment rate rose from 3% to 25% (today it is between 7-8%) The banks refused to provide new loans for people, which led to a decline in consumer spending. There was a general fear of a recession amongst consumers of all social classes. After those slides, we will take a break and do a simulation activity. Students will be given occupation cards that have jobs listed on them. These include: machinery worker, car salesman, construction worker, furniture factory worker, restaurant worker, autoworker, steelworker, furniture salesman, clothing salesman, grocery store worker, and farmer. Students will be told to look at the card, but dont tell anyone what job they have. To begin the activity, we will start out by saying that: There was U.S. prosperity in the 1920s with the sale of houses and automobiles, etc. on the rise. These purchases created jobs for workers who built homes and cars, the furniture and appliances that went into the new homes, and the steel and other materials that were used to produce cars. Jobs were also created as business firms built new plants and bought new equipment to produce what consumers wanted. Prosperity of workers in all these industries allowed them to spend a lot of money, thus providing income to other workers (income they in turn spent to buy other goods and services). This is the multiplier effect. When one persons spending becomes income to another person, who in turn can spend more and add to the income of others. But, the multiplier effect can work in reverse. U.S. business activity began to slow down, the sales of homes and cars began to fall and business firms slowed their expansion of new plants. This caused workers who made a living building plants or producing machinery to lose

their jobs. We will then instruct students to stand-up one by one based on their occupation on their card and explain how that person with that occupation lost their job and experienced the Great Depression. They will continue standing until the end. Students with machinery worker, please stand up. You are now unemployed because business firms are ordering less machinery. Car salesman, please stand up. You are not unemployed because sales of new care are down. Autoworkers and steelworkers, please stand up. You are both now unemployed. Orders had to be cancelled in automobile factories and the owners of these factories fired autoworkers. Auto factories in turn cancel their orders for steel and raw materials used to make cars, so steelworkers had to be fired. Construction and furniture workers and salesmen, please stand up. You are all now unemployed. Sales of new houses have also gone down, furniture sales are down, and furniture stores reduce orders to furniture factories. Students who are still seated, look around at all the people who are unemployed. But, your jobs are now in danger too. Clothes salesmen, you are now unemployed because people who are unemployed dont buy new clothes. Restaurant workers, you are unemployed because people who are unemployed dont eat out at restaurants. Grocery store workers and unemployed. Unemployed people still eat, but they cut back on food purchases, particularly purchases of more expensive food items that mean higher profit for grocery stores. Grocery store owners reduce the number of employees they have. Students see how the Great Depression was like a chain reaction for all types of people. The farmers are the only ones left, which transitions into the class discussion of the Dust Bowl in the 1930s.

The fourth slide is titled, Drought and the Dust Bowl, which discusses the affects of the drought and how that lead to the Great Depression: Between the 1930s and 1940s was the longest and hardest drought on record in the United States in the Midwest and Southern Great Plains. Because of the drought, farmers couldnt grow any crops and many of them had to sell their farms for little to no profit. Those who sold their farms were forced to move out and look for new work. Many of them headed west and became migrant workers working on other peoples land. Since no crops could grow, the ground was mostly dirt from being over farmed and overgrazed. This caused the wind to blow bare soil all across the region. Some of the soil even reached the East coast and ended up in the Atlantic ocean. At times there would be black clouds for days, sometimes called black blizzards. Homes would be covered in layers of dust, and the wind and dirt could be so strong that it was very painful. If the dust storms were really bad, school would usually be cancelled. Much of the farmland all across the region was damaged as a result. The final slide of the Prezi is titled, Out of the Dust, and has two quotes from the book Out of the Dust, about a young girl and her family during the Dust Bowl. They say: Not with my hands all scarred up, looking like earth itself, all parched and rough and cracking. Ask students: What is this girl feeling? What is she experiencing? When Ma died, I didnt know how to go on, either. I dont know how. I dont feel the same now, not exactly. Now that I see that one say comes after another and you get through them one measure at a time. But Id like to go, not like Fonda Bye, I dont want to die. I just want to go, away, out of the dust. Ask students: What is this quote saying about the effects of the Dust Bowl? How would you feel during this time? Would you be able to go on or would you want to give up? 10:25-10:31 Assessments/Checks for Understanding: Once the instruction of the lesson is over the teachers will hand out a worksheet that the cooperating teacher had the students working on during previous classes. This worksheet is made up of boxes that can be filled in regarding the causes, effects, changes made by the Great Depression, among other things. Since the lesson is about the causes of the Great Depression the students will fill out the corresponding parts of the worksheet as a check for understanding and also an assessment. These worksheets will be graded and the students know this so they act as an assessment of what the students learn in the lesson.


Closure/Wrap-Up/Review: To wrap-up the lesson, the teachers will ask for volunteers to give the four main causes that were discussed in the lesson. Once all four have been named the students will hand in their worksheets and the lesson will end. Self-Assessment: N/A