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Sust tainable Arch hitecture: Ka angra   


Sus staina able Architecture of Kan ngra
H Himach hal Prad desh,Ind dia
Sh hashi Kant Singh S
Himachal Pr radesh


Fig gure 1: Locatio on Map Source: http://cdn1.h

Kan ngra(Figure e.1) is

apop pular district of the In ndian state of Himach hal Pradesh h, India. Dha aramshala is the adm ministrative headquarters s of the district. d Th he Kangra District of f Himachal Pradesh is situated in the Wes stern Himala ayas between n 31°2 to 32° °5 N and 75 5° to 77°45 E. The distr rict has a geo ographical area a of 5,739 9 km. whic ch constitute es 10.31% of f the geograp phical area of o the State. According A to o 2011 censu us, the total population p o the of distr rict was 1510075(Figure e.2), which is i the highest in the state e (22% of th he population n). The altitu ude of the district rang ges from 427 7 to 6401m ab bove mean sea level. The e district has considerable diversity in n its soils, ph hysiography, land use patterns p and cropping sy ystems. On th he basis of th hese, the dist trict has furth her been divi ided into five sub-region ns i.e. PirP Panjal, Dhaul ladhar, Kang gra Shiwalik k, Kangra Va alley and Bea as Basin.The e Beas is one e of the maj jor rivers of f this distr rict, and cont tributes to th he fertility of f the land her re. Dha aramshala, th he district hea adquarters, is also the he eadquarters of o the Tibetan n governmen nt-in-exile, headed h by the e His Holi iness the Da alai Lama. Jw walamukhi, also a known as a Jwalaji, is s famous for r its ancient temple of th he goddess of o the same name, and d features holy h flames that t run on natural gas. Other impo ortant templ les include Brajeshwari B Devi temp ple, Chamun nda Devi temple, Chintp purni temple e, Bhagsunag g Temple in n McLeodGanj, Mahaka al and Baijn nath's Shiv va temple in Baijnath. There T are als so important Buddhist te emples in Dh haramshala, Sidhbari and d the Bir Tib betan Colo ony in Bir. Historical H vill lages of Prag gpur and Gar rli are also lo ocated here. Mas sroor Temple e is the only y rock-cut te emple in nor rth India, believed to be e built by the e Pandavas during d their exile perio od. Ene ergy Efficien nt Materials and Sustain nable Const truction in Himachal H Pr radesh From m the ancien nt times Hima achal Pradesh is known spiritual s and cultural valu ues. Which a also can be se een in its mo odern imag ge.Use of en nergy efficien nt materials and a sustainab ble construct tion techniqu ues are integr rated part of the culture of o 1 | P a g e    

Stone S . final finish of flooring is given to o the floors. Mud. Slate is highly h susta ainable materia al for roofing g as it is high hly efficient for all extrem me weather co onditions. S Roof is Half of f household have slate ro oofs (Table. Also A the slate e stone has abi ility of being g cut in sma aller sections s as its stone property.29% % of rural area . p Floor is generall ly made of Mud or Cement C concret te (Table2). Material usage i generally made of Concrete C or Slates./ /Metal Bu urnt  Stone/Slat / Any other Concrete B Brick e Asb bestos mat terial sheets 55 1361 1416 3392 159278 162670 30 039 74 456 10 0495 12933 142768 155701 9 148 1 157 1 Sou urce: Census of f India 2011 Tab ble 2: HOUSEHOLDS BY PREDOMINAN NT MATERIAL OF FLOOR F Any other material Mo osaic/Floor Tiles Himach hal Pradesh .Sust tainable Arch hitecture: Ka angra    P in Kangra K District Figure 2: Population Sourc ce: Census of In ndia 2011 Tab ble 1: HOUSEHOLD DS BY PREDOMINA ANT MATERIAL OF ROOF R Any other… Concrete G. Still more e than 50% of the total s use local l vern nacular households constru uction mater rials.3) Kan ngra district t have 94.I. Accord ding to (Fig gure. Mud floors have gener rally cow du ung finish to t the hipping off of mud from the floors to avoid ch b made in n mud floors. Urban Rural Total 19988 316419 336407 2 215 3 3444 3 3695 228 668 896 H Hand   made m T Tiles 76 5 597 6 673 Machine made  Tiles 41 699 740 G.I./Metal/… Stone/Slate Burnt Brick Machine… Hand made… Plastic/… Grass/… Tot tal Households 0 50000 100000 150000 2000 000 250000 300 0000 350000 400000 Figure 3: Rur ral and Urban Area A in Kangra a District Sou urce: Census of f India 2011 Grass/ Total  Th hatch/ Plastic/ Househol Bam mboo/ Polythene ds Wo ood/M ud d etc. After comp pacting the rough layer of o floor mad de of Soil and Rubble. First floor level is also been   amboo plank ks and strips.bambo oo and wood are a the majo or constructio on materials in the vernacu ular buildin ngs of Hi imachal Pr radesh.1 Total   316419 9 households accomm modates com mplete rural population p of f Kangra Di istrict and most m of them are a built with h sustainable materials. . .1 1)over the bam mboo planks s and purlins s for the stru uctural suppor rt of the roo of.As per p Table. over ba 2 | P a g e   Cement Stone  Burnt Brick Wood/Bamboo Mud To otal Households 0 50000 10000 00 150000 2000 000 250000 300 0000 350000 400000 Total  Households Urban Rural Total 19988 316419 336407 Mud 2341 128644 130985 Wood/Ba amb Burnt Brick oo 21 1436 1457 48 1974 2022 S Stone   688 1 10227 1 10915 Cement 13492 148454 161946 Mosaic/Floo r Tiles 3264 24548 27812 Any other o mate erial 134 113 36 127 70 S Source: Census s of India 2011   .

As per the Table. Due to need of highly skil lled workman nship. But still the no. Generall ly it has been said that M Mud houses last for 15 5-20 t the stone a and concrete lasts for above Years but 50 years s. of hou useholds in mud is in a decent amou unt.I.4 the therm mal performan nce of the Sun dried mud blocks s is being fo ound excelle ent./Metal/ Asbestos… Stone packed with… Stone not packed with… Wood Mud/ U Unburnt  brick Plastic/ Polythene Grass/ Thatch/… Total l Households 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 Grass/ Total  Plastic/ Mud/ Thatch/ Househo Polythen Unburnt  Wood Bamboo  lds e brick etc. Bu ut if we are t talking abou ut the Mud as a a walling material m its d durability an nd sustainabi ility have been n questioned d several tim mes. n of househ holds using burnt b clay bri icks have been n found in m more number than the Mud M walled households h w which is th he indicator of reduction n in people’s choice and believe in mud m as a struc ctural and wa alling materi ial. So in moder rn times wh hen people need n a dura able constructi ion material which lasts s long and save s time and money of pe eople. Also it i is found in abandon in the Kang gra District and people are using it from f ancien nt times. If Mud is the mod dern rial then it ha as to be dura able day sustainable mater o be the bes st choice to make the wall w enough to assembly. At few pl laces stone w walls with wood w have also a been used d as a walli ing materials s which is also a highly su ustainable an nd durable an nd last for lo ong years. .I.3 no. As p per Figure. . The T mortar material m whic ch is also mud m makes the total wall assembly hi ighly sustain nable. Sun n dried Mud d is also a lo ower embod died energy material./Met not packed  al/ packed  w with Asbestos with Mo ortar sheets Mortar 427 4763 5190 10 086 12 2409 13 3495 79 235 314 Burn nt  Concrete Bric ck Any  other material 7 138 145 1539 95 163254 178649 147 995 1142   Sour rce: Census of India I 2011     Figure e 5: Sun dried Mud Brick Wa all after 15 year rs Source: Photograph f from site visit of o NITH students 3 | P a g e     . Urba an Rura al Total 19988 316419 336407 70 783 853 195 556 751 2472 132657 135129 110 629 739 Stone  Stone G. the co ost of constr ruction of st tone walls alw ways seems to o be an expe ensive event.Sust tainable Arch hitecture: Ka angra    Wall is generally g ma ade of Mud or Burnt Br rick with con ncrete. for the sam     Figure 4: Comp parison of Inter rlocking Blocks s to its Alternat tives  Sourc ce: UN Human Settlements S  Pro ogramme  Table 3 3: HOUSEHOLDS BY Y PREDOMINANT MATERIAL M  OF WAL LL Any other material Concrete Burnt Brick G. So extensive research h on mud wall w to be done and a is going g on assembly is needed t me.

in  The combination 1 is highly unsustainable for  the Kangra region as the Burnt bricks are not the  locally available material  as well as not the  recyclable materials.4) it have been found out that major households have been built in combination of 1./Met not packed  al/ packed  with Asbestos with Mortar sheets Mortar 5 1001 774 3141 54 12 9 6 7 2910 810 9599 69 21 15 6 0 60 164 48 1 2 8 14 Burnt  Concrete Brick Any  other material 98 149130 6241 20450 1086 583 365 50 2 821 63 219 15 3 4 0 1 99 9 32 1 0 0 0 444 11 2192 85 188 58 17 646 15 3 Figure 7: Sun Dried Mud Bricks  with slate roof  Source: pictures from site visit to Didi Contractor works  Source: Census of India 2011   4 | P a g e     . Any other material Concrete G. wall ofburnt bricks with concrete roof Generally in these types of  structures excessive steel have been used in the  roof structure and different assemblies and  services.I. Also Highly finished slate tiles are used  in roof construction which results in more  embodied energy of the total built up.  Grass/ Plastic/ Mud/ Thatch/ Polythen Unburnt  Wood Bamboo  e brick etc. 0 0 60 235 3 0 11 100 0 0 14 94 1 7 5 619 43 1680 1932 128674 157 111 254 86 1 0 428 178 29 1 2 15 Stone  Stone G.  The Combination 2 is highly sustainable as the  materials used in the assembly are local.  recyclable and lower embodied energy  materials./Metal/ Asbestos… Stone packed with… Stone not packed with… Wood Mud/ Unburnt brick Plastic/ Polythene Grass/ Thatch/… No.Sustainable Architecture: Kangra                        Table 4: HOUSEHOLDS BY PREDOMINANT MATERIAL OF ROOF AND WALL Any other material Concrete Burnt Brick G. wall of burnt bricks with slate roof Figure 6: Naddi Village NearDharamshala  Source: http://himachaltourism.I. of Households 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 Finding overall combination of all structural assemblies to form a Sustainable Household After analyzing the Census data 2011 for the different types of assemblies (Table .  The Combination 3 is unsustainable plus  uneconomical./Metal/ Asbestos sheets Stone/Slate Burnt Brick Machine made Tiles Hand made Tiles Plastic/ Polythene Grass/ Thatch/ Bamboo/ Wood/Mud etc. wall of sun dried mud blocks with slate roof 3.

Source: The T  Significance e of Embodied Energy in  Certified d Passive House es by‐Robert H. by b  element.Sust tainable Arch hitecture: Ka angra    Table 5: HO OUSEHOLDS BY OW WNERSHIP STATUS OF THE CENSUS  HOUSES. Crawford and  Andr ré Stephan  Figure 9: Traditional M Mud House . environment  nancial cond dition of the region.5) ).  Observing g the compac ct family plan nning and  seismic se ensitivity of the region tw wo room sing gle  storey hou usehold and three –four room double  storey seis smically stab ble  households needed for f   the maxim mum future g generation.  Financially y the Mud co onstruction is cheaper th han  the burnt brick and ce ement morta ar constructio on. 518 487 1423 1942 4975 6023 378 2 1995 1714 4127 4823 8998 7159 338 3 2924 3234 8014 9256 14689 10672 422 4 5192 5781 15040 17671 27736 19917 693 5 4934 5117 12054 4 13923 3 21930 0 13331 1 487 6to8 7064 5525 12555 13580 20577 8605 388 9+ 2481 124 45 210 03 1917 190 08 488 8 54 4 Culturally Kangra regio on has got Mud M   ure from the ancient time es and  Architectu traditional methods of f constructio on are highly y  le.  Frequent Family Size f found is 4‐8 person p  famil ly.  urability of m mud Is always s questioned d  But the du and the va arious combi inations have been tried in  mud to sh how the dura ability of mud d structures  like reinfo orced and sta abilized mud blocks and  plaster. Kangra District Source: Photograph P  fro om site visit of NITH N  students . per r m² of usable floor f  area. of Househo olds 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 3000 00 1 Six and above Five room Four r room Thre ee room Two room One room No N exclu usive roo om. SIZ ZE OF THE HOUSEH HOLD AND NUMBE ER OF DWELLING  RO OOMS 9+ Living pa attern and households Kangra dis strict have m major part of population  residing in n two bedroo om households (Table. Sustainability S y  of the hou usehold will d depend thre ee domains of o  the sustainability: soci ial culture.  sustainabl Environme entally the compact desi igns of house es  and low building footp prints with use of highly  le materials leads to promotion of mud m   sustainabl and stone e architecture e in the Kang gra region.  Source: Census of India 2011                 5 | P a g e     Figure 8: Life cycle emb bodied. case stu udy passive  house.  and the fin 6to8 5 4 3 2 1 No.

5% of energy consumption in Adobe manufacturing than the Fired Bricks. Today Energy efficiency of mud have been  proved earlier in various researches. Although constructing a mud house seems to be more energy efficient but  the low durability make it less reliable. its durability can be increased till 30 year.Sustainable Architecture: Kangra                                Energy and Mud Present day energy scenario of India . This reduces the operational energy of the household and adds to the energy and  money savings.  Few results have been detailed out in Table 6. The mud has zero embodied energy but production adds to the embodied  energy of adobe blocks. Many researches are going around reducing the production energy of adobe blocks by  efficient methods and machinery. it have  been proved scientifically that mud houses provided energy efficient interiors with less amount of  heating/cooling required. Besides the primary energy(Figure 8). states that there is need of energy savings in all the sectors. In recent time’s mud construction have attention of researchers and  many methods and types of mud construction have been evolved.The production energy of 1  finished unit of adobe block is 36 MJ Despite of Burnt Brick having 1026 Mj/FU. Although adobe brick construction itself can  sustain for 15 years. Construction  sector shares substantial part of energy consumption in India. Angela Lee 6 | P a g e     . So according to data available  there has been only 3.  Figure 10: Modern Mud Building Interiors Source: from works of Didi Contractors in Kangra District  Adobe CSEB Fired brick Energy required (MJ/ fu) Carbon dioxide emission (Kg/ fu)       36 233 1026 Hollow concrete blocks (HCB) 390 Gypsum stabilized earth wall in sections 191 Gypsum stabilized earth massive blocks 161 0 55 118 98 2 1 Table 6: Production energy requirement and CO2  emission for various construction materials Source: CONTEMPORARY EARTH CONSTRUCTION IN URBAN HOUSING – STABILISED OR UNSTABILISED? By‐Mohammad Sharif Zami& Dr. This shows the  energy efficiency of the material.

Architect Ghanshyam Thakur & Architect Sachin yadav 11.NIT Hamirpur 8.Sustainable Architecture: Kangra    Conclusion: Need of Research in the Mud Wall Finishes.Assistant Professor . Architect Ajesh Kapoor .http://himachaltourism. Angela Lee Human Settlements Programme   6. Location Maps 2. Assistant Professor .Also the loss and lack of traditional knowledge of mud construction needs  to be revoked. Tourism website 5. Sandeep Sharma . The Significance of Embodied Energy in Certified Passive Houses by-Robert H.P.Case studies and site visits to the work of Didi Contractor 4.Contemporary Earth Construction In Urban Housing – Stabilised Or Unstabilised? By-Mohammad ShariZami& Dr.Traditional and Vernacular buildings are Ecological Sensitive.Discussion with professionals and MrsVandana Sharma Hamirpurand NeetuKapoor .in. By AmanjeetKaur. Much more research is needed to be done on mud wall finishes to make it look aesthetically pleasing  and long lasting. During my research I have found out mud wall finishes are so much  important that it can change the durability of the mud structure drastically. documentation and training programs for Kangra people to increase their interest towards vernacular  architecture of Kangra.However the finish of the Mud walls have not been  given of so much of importance(Figure 5 &12).hillpost. By.Study of Himachal Pradesh. Photographs of Site visits by Miss NishaKumari. Climate Responsive Designs.Census data of Himachal Pradesh 3.NIT Hamirpurand Puneet Sharma . There is need  of research.Assistant Professor .Assistant Professor .Some detailed  study of mud blocks have been done in past to make it durable .NIT Hamirpur Figure 11: Mud House by Didi Contractor Source: Photograph from site visit of NITH students Figure 12: Start of failure in Mud Wall Finishes Source: Photograph from site visit of NITH students     7 | P a g e   . In present context people are aware that mud houses are good but they never actually enjoy the  durability of the mud structure that’s why people use other high energy material for the construction. Census of India 2011. By discussing the vernacular existence of the mud architecture in the Kangra District region and evaluating it with  the energy I have found that mud is a valuable material in the field of the sustainable architecture .NIT Hamirpur 7.for Present available  image of Kangra District on the H.Dharamshala. http://cdn1. The combination of the cement/lime as  the stabilizer and thatch as a reinforcement is yet the only solution found to incorporate in the mud walls to increase  their stability. Crawford and André Stephan 9.Local Building Tradition. Hiamachal Pradesh.Assistant Professor .              References:  1.