ANATOMY

 Spleen – mesoderm-derived from dorsal mesentery Supplied by splenic artery, from the foregut  Obturator nerve is the only nerve that exits the pelvis through obturator foramen.  Psoas – innervated by lumbar plexus  Thigh extension – gluteus maximus, supplied by inferior gluteal nerve.  Adjustable gastric banding – encircle upper stomach, must pass through lesser omentum  Lesser omentum – double layer of peritoneum from liver to lesser curvature to D1 Hepatogastric ligament Hepatoduodenal ligament  Falciform ligament – attaches liver to anterior body wall  Greater omentum – reflects on itself, with gastrocolic ligament from curvature to transverse colon  Gastrocolic ligament – anterior wall of the lesser sac, provides access to anterior pancreas and posterior wall of the stomach  Vitelline duct persistnce – at umbilicus, between intestine and body; discharge of meconium  Horseshoe kidney – inferior mesenteric artery traps  Optic tract projections – LGN Superior colliculus – reflex gaze Pretectal ara – light reflex Suprachiasmatic nucleus – circadian rhythms From LGN to visual cortex – geniculocalcarine tract or optic radiation  Lower fibers from lower retina = upper contralateral visual field = circuitious route = temporal lobe (Meyer’s loop)  lingual gyrus  Upper fibers – parietal lobe – cuneus gyrus  Broca’s area: inferior frontal gyrus of dominant hemisphere (Brodmann areas 44 and 45)  Wernicke’s: Brodmann 22, sensory receptive aphasia, superior temporal gyrus

 Frontal eye field: middle frontal gyrus. Brodmann 6 and 8; DAMAGE: eyes deviate to ipsilateral side  Lung apices extend above clavicle and first rib.  Ansa cervicalis: sternothyroid, sternothyroid, omohyoid; INJURED superior to cricoid cartilage  Rectus abdominis: most important muscle in Valsalva manuever  Heart, posterior surface: LA, adjacent to esophagus; only its auricle is visible anteriorly  Heart, anterior surface; RV, seen on lateral Xray  TEE: anterior: see LA, posterior: see descending aorta  Arm abduction: supraspinatus (main), 10-15 degrees, then deltoid if >30  Empty can test is sensitive for supraspinatus pathology; tendon is most injured due to impingement between acromion and head of the humerus  Wernicke’s encephalopathy: mamillary body  Paralysis of stapedius muscle, innervated by CN7  wider oscillation of stapes  hyperacusis  Tensor tympani: CN V3  Spinal cord ends at conus medullaris: L2 Nerves exit  cauda equina  Conus medullaris syndrom: lesions at L2, flaccid paralysis of bladder and rectum, impotence, saddle anesthesia CAUSED BY disk herniation, tumors, spinal fractures  Cauda equina: from massive rupture of IV disk SYMPTOMS: low back pain, saddle anesthesia, loss of anocutaneous reflex (S4)  Cremasteric fascia: internal oblique Internal spermatic fascia: transversalis fascia  Testicular hydrocoele: serous fluid accumulates in tunica vaginalis Tunical albuginea: fibrous tissue  CABG: LAD only, graft from L internal mammary artery (aka left internal thoracic) Multiple coronary arteries: great saphenous vein

= serratus anterior = winging of the scapula. deep branch Thumb opposition: median n. 10  Caudate nucleus: Huntington Putamen: Wilson’s  Posterior limb. subclavian a. 9. tibial n. 10 Gustatory: chorda tmypani of CN7. difficulty of stairs. sensory foot dorsum Deep: anterior. course posteriorly to drain into popliteal vein  Thumb ADDuction: ulnar n. urinary incontinence  Binocular vision: central 120 degrees.  Long thoracic n. auditory and visual fibers Genu: corticobulbar Anterior: some thalamocortical  Retroperitoneal hematoma. sensory between toe 1 and 2 Sciatic  common peroneal. somatic sensory. internal capsule: carries corticospinal motor. CN(10) General innervation: Ant 2/3: CN V3 (lingual nerve).. 40 deg bilateral  Common peroneal nerve injury: Footdrop At neck of fibula Superficial branch: lateral. kyphoscoliosis  ALS: upper. unable to abduct arm from horizontal. lower motor neurons NPH: gait apraxia. UE hyporeflexia. climbing stairs  Syringomyelia: C8-T1: CHRONIC loss of upper extremity PAIN AND TEMP sensation. Saphenous vein: A to medial malleolus Joins femoral vein at proximal though 3-4 cm IL to pubic tubercle: ACCESSED HERE  Popliteal artery + vein + tibial nerve  Small saphenous vein: lateral foot. LE hyperreflexia. 9.  Quads affected (vastus). injured during LN dissection  Duodenal ulcers: anterior: perforation Posterior: hemorrhage (gastroduodenal artery)  Recurrent laryngeal nerve: all muscles of larynx except cricothyroid Loops below aortic arch on L. Trendelenburg  Inferior gluteal n. tensior fascia lata  thigh abduction PROBLEM with waddling gait. exits through greater sciatic foramen: gluteus maximus  thigh extension PROBLEM: arising from seat. A to psoas muscle  compresses femoral n. monocular. knee buckling  loss of patellar reflex  Superior gluteal n.: gluteus minimus. on R Superior: inferior thyroid artery  Motor innervation: Hypoglossus (CN 12): all muscles of tongue EXCEPT PALATOGLOSSUS. .

crutch misfit. EXCLUDING posterior calf (popliteal)  Light reflex pathway: CN 2  pretectal nucleus (superior colliculus)  Edinger-Westphal  efferent CN 3  ciliary ganglion  Kidney transplant: donor in R iliac fossa. ophthalmic vein Foramen rotundum: V2 Foramen ovale: V3. supplied by branches of the renal artery  Broad ligament of the uterus Ovarian ligament Round ligament – links horns of uterus to ext. . v1. central retinal vein Superior orbital fissure: 3. decreased CSF outflow at arachnoid villi  Ventromedial hypothalamus: for satiety Lateral: for hunger Anterior: for cooling Posterior: for heat  Ulnar nerve injury: P to medial epicondyle Between the hook of the hamate and pisiform bone within Guyon’s canal  Median nerve: INJURED supracondylar humerus. ligated in ovarian mass surgery  Transverse cervical ligament (aka cardinal) – from cervix. lesser petrosal n. brachial artery  Axillary nerve: surgical neck of humerus. covered only by external spermatic fascia  Indirect inguinal hernia: process vaginalis. covered with 3 layers  Posterior descending artery: 90% from RCA. Upper donor ureter is preserved. diminished fat  BBB: tight junctions (aka zona occludens) Desmosomes: stratum spinosum. only pass through SUPERFICIAL inguinal ring. 11. 6. cell anchors Hemidesmosomes: to BM  Repeated kneeling  Prepatellar bursa (+) fluctuant edema over lower pole of patella  Anserine bursitis: medial knee  Superficial inguinal LN: drains all cutaneous LN from umbilicus to feet. ligated in radical hysterectomy  Dopaminergic systems Mesolimbic-mesocortical: schizophrenia Nigrostriatal: Parkinsonism Tuberoinfundibular: hyperprolactinemia  MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA Optic canal: CN 2. iliac a. supplies inferior wall of LV (diaphragmatic surface)  CSF flow: Lateral ventricles  interventricular rd foramen of Monroe  3 ventricle  cerebral th aqueduct of Sylvius  4 ventricle  lateral Luschka or medial Magendie  subarachnoid space  Pseudotumor cerebri: overweight young females. head and shoulder violently stretched apart Lower trunk: sudden upward jerking of shoulder  Mesenteric artery syndrome: SMA Transverse portion of duodenum is entrapped between SMA and aorta (45deg)  partial SBO Causes: correction of scoliosis. allows cochlear fluid to move. contains artery of Sampson Suspensory ligament – NAVL of ovary. along with deep brachial artery  Upper trunk of brachial plexus: musculocutaneous n. ophthalmic artery. anastomose donor renal artery with ext. LESS incarceration. contains UTERINE ARTERY.  Stapes to oval window IN. 10% from LCX. 10. with anterior circumflex humeral artery  Radial nerve: midshaft of humerus. round window goes OUT. inferior petrosal and sigmoid sinuses. Direct inguinal hernia: Hesselbach’s (weak spot on transversalis fascia). accessory meningeal artery Foramen spinosum: MMA and vein **Foramen lacerum: occluded by cartilage  POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA Internal acoustic meatus: 7. inferior epigastric vessels LATERAL. jugular vein.genitalia.. no scrotum descent. 4. vertebral arteries  Acoustic reflex: stapedius and tensor tympani contract to lessen responsiveness of ossicles to sound. vagina lateral fornix. 8 Jugular foramen (Vernet): 9. PULP. posterior meningeal artery Hypoglossal canal: 12 Foramen magnun: spinal roots of 11. brainstem. including external genitalia and anal canal UP TO DENTATE.

S1) – shooting pain down posterior thigh and leg. – last branch of ICA. with some proprioceptive defects  Lacunar infarcts – lipohyalinosis and microarethomas  Oligodendrocyte apoptosis – MS. Medial (posterior). optic tract. Hemorrhoids: Superior rectal v. Brodmann 41. R suprarenal gland  IVC L suprarenal gland  L renal v. = portal v.  Splenic v.  MMA  Kiesselbach’s plexus: ophthalmic. bilateral thalamic or dorsal midbrain strokes  Obturator artery  supplies the femoral head in children  Trochanteric anastomosis Superior. inferior rectal v.  Neurofibromas – from Scwann cells. facial.  esophageal v. pink patches in white matter tracts  Glenohumeral joint – anterior dislocation Flattening of the deltoid prominence. Caput medusae: Paraumbilical v. MMA. supplies posterior limb and genu of internal capsule. L. as these structures form from outpouchings of the primitive gut tube  Vertebrae is from paraxial mesoderm Notochord  nucleus pulposus  Varicocoele. hippocampus. lens spherical. 42 temporal lobe  Olfactory tract is the only sensory pathway where input is not processed by the thalamus. decreased ankle reflex  Artery of Percheron: rare normal variant of PCA.  middle. 2 VPL: trigeminal.  Sciatica (L5. lungs. lateral femoral circumflex a. zonules relax. bulk of liver. from pampiniform plexus R testicular vein  IVC L testicular vein  L renal vein (between aorta and SMA)  IVC  R kidney  R renal v.) Medial rotation: subscapularis Flexion: deltoid  Anterior choroidal a. focus on near object  Thalamic nuclei VPL: spinothalamic tract (pain and temp) and medical lemniscus (position and proprioceptuon)  Brodmann 3. LGN.  IVC  Humerus abduction: supraspinatus Adduction: lattisimus dorsi (thoracodorsal n. inferior epigastric v. amygdala  Pterion: FPTS.  Esophageal varices: L gastric v. choroid plexus. gustatory MGN: auditory.  superior . inferior gluteal a. epidural hematoma ECA  Maxillary a. 1. + superior mesenteric v. Ciliary muscle: accomodation Contracts. protrusion of the acromion Axillary n. injured . pancreas. neural crest Pink nodules with a rubbery texture that show BUTTONHOLING with gentle pressure  Endoderm: thyroid. maxillary artery branches (sphenopalatine)  Thalamic syndrome: complete contralateral sensory loss.

visible with RA dilation (pulmonary hypertension)  Intestinal gas at biliary tree  gallstone ileus. platysma). syphilis: ascending aorta.  Coronary sinus: endpoint of venous drainage in heart. prone to incarceration  strangulation  Midbrain:2. runs Anteriorly. 3. = R subclavian + R IJV R subclavian drains R EJV R brachiocephalic (aka inominate vein) drains R lymphatic duct . membranous  Membranous segment – weakest point of posterior urethra  Bulbous segment – straddle injury  Posterior drawer test – apply pressure on anterior tibia  Posterior cruciate ligament – Posterior. rest is V3 (auriculotemporal branch) Inner surface of the tympanic membrane: CN9  Aortic rupture: at arch or isthmus in trauma Aneurysm secondary to HPN. cholecysenteric fistula Stone stuck at ILEOCECAL VALVE  Area postrema – absent BBB.10. 8 Medulla: 9. 12  Trochlear nerve is the only CN to decussate before innervating its target. women. pretracheal fascia.  Femoral hernias – R. 4 Pons: 5. Anterior urethra: bulbous and penile segment Posterior urethra: prostatic. dorsal medulla th near 4 ventricle  Cricothyrotomy – superficial cervical fascia (fat. 11. 7. prevents ANTERIOR DISPLACEMENT of FEMUR RELATIVE TO TIBIA when knee is FLEXED  Medial articular surface of the knee bears more weight. 6.  some cutaneous sensation to posterior external auditory canal  vagal stimulation. where R brachiocephalic branches off  R brachiocephalic v. cricothyroid membrance  Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn: germinal matrix at the subventricular zone Subdural: cortical bridging veins. shaken baby Epidural: MMA SAH: Berry aneurysms  Iliopsoas – most important of hip flexors  Vagus n. inserts into INternal condyle (PAIN).

 Double vision when walking down the stairs or reading newspaper = vertical diplopia. 11 deficits Horner’s syndrome  Median nerve: between FDS and FDP. Inferomedial: sciatic n. GVE fibers (compression)  Kerley B lines – short horizontal lines perpendicular to pleural surface. uterine artery (uterosacral ligament) Over common/external iliac Lateral to internal iliac. 8.  D1: Not retroperitoneal D2: head of pancreas. medial pterygoid. sympathetic preganglionic neurons  Supermedial: superior gluteal n. atrioventricular groove posteriorly  Muscles that close the jaw: masseter. 7. representing edema of interlobular septa  Pacemaker leads R atrium. 5 Pure sensory: 1. is shorter.  Radial head subluxation  Nursemaid’s elbow  Annular ligament torn . Distal GC: R gastroepiploic a. Proximal LC: L gastric a. more vertical  Ureter: under gonadal A/V. Ligament of Treitz  jejunum  Piriform recess: internal laryngeal nerve. temporalis muscle Open the jaw: lateral pterygoid  Parasympathetic mixed: 10. temperature Ipsilateral CN 5. 7. 9. 2. SMA. goes down the right R main bronchus has a larger diameter. afferent limb of cough reflex  Posterior inferior cerebellar artery: lateral medullary (Wallenberg syndrome) Contralateral loss of pain. ventricle – pass through L SCV L ventricle – coronary sinus. claw hand  Ureters and bladder and retroperitoneal. ape-hand Ulnar nerve: between FCU and FDP. 9. CN 4  MLF lesion = internuclear ophthalmoplegia Impaired horizonal eye movement Weak adduction of affected eye Simultaneous abduction nystagmus of other eye  Lunate dislocate. medial to gonadal in the true pelvis  T1 to L2: with lateral horns  intermediolateral nucleus. ampulla of Vater D3: uncinate process of pancreas. 8  Distal LC of stomach: R gastric a. 3 Motor mixed: 10. scaphoid fracture (avascular necrosis)  Dupuytren’s contracture – progessive fibroproliferative disease of the palmar fascia  Patellar ligament is the continuation of the quadriceps femoris tendon  Swallow a bite. 9.  Filter for pulmo embolism at IVC. Superolateral: RIGHT SPOT for injection Inferolateral: tendons  CN3 lesion: between posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries GSE (ischemia). 10. SMV D4: upwards.

EMBRYOLOGY  .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.