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SYSTEMS PLUS COLLEGE FOUNDATION Balibago, Angeles City College Of Nursing A.Y.

2013-2014

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements in Intensive Nursing Practicum

JOURNAL In

pediatrics

Submitted To: Mary Ann de Dios, RN, MSN

Submitted By: Ma. Cresencia S. Buenafe NUR80A

Date Of Submission: January 13, 2014

The American Academy of Pediatrics have issued a new policy statement urging pregnant women, infants and young children to consume only pasteurized dairy products as opposed to raw milk and milk products.
The statement, published in the journal Pediatrics, supports already existing recommendations from the American Medical Association, the American Veterinary Medical Association, the International Association for Food Protection, the National Environmental Health Association, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the World Health Association. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), unpasteurized milk and milk products can contain harmful bacteria, viruses and parasites. If consumed, the products can cause sickness, diarrhea, stomach cramping, and in more severe cases, kidney failure, paralysis and even death.

Groups at highest risk


The CDC state that the risk of becoming ill from raw milk or milk products is significantly greater for people with weakened immune systems, the elderly, pregnant women, infants and young children.

A new policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics urges pregnant women, infants and young children to consume only pasteurized milk and milk products.

The statement authors, led by Yvonne Maldonado, professor of pediatrics at Stanford University School of Medicine in California, note that prior to the development of pasteurization, drinking milk was one of the main causes of childhood disease and death, and many children contracted tuberculosis from drinking it.

Although previous research has demonstrated that cow herds are now healthier compared with the "pre-pasteurization era," the authors say these herds carry other organisms that can lead to severe bacterial infections in pregnant women and children. "There have been recent studies demonstrating that even healthy dairy animals in good facilities carry some of these organisms on their udders, or the organisms are somewhere in their environment and the milk can be contaminated with them," says Prof. Maldonado. "When these organisms are ingested, especially by young babies or pregnant women, they can cause severe illness."

'No evidence' to support benefits of raw dairy products


However, the authors note that popularity of unpasteurized milk and milk products has been growing, due to claims that the products contain the same amount of nutrients as pasteurized milk. But Prof. Maldonado says there is no solid evidence to support these claims: "We have no scientific evidence that consuming raw milk provides any advantages over pasteurized milk and milk products. But relative to the amount of raw milk products on the market, we do see a disproportionately large number of diseases and illnesses from raw milk." According to the CDC, there were 148 outbreaks due to consumption of raw dairy products reported between 1998 and 2011. These resulted in 2,384 illnesses, 284 hospitalizations and two deaths. The majority of the illnesses were caused by the bacteria E. Coli, Campylobacter,Salmonella or Listeria.

Nationwide ban urged on sale of raw dairy products


Interstate shipment and sales of raw milk and some raw milk products were banned by the FDA in 1987. However, the statement authors note that this ban has no influence over whether such products that are created within a certain state are allowed to be sold within that state. Although unpasteurized dairy products are clearly a public health hazard, a 2011 survey by the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture found that the products were still being sold legally in 30 US states, including California. The authors point out that one exemption in the FDA ban allowed cheeses that had been matured for a minimum of 60 days to be transported over state lines for sale, as long as the cheese was clearly labeled as unpasteurized. However, considering the evidence that raw milk and milk products are a common cause of illness, the new policy statement urges a nationwide ban on the sale of unpasteurized dairy products, including raw milk cheeses that have been matured for at least 60 days.

The authors back this up by citing evidence that the 0157 E. Coli strain - known to cause severe sickness and even liver failure - is able to survive in raw milk cheese after 60 days. Furthermore, the policy statement urges pediatricians to support a ban on unpasteurized dairy products by lobbying their state representatives. Prof. Maldonado concludes: "We invented pasteurization to prevent these horrible diseases. There is really no good reason to drink unpasteurized milk.

Summary

Pasteurization is a process that kills harmful bacteria by heating milk to a specific temperature for a set period of time. First developed by Louis Pasteur in 1864, pasteurization kills harmful organisms responsible for such diseases as listeriosis, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria, and brucellosis. Research shows no meaningful difference in the nutritional values of pasteurized and unpasteurized milk. Pasteurized milk contains low levels of the type of nonpathogenic bacteria that can cause food spoilage, so storing your pasteurized milk in the refrigerator is still important.

While pasteurization has helped provide safe, nutrient-rich milk and cheese for over 120 years, some people continue to believe that pasteurization harms milk and that raw milk is a safe healthier alternative. While most healthy people will recover from an illness caused by harmful bacteria in raw milk - or in foods made with raw milk - within a short period of time, some can develop symptoms that are chronic, severe, or even life-threatening.

Pregnant women run a serious risk of becoming ill from the bacteria Listeria which can cause miscarriage, fetal death or illness or death of a newborn. If you are pregnant, consuming raw milk - or foods made from raw milk, such as Mexican-style cheese like Queso Blanco or Queso Fresco - can harm your baby even if you don't feel sick.

Reaction

Milk and milk products provide a wealth of nutrition benefits. But raw milk can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks to you and your family. According to an analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), between 1993 and 2006 more than 1500 people in the United States became sick from drinking raw milk or eating cheese made from raw milk. In addition, CDC reported that unpasteurized milk is 150 times more likely to cause foodborne illness and results in 13 times more hospitalizations than illnesses involving pasteurized dairy products.

Raw milk is milk from cows, sheep, or goats that has not been pasteurized to kill harmful bacteria. This raw, unpasteurized milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria, which are responsible for causing numerous foodborne illnesses.

These harmful bacteria can seriously affect the health of anyone who drinks raw milk, or eats foods made from raw milk. However, the bacteria in raw milk can be especially dangerous to people with weakened immune systems, older adults, pregnant women, and children. In fact, the CDC analysis found that foodborne illness from raw milk especially affected children and teenagers.

Recommendation

Pasteurization is a process that kills harmful bacteria by heating milk to a specific temperature for a set period of time. First developed by Louis Pasteur in 1864, pasteurization kills harmful organisms responsible for such diseases as listeriosis, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria, and brucellosis. Research shows no meaningful difference in the nutritional values of pasteurized and unpasteurized milk. Pasteurized milk contains low levels of the type of nonpathogenic bacteria that can cause food spoilage, so storing your pasteurized milk in the refrigerator is still important.

In line with this article, I recommend that taking a few moments to make sure milk is pasteurized - or that a product isn't made from raw milk - can protect you or your loved ones from serious illness. Read the label. Safe milk will have the word "pasteurized" on the label. If the word "pasteurized" does not appear on a product's label, it may contain raw milk.

Don't hesitate to ask your grocer or store clerk whether milk or cream has been pasteurized, especially milk or milk products sold in refrigerated cases at grocery or health food stores.

Don't buy milk or milk products at farm stands or farmers' markets unless you can confirm that it has been pasteurized.