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Dr. H. Zulkarnain: English for Students in Agriculture (PNU 122 : A !

esource "ook


Specific instructional ai s
Students are able to describe the thesis sentence and able to make a short composition.

Su! topics
the thesis sentence writing a short essay

T"e t"esis sentence

In writing a short article or an essay, one of the basic steps should be understood is the thesis sentences. Understanding the thesis sentence is important because it expresses the whole idea contained in the essay. A thesis sentence indicates the purpose of the composition and conveys the control idea of the article. Thus, the thesis sentence governs the contents and structure of a whole composition consisting of two or more paragraphs. Ideally, it is a one sentence summary of the whole essay. !ifferent from the topic sentence, i.e. a sentence controlling the idea of a whole paragraph, the thesis sentence is a sentence controlling or governing the whole essays consisting of several paragraphs. The thesis sentence should be written in the first paragraph of an essay. It may be the first sentence of the first paragraph, or it may follow an introductory sentence or two leading to the climax of the first paragraph which is the thesis sentence. "or a beginner, writing a thesis sentence is a must. Thesis sentences vary in numerous ways depending on the content of the sub#ect matter. They also vary in form$ it may be a statement of position, belief, your point of view or other people%s point of point. The form of thesis sentence is important because of two reasons. "irst, it controls or governs the &'

Dr. H. Zulkarnain: English for Students in Agriculture (PNU 122 : A !esource "ook

organi(ation of the whole article. Second, it will serve as a guide where the essay is going to and how to get there. Thus, much like a good outline, the thesis sentence gives the plans for the essay. )efore writing an outline for an essay, it advisable that the thesis of the composition is clearly designed or #otted down. This means that the writer must be able to convey an idea or opinion that is to be proved in the article. Sometimes the writer goes on stating facts in the first paragraph but the writing lacks a thesis or point to be proved. As the conse*uence, the essay is devoid of focal point to be proved, because writing everything without a main idea or opinion to be proved will end up saying nothing. +ne good suggestion that will help making thesis sentence a clear statement and a good plan for the composition is to divide the thesis sentence into two or three parts. The first part states the sub#ect and the second or the third part states the supports. ,owever, the division of the thesis sentence is not limited to two or three supports. "or a long essay, the part of supports may exceed two or three in number, but keep in mind that the essay must discuss each part of the thesis sentence in the order in which it appears in the thesis sentence and each support should be developed sufficiently. -lease have a look at the following thesis sentence$ #he ne$ agricultural graduate $orking in rural area %ust ha&e three ad%ira'le (ualities: )atience* dedication to $ork* and lo&e for hu%anit+. This thesis sentence has three part of supports that can be developed further. each paragraph may vary. Patience #it" t"e i$norance of t"e uns%ille& far ers .sub#ect/ has made the new agricultural graduate an ad%ira'le )erson .controlling idea/. 0 then you should develop the controlling idea 0 De&ication to "is #or% .sub#ect/ is the outstanding characteristic .controlling idea/ of the new agricultural graduate. 00 then you should develop the controlling idea 00 'o(e for "u anit) .sub#ect/ has made the new agricultural graduate en,o+s his ,o' .controlling idea/ in rural area. 00 then you should develop the controlling idea 00 &1 The essay should discuss the supporting parts in the order shown below. ,owever, the topic sentence in

Dr. H. Zulkarnain: English for Students in Agriculture (PNU 122 : A !esource "ook

The most common form of the thesis sentence is that which first states the sub#ect, then indicates the supports. The sub#ect and the supports can be separated by a transition expression such as !ecause* &ue to* !)* in t"at, etc. or they can be separated by a colon .+/. +bserve the examples below. 2. His profession .sub#ect/ re*uires three important *ualities$ the a'ilit+ to anal+se* an interest in )eo)le* and )atience $ith deals .supports/. 3. T"e topic of "is presentation .sub#ect/ covers two strategies in plant breeding$ the in &itro and the in &i&o a))roaches .supports/. 4. ,ost of plant p")siolo$ical &isor&ers .sub#ect/ are caused by nutrient deficienc+* high te%)erature* and lo$ light intensit+ .supports/. 5. T,- is a &an$erous plant (irus attac%in$ re& peppers .sub#ect/ because they are transmitted systemically within plant body .supports/. 6. -e$etati(e plant propa$ation .sub#ect/ can be done by stem cutting, layerage, and grafting .supports/.

Writin$ a s"ort essa)

"rom the previous lesson, you have learned the function of a thesis sentence$ it serves as a guide to the content and organi(ation of an essay. it may be the only sentence in the introductory paragraph, or it may follow a sentence or two leading to the climax .the thesis sentence/ of the first paragraph of the essay. it may be divided into one sub#ect plus two or three support parts that should be elaborated in the following paragraphs in the same order it appears in the thesis sentence. -lease have a look at the following outline of an essay on environmental factors affecting stomatal movements.

En(iron ental Effects on Sto ates .irst para$rap"$ Thesis sentence$ 7any factors influence stomatal apertures, and any theory purporting to explain guard cell action must account for this effects$ light, 8+ 3 in the leaves, atmospheric humidity, water potential in the leaves and temperature. +f these factors, 8+3 is considered to have the most direct effect on opening and closing of the stomates.


Dr. H. Zulkarnain: English for Students in Agriculture (PNU 122 : A !esource "ook Secon& para$rap"+ Topic sentence$ Stomates of most plants open at sunrise and close at darkness, allowing entry of the 8+ 3 used in photosynthesis during the daytime. 8ontrolling idea$ +pening generally re*uires about one hour, and closing is often gradual throughout the afternoon. Stomates close faster if plants are suddenly exposed to darkness. The minimum light level for the opening of stomates in most plants is about 292::: to 294: of full sunlight, #ust enough to cause some net photosynthesis. apertures. T"ir& para$rap"+ Topic sentence$ In most plants, low concentrations of 8+ 3 in the leaves also cause stomates to open. 8ontrolling idea$ If 8+3 free air is blown across leaves even in darkness, then their slightly open stomates open wider. 8onversely, high 8+ 3 concentration in the leaves can cause the stomates to close partially, and this occurs in the light as well as the dark. ;hen the stomates are completely closed, which is unusual, external 8+ 3 free air has no effect. In short, stomates responds to intercellular 8+ 3 levels but not to the 8+ 3 concentration at the leaf surface and in the stomatal pore. Succulents fix 8+3 into organic acids at night, thus lowering internal 8+3 concentration, which causes stomatal opening. .ourt" para$rap"+ Topic sentence$ Stomatal of many species are highly sensitive to atmospheric humidity. 8ontrolling idea$ They close when the difference between the vapour content of the air and that of the intercellular spaces exceeds a critical level. A large gradient tends to induce oscillations in opening and closing with a periodicity of about 4: minutes. This is probably because, as the steep vapour gradient induces closing, 8+ 3 in the leaf is depleted, and this in turn leads to opening. The most rapid responses to lowered humidity occur under low irradiances. .ift" para$rap"+ Topic sentence$ The water potential within a leaf also has a powerful effect on stomatal opening and closing. 8ontrolling idea$ As water potential decreases .water stress increase/, the stomates close. This effect can override low 8+ 3 levels and bright light. Its protective value during drought is obvious. Si/t" para$rap"+ Topic sentence$ ,igh temperatures .4: to 46 o8/ usually cause stomatal closing. 8ontrolling idea$ This might be an indirect response to water stress, or a rise in respiration rate might cause an increase in 8+ 3 within the leaf. ,igh 8+ 3 concentration in the leaf is probably the correct explanation for high temperature stomatal closing in some species because it can be prevented by flushing the leaf continuously with 8+ 3 free air. In some plants, however, high temperatures cause stomatal opening instead of closing. This leads to increased transpiration, which removes heat from the leaf. Se(ent" para$rap"+ 8onclusion$ It is clear that although many environmental factors are found to affect the opening and closing of stomates, 8+ 3 is the key and the most direct factor in this phenomenon. This information is important, particularly for those people who are doing research dealing with stomatal characteristics. .Source ($ith so%e %odifications $ Salisbury, ".). and 8.;. <oss. 2==3. -lant -hysiology .fourth edition/. ;adsworth -ublishing 8ompany. )elmont, 8alifornia, p. 15 1'/. ,igh irradiance levels cause wider stomatal


Dr. H. Zulkarnain: English for Students in Agriculture (PNU 122 : A !esource "ook

As illustrated in the above example, the short essay consists of seven paragraphs. The first paragraph contains the thesis sentence, while the second through to sixth paragraphs comprise the discussion which includes the five supports of the thesis sentence. The seventh paragraph is the conclusion, which is a restatement of the thesis sentence. In a longer essay .consisting of more than eight paragraphs/, each part may be developed into two or more paragraphs. In the above example, the title of the essay already suggest that the essay will not be extensive. Therefore, each topic sentence can be #ust expanded into one paragraph. In general, the relationship between the paragraphs containing the supports is direct and should be clearly shown in the working order of the sentences.

Stu&ents0 acti(it)
Assi$n ent 1
In the list below there are sentences expressing a position, belief, or point of view. These sentences are intended to be thesis sentences. ,owever, they contain no proof, evidence, or reasoning to support a thesis. In other words, they are vague and imprecise. They do not give the essay any clear direction, besides there is no clear division between the sub#ect and the supporting parts. >our task is try to develop these sentences into thesis sentences with two or three supports. Introduce the supports with words such as those in the examples already given. 2. There is an urgent need for good extension services in the newly developed transmigration area in ?ambi. 3. The plant breeders and plant pathologists are found in every agricultural faculty in certain universities in Indonesia. 4. @enetic engineering is a possible method to be applied in breeding pest and disease resistant plants. 5. The rising cost of fertili(ers and pesticides is a serious problem to horticultural industry in Indonesia. 6. Aegetable growers in -al 7erah are facing very serious disease problems attacking their crops.


Dr. H. Zulkarnain: English for Students in Agriculture (PNU 122 : A !esource "ook

Assi$n ent 1
7ake an outline of a short essay based on the following title and thesis sentence. Title $ The !ifference between !icotyledonous and 7onocotyledonous -lants. Thesis sentence $ )ased on botanical systematic, plants can be classified into two groups$ monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous. Support 2 Support 3 8onclusion $ 7onocotyledonous plants are characteri(ed by 0000 $ !icotyledonous plants are characteri(ed by 0000 $ It is clear that 000.

Upon have the outline, try to write a short essay consisting of four paragraphs. The first paragraph consists of a short introduction leading to the thesis sentence. The second paragraph develops the first support, the third paragraph develops the second support, and the fourth paragraph is the conclusion.

-oca!ular) list
Agricultural graduate Atmospheric humidity )otanical systematic 8+3 free air 8ritical level !icotyledonous Cnvironmental factors Cxtension services @enetic engineering @radient @rafting @uard cell Intercellular spaces Irradiance Dayerage Dight intensity =2 B sar#ana pertanian B kelembaban udara B sistematika botani B udara bebas 8+3 B level kritis B dikotil B faktor faktor lingkungan B layanan penyuluhan B rekayasa genetika B gradien B penyambungan B sel pen#aga B rongga antar sel B iradiasi B pencangkokan B intensitas cahaya

Dr. H. Zulkarnain: English for Students in Agriculture (PNU 122 : A !esource "ook

7onocotyledonous Eutrient deficiency -hotosynthesis -hysiological disorders -lant breeder -lant pathologist <espiration <espiration rate Stem cutting Stomatal apertures Stomatal characteristics Stomates Succulents Transmitted Transpiration Unskilled farmers Aapour content ;ater potential ;ater stress

B monokotil B defisiensi unsur hara B fotosintesis B penyakit penyakit fisiologis B pemulia tanaman B pakar patologi tanaman B respirasi B la#u respirasi B setek batang B bukaan stomata B karakteristik stomata B stomata B tanaman sukulen B ditransmisikan B transpirasi B petani yang tidak terampil B kandungan uap air B potensial air B cekaman air