International Research Journal of Finance and Economics ISSN 1450-2887 Issue 23 (2009) © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc.


Poverty Alleviation in Southern Punjab (Pakistan): An Empirical Evidence from the Project Area of Asian Development Bank
Imran Sharif Chaudhry Associate Professor of Economics at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan and currently is Visiting Research Fellow at London School of Economics (LSE) London, United Kingdom E-mail: and Abstract This paper investigates the factors affecting rural poverty using Logit regression modeling based on primary source of data in the project area of Asian Development Bank. According to the results, rural poverty can be alleviated by lowering the household size, persons per room and dependency ratio, improving education, more female labor force participation, higher household participation rate, improving assets and household’s access to market especially in remote areas. The government should pay special attention to basic infrastructure and market access facilities beside some other socio-economic and demographic variables to alleviate rural poverty in remote areas of Pakistan.

Keywords: Poverty Alleviation; Rural Development Projects; Determinants; Logit Regression Modeling

Poverty alleviation has been one of the foremost objectives of development programs in many developing countries of the world for the last several decades. A considerable research has been carried out on the issue of poverty alleviation and its long run social and economic effects in developed as well as in developing countries. Since the issue of poverty alleviation is core on the agenda of all international organizations, the three international reports published by World Bank (2000), IFAD (2001) and ILO (2003) by the start of this century could be observed. The World Bank report (2000/2001) was primarily on the issue of poverty. This tradition became decennial since the reports of 1980 and 1990 on the same subject. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Report on the rural poverty of the year 2001 was also published on the challenge of ending rural poverty. Indeed, it is in rural areas that poverty is the mostly pronounced with multidimensional aspects (economic, social demographic and so forth). The International Labor organization (ILO) report presented in the 91st session, 2003, of International Labor conference was also on the working out of poverty. This report also focused on the working poor and the poor are excluded from work. With this brief global importance of the issue of poverty, we now come to the experience of Pakistan. There is an ample evidence that poverty, which increased in 1960s declined rapidly in the 1970s and 1980s has returned back in the 1990s and again it has some declining trend in 2000s [Amjad and Kemal (1997); Ali and Tahir (1999); Jafri (1999); Arif et al. (2001); (Government of Pakistan,

correlates and micro determinants of poverty. Third. the taxation policy should be reasonable. Siddiqui (2001) stressed that the role of gender is very crucial for poverty reduction. Some of them have either concentrated more on counting numbers below the poverty line at national. However the major focus is to be on good governance. An inference is drawn from the data analysis that the breaking of land concentration may help in achieving higher rates of agricultural growth and then consequently. A large number of studies have also been conducted in Pakistan on poverty. They concluded that there is significant association between hours of female workers and household poverty. through macro-level factors such as demographic dynamics that affect the labor force and dependency ratio. It has also been the declared goal of every government policy in Pakistan. Kemal (1995) focused on evaluation of public strategies and policies for poverty alleviation. income regression and Logit regression models have been used for empirical data analysis. Nevertheless. more agricultural output/production. health. sustainable pro-poor growth (rural development and employment creation) and inclusive social development (education. However some significant studies conducted on poverty alleviation are reviewed as follows. In addition. He explained four mechanisms to reduce poverty. status. profile. facilities of job creation by improving the functioning of labor market. To identify the factors affecting rural poverty. provision of high quality health and education services. It is concluded that efficient economic infrastructure. Nevertheless the bulk of poverty exists in Pakistan but more than that in remote areas. Malik et al. health and educational facilities are considered the policy measures to alleviate rural poverty. Second. Azid et al. poverty of rural areas of Punjab may be alleviated to some extent. the poor members of society should get more opportunities so that income equality among households should be improved. . real wage rates. She also concluded that improvement in human capital formation can be important in increasing women’s economic involvement and a reduction in gender-based poverty. Moreover. and inflationary impact on food availability. (2001) attempted to explain the role of female labor force participation in poverty alleviation through cottage industry like cloth embroidery in rural Multan. provincial level. The Asian Development Bank’s (ADB’s) current strategy is also based on Pakistan’s development priority of poverty reduction and the emphases in the PRSP. However the least emphasis has been placed at micro or regional level poverty alleviation. assets ownership and access. it is difficult to explain the declining trends in poverty as shown by World Bank (2000). Chaudhry (2003) analyzed the issue of poverty in Bahawalpur district considering the extent. Malik (1996) used micro survey data from a Punjab village and considered a large number of rural and household specific variables besides land holding in an attempt to determine their role in raising levels of living of rural masses and subsequently to alleviate rural poverty. better quality of life. promotion of non farm rural economy. Amjad and Kemal (1997) analyzed the correlates of poverty by using large number of macroeconomic variables. First was the introduction of new technologies and promotion of large or small – scale firms. workers’ remittances. or have explained poverty with reference to variables. The present study is the continuity of the previous studies with an emphasis on a different set of variables and study area at micro level. (2000) concluded that land redistribution as a direct policy measure is considered to alleviate poverty in rural areas of Pakistan. most of the efforts have been made to alleviate poverty in Pakistan at macroeconomic level in terms of sustainable economic growth. employment levels. provision of infrastructural facilities and safety nets in times of natural and financial crisis.International Research Journal of Finance and Economics . Since poverty alleviation is considered as an important issue of economic development in the literature. The ADB’s Country Strategy and Program (CSP) 2002-2006 states this and translates shared objectives to assistance with interventions in good governance (including devolution and sector and province-based reforms). and social protection). They also examined the impact of the structural adjustment policies on poverty in Pakistan. water supply and sanitation. attempts have been made to alleviate poverty by increasing the level of income of households.Issue 23 (2009) 24 2006)]. cross-cutting themes are to include sustainable environmental management and gender [ADB (2002)].

Jafri (1999) and Arif et al. we come to the scope and issues of present study. transitory poor 20. 15. . microfinance and provision of health services using data from Pakistan Socio-economic survey (PSES) for 2000/01. improving human development and governance.25 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics . The last section offers concluding remarks. data and material are drawn from the evaluation report of phase I of BRDP. They identified that good governance of economic infrastructural facilities among others will alleviate poverty in urban areas of south Punjab based on the results of a household survey data. transitory non-poor 32. for example. This paper is organized as follows. They empirically analyzed and concluded that Cholistani land should be distributed based on equality. (2005) conducted a study on the correlates and profile of poverty in the areas of Cholistan in Southern Punjab. while health services have not reached the most disadvantaged areas of the country. The core elements were focused on engendering growth. He also provided broad guidelines and policy implications for improving the targeting efficiency of narrow-target programs of poverty reduction in general and zakat in particular. preparation for a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) began which involved detailed analysis of data and consultation with a broad spectrum of stakeholders. In section II. ii. transitory vulnerable 20. Amjad and Kemal (1997). Chaudhry et al. we explain the brief description of poverty alleviation and rural development projects with an emphasis on the government polices.6 percent. Results and discussions of the factors affecting rural poverty alleviation are elucidated in section V. income generating opportunities and attempting to reduce shocks affecting the poor. Nevertheless major objectives of the present study are: i. Ali and Tahir (1999). Poverty Alleviation and Rural Development Projects1: A Brief Description with Government Policies Notwithstanding the improvements in poverty reduction in 1970s and 1980s. During the implementation of I-PRSP. Analysis of data collected in 2001 from the combined Household Income-Expenditure Survey (HIES) and Pakistan Households Integrated Survey (PHIS) led to the following breakdown being estimated: non-poor. See.4 percent. improvement in livestock sector. The PRSP emphasized the importance of community involvement in planning. implementation and 1 2 In this section. To document and analyze the factors affecting rural poverty alleviation in the areas of Bahawalpur Rural Development Project in Bahawalpur district. Most microfinance programs fail to target the poorest households.1 percent. a substantial increase in poverty had occurred between 1990 and 2000 had resulted in roughly a third of Pakistan’s population being defined as poor2. (2006) also conducted a study on urban poverty alleviation through good governance in southern Punjab. (2000).2 percent. Section IV presents the trends of rural poverty in Southern Punjab.4 percent and extremely poor 1. To show the profile and trends of rural poverty in Southern Punjab iii.3 percent. Section III states the issues of data and methodology used in this study. He concluded that public zakat currently covers far fewer households than the number actually eligible and problem is practical rather than theoretical. Keeping in view some of significant literature review.Issue 23 (2009) Chaudhry et al. May 2006. chronically poor 10. improvement in socio-economic and demographic variables are considered for reduction in poverty in remote areas of Pakistan like Cholistan. Arif (2006) analyzed the nationally implemented poverty reduction programs in Pakistan in terms of disbursement of zakat (charitable donations). This study is limited to the areas where Bahawalpur Rural Development Project initiated by Asia Development Bank in Southern Punjab but is undertaken by emphasizing on poverty trends and largely on its determinants. To present the brief description of significant projects for poverty alleviation and rural development particularly in Southern areas of Punjab. the government produced an Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (IPRSP) [GOP (2001)] which outlined the measures designed to reduce poverty and restore economic stability.

. the cotton/wheat zone of Punjab (of which the three districts of Bahawalpur. electricity and other sizeable social infrastructure are to be identified at village and union levels. The importance of livestock and particularly micro credit was also discussed and recognized. Following on from this. school enrolment and improved access to water supply and sanitation (WSS). in 2000 the Microfinance Sector Development Program (MSDP) was initiated. Keeping in view the difficulties of this remote area we selected one village 3 Sohail J. many projects have been started in different regions. assisted by rural support programs (RSPs). Islamabad. Data and Methodology In this study. Using data from the 2001-2002 HIES. It focuses on the expansion of health services. With the exception of Sindh. In view of the fact that southern areas of Punjab have received little attention not only at the level of policy but also at the level of empirical inquiry as compared to others.1 percent of the country’s poor. 000 (USD167) but which are available thereafter up to a limit of USD500. The assumptions are that rural access roads. the Sustainable Livelihoods in Barani Areas Projects (SLBP) is intended to strengthen governance and build capacities within local government so that it can plan and implement rural development. Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan Districts. The Bahawalpur Rural Development Project (BRDP) has latterly copied the RARP design standards. 2. are themselves to plan and to implement smaller-scale activities. However communities or groups. It operates in 33 districts of the country.5 percent of Pakistan’s rural population. but are to be implemented by district governments. Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan. Malik. empirical analysis is based on the primary source of data collected from one of the areas of BRDP. As part of its objective of reducing poverty in line with Government and Asian Development Bank (ADB) policies. among which are Bahawalpur.000 active sub-loans through 56 partner organizations in 96 districts of Pakistan. Keeping in view the high levels of poverty and other associated problems in southern Punjab. it was designed to impact on local government in Bahawalpur. The Punjab devolved Social Services Program (PDSS) aims. One of its aims was to support the formation of the Khushhali Bank. to strengthen devolved social services in line with the Punjab Local Government Ordinance (PLGO) of 2001. As of June 2005 it had over 220. which specializes in microfinance (MF). a recent ADB study 3 shows that the cotton/wheat agroclimatic zones in Punjab and Sindh have disproportionate shares of the poor in relation to population. As such. About 30 percent of its borrowers are women and the bank makes loans starting at PR10. The Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF) is a national summit institution wholesaling financial services to eligible institutions including RSPs and other non-governmental organizations (NGOs).000 active clients in 2004. The RARP focused on farm-to-market roads. Nevertheless these observations shape the basis and justification of the study area in this paper. The Bank is reported to be serving over 230. Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan form a major component) has proportionally more rural poor than anywhere else in Pakistan. Bahawalpur district forms one of the Southern parts of the Province of Punjab and is largely covered by the BRDP. It works through district governments. the outputs of PRMP include: (i) better strategic programming for poverty reduction. Agricultural Growth and Poverty: A Review of the Evidence. ADB Pakistan Resident Mission Working Paper No. With 17. and (ii) restructured and strengthened government. among which are the three BRDP district [BRDP (2006)]. In line with the emphasis on credit in the PRDP. administration and human resource development. through two program loans and a grant. where the ratio was marginally higher. and its activities included preparing standard designs for them. 2005.Issue 23 (2009) 26 monitoring and recommended group formation for the purposes. The Rural Access Roads Projects (RARP) was one of a series funded by the ADB and the World Bank aimed at rehabilitating rural roads across Pakistan.International Research Journal of Finance and Economics . the cotton/wheat zone of Punjab had 20. Punjab Resource Management Program (PRMP) aimed to improve short to medium-term fiscal management in the province.

Incidence of rural poverty among households is calculated by the well know method of Head Count Ratio in this study. on rural poverty that it is more sensitive and chronic in the rural areas of South Punjab in Pakistan. female-male ratio of members (FRTM). Punjab accounts for almost 56 percent of the country’s population. Profile. 2001. About 36 percent of its rural population is poor which stands on the second highest in the provinces of Pakistan. patterns and trends of poverty have been well documented by Federal . The resultant rural poverty line is Rs. we considered a poverty line adopted by Malik (1992) instead of calculating a new poverty line to be used in this study and adjusted it using the consumer price index (CPI) of annual changes in prices (Government of Pakistan. age of household head in years (AGEH) persons per room among the households (PROM) have positive. Profile and Trends of Rural Poverty in Southern Punjab Pakistan has 67. In a Logit Model. and = 0 otherwise Persons per room among the household = 1. and = 0. It is also recognized in the report of International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Table 1: List of Variables Affecting Rural Poverty for Logit Model Analysis Description of Variables = 1 If household is poor = 0 If household is non-poor Size of the household Dependency ratio Educational codes (Educational level of the household) Female-male ratio (Members) Female-male ratio (Workers) = 1. As far as methodological issues are concerned.70 (2350 calories). If household head is literate. If household has physical assets.27 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics . However lower Punjab reveals the level of poverty (40 percent) not significantly lower than rural NWFP and Balochistan [FBS (2002)]. and = 0. If household has landholding. 2005-2006). Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan Regions form the area of South Punjab.Issue 23 (2009) namely 145 DB consisting of 120 households by using simple random sampling technique from the universe of BRDP to conduct a household survey for primary data.5 percent of its population residing in the rural areas. and = 0 otherwise Variables Explained Variable POVT Explanatory Variables HSIZ DPNR EDUC FRTM FRTW HHLT PART AGEH LDHL LIVS ASET PROM HMRT It is hypothesized that household size (HSIZ). otherwise Participation rate (Employment variable) Age of the household head (Years) = 1. 865. while others have negative/inverse relation/impact on poverty alleviation based on theoretical framework and literature. The list of some selected variables for Logit model is given in table 1. If household produces for market and access to it. More over the empirical analysis of the factors affecting rural poverty in the areas of Southern Punjab is carried out by employing Logit Model. the endogenous variable is a dummy or categorical variable with 1 representing household is poor and 0 if the household is non-poor. dependency ratio (DPNR). Since poverty in Pakistan is largely a rural phenomenon. otherwise Population of livestock per household = 1. we considered some significant quantitative variables besides some qualitative or dichotomous variables. This village is located on the link road from Tehsil Yazman via Kud Wala Banglaw to Lal Sohanra town of Bahawalpur Tehsil. In the present study. Multan.

a Logit regression model is used to analyze the factors affecting rural poverty alleviation.66 (2.9 ------- Years 1992-93 (HIES)* 1993-94 (HIES)* 1996-97 (HIES)* 1998-99 (PIHS)* 1999-2000 (BRDP) ** 2002-2003 [Chaudhry(2003)]** 2005-2006 (BRDP)** 2005-2006 (Estimates of the Present Study) ** Sources: * Federal Bureau of Statistics (2002) Note: (i) Figures in parentheses are of the upper Punjab (ii) ** Figures are estimated based on the sample from only Bahawalpur region. 4 See.64 54. The results of table 1 show that incidence of poverty.00 Poverty Gap 6. Since the present study is significantly based on the primary source of data.49) 41.International Research Journal of Finance and Economics .21 (4.Issue 23 (2009) 28 Bureau of Statistics in the report on poverty assessment in 1990s. poverty gap and severity of poverty increase during the 1990s and after that there is declining trend.14) -----17. Incidence and other measures of poverty are high because Cholistan is the area. it is concluded that poverty is alleviated in the areas of Bahawalpur region including Cholistan because of the government policies and the working of BRDP4. The results of the present study states that 55 percent households are poor.31) 73.39) 2.74 (29.00 55.24 (10.00 69.36) 1. The estimates of the Logit model are given in table 3.6 ------Severity of Poverty 1.04) 9. Finally.68) 3. BRDP (2006) .69 (6. Table 2: Trends of Rural Poverty in Southern Punjab Incidence of Poverty 33. The estimates of poverty measures in different years (based on FBS.11 (1.33) 5.68) 8.44) 39.84 (0. for example. A significant feature of this report is to analyze the situation of poverty in three different regions of Punjab. BRDP and the present study) are reported in table 2. Our results are similar to that of BRDP (2006).87 (21.08 (29. The evidence also suggests that rural poverty falls by about 19 percent (73 percent to 54 percent) in the areas of BRDP.76) ----31. The results of the table also suggest that poverty falls from 69.64 percent to 55 percent.46 (1.65 (0. where infrastructural and other socio-economic and demographic variables are worse than others.97 (3. Results and Discussions It is obvious from the discussion in last section that poverty is wide spread in the rural areas of Southern Punjab (Lower Punjab) as compared to Upper Punjab.27) 32.

57 0.35 1.006. The overall participation rate of a household is also imperative employment variable. prime demographic factor.01 - Explanatory Variables Coefficients 0. Mostly female members in a household in rural areas evade to work because of their customs and religious norms.08 0. In this study. HHLT.77 0. FRTM.66** PROM -5.95*** LIVS -0. DF = 13.77*** HHLT -2.42 2.07** AGEH -0. The increase in this ratio leads to lower the poverty probability.96*** ASET 0. Similarly (FRTW) female-male ratio of workers is also calculated to address the issue of female participation ratio/gender issue.29* HMRT -3. a larger number of children and old age members would imply a smaller number of earners in the household.76 Test that all slopes are zero: G = 104. It suggests that higher household size has a poverty-increasing role. is significant at the 95 percent confidence level and having positive impact on the probability of being poor.93 0. tube .85*** FRTW -1. P-Value = 0. The empirical results indicate that the increase in dependency level raises the probability of being poor at 10 percent level of significance. PROM and HMRT are significant at 1 percent to 10 percent level and have signs in accordance with our hypotheses. 5 points up to secondary level and 10 points up to college/university) divided by the household size of the concerned household.35** HSIZ 0. It has also the inverse relation with the probability of being rural poor at 10 percent level of significance.66 0.89*** EDUC 0. The empirical result states that EDUC has the significant inverse association with a poverty probability. FRTW.Issue 23 (2009) Estimates of the Determinants of Rural Poverty using Logit Regression Analysis Odds ratios 1.26*** PART 0. Education is considered as an important determinant of poverty because it provides a larger set of employment opportunities and specifically in a rural context a better awareness of the full potential of the new agricultural technology and associated agricultural practices. EDUC.99*** Constant Number of Observations = 120. Household size.37 0. The numbers of livestock per household and physical assets (like tractor. It means that higher the level of education in a household. The sign of HHLT indicates that the literate head of household reduces the probability of being poor. DPNR. the participation rate is defined as the ratio of number of workers to number of adults in a household.98*** DPNR -0.43 0. ASET.07 LDHL -0. This variable is constructed based on the sum of the points (0 to a household member having no education. PART.29 Table 3: International Research Journal of Finance and Economics .94 0. ** Indicates that the coefficients are significant at the 5 percent level. Log likelihood = -30. The coefficient of LDHL has the correct sign but is not significant variable. FRTM has positive and significant association with the probability of household’s poverty.41 2. The results suggest that the coefficients on HSIZ. Similar association is also observed for the literate household heads. the dependency ratio is defined as the ratio of number of members less than or equal to 14 years and more than or equal to 65 years to the household size.000 Notes: * Indicates that the coefficients are significant at the 1 percent level. Female-male ratio of members is considered as a sex ratio. AGEH. In the present analysis.98*** FRTM -0.04 1. According to the results. Therefore population has become the major hurdle in the way of poverty alleviation in rural areas of Southern Punjab. *** Indicates that the coefficients are significant at the 10 percent level. there is a strong and significant affirmation of the importance of female labour force participation in rural areas of Southern Punjab. lower the probability of being poor household. Therefore their attitude to participation is rather discouraging. LIVS. For a given household size.

age of household head. Age of household head (AGEH) and persons per room (PROM) are the significant variables at 95 percent of confidence level. persons per room in a household. According to the estimates of the present study. an important stochastic variable is considered to address the issue of secondary poverty. the model does not do a particularly useful job of narrowing down the set of key poverty determinants. These considerable high growth rates and consequences of the many projects on poverty alleviation have become the cause to fall in the levels of poverty but not to the extent as was expected by the governments and international institutions. The data consistently shows that poverty is considerably higher in rural as compared to urban areas. . overall participation rate. we have also attempted to analyze the factors affecting poverty alleviation in Southern Punjab using Logit Model. Concluding Remarks and Policy Implications Many efforts have been made to alleviate poverty at all levels in Pakistan since its inception even having a reasonable economic growth rate in different years. It has negative impact on the probability of poverty. According to the empirical results. 55 percent households are poor and this level of rural poverty is substantially higher than other rural areas of Punjab Province. Patterns of poverty differ by provinces and even within the province. holding all other independent variables constant. As a result of this poverty 5 Rowntree (1901) distinguished between primary and secondary poverty. the coefficients in the logistic regression can be represented as odds ratios. Finally. As most of the major descriptors of rural poverty are shown to be significant. Majority of the rural households is living on subsistence level. If households produce for the market and have access to it then their per capita income will rise. female labor force participation. Household size.International Research Journal of Finance and Economics . To begin to improve on this. The increase in both will aggravate the probability of being poor. population of livestock and physical assets are the significant variables and having negative impact on the probability of household’s poverty. It is also observed that poverty in Southern Punjab is not a nature of primary. This result seems to imply that households produce for the markets have a lower probability of being poor than those who have not access to market. Primary poverty referred to those who did not have access to the resources to meet their subsistence needs and where as secondary poverty to those who seemingly did have the resources but were still unable to utilize these to raise themselves above the subsistence level. The main findings of this empirical analysis are summarized below: i. dependency ratio and female male ratio of members in a household are strongly associated with rural poverty and the presence of these variables increases the probability of being poor. nothing is being produced for the market in terms of agricultural production and livestock. and has no access to the market. household produces for market and access to it as a dummy variable (HMRT). A few clear pointers are thrown up by these ratios in the table.Issue 23 (2009) 30 well. many employment opportunities will be created and finally it will support to fill the gap between demand and supply of these products in the country.) are significant variables and have inverse impact on the probability of poverty. It is also observed that poverty alleviation efforts in terms of projects are on the right track at micro level but there is need to support them with macroeconomic stability in the country. property other than land holding etc. Differences between the rural areas of the same province are notable particularly in Punjab and NWFP [FBS (2002)]. is significant at 1 percent level. In the present study. Market access and production for the market. ii. Education. Poverty reduction strategy was launched by the Government of Pakistan in 2001 in response to the rising trend in poverty during 1990s. Poverty alleviation became a major policy concern in Pakistan since its independence and particularly for the last seven years. These odds ratios are also included in table 3 and explain the impact of a unit change in an independent variable on the odds of being poor (the probability of being poor over the probability of being non-poor). but it is secondary poverty as was differentiated by Rowntree (1901)5.

Imran S.31 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics . Poverty in the 1990s’ PIHS. (1999) ‘Dynamics of Growth. Bahawalpur Rural Development Project (2006). provincial and local) and international organizations should pay special attention to basic infrastructure. Bahawalpur: BRDP. and Sayyid T. Thesis. Evaluation Report. ‘Rural Non.Agricultural Employment and Poverty in Pakistan’. Government of Punjab. S. ‘Macroeconomic Policies and Their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan’. Government of Pakistan: Islamabad Government of Pakistan (2001). ‘Assessing Poverty in Pakistan’ in a Profile of Poverty in Pakistan. Baseline Study. The Pakistan Development Review 38 (4): 337-858 Amjad. Chaudhry. A. and Ashraf. Government of Pakistan. ‘Poverty in Cholistan: Profile and Correlates’. Now there is an ardent need to re-address this issue more carefully in the age of globalizing world by concentrating on new emerging strategies. (2005). May. The Pakistan Development Review 36 (1): 39-68. It is also suggested that international organizations should conduct independent surveys by employing the local academia and researchers in the areas of their projects to evaluate the progress and development. Bahawalpur Rural Development Project (2000). BRDP Phase II.. R. M. M. Pakistan Resident Mission Working Paper No. S. (2005-2006). Aslam. Federal Bureau of Statistics: Islamabad International Fund for Agricultural Development (2001). G. Federal Bureau of Statistics (2002). Rural Poverty Report-2001: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty. 4. T. Islamabad: Asian Development Bank. The Pakistan Development Review 45 (4): 819-830. Imran S. Bahawalpur Rural Development Project. Malik. The Pakistan Development Review 39 (4): 1089-1110. (1997). there are declining trends in the poverty at all levels in Pakistan. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Asian Development Bank (2002). M. Bahawalpur: BRDP. Paper Presented at 21st Annual General Meeting and Conference. ‘Urban Poverty and Governance: The Case of Multan City’. Planning Commission: Islamabad. Hina Nazli and Rashida Haq (2000). market access facilities and good governance besides some other socio-economic and demographic variables to alleviate rural poverty in many of the remote areas of Pakistan. ‘Poverty. Pakistan Economic Survey. Female Labor Force Participation. Imran S. Report of the Directorgeneral in international Labor conference. Azid. International Labor Organization (2003). (2006) Targeting Efficiency of Poverty Reduction Programs in Pakistan. Ministry of Finance and Poverty Reduction Cell.. Younas (1999). Asma (2006). and Cottage Industry: A Case Study of Cloth Embroidery in Rural Multan’.. Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy (I-PRSP). Unpublished Ph. Chaudhry. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] .O.D. Pakistan Society of Development Economists: Islamabad. Jafri. G. M. Manila: ADB Ali. and Kemal. and Chaudary. ‘An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Rural Poverty in Pakistan: A Case Study of Bahawalpur District with Special Reference to Cholistan’. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Arif. The Islamia University of Bahawalpur: Pakistan. construction of physical economic infrastructure and functioning of the market at both micro and macro level. M. R. Mahbub-ul-Haq Center for Human Development: Islamabad. Poverty and Inequality in Pakistan’. The Pakistan Development Review 40 (4): 1105-1118. Geneva: ILO. Malik. Country Strategy Progress. working out of poverty. These might be the issues of marketing problems. Arif. microfinance. S. (2003).Issue 23 (2009) reduction strategy. 2002-2006. Planning and Development Department. M. It is also recommended that Pakistani government (central. S. Chaudhry. S. 19th -21st December. and Imran.(2001).

Islamabad: World Bank. Priorities and Policy Options: a Concept Note. Unpublished PhD Thesis. ‘Rural Poverty Alleviation Pakistan: Land Redistribution as a Direct Policy Measure. (1996).Issue 23 (2009) [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] 32 [25] Kemal. Malik. University of Sussex: U. . (1995). (2000). Islamabad: Asian Development Bank. A Study of Rural Poverty in Pakistan with Special Reference to Agricultural Price Policy. Sharif.K. Siddiqui. Malik S. Malik.’ Journal of Rural Development 33(1): 69-77. Rehena (2001). Rowntree. Gender Dimensions of Poverty in Pakistan.’ The Pakistan Development Review 35 (2): 171-187. Agricultural Growth and Poverty: A Review of the Evidence. ‘Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan: An Evaluation of Public Strategies and Policies Adopted for Poverty Alleviation’. Poverty: A Study of Town Life. (1901).S. (2005). S. Macmillan. B. Malik S. R. paper presented at the ‘Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty: Reforming Policies and Institutions for Poverty Reduction’ Asian Development Bank: Manila. Poverty in Pakistan: Issues. J. ‘Determinants of Rural poverty in Pakistan: A Micro Study. World Bank (2000). A.International Research Journal of Finance and Economics . Paper Presented at a Seminar. S.2. ADB Pakistan Resident Mission working Paper No. Organized by Institute of Policy Studies: Islamabad. Imran and Jamal Z. (1992).

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