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 Interview - Dr.

Josef Ceo Centrotherm and module GmbH  Mitigating Project RiskHaase, and Uncertainty for cell Bankable Solar Project Assessment  How to make National Solar Mission a success? Udayadittya Shome, Juwi India  Biomass A Sustainable Renewable Energy Source for India

 Industry feedback to NVVN II batch phase I of JNNSM  Solar Pioneers in India : AIC Solarof Projects O  ff-grid solar PV: Opportunities & barriers  Photovoltaic Safety and Performance Standards in a Global Vagish Sharma, Indo-US Science & Tech. Forum Market: the Challenge for Backsheet Manufacturers

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Dear Readers, Energetica India welcomes you to the last issue of 2011. The Indian solar industry has seen applications to Batch II of Phase I of JNNSM reaching 2500MW for a 350MW plan. The industry in the rst batch saw an average FIT of Rs.11.50; it will be interesting to see how far lower we reach in this reverse bidding. The short-listed names to initiate reverse bidding are expected to be released soon. Our last issue had an article summarizing the guidelines of Batch II of Phase I and in this issue we highlight the industry reaction to the new guidelines. We welcome our readers to share their feedback with us on the renewable energy policies so that we, together, can make the government aware of the industry requirements. We are also pleased to let you know that we have looked at the solar market in India and globally through interviews with some leading solar professionals. We are sure the solar enthusiasts will nd the analysis quite interesting. On the wind side, we recently saw Mr.Tanti, Chairman Suzlon Energy speaking on how wind turbine manufacturers are facing decreasing margins. The same was repeated by Vestas and Gamesa heads in Europe. The challenges include decreasing subsidies and growth of Chinese companies. Meanwhile on the home front, Karnataka is now an emerging hot destination for investments in wind energy space. The State has an estimated potential of ~8500MW with realisation of ~1500MW as of 2010. The reasons for the attraction to the State include favourable policies and the trouble being faced by wind investors in Tamil Nadu. Meanwhile, The Food and Agriculture Organization has asked the government to relook at the subsidies for biofuel. The Organization is of the opinion that the impact of diversion of traditional foods for biofuel is hurting the country. Energetica India will study the Indian biofuel policy in our next issue (Jan/Feb 2012) and we invite industry professionals for feedback and suggestions on this. On the conventional power generation side, the coal shortage problem does not seem to be resolved soon. This combined with lower merchant tariffs and rising interest rates is hurting power generating companies. Thermal power plants in the country seem to be running at a much lower PLF as compared to PLFs in 2010 and early 2011. Energetica India has covered other energy initiatives in the country such as green building and biogas. We look at continuously bringing new concepts and new industry news to our readers. Energetica India has, as always, been associated with the main renewable energy events in the country: The 2nd Annual Power Project Financing Conference in Mumbai from 2nd-4th November, International Congress on Renewable Energy (ICORE) 2011 at Assam from 2nd-4th November, Solarcon at Hyderabad from 9th-12th November, Renewtech India 2011 from 10-12th November and the 17th Technology Summit and Technology Platform for Indian & Spanish companies from 22nd-23rd November in New Delhi. Some of the upcoming events where we will be pleased to meet you are The Energy Expo 2011 from 1st-3rd December at Ahmedabad, and InterSolar from 13th-16th December in Mumbai. Wishing you a Very Happy 2012 and we look forward to receiving the same support and encouragement from our readers as always.

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EDITOR EUGENIO PREZ DE LEMA DIRECTOR GISELA BHL PR DIRECTOR ANDREW CALLAWAY INDIA DIRECTOR SALES CHINTAN VALIA JOURNALIST BHARAT VASANDANI CONSULTING EDITOR P . K. PATNAIK SPAIN ALVARO LPEZ GERMANY, AUSTRIA & SWITZERLAND ERHARDT EISENACHER USA & CANADA AVANI MEDIA, INC. LESLIE HALLANAN FINANCIAL DIRECTOR CARLOS FERNNDEZ SUBSCRIPTIONS BELA ANGELOVA Layout & Design DANIEL CONEJERO The views expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of the editor or publisher. The magazine and all of the text and images contained therein are protected by copyright. If you would like to use an article from Energetica India or our website you may obtain the rights by calling OMNIMEDIA, S.L.

Editorial Take advice Energy News Products Service Guide BIOFUELS Biogas A boon for India Chandra Kumar Sharma, Design consultant & certified energy advisor, Consulting Engineers Biogas and its use as vehicle fuel Dr. Anil Kurchania, Renewable energy advisor COMPANY PROFILE Gamesa EVENTS Solarcon 2011, Hyderabad, India GREEN BUILDING Green Building - The basic principles Sandeep Goswami, COO, Fountainhead 2 Clean tech India Pvt. Ltd. INTERVIEW
Interview - Dr. Josef Ceo Centrotherm and module GmbH Mitigating Project RiskHaase, and Uncertainty for cell Bankable Solar Project Assessment How to make National Solar Mission a success? Udayadittya Shome, Juwi India Biomass A Sustainable Renewable Energy Source for India Industry feedback to NVVN II batch phase I of JNNSM Solar Pioneers in India : AIC Solarof Projects Off-grid solar PV: Opportunities & barriers Photovoltaic Safety and Performance Standards in a Global Vagish Sharma, Indo-US Science & Tech. Forum Market: the Challenge for Backsheet Manufacturers


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Dr. Josef Haase, Ceo Centrotherm cell and module GmbH Inderpreet Wadhwa, Ceo Azure Power RENEWABLE ENERGY Trade in energy and environmental goods and services: where are we heading? Anandajit Goswami, Associate fellow TERI Indias performance in renewable energy Bharat Vasandani, Energetica India SOLAR POWER How to make National Solar Mission a success? Udayadittya Shome, Vice President- Marketing Sales, Juwi India Renewable Energies Pvt. Ltd. Mitigation of risk and uncertainties in solar irradiation data associated with MW scale PV plants Cesar Hidalgo, Global head of Solar, GL Garrad Hassan Optimum system monitoring for maximum efficiency Wolfgang Hink, Fronius Strike action Tony Garlinde-Warren, Senior applications engineer, Cooper Bussmann Structured glass: more efficiency, more yield Frank Hilgenfeld, Head of communication, EMMVEE Photovoltaics GmbH Solar thermal technology and its off-grid applications Prf. S.B. Kedare, Director, Clique developments Ltd. Industry feedback to NVVN II batch of phase I of JNNSM Bharat Vasandani, Energetica India Off-grid solar PV: Opportunities & barriers Vagish Sharma, Program officer, Indo-US Science & Technology Forum

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INTER SOLAR INDIA 2011 Date: 13-16 December 2011 Place: Mumbai, India Organiser: Messe Mnchen International, Solar Promotion International GmbH, Freiburg Management and Marketing International GmbH (FMMI) Email: brijesh.nair(at) Tel: +91 22 4255 4707 Web: intersolar-india.html ELECRAMA 2012 Date: 18-22 January 2012 Place: Mumbai, India Organiser: Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers Association (IEEMA) Tel: +91-22-2498 4226/ 4227 E-mail: Web: elecrama2012/Index.aspx ENERTECH WORLD EXPO Date: 8-11 February 2012 Place: Mumbai, India Organiser: Chemtech Foundation Tel: +(91)-(22)-22874758 Email: Web: INTERNATIONAL POWER TRANSMISSION EXPO Date: 9-11 February 2012 Place: Mumbai, India Organiser: Virgo Communications And Exhibitions Pvt Ltd Tel: +(91)-(80)25567028/25567029 Email: Web: http://www.virgo-comm. com/

ENERGY TECH and ENVIRO-TECH INDIA 2012, Date: 10-12 February 2012 Place: New Delhi, India Organiser: India Trade Promotion Organization Email: Tel: +91 11 2337 1492/93 Web: http://www.indiatradefair. com

Date: 29 February-02 March- 2012 Place: Valencia- Spain Organiser: Five Continents Exhibitions / Feria Valencia Tel: + 0034 91630 8591 E-mail: Web:

NOVABUILD 2012 Date: 29 February-02 March2012 Place: Valencia- Spain Organiser: Five Continents Exhibitions / Feria Valencia Tel: + 0034 91630 8591 E-mail: Web:

India ReneWaBle Energy InvestMent SUMMit Date:8-9th December 2011 Place: Mumbai, India Organiser: Noppen Tel: + 8621 6085 1000 E-mail: Web: http://www.

PoWer-Gen India and Central Asia Date:19-21 April 2012 Place:New Delhi, India Organiser: PennWell & Inter Ads Exhibitions Tel: +91 124 452 4508 E-mail: avnish-seth@interadsindia. com Web: http://www.power-genindia. com/index.html

Investor ForUM 2011 Date:12 December 2011 Place: Mumbai, India Organiser: World Resource Institute E-mail: investorforum. Web: http://www.

EPC Sphere NeW Delhi Date:17-18 February 2012 Place: New Delhi, India Organiser: Cerebral Business Tel: +91 11 3190 9988 E-mail: Web: http://www.

PoWer Vision Conclave 20112012 Date:16 December 2011 Place: New Delhi, India Organiser: Dainik Bhaskar Group Tel: +91 96549 70020 E-mail: vg.abhijeet@bhaskarnet. com Web: conclave_2011_2012

The CarBon CongressEPC Sphere NeW Delhi Date:19-20 December 2011 Place:New Delhi, India Organiser: Cerebral Business Tel: +91 78298 24340 E-mail: Web: carboncongress.html

World FUtUre Energy SUMMit 2012 Date:16-19 January 2012 Place:Abu Dhabi Organiser: Reed Exhibitions Tel: +91 22 67716615 E-mail: sachin.jadhav@reedexpo. Web: http://www. Portal/home.aspx

2nd Inverter and PV SysteM Technology ForUM Date: 23 - 24 January 2012 Place: Berlin, Germany Organizer Solarpraxis Phone +49 (0)30 72 62 96-304 Email Web. en/conferences/2nd-inverter-andpv-system-technology/generalinformation/

Solar EXpo PV Korea Date: 15 17 February 2012 Seoul, Korea Organizer: Inter PV Phone +82 2 718 6931 Email Web http://www.exposolar. org/2012/

2nd India Solar Energy SUMMit 2012 Date:23-24 February 2012 Place:New Delhi, India Organiser: Noppen Tel: + 8621 6085 1000 E-mail: Web: http://www.

Energy EXpo 2011 Date:1-3 December 2012 Place:Ahmedabad, India Organiser: CII Tel: 91 22 24931790 E-mail: Web:

WindPro 2012 Date:5-7 February 2012 Place: Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India Organiser: Indian Wind Power Assocation Tel: 044 - 4550 4036 . E-mail: Web: index.htm#

World PetroCoal Congress 2012 Date:15-17 February 2012 Place: New Delhi, India Organiser: Energy and Environment Foundation Tel: : +91 9971500028 E-mail: dranilgarg2011@gmail. com Web: http://www.worldpetrocoal. com/index.html


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Gorosabel Solar Energy at Intersolar India

GOROSABEL Solar Energy full supplier of machinery for PV modules and thermal collectors manufacture, will show its product upgrades during this Exhibition, together with its Indian distributor Blistech International. Its new range of Tabber&Stringer machines have a new jet to apply the ux directly onto the busbars. The system function is based on electrically controlled valves and a camera that governs the alignment of the busbars and ux jet. Besides, GOROSABEL will present its lay-up portfolio for different line capacities with accurate string inspection by articial vision and precise positioning on glass by six axes robot. You can nd them at Hall 1, booth 2136.

Dr. Farooq Abdullah, Mr Suresh Prabhu along with Key Industry Leaders celebrate ITP Groups 30th Anniversary
Leading international energy consultancy, ITP Group hosted its 30th anniversary celebrations at the British High Commissioners residence on 21st October 2011. The event featured addresses by Dr. Farooq Abdullah Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, who was the Chief Guest of the event, Sir Richard Stagg, KCMG, CMG

British High Commissioner, Tulsi Tanti, Chairman and Managing Director, Suzlon Energy Limited, Bernard McNelis, co-founder and Joint MD of ITP Group and Chandrasekar R, Group CEO, ITP Group. Speaking on the occasion, Mr. Chandrasekar R Group CEO, ITP Group, said ITP group is a pioneer in the industry with a focus on sustainable development and growth. The In-

dian ofce of ITP was started in 1997 and has worked on multiple projects in the renewable energy and climate change space. ITP India is the recipient of the prestigious Ashden Awards, also known as the Green Oscars, for a project undertaken in Uttaranchal for the enhancement of the areas watermills. Unlike other consulting rms, ITP group not only provides advice but also implements the advice on behalf of its clients ITPs celebration was co-hosted by Sir Richard Stagg KCMG, CMG - British High Commissioner, who said, It is a privilege for the UK government to have ITP celebrating their 30th anniversary in Delhi and in many ways the company has been ahead of the curve in preparing for the world in which energy became scarce and the impact of climate change became clear. Congratulating ITP Group on completing 30 years, Chief Guest, Dr. Farooq Abdullah said Many islands will disappear if we dont act quickly, Maldives will just be a name. All of us have to act, not only India, but the whole world has to act gradually and forcefully to reduce carbon emissions. In keeping with the companys 30th anniversary theme, ITP also hosted a panel discussion titled Forecast 2030: The future of renewable energy over the next two decades. The pan-

el discussion saw distinguished industry leaders from the government and corporate sector discussing the future of renewable energy and the panelists included: Mr. Chandrasekar R, Group CEO, ITP Group; Mr. Suresh Prabhu, Former Union Cabinet Minister, Dr. S. P. Gon Chaudhuri, Advisor Energy, Government of West Bengal, Mr. K Subramanya, CEO, Tata BP Solar, Mr. Sumant Sinha, Chairman and CEO, ReNew Wind Power and Mr. Owen Jenkins, Counsellor, Climate Change and Energy, British High Commission. The main purpose of the panel discussion was to address the key opportunities and challenges that faced the industry as it continues to grow and the policy framework that needs to support its growth. The panel discussion provided immense insight on how the industry will shape up in the years to come and provided incisive talking points that left many with food for thought. Mr. Chandrasekar also used this occasion to relaunch the brand of ITP Group. ITP Group, which was till now known as IT Power, has been a leader in the eld of sustainable development for the past 30 years. It is one of the oldest and the most reputed consulting rms and provides complete solutions in the eld of climate change, renewable energy and energy efciency.
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Energetica News

Gujarat discusses New Solar Tariff from Jan 2012

The Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission (GERC), in view of the latest trends in the solar eld and keeping in view the interest of all the stakeholders, has decided to determine afresh the tariffs for solar projects to be commissioned after 28th January,2012. The Commission has prepared a discussion paper on Determination on Tariff for procurement of power by distribution licensees and others from Solar Energy Projects for the State of Gujarat. The salient features of the above discussion paper are as under. The control period for the proposed tariff is from 29th January, 2012 to 31st March, 2015. The separate tariff determined and proposed by the Commission for (i) Solar PV MW based power projects (ii) Solar PV KW based rooftop power projects and (iii) solar thermal based power projects. The proposed tariff for solar projects are explained in the chart: Some points put forward by The Commission are: Solar Power Projects established with only new Plants and Machinery would be eligible for the benet of tariff deLevelized tariff for megawatt-scale and kilowatt-scale photovoltaic systems, 29 January 2012 to 31 March, 2013. For megawatt-scale projects With accelerated depreciation Without accelerated depreciation Levelized Tariff 10.27 per kWh for 25 years 10.81 per kWh for 25 years For kilowatt-scale projects With accelerated depreciation Without accelerated depreciation Phased Tariff 11.50 per kWh 6.30 per kWh 12.04 per kWh 6.84 per kWh Period for rst 12 yrs for next 13 yrs for rst 12 yrs for next 13 yrs

Levelized Tariff 12.49 per kWh

Phased Tariff Not Applicable

Period for rst 25 yrs

13.14 per kWh

Not Applicable

for rst 25 yrs

Levelized tariff for solar thermal power plants, 29 January 2012 to 31 March, 2015. Levelized Tariff With accelerated depreciation 12.32 per kWh for 25 years Without accelerated depreciation 13.00 per kWh for 25 years Phased Tariff 14.00 per kWh 7 .00 per kWh 14.68 per kWh 7 .68 per kWh Period for rst 12 yrs for next 13 yrs for rst 12 yrs for next 13 yrs

termined within the scope of the discussion paper. No cross-subsidy surcharges would be levied in case of third-party sale by the Solar Power Projects. The Intra-state ABT order will not be applicable to solar power generation projects. Considering the nature of solar energy, all solar energy power plants will be considered as must-run facilities, and the power generated from such power plants will be kept out

from the merit order dispatch principles. In order to promote KW scale rooftop solar projects, no wheeling charges shall apply for wheeling of power generated by rooftop power projects as such projects decrease the transmission and distribution losses for the utility, and increase the efciency of the grid. The proposed new tariff will be helpful to encourage generation of solar based electricity which is of renewable

nature and will facilitate to reduce requirement of fossil fuel and also helpful on sustainable development. It will also enable distributed generation which will helpful in reduction of losses in local area and also provide job opportunities and development of personnel in the eld of solar based power generation and operation and maintenance of it. The discussion paper is available on the website of the Commission

Joint Venture Agreement for setting up Nuclear Power Plants across India
Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL) and National Aluminium Company Ltd. (NALCO) has entered into a Joint Venture Agreement for setting up nuclear power plants across the country. The agreement was signed by Dr. S. K. Jain, Chairman &

Managing Director, NPCIL and Shri B. L. Bagra, Chairman cum Managing Director, NALCO, at Mumbai. NALCO is a Central Public Sector Undertaking under the Administrative control of Ministry of Mines, Government of India which has expe-

rience of more than 25 years in Mining, Alumina Rening, Power Generation and Aluminum Smelting. NALCO has a vision to become an integrated energy and metal company. NPCIL is a wholly-owned enterprise of the Government

of India under the Department of Atomic Energy for setting up nuclear power plants in India. Presently, NPCIL operates 20 nuclear reactors with a total installed capacity of 4780 MW and six reactors with 4800 MW capacity are under construction.
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Energetica News

CERC sets up fund to promote renewable energy projects

The Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) has set up a renewable energy fund (REF) to promote projects in India. This fund is aimed at compensating states if they fail to meet the target given under their schedule of renewable energy (RE) projects. All RE projects are required to provide a schedule of generation to CERC from 2012. Ofcials explained REF would bear charges imposed on states hosting RE projects that fail to comply with their supply commitments. At present, only wind energy projects without sale arrangements with states are required to give declarations forecasting their generation to state load despatch centres. CERC allows 30 per cent deviation in the supply commitments, beyond which penalties are levied or incentives offered. The Electricity Act, 2003, and the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) provide a roadmap for increasing the share of RE in total generation capacity. Under this plan, every state has to purchase ve per cent of total power requirement from renewable resources like wind, solar or water. The power purchase obligation is fullled by trading of RE receipts, which is a tradable receipt representing a value of one megawatt hour (MwH) of power injected into the grid through renewable resources. From 532 RE certicates issued in March, total issuances till date have gone up to 352,0260. Under the proposed fund, deviation beyond 30 per cent is proposed to be shared among all state distribution companies in a ratio of their peak demand met in the previous month. The states, in turn, would be compensated for these charges out of the renewable regulatory fund. Explaining this, an ofcial said if a state proposed to provide 50 Mw of RE power but could supply only 40 Mw, then the state in which the project is located have to draw 10 Mw power from central pool and supply. This is termed as unscheduled interchange and is charged at a higher rate. This extra cost will be borne by all state distribution companies, which would be compensated by REF. The logic is that some states like Gujarat, Rajasthan or Tamil Nadu are preferred to set up RE projects due to abundance of energy resources like wind or water or sunlight. Thus, the contribution of that particular state in the central pool becomes higher, whether or not it is prepared to commit such supply. In case there is short supply, it has to make good the shortfall by drawing power from the central pool. Since the state is naturally endowed with such a resource, it is unfair to expect that it compensates for individual projects shortfall. Therefore, such a compensation plan is worked out to promote power projects in states, where there is natural endowment of resources, they added. This facility for REF will be applicable for wind energy farms with collective capacity of 10 Mw and above, at connection points of 33 Kv and above. This is irrespective of whether the project is connected to the transmission or distribution system of the state or to the inter-state transmission system, and who have not signed any power purchase agreement with states or union territories. Similarly, for solar generating plants, the cut-off for REF eligibility will be a capacity of 5 Mw.

CREDAI Joins Hands with ADaRSH to Promote Green Buildings in India under the GRIHA Rating System
In an endeavor to strengthen the green building movement in India and promotion of GRIHA with the members and associates of CREDAI, the Association for Development and Research on Sustainable Habitats (ADaRSH) and Confederation of Real Estate Developers Associations of India (CREDAI) signed a memorandum of understanding in New Delhi declaring that both shall cross-market & facilitate wherever appropriate, each others services to promote and accept the GRIHA Rating system as the reference standard for determining incentives, educating and promoting green buildings in India. Both CREDAI and ADaRSH would jointly approach municipal bodies to come up with incentives for green buildings and accept GRIHA as the reference standard for determining the incentives. The Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) has already set an example by announcing mandatory compliance of their future government projects with GRIHA, and soon other municipal bodies are also expected to join the movement. GRIHA - (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) is Indias national rating system for sustainable habitats. It is an indigenous system designed and developed by the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) in collaboration with TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute). ADaRSH has trained over 10,000 professionals, students, and government ofcials in various capacities on green habitats in the Indian context. ADaRSH rmly believes in equipping professionals and the real estate industry with the requisite skills to design and build sustainable habitats, such that dependency on a handful of green building professionals is minimized. ADaRSH- (Association for Development and Research of Sustainable Habitats) is an independent society, registered under the Societies Act, 1860 for the interaction on scientic and administrative issues related to sustainable habitats in the Indian context. It was founded jointly by MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India) and TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi) along with a handful of experts in the elds related to sustainability of built environment from across the country. ADaRSH promotes GRIHA The National Rating System (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) as a design and evaluation tool for green buildings and habitats.



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Energetica News Freudenberg Group enters the Indian wind energy market
The Freudenberg Group, a 5.4 billion Euros family company offering its customers technically challenging product solutions and services enters the fast growing Indian wind energy market with high-tech solutions from across the various operating companies in the group. The Indian wind energy sectors current installed capacity is over 14,150 MW (as on March 31, 2011) which makes it the 5th largest market in the world. With on-shore utilization of wind energy for electricity generation estimated at 65,000 MW, India is clearly the market of the future. The Group plans to leverage its global leadership in the space where nearly every second wind turbine in the world features a seal product from Freudenberg. Suzlon Energy, the 5th largest wind turbine manufacturer globally and operator of the largest wind park in the world (of 584 MW in the Western Ghats of the state of Tamil Nadu) already is a customer of Freudenberg. Companies like Simrit and Klber offer tailor-made seal and specialty lubricant solutions under the Lube & Seal brand. This combination gives us a clear competitive edge. We have the competence needed for harmonized solutions within the Freudenberg Group, said Michael Littig, Director- Sales, Simrit Energy Europe. Introduction of Ventoguard: The adverse environmental conditions hinder the capacity of the seal and lubricant in the long run. In order to overcome this impediment, materials scientists at Freudenberg Seals and Vibration Control Technology have developed a high performance material Venenergetica india

toguard that features greater temperature and ozone resistance, ensuring a longer service life. Ventoguard materials lower the minimum temperature from minus 30 to minus 40 degrees, signicantly extending the range of applications, especially with respect to different locations and extreme temperature conditions. Another advantage is that the relaxation behavior of the material has been signicantly improved which is important for effective sealing in the long term and in turn offers cost benets. Introduction of a new series of release agents: Besides tailor made seals and lubricants from Simrit and Klber, Chem-Trend, part of the Freudenberg Group, has developed a new series of release agents that offer outstanding performance when removing rotor blades from the mold. Wind turbine rotor blades play a signicant role in energy efciency. The design and shape of the blades have been optimized to meet steadily growing requirements for improved aerodynamics and the highest possible energy yields. Rotor blades are molded from a wide range of composite materials. With special release agents from Chem-Trend, it is easier to release the blades from the mold without damaging them, which was a cause of concern with regard to energy efciency. Furthermore products from Freudenberg Nonwovens are used for composites (FRP) which are suited for surface protection and as core material in products such as pipes, tanks, container boards, facade panels, skis, surfboards, boats and even rotor blades for wind power stations.



Energetica News

SUNGEN announces a bigger capacity for silicon thin lm

World Future Energy Summit 2012

The World Future Energy Summit (WFES) will be held during 1619th Jan 2012 at Abu Dhabi and is organized by REED exhibitions, hosted by Masdar and supported by The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). During a chat with Energetica India, Mr.Naji El Haddad, Exhibition Director, points out that the renewable energy market in Middle East is seeing double digit growth in recent years with the forecasts of the market reaching $150 billion in the next decade. He said that the Middle East is not an industrial market nor a supplier market but a consumer market in terms of electricity/ energy usage. This presents an opportunity for companies from outside Middle East to showcase their product, technology and innovations in the eld of renewable energy. On being asked on the scope of solar and wind energy projects in the region; Mr. Haddad pointed to a Bloomberg Energy report that spoke on solar scope in the region and how the solar radiation and the land in Middle East is enough to power the entire world through solar energy. On the wind side, Egypt is looking to develop nearly 27,000 MW of wind projects over the next few years and is inviting foreign companies to participate. Meanwhile, Masdar has recently acquired a stake in WinWind, a Finnish wind company. The Summit is also starting with the concept Innovate for WFES; where they invite cleantech start-up companies to showcase their innovation in technology and service. These companies will be introduced to the international investors, partners and media. Another concept in its second year is the Project Village which is being worked out in association with E&Y and Bloomberg Energy Finance. The Village lets renewable energy project developers showcase their projects wherein exhibitors can meet them and present them technology for the projects. The WFES is in its 5th year now. The 2012 summit is expected to be attended by more than 35000 visitors and more than 660 exhibitors 150 speakers.

SUNGEN, one of the leading manufacturers of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin lm solar panel, has announced increase in production capacity from current 150MW to 1GW by 2013. By 2012, SUNGEN will offer tandem modules with a-Si as a top cell and c-Si as a bottom cell which can produce up to 160W per module. The a-Si top cell converts the visible lights into electricity while the bottom cell converts the infra red component of the solar spectrum into electricity. SUNGENs solar panels have been installed in Eu-

rope (e.g. Germany, Spain, Italy), Australia (e.g. Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane) and the United States of America etc. All SUNGEN solar panels are produced under strictly-controlled procedures to ensure the highest level of quality, and full compliance with the international standards. SUNGEN solar panels are certied according to the EN/ IEC61646, EN/IEC61215, EN/IEC61730 and UL 1703 standards through TV Rheinland, TV InterCert and Underwriters Laboratories Inc. You can nd them at booth 1968.

Spanish EPC Maetel redoubles interest to enter in the Indian PV Market, visit them at Intersolar India booth 2032
Maetel the industrial division of ACS Group is looking for 5MW photovoltaic projects and higher. Eugenio Perez de Lema, CEO of Omnimedia and owner of Energetica India represents Maetel in India. The business development division within Spanish Omnimedia Group has extended an agreement with Maetel, a major Spanish EPC/O&M company and industrial division of the ACS Group, for its representation in India. Applying Omnimedias expertise as professionals and generating synergies through its market knowledge, Omnimedia is scouting the Indian market for EPC contracts in the photovoltaic solar sector.Mr Eugenio Perez de Lema, head of Omnimedia and representative for Maetel in India, conrmed that the Spanish EPC company is looking for solar projects in an advanced stage in the Indian market with a minimum of 5 MW.
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Energetica News

UBM India acquires Renewable Energy India Expos

In a major industry move, the series of Renewable Energy India Expos have been transferred by Exhibitions India Pvt Ltd to UBM India. As a consequence, the 6th Renewable Energy India 2012 Expo scheduled to be held from 7-9 November 2012 at the India Expo Center, Greater Noida (National Capital Region) will now belong to the UBM group and is estimated to attract more than 650 exhibitors and over 20,000 trade visitors from across the globe. Under the new ownership, the international expo will leverage the global strength of the UBM Group to draw a wider worldwide participation for the success of the event. UBM group is a global conglomeration with more than 6,000 professionals working in 30 countries around the world. UBM has evolved businesses in Events; Targeting, Distributing and Monitoring business information; Data Services; Online Marketing Services and Print publications and has established a strong foothold in the Indian events and exhibition industry. They are organisers of CPhI India; Gem & Jewellery India International; IFSEC; Interop Mumbai; SATTE, etc and over 100 events all over the world. Speaking about the takeover Mr Sanjeev Khaira, Managing Director UBM India said, We are delighted to add this acquisition to our growing Indian exhibition business. Renewable Energy is an important secenergetica india

tor that complements our existing portfolio, the demand for electricity in India is estimated to grow at an annual rate of 8%, driving heavy investment on developing renewable energy. We see an excellent opportunity to leverage our international network to drive more international visitors and exhibitors to the event The annually held series of Renewable Energy India Expos have received global industry recognition and are Asias largest and premium event on the renewable sector. With a modest beginning of 600 sqm in 2007, the show is expected to touch exponential height of over 12,500 sqm net display space during the forthcoming edition. We are happy to transfer this exposition to UBM India. When they approached us, we were fully aware of their track record in delivering excellent experiences for both exhibitors and visitors at their exhibitions in India and across the globe. We knew we could trust them to maintain the quality of the event our team has worked so hard to build said Mr Prem Behl, Chairman, Exhibitions India Pvt Ltd. With the event, the core team led by Rajneesh Khattar, the new Project Director will also join the UBM India group. Upbeat about the association of Renewable Energy India Expos with the UBM India, the team foresees manifold growth of the event and hopes to bring more value addition to the participants.

Energetica News

REpower to supply 140 MW for its rst wind farm in Pennsylvania, USA
REpower Systems SE whollyowned subsidiary of Suzlon Group has concluded a contract with EverPower for the delivery of a total of 68 wind turbines. REpower MM92 type turbines are destined for the Twin Ridges wind project in Somerset County, north of the Maryland-Pennsylvania border. It will be REpowers rst project in Pennsylvania. After its completion, the wind farm will generate a total output of nearly 140 megawatts (MW). REpowers MM92 turbines have a rated power of 2.05 megawatts (MW) and a hub height of either 80 or 100 metres each. The project will be a mixture of both hub heights. When complete, it will provide enough clean, renewable energy to power more than 38,000 homes and bring signicant economic benets to the region. Tulsi R Tanti, founder, Chairman and Managing Director, Suzlon Group said: This order underscores the Groups strong presence in the North American wind market. It also conrms the Groups ability to meet diverse market needs with a comprehensive product portfolio. I am very pleased with the partnership and am certain this will result in a successful project. We are very pleased to partner once again, said Jim Spencer, president and CEO of EverPower Wind Holdings, Inc. We are impressed with the efciency and potential production the MM 92 turbines will provide. They are ideal for the wind resources found in the region. Twin Ridges is the second project between EverPower and REpower. The companies are nalizing their rst project together at the 25 turbine Howard wind farm in New York State. Andreas Nauen, Chief Executive Ofcer (CEO) of REpower Systems SE, points out: Regarding the number of turbines this is one of the largest single orders for REpower. We appreciate the condence our US customers place in us, and we are delighted after only just signing our rst Alaskan contract to be now also delivering turbines to Pennsylvania. Commissioning of the wind farm is scheduled for FY13.

India and British Columbia to extend cooperation in the eld of renewable energy
Ms. Christy Clark, Premier of British Columbia, Canada met recently Dr. Farooq Abdullah, Minister of New and Renewable Energy in New Delhi and held detailed discussions on Cooperation between India and British Columbia in the eld of Renewable Energy. Both the Ministers were accompanied by High Level Delegations. Dr. Farooq Abdullah gave an overview of the progress made by India in different elds of Renewable Energy. It was observed that India has already signed an Umbrella Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Canada in the eld of Energy including Renewable Energy and it was agreed the two sides would explore Cooperation between Institutions of repute of India and British Columbia in identied elds. Fuel Cells, Storage batteries, Bio-Energy and Small Hydro Programs were identied as possible areas of Cooperation. British Columbia side informed that they are holding a Global Conference in Energy on 12-15 March, 2012 and requested India to depute a delegation to this Con-

ference where Renewable Energy will be one of the focus areas of Cooperation. India agreed to explore the

possibility of sending a business delegation to the Conference on receipt of invitation.



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Green Infra Ltd commissions its rst 10MW solar photovoltaic power plant in Gujarats Rajkot District
Green Infra Limited (GIL), a leading renewable energy-focused power generation company sponsored by IDFC Private Equity, has commissioned its rst 10 MW solar photovoltaic power plant in Gujarats Rajkot district. This is the rst and the fastest solar plant to be commissioned under the second phase of Gujarats solar policy. Speaking on this event, Shiv Nimbargi, MD & CEO of Green Infra, said: The commissioning of our solar plant ahead of schedule underscores Green Infras exceptional execution capabilities. This solar PV plant is expected to generate 16 million units of energy annually, supplying electricity to over 4,000 homes and saving 12,000 tonnes of carbon emissions. We are delighted to launch our rst solar project in the state of Gujarat where farsighted policies on renewable energy are making projects such as ours extremely compelling. On this important occasion, we wish to extend our special thanks to the Gujarat government, equipment suppliers and nanciers who have made this project possible. With the commissioning of this plant, Green Infras operating capacity now stands at 174 MW. The company is on track to implement an additional 150 MW by the end of this nancial year, with a longer term plan to reach total generating capacity of 3,000 MW by 2015 across several renewable energy sectors.
energetica india NOVEMBER|DECEMBER11 19

Energetica News

Siemens launches worlds rst 1200 kV SF6 Circuit Breaker

The Power Transmission Division of Siemens today announced the launch of the worlds rst 1200 kV SF6 Circuit Breaker, from its manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. With the launch, Siemens reinforced its commitment to partner Indias National Grid Agenda and to drive the countrys energy mission. Indias growing economy needs an efcient power transmission system to meet the increasing demand for reliable and affordable power. With the 1200 kV system, India will leapfrog into a new transmission age that will contribute to the nations economic growth, with an objective to bring electricity across the nation. As an innovation-led technology leader, Siemens has opened up a new dimension in the high-voltage power transmission technology with the introduction of 1200 kV SF6 Circuit Breaker. Spanning over long distances and with a transmission capacity of 8000 megawatts (MW), the new 1200 kV system will have low transmission losses. The power transmission capacity of the 1200 kV line will be more than double as compared to the reducing the land footprint and overall environmental impact. Siemens technology is creating new benchmarks in enabling efcient transmission of electricity. The 1200 kV Circuit Breaker was handed over to Shri. R. N. Nayak Chairman & MD, Power Grid Corporation of India Limited at Siemens manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. Dr. Armin Bruck, Managing Director, Siemens Ltd., said while dedicating the 1200 kV SF6 Circuit Breaker to the nation, Siemens has always been known for pioneering innovation and technological leadership. The launch of the 1200 kV SF6 Circuit Breaker is a signicant milestone in this journey. Contributing towards sustainable development of the nations economy by enhancing efciency of the power sector is at the top of our agenda. Mr. A. K. Dixit, CEO Energy Sector, Siemens Ltd., said, With this technological advancement, power transmission over long distances will be more efcient while increasing the transmission capacity. Once installed, the 1200kV system will spare more land for alternative use.

800 kV line. This technology will make it possible to evacuate large amount of electric power from distant generating stations to load centers by interconnecting regional

grids. The new 1200 kV system will need less than half the space used by the existing 800 kV system with fewer numbers of lines for transmitting the same power, thus



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Energetica News Emmvee (booth 1528) heads for Mumbais Intersolar with two new product ranges
Emmvee is all set to participate in the last trade show for this year; the Intersolar India 2011. The show will be held from 1416th December at the Bombay Exhibition Centre in Mumbai. The company will present its two pillars of production: photovoltaic modules and solar thermal systems. Emmvee Photovoltaic Power Private Limited will display its new photovoltaic modules Black Pearl, Diamond (mono), Diamond (poly), Sapphire with structured glass. Structured glass allows an increased light input into the module and an additional light trap, resulting in an increase in yield of at least by 3% per year. Emmvee was the rst company to use this kind of front glass. Emmvee will also display Crystal, Custom and its OffGrid range in the event. Emmvee Solar Systems Private Limited will display Solarizer Supreme which is equipped with a glass enamelled tank. EMMVEE is the only manufacturer of glass enamel coated tanks of sizes varying from 100 to 3000 litres for solar water heating systems in India. The life time of a glass enamelled tank is simply higher when compared to stainless steel tanks. The additional layer of glass enamel on the steel layer increases the strength of the tank, the resistivity against corrosion and guarantees a highly hygienic water quality for a long time. Emmvee Solar Systems recently opened a new ofce in Pune in Maharashtra. The Pune ofce will primarily focus on the sales in the western region. In its new ofce, Emmvee will put all solar systems on display. The latest
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1.65 GWp worldwide rely on skytron,

165 MWp thereof in India.

success story of Emmvee Solar comes from the Temple City of Indiawhere they have installed a unit of renewable hybrid, a combination of solar and wind power to boost the BTS Sites of BSNL. Emmvee won a tender with an ingenious solution, combining the best of two worlds: solar power and wind energy. The combination of both energy sources guarantees power even if one source is temporarily not available, for example at night time, when there is no sun. There are some 40 Emmvee modules, with a capacity of 10 kWp with an additional wind generated 5.1 kW. That is ample power to run the applications of the telecom provider. The plant was commissioned on 29th September 2011and is operating successfully. The installation runs AEG inverters. It is another step to a reliable, yet environmentally friendly energy policy of the State of Orissa. The remarkable feature of the installed modules is the usage of structured glass. The so called Albarino P catches more light and utilizes a light trap, thus increasing the yield by at least three per cent. The company with headquarters in Bengaluru was the rst to use this kind of glass. A number of MW installations all over the world shows: it pays off. Emmvee also relies on German components in order to ensure long lasting maximum efciency and yield. In a photovoltaic module every detail counts. We have always relied on components from renowned companies with a track record of quality, says D. V. Manjunatha, founder and managing director of Emmvee.


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UK Climate Change minister visits Suzlon One Earth targeting future Offshore Cooperation
During his Indian visit Gregory Barker MP, UK Minister of State for Climate Change, on Wednesday visited One Earth, headquarters of the Suzlon Group and the greenest facility of its kind in the world. The visit is part of his India tour focusing on low carbon growth, which seems to be very successful. After his prior meeting with Dr Farooq Abdullah where both leaders agreed to set up a partnership fund for Pro-poor Renewables. In the Suzlon headquarters Minister Gregory Barker said: David Cameron pledged we would be Britains Greenest Government ever, I can assure you that we will deliver on that pledge. And what is more the transformation of our energy sector is at the centre of our plans. UK and India are working closely together on the connected issues of securing the new energy supplies we need for the future and tackling climate change. Businesses like Suzlon, which are at the very forefront of the battle against dangerous man-made climate change, understand that depleting fossil fuel resources and exponentially growing demand for energy is driving a brand new market. Not just here in India but around the world. This site is a fantastic example, of global best practice in corporate environmental responsibility; here at Suzlon you are building a greener future already. Mr. Tulsi R Tanti, founder, Chairman and Managing Director of Suzlon Group, welcoming Minister Barker added: Greg Barker has brought insight and focus to the climate change debate on the international stage, and back at home in the UK, he has been driving progressive policy development and helping to build a low carbon economy. We are fortunate to have such a capable and energetic minister leading this critical policy area in the British Government. I believe that there are many opportunities for India and the UK to collaborate effectively when it comes to renewable energy and, as we approach COP17 in Durban next month, the Ministers third visit to India in two years is extremely welcome. As Energetica India could conrm in conversations with Suzlon, the Indian windturbine manufacturer is considering UK a target market for future wind offshore developments due to the UK governments emphasis on this source of power generation. If offshore contracts would come in Suzlon considers the erecting of a new manufacturing plant in this country only for this purpose. Suzlon Groups global headquarter One Earth sets new standards in sustainability. Certied to the Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) Platinum and the Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) 5 Star standards, the facility is one of the greenest of its type anywhere in the world. Developed on an area of 443,000 square feet (10.70 acres) with a capacity to house 2,300 people, the facility sets new benchmarks in energy efciency in all aspects of engineering and construction. The facility was awarded the highest ratings for its wholebuilding approach to sustainability by focusing on key areas like human and environmental health, sustainable site development, efcient water, energy and waste methods, materials and resource selection, indoor environmental quality and innovation. One Earth, named as a tribute to earths unique existence as a self-replenishing ecosystem, is powered 100 per cent by renewable energy through a mix of onsite solar and wind, as well as offsite wind energy, and generates zero waste.

New Consulting Editor at Energetica India. Energetica India is pleased to announce the joining of our new member Mr.P.K.Patnaik as a consulting editor. Mr.Patnaik will be working from New Delhi. Mr. PK Patnaik has an extensive knowledge and work experience in the power sector space in different roles including business development, strategy and EPC management. He was the Vice President at Parsons Brinckerhoff / Merz & McLellan Ltd and Country Advisor to Kennedy & Donkin Ltd. More recently Mr.Patnaik was Senior Vice President at Jindal Group based at New Delhi. He is a columnist, commentator and consultant to power and energy sector and currently he is an Advisor assisting some power companies in India. Contribution of Solar and Wind Energy, but still no geothermal Projects. Dr Farooq Abdullah pointed out that during last three years, electricity generated from wind and solar power projects is estimated at about 50.3 billion units. This corresponds to about 2.14% of the total electricity production of 2346 BU during this period. Until today no geothermal power

project has been set up in India. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has stepped up Research & Development efforts in all renewable energy technologies specially in solar energy. These efforts are proposed to be further strengthened during the 12th Plan, by substantially enhancing R&D outlay and developing Centre of Excellence for advanced research. 12,000 MW saving projected during 12th Plan through Energy Efciency Programmes. A saving of 12,000 MW has been projected during the 12th Plan period by implementing energy efciency programmes in the country including the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) programme. This was stated by the Minister of State for Power, Shri K.C. Venugopal at a function organised to launch a energy conservation programme in Thiruvananthapuram. Speaking on the occasion, the Governor of Kerala, Shri M.O.H. Farook emphasised on implementation of energy conservation programme in the state. A mass run was also organised on the occasion which was joined by famous athlete Smt. P.T. Usha and other sports persons and lm stars. The Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) programme was launched by the Bureau of Energy Efciency as a cap-and-trade scheme.



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Inderpreet Wadhwa. CEO Azure Power

We Could Demonstrate our Capability by Developing Something that has not Been Done Before
The trend to quote low prices just to nd projects is very common but the temptation to do this is high when cost becomes the only criteria for project allocation. Given the scale that solar can acquire there is a huge potential for cost economies to move forward

How does it feel to be called the Father of Indian solar industry? I am not the Father of Indias solar industry. A lot of good work in solar in India was started in the 1970s. My contribution to the Indian solar industry is in the concept of distributed generation at the tail-end of the grid that not only strengthens the grid, but also provides reliable peak power to several communities in rural India. Owing to an extremely short gestation period and exibility of scale and size, we can help solve rural Indias energy security needs in a timely manner. These projects also provide for education for the next generation on concepts of clean energy and source of livelihoods in adjacent communities. This is a great way to bring rural India to the forefront of the inclusive economic growth that has been the goal of our Honourable Prime Minister and President. I entered the sector knowing fully well that solar as a sector didnt exist in India before that. We were happy to go through the difculties because we knew that solar power had potential and more importantly, solar had to succeed in India for the sake of millions of Indians who have no access to electricity. As a rst mover we could demonstrate our capability by developing something that has not been done before. The fact that we had a project running in Punjab was helpful in getting contracts in states like Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat. The second movers always get to learn from the mistakes of the rst mover.
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India showed the world that we could do quality work at low cost with the mobile telephone boom where India enjoys good network at among the lowest prices in the world. Do we see something similar happening in the solar industry? The feed-in-tariffs which India is currently experiencing seem to be among the lowest in the world. Absolutely. There are a lot of similarities between the growth of mobile telephony in India and what we see as the potential for distributed solar power generation in India. There are several parallels: both meet the core need of people; they can also both be scaled very quickly; and nally, they can also both be built in any location. In fact, you can power all your telecom towers with solar panels. Solar power generation is a very capital intensive sector. The value of solar is in the long term, not in the short term. Today, compared to other sources of power generation the cost of solar power is high in the retail market. However, we believe that in the long term the costs will come down. The trend to quote low prices just to nd projects is very common but the temptation to do this is high when cost becomes the only criteria for project allocation. Given the scale that solar can acquire there is a huge potential for cost economies to move forward. Power producers still need to be wary of quoting too low and compromising viability of the projects.

Most of the Indian State Governments are following the NVVNs reverse auction policy instead of Gujarats xed tariffs. What according to you is the right way of moving ahead for Indias solar industry; keeping in account the fact that NVVNs reverse auction resulted in bankers not being very comfortable with the project feasibility? There is no one right way. There are things to be said in favour of both methods. However, any methodology should take into account important considerations like technical capabilities, fund raising capabilities and have weightage for on ground experience. Why is that many solar on-grid projects are nding it difcult to achieve nancial closure? Is the reverse bidding making projects nancially unattractive or is it another part of industry learning? We have not had any issues. India has suddenly seen mushrooming of many players branding themselves as solar EPC players. With new inexperienced professionals and low feed-in-tariffs, will India face quality issues on the upcoming solar projects? Within a matter of two years we have gone from 20 companies to 400 companies in solar power generation. Like any other new sector there is always a lot of


excitement in the beginning and then things settle down to only serious players. Going forward, I would expect 40-50 good players in the market. So, like in any new sector, the industry will also see its movers and shakers. The Indian off-grid market is dependent on diesel abatement policy and on government buildings. We still have not seen common people accepting solar installation? What kind of push is needed to bring this potential on the ground? There is a need for solar power generation to be viewed from a developmental perspective. We at Azure Power believe that solar power is ideally suited for the distributed power model which can then help get power to areas that most need it. The distributed model will also mean smaller projects, smaller gestation periods, less demand on land, and therefore better acceptance by the communities. More importantly power generation at the point of consumption makes most economical sense and also avoids high T & D losses. Energy security and rural electrication will get a huge shot in the arm from solar power projects that can come up across the country as part of the NSM policy drive. What can also help are community-based awareness programs on solar power. In fact a planned solar power plant for every 10-20 villages has the potential to create a rural revolution. Renewable Energy Certicates (REC) concept was introduced to take away a considerable incentive burden away from the government and make this a market based product? What do you think of the solar REC concept in its present form? Will this work? What are the suggestions/changes that you expect from the government? For any nancing instrument to work the institution that lends for such products must endorse such instruments. It is too early to comment on the success of the solar RECs. Do you see the solar/renewable energy developers playing a role of IPP in the Indian off-grid market? Currently the cost of solar is very high so it cannot

compete with grid rates but can certainly be a competitor to the cost of units generated through diesel. Today solar energy could be looked at as a complimentary source of power but we strongly believe that when it comes to harnessing solar power, Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) is the worlds fastest growing energy technology and holds tremendous potential for India. Solar Photovoltaic Systems (SPV) are experiencing considerable decline in prices year after year due to intense research, commercialization of utility projects and increase in polysilicon production. This source of power could be used during peak demand times, like opportunities where there is a need for energy requirement during the day, like schools and hospitals. Lot of agriculture is also done during day time and not at night time. India has almost 50,000 Megawatt of standby Diesel Genset capacity and this source of power is denitely an answer to replace diesel-based power. Even though it is still expensive in contrast to conventional sources of power in tangible costs but as observed the cost of solar power has shown signicant reduction year over year and with increase in production, a downward trend is expected to continue. It is likely that solar power will become grid competitive in costs around the year 2017. The National Solar Mission (NSM) promises rapid growth of utility scale SPV power projects in the country. At present it is a solution where you have high cost of power or there is no power but it would be safe to say that in the near future energy developers would play the role of IPPs in the Indian off-grid market as well and competing the grid. What are the challenges that you have faced while implementing the projects on the ground? The industry is currently too involved in PPAs and nancial closure that we have seemed not to take into account the problems being faced on-ground during implementation. Typically, the projects have to be constructed within 6-8 months. Some of the clearances required for energy projects do not take into account the short gestation period of solar plants, but initiatives like

solar power parks are mitigating some of these challenges. On ground solar installation data from similar solar plants, is also necessary for independent assessment. This is also being addressed by agencies like C-WET. Most of these are teething issues of a new industry and will be addressed over time. Which are the current projects of Azure Power and the how does the pipeline look? Azure Power has a project under every Solar Policy in the country and has 12 MW capacity in operation. In addition to the 2 MW Solar power plant set up in Punjab, 10MW in Gujarat and 5MW to be commissioned this December 2011 in Rajasthan, Azure Power is also in talks with State Governments in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Rajasthan for additional projects. Azure Power expects to get to 100MW in the next 2 years with cumulative investment of over $300 million. Does Azure have any plans of backward integration-into manufacturing of modules or cells or wafers? No, we do not. The industry is also reeling under lack of trained man power. How is Azure Power tackling this issue? What is/ should the industry be doing on this front? With solar industry being at a very nascent stage yet, there is not much trained talent available. We however recruit talent who have basic qualication like Engineering/Diploma for technical jobs and Management graduates for non-technical jobs and then train them for their positions. There is a need for more Indian institutions to pick up the trend and train Indian graduates too in the same eld so that we can bridge the gap between the requirement and talent pool. Any advice/suggestion to entrepreneurs in India trying to follow your footsteps in the solar industry? Hard work, focus and diligence always pays. Build business on solid fundamentals and sound ethics. You will be successful regardless of what you do.
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Dr. Josef Haase, CEO, Centrotherm cell and module Gmbh

The nancial and technological well-equipped companies will survive and win the race
What are the current trends in solar PV industry on a global scale? The current global trends include over-capacity in the market where the demand is not keeping pace with the increasing supply, focus and efforts are being put to move towards higher efciency and an expected period of consolidation in the global markets. The demand across the globe has slowed down but the supply is constant or increasing with new companies looking at capacity addition. This has led to decrease in module prices globally. The industry is looking at means to increase cell and module efciency. The higher efciency focus is expected to bring in results soon but we do not expect this to bring any price increase. The market will look at higher efciency at stable prices thanks to innovation and new technologies. Meanwhile, Feed-in-Tariffs (FITs) are continuing their downward trend putting pressure on suppliers and industry margins. FITs are linked to the module prices. Over the last couple of years, we have seen a decrease in module prices leading to a cut in FITs across the world. Where do you see the trend going in the race between Thin Film and Crystalline Modules? I will not look at this as a question of choosing a module but more as a question of cost and power generation when there are no limitations. The module which gives better & reliable power generation at lower

Centrotherm Photovoltaics AG is the worlds leading technology and equipment provider for the photovoltaics sector with more than 30 years of experience. In a chat with Bharat Vasandani, Energetica India, Dr.Haase analyses the solar industry trends and talks about new technology initiatives from Centrotherm.

cost should be the choice of a solar developer. By limitations, I mean government policies or on-ground situation. For example under Indias JNNSM scheme, thin lm modules can be imported but crystalline Si cell and modules need to be from India itself. From a nancial angle, an investor is looking at reliable (bankable) power generation and minimum cost and not necessary at the technology- lowest cost/kWh on reliable technology is the driving factor. Crystalline modules offer bankable power generation at minimum cost. With the price gap between crystalline and thin lm narrowing further, an investor is sure of bankable power supply at minimum cost from crystalline modules. Solar modules prices are dropping globally? Where do you see the price stability coming in? How is Centrotherm reacting to this in terms of technology and price?

The industry is experiencing over-capacity and a dip in module prices. If we assume worldwide installations of solar power plants in 2012 similar to 2011, the module prices will not see an upsurge; unless demand is created from unexpected quarters. So we expect prices to remain at the same level. As I just told we are in a challenging period of consolidation. Few companies may nd it difcult to survive and this may lead to dumping of modules at much lower prices; leading to price war and pressure on margins. The nancial and technological wellequipped companies will survive and win the race. Centrotherm as an equipment supplier is aware of the trend in the global PV. The last few years have seen a reduction of ~ 50% in capital equipment cost /per watt leaving the industry at much lower costs today. One also needs to be aware that though module prices have decreased, the major focus is still on efcient processes and equipment because labour, power and accessory costs have, infact, increased. There are a lot of innovative ideas being worked on equipment, and the processes. We are on the way to 20 percent cell efciencies in industrial production. We have already reached this magic threshold in the laboratory. This peak value was achieved on the basis of centaurus rear side technology developed by Centrotherm Photovoltaics. We will be working at out on transferring these excellent gures to mass production. We deliver upgrade packages to install selecenergetica india


tive emitter and centaurus rear side upgrade technologies improving costs and boosting efciency. Another example: A 0.5 GW manufacturing plant produces 18000 wafers every hour; will need very robust processes and equipment to achieve a balance between yield and efciency where the end result looked at is lower cost per watt and return on investment and not only yield or efciency. How do you see the progress of solar policies and on-ground implementation of solar power plants in India? India comes with a lot of ambition but uncertainty also. There seems to be a lack of clear perspectivewith not clear answers on domestic content, quality of domestic content w.r.t global content, Feed-in-Tariffs, benet for investors, etc. This uncertainty scenario may lead to lesser number of solar power plants, and not many module & cell manufacturing companies. To develop a solar industry, one needs to have local content and generate jobs. India seems to be on the right path. If this path is not taken, India will see huge import where the industry is more mature with GW sizes, economy of scale and more favourable government initiatives. Another challenge in India is that the industry is not thinking big. Indian companies need to look at bigger projects in India. Bigger projects enable economies of scale, and investments in the industry. Indias SMEs are also looking at smaller module production lines; thereby increasing production costs. An example: average module lines globally are of 70-75MW. In todays solar business environment, this gives the manufacturer a chance to be competitive, enable economies of scale (to an extent), and plan capacity expansion for future without incurring same costs again. This also gives the manufacturer bargaining power to purchase raw materials which form the highest % in production costs. But in India we see module lines starting with 10-20MW lines. The Indian manufacturer is then looking at adding more lines; and adding more costs; resulting in higher price/watt in the market. What are Centrotherms market expectations from India in terms of growth?

India has huge potential and we are very interested to do outstanding work in India. But the slow progress is not encouraging. We have been speaking to several Indian companies since the last 2-3 years and we can say that the decision making could be faster. It takes 2-3 years for a company to make a decision to enter the market. The slow decision making could be a result of the environment created in India due to the policies. But in these 2-3 years, leading China and Taiwan manufacturer have added 20-30 GW additional capacity. Meanwhile the Indian manufacturing space is also facing quality challenges. Some manufacturers are not functioning as expected because their products do not have the efciency to compete in the global market. We would like to assist Indian companies in choosing the right technology which can help them compete on global scale and not only in India. India s reverse bidding saw Feed-inTariff (FIT) reach an average of $ 0.25 in Batch I Phaseof National Solar Mission; when everyone at that time was speaking about FIT in the range of $0.35$0.40. How did the industry react to this? Most of the reaction we saw was from India. Many Indian companies that we were looking to build power plants or manufacturing businesses slowed their efforts. The government needs to take measures and assure solar developers, bankers and investors of their intent and give a clear picture of the FIT for the next 20 or 25 years. Unless that clarity comes, investments may slow down or global investors may avoid Indias solar program. This can certainly slow the progress of solar in India by 2-3 years. During this time, Taiwan and China will reach far ahead of India in installations and manufacturing business; thereby making it cheaper and easier for Indian solar developers to import rather than manufacture internally. This could kill the Indian manufacturing industry completely and that would be a horrible and not desirable picture and outlook. This can lead to disastrous effects for the Indian solar industry. Already a few cell & module manufacturers in India are running with less than 50% capacity output. This is due to uncertainty in the market. An Indian company may take a year to think

and work on a module line expansion plans compared to China where the module line will be expanded by 1GW in one year. So India may nd the global industry moving faster than India, making it more difcult for Indian companies to compete. The Indian companies do not have much dearth of talent but the conditions do not seem favourable. Lower FITs have lead to some uncertainty which has also made it difcult to achieve nancial closure because banks do not see certain viability. With this scenario, I do not see a big future for manufacturing unless appropriate policy initiatives are taken though there will be a better outlook for installations because India needs all the power it can produce. Most of the Indian solar module manufacturers are under pressure due to decrease in market size of their biggest market-Europe and the very slow progress in India. How do you see this situation progressing from here? Well if the uncertain policies continue, then no investor will put in money for module manufacturing. Indian solar manufacturers are focusing more on exports and this may not work in the mid-term. The reason being Europe, the biggest solar market, is going through a current weakness and then companies across the world are trying to sell modules there, so the market is very competitive. In the mid-term, we do not see any huge growth in Europe. The local market for Indian manufacturers is slow and not moving as quickly as expected. They also have competition from Chinese manufacturers who can supply at a better price and in quick time. The slow Indian market is killing the module manufacturers in India. At the same time, Chinese companies are pushing hard to be the solar hub of the world. Chinese are thinking long term and do not mind losing some money initially but are building a base for solar manufacturing that India will nd difcult to compete with. For example one Chinese customer alone is adding another 500MW to be operational early next year. For this quantity to be added to India, it will take another one year or more in this uncertain scenario. So Indian policies need to be clear and quick; otherwise each month of delay adds to the task to take on the global module supenergetica india


plier. The opportunity for solar Indian manufacturers were great 3 years ago, now its good but further delay can as well kill the industry because competition is growing faster than India. How do you see the growth of cell manufacturing in India? We have a couple of big players such as IndoSolar, and Moser Baer with the Yash Birla Group joining in recently. But overall the main focus in India seems to be solar power plant installation and EPC. I think it is a question of what India wants to do. Cell manufacturing in India is quite difcult because of lack of infrastructure. It may not be that easy to obtain quality raw materials such as chemicals, gas and other parts. In India, most of the manufacturing plants are located away from the main cities in a rural setting to avail of subsidies and low cost labour. I think for solar manufacturing, one needs to look at cluster development which can help bring down operational expenses otherwise the Indian companies may again face challenges of supply & service in additional to higher operating expenses. For example in China, you will nd the raw materials easily available within a short distance thus encouraging more development. The cell manufacturing is also now competing on cost per watt compared to the earlier years where there was some premium. So Indian companies, joining the party late, will need to compete with global companies on cost. This will put pressure on margins. Inenergetica india

dia should also look at integrated approach in solar manufacturing to balance margins. Many European companies are involved in cell & module manufacturing and also EPC in addition to solar farm investment. In other words, if you are only a cell or module manufacturer, then you need to play on lower margins and high volume. How many installations has Centrotherm achieved in India? Some of our Indian clients include Websol Energy systems, Tata BP, Jupiter Solar and BHEL for cell manufacturing and Shan solar for module manufacturing. We are talking to other companies also and have been in talks with a few of them for more than 2 years. Our customers are not certain about the solar market and then the investors are not being encouraged by the government policies. What is needed is a certain outlook encouraged by favourable policies to push investment in this industry. We believe in solar business for long term and we anticipate that the solar market will continue to report sustainable growth despite its current weakness. But in the current scenario not many are sure as to what trend the industry will take for the next 6-12 months. Centrotherm has recently announced expected drop in cost by ~20% in Centrotherms PV systems by 2013. What are the steps being taken by Centrotherm to achieve this? The 20% reduction in equipment prices is

the minimum that Centrotherm is looking to do but we are looking to achieve more. This will be a slow and steady progress. The ways of achieving this are by working on capacity, processes and technology. The industry should note that it is not easy to cut costs beyond a certain point because quality also needs to be looked at. We are not looking at dropping 30% straight away by using low cost equipment that does not give long term quality output. What are the expected technology progress/changes the industry can expect from Centrotherm in the near future? Centrotherm is working on a roadmap to achieve higher efciency of 0.5% more every year. Our efforts with focus on innovative solutions include selective emitter, centaurus rear side, new metallization, and interface optimization. We have been progressing well. For example the guarantee on modules in 2005 was around 13% and now it has reached around 17.5% and we are working to increase this by 0.5% every year for the next 3-4 years. And as I just said, we are on the way to 20% cell efciency. It may be slightly difcult to obtain more efciency on the product and material side but we are working on the interface area to optimize processes and technology and reach higher efciency. Not many companies are working in this direction but we think we will be able to achieve our goals to make a difference in the industry. In the end, the result looked at in solar is always Cost/kWh generated.


Industry Feedback to NVVNs Batch II, Phase I of JNNSM


Energetica India published the guidelines of NVVNs 2nd Batch of Phase I under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in September/October 2011 issue. As a follow-up, we speak to Industry experts and stakeholders to understand their reaction to the new policy and their suggestions to the government to help grow the industry in India.

MR.RAJESH BHAT, PRESIDENT JUWI INDIA Under the revised guidelines, the maximum capacity of PV power projects has been increased from 5 MW to 50 MW, which will encourage more serious Project developers/ IPPs to invest in solar power. With the aim to achieve grid parity, this could bring in cost competitiveness in large scale deployment of solar power projects because of the economy of scale. In addition to the excellent work done by MNRE & MOP, MOF the Government has also to encourage and mandate the Banks on increasing their contribution to solar power project portfolio for both debt at low interest rates so that the solar power generation becomes sizable percentage of the total power generated in the country. For the investing community to be less risk averse, they have to ensure that Quality EPC companies are awarded the contracts. In future this can be tool for evaluating low risk projects. With the government making it mandatory for developers to use locallysourced crystalline cells & Modules for the implementation of solar projects proposed to be auctioned under the second round of JNNSM programme, domestic manufacturing for photovoltaic cells and modules will get a major boost. The manufacturing industry needs to look at how they can compete with top tier Chinese manufacturerswith the same level of quality who are aggressively priced in this area. With the intent of achieving grid parity, solar modules manufactured in India have to become globally competitive. It would be

apt if the industry along with the government can evaluate a way forward manufacturing wafers /cells competitively within the country. Since the investment in wafer manufacturing is very high, the mechanism of answering a market size is a must. In view of achieving 20,000 MWp solar generation capacity by 2022, we need to look at wafer manufacturing in the capacity of 1-2 GW so that the modules available locally are competitive. As the government intends to attract large-scale investments in solar power projects there shouldnt be forcible equity holding pattern. The growth of solar PV industry globally, could be attributed to fact that the funds are relatively easily available at low interest rates to promising investors, projects are executed in time with high generation & availability. MR. NARENDRA SURANA, MANAGING DIRECTOR SURANA VENTURES LImITED The increase in capacity from 5MW to 50MW per bidder is not very favourable for smaller and medium sized players. The cap of 5MW would have encouraged more players to participate. The increase in time limit for nancial closure is a good step as funding seems difcult with higher interest rates and poor viability of projects. The mandatory use of Indian manufactured cells and modules is a very good move but needs to be strictly implemented to encourage indigenous manufacturers. Also thin lm application should have been restricted to certain percentage of the overall requirement.

MR.JASmIN PATEl, DIRECTOR JJ PV SOlAR Bidder capacity increase from 5MW to 50MW is good, as it will bring genuine big players into the game of Solar Energy, and also they would wield power to inuence FDI into such projects in a big way. These would be very serious project promoters. There is really no need to increase time limit for nancial closure, as serious bidders will know they have to get their nancial act together before bidding. Only serious minded bidders will come in. However, to support project and this guideline, Govt. should create infrastructure for availability of nance in lower interest at least around 10 - 11%. Currently banks are asking upto 14 -15% interest with 100% collateral security (which is main reason for delay or no nancial closure). Its a good move to make use of Indian modules and cells mandatory. Why should Indian manufacturers have to face competition to cheap Chinese panels that are mostly equally horrible in quality? Should Indian manufacturers invest in their plants and create jobs only to shut down later and create un employment due to cheaper quality imports? Here the stress is on Quality that the Chinese are ooding into the Indian market making it practically their dumping ground. The government is not taking notice of the fact that there could be a chance of massive defunct and unoperational Chinese panels IPP projects in the future. Besides, its important to impart huge projects split between MNRE and local
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state level. There is huge scope for solar industry to grow enormously in the years to come. Good motivation for attracting Investment for local manufacturing, However currently Cell manufacturing is just started and so not so many manufacturers available ( out of them few cannot supply technically acceptable quality). Hence keeping cells also as domestic contain is a bit early. Further, platform to attract balance of material like EVA, Back sheet, Ribbon etc also need to be created so as to motivate 100%indigenous Modules. MR. PEDDIRAJU BHUpATHIRAJU, MANAGING DIRECTOR AKSHAYA SOlAR POWER (INDIA) PvT LTD The increase in capacity from 5MW to 50MW per bidder does not leave any space for small players. The increase is time limit for nancial closure is justied but banks need to be

directed to come forward to nance the projects and give clearance within the stipulated time period. The mandatory use of Indian modules is a good move but then we do not have sufcient cell manufacturing capacity in India and government will need to consider import of cells. MR. DIlEEp DESHpANDE, DIRECTOR PHOTONIX SOlAR PvT LTD The clauses seem to suggest that the policy is really intended to support the big players and not conducive to smaller player wanting to enter solar power generation business. Smaller limit per bidder encourages more bidders and existence of multiple players in an industry is essential for the robust growth of any industry. The government has announced a solar policy and a certain time frame. If India does not achieve this in a given timeframe we as a society/economy will be

left behind as rest of the world is moving rather swiftly in the solar eld. The government has been reasonable in giving the time limits. It now needs to be rather stern and push the programme hard. Instead of giving more time the Govt. may do well to remove the impediments being faced by the project developers such as the difculties being encountered in raising debt funds. The government has safeguarded interest of Indian PVmodule manufacturers who have invested large funds in setting up facilities in India. Now if the foreign players are allowed to sell freely in India it would completely disturb the apple cart and the development made in solar PV industry will get reversed. This is not in the long term interest of the country and the Indian consumers. Most of the regimes around the world have given additional benets/sops to encourage local manufacturers.

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Off-Grid Solar PV: Opportunities & Barriers


PV was developed in the most industrialized and technologically advanced nations; however, most of the potential customers of off-grid PV are not in the developed nations. This technology has an enormous and eager potential customer base in the developing world where nearly 1.5 billion people, representing 22% of the earths population, do not have access to electricity.

Off-grid PV in the developed nations: PV was developed in the most industrialized and technologically advanced nations, so it should not be surprising that the rst applications of off-grid PV were primarily in these nations, including the United States. With its hyper-individualistic culture, part of the allure of PV for customers in the United States has always been the ability to generate electricity for personal use without being tied to the large and unaccountable structures of utility companies and the electric grid. However, though such psychological motivations may be strong, practical considerations are often more important. In the US state of California, off-grid PV was pioneered by an unlikely industry: indoor marijuana farmers. These black market agriculturalists had two distinct needs: one, to generate power for lights to grow their illicit crops, and two, to do so without attracting attention from law enforcement. Indoor marijuana cultivation prospered in remote areas of Northern California, away from prying neighbours and often in areas not served by the power grid. Even for those who did have access to electricity, it was also important not to show a spike in an electricity bill that would tip off the power company that something was amiss, who might then pass such information on to police and federal agencies. Potential customers populations not served by the grid However, most of the potential customers of off-grid PV are not in the developed nations, and these technologies have an enormous and eager potential customer base in the developing world. 1.5 billion persons globally, representing 22% of the

earths population, do not have access to electricity. These persons reside mostly in rural areas in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, but can also be found in South America, Central Asia, and Central America, as well as in urban areas in less-developed nations. Many of these areas have good to excellent solar potential, much better than many locations in the developed world. As a potential market, these individuals are not going away. Global access to electricity over the last few decades has remained remarkably static. World Bank ofcials have stated that the number of persons who do not have access to electricity may actually increase in the next few decades unless more effective policies are put in place to speed off-grid electrication and the expansion of existing utility grids into unserved areas. Potential uses of off-grid solar in developing areas: The benets of electrication to rural communities and thus the potential uses of off-grid photovoltaics (PV) are many. Lighting is often the rst need that is met, followed by radios and televisions, and later appliances such as washing machines and refrigerators. Access to electricity assists with incomegenerating activities, including agriculture. Rural electrication in India in the previous decade has largely focused on irrigation, which has moved the nation from a net food importer to a net food exporter. Other income-generation uses include in sheries, processing of agricultural goods, and small-scale industry such as welding shops. Electricity is also important for the function of schools and hospitals, and

many demonstration and private philanthropy projects are designed to meet these needs. The signicance of power for lighting should not be underestimated; studies of rural electrication indicate that supplying lights, which allow students to study into the evening hours, creates a greater potential income gain for families than uses that generate income directly. In Bangladesh, incomes increased up to 30% following electrication, mostly due to higher educational attainment. Off-grid PV technologies Between 500,000 and 1 million persons in the developing world are currently using off-grid PV technologies. These many people use a wide range of products, where a solar system connects to various DC appliances. Companies offer products from home lighting systems and water puriers to street lights and lighting/fan systems using modules that supply from 3.3 - 250 watts of electricity. Batteries are an essential component of all such systems. Construction of micro-grids is another way to meet the needs of rural communities, which often consist of a number of homes and businesses clustered closely together. Such micro-grids can potentially be powered by any technology, and for small villages in areas with rich sunlight, PV and more often PV/diesel generator hybrid systems are often practical solutions. In such instances, the PV installations are typically much larger than those used in solar home systems, and when combined with diesel generators, do not require batteries. Economics of off-grid PV For off-grid locations in developing nations, extension of the grid or the use of
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diesel generators are the two competing solutions for electrication. In many places, installing off-grid PV can be more cost-effective than either of these options; though such calculations vary according to the location, the quality of the PV resource, the cost of diesel fuel, the type of system, and other factors. In Ethiopia, researchers discovered that off-grid SHS systems were considerably more protable than installing on-grid PV in more developed nations; though the smaller size of the systems means that more individual systems must be sold to realize similar revenue. However while costs over time are often lower, the up-front costs of installing PV systems is higher than diesel generators, whose primary cost is fuel. This means that education on cost savings and nancing options for buyers in the developing world are important considerations. Not only can PV be cheaper over time than diesel generation or grid extension, but it is often a nancial improvement for rural families in the developing world than substitute energy costs, such as kerosene and dry cell batteries. Such expenses are typically USD$5-10 per month for enough kerosene and batteries to run a few lamps and a radio, a considerable portion of a many family budgets. Furthermore, purchasing kerosene and batteries can often mean lengthy shopping trips and long waits to replenish supplies, and even then, there can be issues with availability. There are other advantages to off-grid PV for families in rural developing nations which can be harder to put a dollar value on. PV systems do not create air pollution like diesel generators, nor do they carry the re risk of kerosene lamps.

Barriers to adoption of off-grid PV There are multiple barriers that must be overcome for the development of a healthy off-grid PV business. The rst is in the minds of PV manufacturers and integrators, most of whom are in the more afuent nations of the developed world, and who are used to marketing their products to wealthier customers in the developed world. Likewise, potential customers in the developing world are often not familiar with photovoltaics and their advantages. For off-grid PV as a business to be successful in the developing world, manufacturers, integrators, and distributors must understand the unique challenges and opportunities of this market. Lack of nancing options can be a signicant barrier, and researchers with the International Energy Agency suggest that nancing carry over the lifetime of the system. However, other researchers indicate that such concerns are often overestimated, and in Bangladesh, one of the success stories for small-scale PV adoption, most customers buy their systems with cash even where nancing is available. Availability of DC appliances must also be considered. Most of the PV systems designed for off-grid applications in developing nations do not include inverters, which drive up system costs. While many solar home systems come with DC appliances, such appliances are not always readily available on the market. For off-grid PV to be successful, there is also a need for customer support, particularly in system maintenance and repair. The low levels of education in many areas of the developing world must be considered; in some cases PV systems may be abandoned after malfunctioning because the owner cannot

read the manual. Even in places where PV systems are visible, consumers in the developing world must be educated about the benets of these systems. In some areas, there is a tendency to think of electricity from PV as second-class or not real electricity compared to that which is delivered from the central grid, and such attitudes must be overcome. In other areas where the government has supplied large numbers of PV systems to rural areas, there is a tendency to view the systems as a gift from the government. However, even in areas where the perception of PV as a state gift is widespread, there is still a tendency to use these systems for income-generating activities, to keep PV as backup power after grid-connection, and to invest in larger systems, indicating social acceptance of this technology. Conclusion: Off grid Solar PV: A market holder of developing world Off-grid PV remains a small if signicant market in certain areas of the developed world; however the greatest market for off-grid PV is in rural areas of India and developing world. With the right combination of policies, business models and technologies these areas can develop into thriving markets for PV and related technologies. The economic advantages of solar for rural populations in developing nations can potentially create a cycle that drives demand for larger systems. In India and China, rural electrication has led to greater use of appliances such as televisions, washing machines and refrigerators, which are currently out of the reach of many in developing nations, just as they were in China in previous decades. However, before this can happen, barriers need to be overcome by both governments and businesses seeking to expand into these potential markets. Consumer education will be as or more important in the developing world as it is in the developed world, with additional barriers of language and literacy. Likewise there is a need to educate government ofcials in these nations as to the advantages of PV, and to introduce policies that bring PV not as an aid product, but as a thriving industry, with strong local involvement ad sense of ownership.
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Strike Action

Protecting PV system components, in particular inverters, from the damaging effects of overvoltage surges is both crucial and necessary - what measures should be considered?

n a world seemingly obsessed by risk assessment and analysis, it is ironic that the topic of surge or overvoltage protection seems to be underplayed and, at times, misunderstood. Yet the need for such protection is largely self-evident as industry and commerce relies more and more on devices that are hugely sensitive to overvoltage events such as surges and lightning currents. Indeed the protection of critical system components vital to the production, conversion and distribution of electricity, such as inverters, needs to be addressed. It is imperative that protection of these systems is considered during the design stage for effectively managing the damaging effects of the overvoltage events.. The major causes for surges in PV systems are over voltages induced onto the system by inductive or capacitive means deriving from lightning discharges as well as lightning surges. Lightning surges in the PV system can damage PV modules and inverters.
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This can have serious consequences for the operation of the system. First, high repair costs, for example, those of the inverter, can be incurred, and, second, the system failure can result in considerable loss of revenue for the operator of the plant due to downtime. The effects of a lightning strike can induce surges onto electrical systems as far as 2km away from the point of impact. Hence the cause of many system failures is often unknown giving more reason than ever to t surge protective devices (SPD). SPDs are installed in parallel to the load and they act as pressure relieve valve by taking access voltage and shunting it to ground thus maintaining healthy stream of system voltage to the application. Obviously coordinating the types of surge protection devices employed is key to combating the damaging and disruptive effects of overvoltages. Typically this involves the following classications of device; Class 1 SPD aka Lightning Arresters:

this device has the largest impulse current discharge capacity. It is designed to handle the damaging effects on the electrical system from a direct lightning strike to the lightning conducting rod. They are used where lightning currents or fractions of currents are not only diverted via the external lightning protection system but also induced into the electrical cables. This is likely if the plant to be protected is directly connected to the external lightning protection system or, for example, the separation distance between DC cables and external lightning protection is not far enough. Common when an entire roof is covered in PV panels and the mounting frame is equi-potentially bonded to the lightning protection system. In this instance it is a requirement of IEC62305-3 that the DC conductors be protected with class I surge protective devices. A direct lightning strike to the lightning protection system would, in such a system, induce the damaging overvoltage and voltage spikes onto the DC cables, PV


panels and input to the system inverter. The cost of repairs would be signicant without the protection of the correct surge protective device. A class I device capable of handling a current discharge capability of 50kA (10-350S) would prevent the need for costly repairs. Class II SPD aka Surge Arresters: these surge protective devices have a lower impulse current discharge capacity and protect from the indirect effects of lightning. In the event of lightning striking in the vicinity of the building, but not directly onto the external lightning protection system, electro-magnetic elds develop that may induce dangerously high voltages onto electric circuits. However, peak values of the current resulting from indirect lightning strike surges are far lower than the corresponding direct lightning strike current. The duration of the pulse and therefore the energy introduced is lower. Class II SPD are used to protect from this type of surge. Typically these devices can handle surge pulses of 8-20S and a discharge current of 12.5kA. Class III SPD aka Surge Arresters: these devices have the lowest impulse current discharge capacity. They protect sensitive electronic devices from impact by lightning striking far away or more commonly localised switching surges. Typically they are installed as a supplement to Class II devices and are designed to reduce the overvoltage at the terminals of sensitive equipment. Their current discharge capacity is very limited. As a consequence they should not be used alone.

It is important to understand that a Class I device will provide protection against the high surge voltages and currents induced by direct lightning strikes, but will not protect against the smaller surges of indirect strikes or switching surges. Attention should be paid to the voltage protection level of the device being used as this is the point at which the device will start to protect as the surge rises in amplitude. e.g. in Class I SPD, the protection level is mostly higher than the dielectric strength of the device to be protected. In such cases an Class II SPD and possibly an Class III SPD must be connected downstream to reduce the protection level to a value suitable for the device. In terms of inverter protection there are several important points to take into account. For instance in inverters with maximum power point tracking (MPPT), PV strings are combined upstream of the inverter and the SPD(s) is/are connected to the linkage point. In inverters with several MPPTs, each input must have an SPD or an SPD combination. Another important point to consider when selecting a Class II SPD is that most Class II SPD devices use a thermal disconnects which in DC applications can generate a DC arc. Once the DC arc is generated it is hard to extinguish thus creating more damage than protection. In this case the ideal solution is using the SPDs that in addition to MOVs also use a fast acting DC fuse to extinguish the arc and safely disconnect the SPD. This combination of MOV with fast acting fuse is often time referred to as Short Circuit Technology (SCI).

Due to the nature of the PV installation which can be in remote locations, it is advisable to use SPDs with remote contacts which can alert the user should a SPD sustains a strike and goes ofine. Along with SPDs used on the DC side, SPDs are also required on the AC side due to differences in potential and earthing of the system beyond this point. Unlike on the DC side, several inverters can be protected by one SPD because they are connected to the same (mains) voltage. On the AC output side of the inverter it is important that the SPD device being used is rated according to the system conguration. It is advisable to consult the relevant IEC standard for the possible system types. When using string circuit protectors and SPDs, the SPD must be installed at the linkage point (combiner box) of the PV strings downstream of the fuses. If the SPD was only to be connected to one PV string between string output and string fuse, the remaining PV strings would be unprotected if the fuse operated. In addition there would be no protection to the inverter if the surge occurs on the remaining live PV strings. In this event, there would be no protection to the input of the inverter from the remaining strings. Hence it is imperative that the DC SPD devices are positioned in the correct circuit position to provide secure system protection. It is often said that prevention is better then cure and given the big investments necessary for PV system build and operation, it seems prudent to invest what is a relatively small amount of money in SPDs to achieve system safety and security.



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Mitigation of Risk and Uncertainties in Solar Irradiation data associated with MW scale PV Plants

The Indian solar industry is poised for signicant growth in future as the Governments Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) advances. With a high volume of PPAs signed for new projects and new technologies in the pipeline, we have seen a continuous fall in equipment prices, resulting in an overall fall in the nal project cost. As a result, large numbers of programs and projects have been announced from residential off-grid, rural electrication, and telecom, to grid connected large-scale utility PV projects.

he budgets of MW sized projects require debt nancing either by way of balance sheet/corporate guarantee or by project nancing. It is therefore, important to analyze the risk and uncertainties involved with the project before assessing how much collateral is required or trying to ascertain whether project nancing is possible. This requires a thorough study of the individual factors and associated risks and via provision of mitigants to any identied risks in order to quantify and reduce the project uncertainties. Solar energy production is generally estimated using simulation modeling tools and solar radiation data. Selection of proper irradiation data is very critical as there is usually variation in the data derived from all sources and therefore, there is always an uncertainty level associated with any projects energy yield assessment. One of the best ways to reduce this uncertainty and better ensure the future success of any Solar PV project is the solar resource assessment. This becomes especially crucial where there is insufcient (or in some cases none at all) solar measurements available from ground level. In these cases, it is very important to undertake an up-front analysis in order to select the best representative irradiation source for the project, with known uncertainties, in order to quantify the level of condence in the data used to estimate the production of

the solar PV plant. Our suggested approach for India is: a. Collect satellite derived data from the relevant and appropriate source. b. Secure ground measured data for a period of at least three months c. Correlate the results based on ground and satellite data gathered over the same concurrent period Gathering and analyzing good ground measured data for analysis and correlation with satellite data for the same period helps both to avoid bias towards any specic data set and to generate long-term correlated data. Some of the critical factors to be considered incase of ground measurement are:

a. Representativeness of measurement station at site. b. Distance between site and measurement station. c. Elevation difference between site and measurement station. d. Period of recorded data. e. Quality of data. f. Instrumentation calibration. g. Maintenance program and data recovery. The main issues to be considered when using satellite derived data are: a. Period of data available. b. Whether the data is hourly GHI or monthly average data. c. Algorithm used in converting satellite pictures to irradiation gures. d. Cloud transmissivity index. e. Geographical terrain of the site. When choosing a pyranometer to install in order to measure solar irradiance on the ground, it is important to ensure that it is of the correct standard and is suitably classied. This usually requires it to have an ISO 9060 classication. Higher quality pyranometers with better accuracy tend to come at a higher cost but the benet is that they reduce uncertainty levels. To avoid cost, developers often measure data available at the horizontal plane instead of at the inclined plane and, where this route is taken, it becomes extremely important to adopt a solid methodology to convert this data to tilted/inclined plane by using
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proper transposition models. Selection of a transposition model needs careful consideration, particularly in relation to the availability of direct and diffuse irradiation data. In summary, the critical elements for mitigating risk in solar PV projects are: a. Ensuring that there is quality on-site data measurement available for MW scale PV projects. b. Ensuring that pyranometers selected have been considered in terms of their standards and classication. c. Understanding that satellite data alone is not sufcient for energy production assessment and that using only this data will result in a high level of uncertainty. - Selection of the right satellite data source and thereafter the use of the same is very critical to reduce uncertainties (and so risks in energy yield assessment). d. Remembering that both the horizontal and climatic distance should be taken

into consideration which involves understanding the difference in altitude between the site and the measuring station. Ultimately, the optimal solution for solar radiation monitoring depends on the size of PV project, the site location and level of risk the project proponent is willing

to accept. For MW scale utility projects, it is always advisable to have a scientic basis for energy yield assessment and measurement and also to undertake technical due diligence of the project before the disbursement of debt nance. The cost of due diligence is a small fraction of the overall project cost.

Renewable energy consultants

GL Garrad Hassan India Pvt. Ltd, Bengaluru Tel: +91 (0)80 309 11010 Website:


How to make National Solar Mission a success?


As the industry moves into the second year (the Batch-II of Phase-I) of the implementation of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, Mr.Shome reviews the current situation against 4 parameters of Cost, Scalability, Environmental Impact and Energy Security.

s the industry moves into the second year (the Batch-II of Phase-I) of the implementation of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, it is time to take stock of the situation, and look at the four key parameters which makes the National Solar Mission an important and relevant component of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. As enumerated in the mission document of The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) (launched under the brand name of SOLAR INDIA), these four parameters are: Cost Scalability Environmental impact, and Energy security This article reviews the current situation against each of these parameters, in context of PV technology, and their stated objectives under the mission document. This article will also suggest ways and mechanisms of how to move closer to the objectives, based on the industrys accumulated learning over the years. Cost One of the most signicant fallouts of the JNNSM and state initiatives from Gujarat has been the rapid decrease of capital cost for solar farms. In direct contrast to a progressively-shrinking European market, India provides an opportunity for controlled, but responsible and sustained growth. This, coupled with the face of mounting global capacity-enhancement, and almost 50% more specic-energy production capacity has made India a destination of choice of several large global solar power developers and turnkey EPC service providers. This has resulted in aggressive pricing, pushing down the tariff by 29-39% over CERCs stated tariff in 2010-11. The tar40 NOVEMBER|DECEMBER11

iffs are expected to be more competitive in 2011-2012 and comparable to generating electricity from diesel / gas generators. The second signicant impact of the scale of NSMs grid-connect opportunities has been felt in the off-grid business space. Although the stated target for off-grid projects under NSM is much lower than the on-grid objectives, the results have been no less startling. As a spin-off to the on-grid scale, PV module prices have come down for this segment as well. Supported by a transparent grading mechanism and a single-window clearance system for central assistance, the off-grid sector is poised to take quantum leaps by the time the NSM moves into its second phase (20132017). Scalability Traditionally known to be an industry managing kilowatt-scale projects, the Indian PV sector is still coming to terms with the massive growth opportunities present at its doorstep. Additional capacities are being rapidly created, and the far-sighted companies are investing as much in new equipment, as in manpower and training. In the off-grid space, there is already an effort in place to bring in the element of diesel-mitigation, which partially reduces dependence on battery. However, energystorage for non-Sun hours continue to be among the largest technological limitations to large-scale propagation of offgrid PV, and this calls for more focussed research efforts. Environmental impact Being a zero-emission technology, solar farms bring no impact on their surrounding environment, and hence have faced no obstacles so far from the environmentalists. The hermetically-sealed energy-con-

version technologies are globally-proven, highly stable and in most cases are supported by the respective manufacturers end-of-life take-back commitment. There are probably more concerns about how the external environment, like a shifting dune or a sand-storm may impact the performance of a solar farm. The results from the rst projects being installed currently across the country will go a long way towards answering some of these questions and concerns. Energy Security To quote from the original Mission Document, page 2 of 15: While, today, domestic coal based power generation is the cheapest electricity source, future scenarios suggest that this could well change. Already, faced with crippling electricity shortages, price of electricity traded internally, touched Rs 7 per unit for base loads and around Rs 8.50 per unit during peak periods. The situation will also change, as the country moves towards imported coal to meet its energy demand. The price of power will have to factor in the availability of coal in international markets and the cost of developing import infrastructure. It is also evident that as the cost of environmental degradation is factored into the mining of coal, as it must, the price of this raw material will increase. In the situation of energy shortages, the country is increasing the use of diesel-based electricity, which is both expensive costs as high as Rs 15 per unit - and polluting. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from a solar farm delivered in the batch-I of NSM is about 35-45% higher than the price of electricity traded internally during peak periods. And while this price will go up in tandem with the upward movement
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of international coal and crude prices, the LCOE from the solar farm will stay there rm, for the next 25 years. This clearly states how critical this mission is to ensure energy-security for the country, and how rapidly are we moving towards achieving grid-parity. The scaling-up of resources in the off-grid sector is now amply demonstrated by the number of channel-partners of MNRE that have come forward for voluntary grading, under the Ministrys accreditation scheme. Among the success factors of building a Solar India, the following would be critical: 1. The Renewable Purchase Obligation: RPO, with its solar component is going to drive the utility-scale power generation in the long run. Enforcement of the obligations will be important to ensure sustained growth. 2. Standardization of components and services: While standards for most map Composite Default screen p p

jor components have been dened, the standard for design, engineering and construction services need to be rmly enforced. This can be done by proposing a grading mechanism similar to the channel-partner accreditation for offgrid installations, where each EPC can be graded based on its engineering and nancial strength by an independent third-party. This can also be extended to relative grading of the solar power plants, on design, delivery and performance. 3. Strong and exemplary deterrents for non-performing developers: To further minimize adventurous bid prices, exemplary deterrents may be brought in and enforced, which will ensure that only serious and committed developers participate in the bidding process. 4. Net metering and nancial assistance for roof-top systems: This can really bring PV to the urban grid, minimize

the space and O&M requirements, and impact the peak-load demands right at the urban load-consumption centres directly. 5. Promote rural RESCOs: Provide technology-support for the rural Renewable Energy Service Companies to enable commercial distribution of energy through mini-grids, using solar/ hybrid model. 6. Enhanced human resource capabilities: Structure basic and advanced courses at technical institutes to support creation of a large pool of solar engineers and technicians, and also retrain existing pool of power professionals, to meet the needs of this burgeoning industry. Overall, the feeling midway through the phase-I of NSM is one of cautious optimism. While we still have a long way to go, the mission seems to be on the right track. There is an environment of collaboration between all stake-holders, which augurs well of the future of the Mission.


Sun Switch Inverter and Controller


Existing solar solutions are not yet as commercially efcient as other forms of renewable energy, such as wind. To overcome such cloudy performance, The Switch, a leading component supplier of permanent magnet and full-power converter packages, made a strategic commitment to call on its wind power achievements and revolutionize the generation of solar power

Ready to power utility-grade solar energy Although tapping into the immense resources of the sun still remains relatively illusive, the speed at which solar power is gaining acceptance in India, Middle East and Asia Pacic has been astonishing. Large megawatt-scale utility installations in particular are enjoying the greatest growth. Yet, this is where the inverters have typically been the weakest, because they have been designed to operate in environments very different from that of harsh utility-scale solar generation. Therefore, reliability and performance have been less than optimal. Existing solar solutions are not yet as commercially efcient as other forms of renewable energy, such as wind. To overcome such cloudy performance, The Switch, a leading component supplier of permanent magnet and full-power converter packages, made a strategic commitment to call on its wind power achievements and revolutionize the generation of solar power. The result is a solution compatible for utility-scale solar, 100% purpose-built for the sun, which boasts a lower cost structure borrowed from the wind industry. Introducing: The Sun Switch Using experience gained from wind power, The Sun Switch concept, an integrated inverter and AC station package, is now available. The Sun Switch offers grid support technology for solar farms with exceptionally strong grid support functionality. And it is available at a competitive price that lowers total cost of ownership by being 100% purpose-built and optimized for the sun.

The Sun Switch is an integrated inverter and AC station package

fully compliant with the most current utility requirements. It brings a new level of intelligence to the overall solar power system with its maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and future module-based boost converters. And it communicates uently with the grid to avoid instabilities by either injecting or absorbing reactive power in a coordinated fashion across a large number of solar inverters in a single solar power plant. LVRT functionality copes with voltage drops During grid transmission disturbances caused by bolts of lightning, equipment failures or power lines that are down, solar power systems have traditionally responded to these voltage drops by switching off-line to protect their functions until grid recovery. A large solar power plant, however, must behave very differently by supporting the grid during such grid events instead. The Switchs LVRT provides an approach to cope with these grid stability disturbances. The inverter stays connected during all kinds of grid faults and even includes zero-voltage and phase-to-phase LVRT capability. Continuous active and reactive power control are ensured through such events to support the grid voltage.

Delivering utility-rated quality As solar starts to move faster online, utilities now face new challenges associated with grid stability and support. To ensure a smooth and rapid transition, it is important for utilities and solar power systems alike to start working together for more active grid integration. This will lead to improved grid support and recovery with the guidance of evolving industry standards, such as the Solar Energy Grid Integration System (SEGIS) project in the US. The Sun Switch inverter is built specically to be compatible with utility-scale installations. It features the latest advances in low-voltage ride-through (LVRT), also known as fault ride-through (FRT), as well as reactive power (VAR) and frequency support that are

Proprietary MPPT algorithm enables The Sun Switch to extract all available power, increasing energy capture by several percentage points

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The Sun Switch inverter supports the grid with reactive current during the dip or over voltage event and stabilizes grid voltage and frequency. The Switch has fully eld tested its inverter LVRT performance at full rated power for symmetrical and asymmetrical voltage drops as well as for phase jumps with extremely good results. MPPT more power to the grid The Sun Switch implements a highly accurate and rapid-action MPPT algorithm to constantly extract all available power from the photovoltaic (PV) panels. Using the optional string optimization feature, The Sun Switch automatically maximizes the energy harvested, which can result in several percentage points in increased energy capture. This feature ensures maximum energy yield at all operating points and the highest possible system availability. All functionality of The Sun Switch is designed to maximize the energy produced from the sun, even with partial or uneven radiation.

Exceptionally rugged design; 100% purpose-built for sun The Sun Switch is a rugged, intelligent and fully integrated solar inverter and AC station package for the harsh operating environments of utility-grade installations. The liquid-cooled inverters are 100% purpose-built for capturing energy from the sun and range from 500 kW to several megawatts. All components are sourced from reputable suppliers, ensuring world-class reliability.

Unique self-contained outdoor enclosure Each The Sun Switch package is embedded within a unique self-contained outdoor enclosure that features an insulated, dust-proof IP66/Nema 4 construction. This extremely robust enclosure is specically made to offer high reliability despite extreme environmental conditions. The sealed enclosure comes with a built-in anti-condensation system, a dehumidier and energy-efcient heating or cooling. Separate cabinet sections are allocated for connections. Sealed dust-proof enclosures eliminate the dust and lter problems typically associated with air-cooled solar inverter systems installed outdoors in a dusty environment. Efcient liquid-cooled system The Sun Switch inverters are all liquidcooled to offer high-power density and efciency. The self-contained cooling system eliminates the need for onsite plumb-

The Sun Switch features a unique outdoor enclosure to withstand the harsh environments


The Sun Switch integral cooling concept for highpower density and efciency capture by several percentage points.

ership over the entire lifetime of about 20 years for the system. Volume manufacturing and rampup exibility The Switch has based its manufacturing capabilities on a highly networked system called the Model Factory Approach, allowing new factories to be quickly set up in locations that are close to the customer. The concept enables a fast move from prototyping to volume production, with the exibility for quick ramp ups, or if necessary, ramp downs. The production system is very robust with a systematic way of working that can be repeated. Certication The Sun Switch has received the following certications: IEC and UL standards (UL1741, IEC/CE, EN61000-6-2, EN61000-6-4, EN610003-11 and EN61000-3-12) CE mark for European markets DK 5940 certication for Italian markets UL 508C, NFPA 70 compliant for US markets Future brightens The future of solar power is becoming brighter day-by-day. With the availability soon of boost converters, installation costs will continue to come down. One of the major trends is adding more intelligence to the solar panels that allow the inverters to squeeze more energy out at the lowest possible cost. These are exciting times for solar, and a period of reaching signicant milestones as solar takes its just place as a mainstream source of renewable energy around the world.
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ing and results in minimum installation time and effort. The speed-controlled coolant pump and fan motors increase system efciency during operation by allowing continuously optimized cooling performance. Easy access for maintenance The compact design of The Sun Switch allows easy access for maintenance as well as side-by-side installation for higher power levels. The lightweight construction and carefully considered design enable swift, smooth startup. Remote diagnostics and layered service support The Sun Switch inverters can be monitored via Ethernet and a wide range of communication protocols. The layered support system has been modeled on the same concept that is used today in the wind industry. The Sun Switch remote management allows rapid online control and data acquisition, giving service personnel quick access to information for rapid decisionmaking and taking corrective action. The aim is keep downtime as low as possible for more predictable operation and to improve the overall commercial viability of solar power generation. Reliability adds up to lowest cost of ownership The Switchs inverter technology is extensively service proven in thousands of wind

turbines installed around the world. Their reliability has been comprehensively tested in very severe climatic conditions. Just as in wind power, the cost of producing solar energy is decreasing considerably as the cost of solar generating capacity drops. Helping solar achieve grid parity with wind is one driver for reducing costs. Another is simply the fact that as new, more commercially viable technologies come to the market, the overall costs associated with production shrink. Exceptional availability and harmonic distortion The bankability of The Sun Switch is based on its reliability. The Sun Switch inverter system uptime is higher than 99% based on a regular maintenance service contract. Total current harmonic distortion is typically <3%. Moreover, the technology and cost structure has been modeled on the enormous success The Switch has achieved in the wind industry. Lower total costs over lifetime Compared with traditional solutions, The Sun Switch inverters harvest more power from PV panels to produce more energy for the grid. This enhances the return on investment from a complete solar power system. It is also important to consider more factors than just cost per kilowatt alone. The reliability and quality output of the system is equally important, if not even more, when calculating total cost of own-


Optimum System Monitoring for Maximum Efciency


Good system monitoring is not only used to visualise system data, it is also required if the photovoltaic system is to generate maximum yields. The options range from basic warning devices, such as a horn that comes on when power stops being fed into the mains, to dataloggers that record all the essential parameters of the PV system.

F1. Fronius Datalogger Web WLAN.

G1. Fronius Solar.web.

hese dataloggers are the rst choice for operators who want to optimise and analyse the behaviour and yields of their PV system precisely. The latest developments in this area of system monitoring come in the shape of dataloggers that are connected to the internet, such as the Fronius Datalogger Web (WLAN). These send the data in real time to special monitoring portals, e.g. the Fronius Solar.web. The tasks of each monitoring system can be split into three main areas: Fault detection Fault messaging/information Troubleshooting Fault detection Various mechanisms can be used to detect faults, depending on how the monitoring system is set up. The inverter display is the simplest solution, and is usually built directly into the inverter. Figure 1 shows an example of a fault on the inverter display.

Compared with more comprehensive control units, integrated system monitoring is easier to implement. This type of monitoring is free of charge and little conguration is required. In addition, the infrastructure does not really need to be considered. However, there are some clear disadvantages: it is effectively a stand-alone solution, meaning that the current status of the system can only be seen on the inverter. System operators must therefore actively look for the information themselves. In addition, there is no automated information ow when a fault is detected. As a result, this type of monitor-

F2. Inverter with error code.

ing solution is mainly used in very small PV systems in the private sector. A much more convenient method is to deploy a datalogger that automatically interrogates and analyses the inverters in the system. The Fronius Datalogger Web, with its wireless connection to the internet, opens up new possibilities in system monitoring. Operators can now view the status and yield data of their PV system, or systems, directly and in real time from any device connected to the internet (versions are also available for smartphones). The time taken for a fault to be agged up to the operator or installer is signicantly reduced, meaning that losses in terms of yield can be avoided or kept to a minimum. Another method of detecting faults in a PV system is to compare a wide range of system parameters. The data is then usually shown as a graph. One option along these lines is to compare irradiation and output power over the course of the day, for inenergetica india


G2. Comparison graph.

stance. If both curves vary considerably, it is very likely that there is an anomaly in the system. Faults can also be found by comparing the energy output of two or more inverters in the system. A prerequisite in this case is that the type of PV module and installation location, as well as the alignment and number of PV modules in the case of an array with several string inverters, are the same. A further way of comparing data involves string current monitoring. These system data comparisons naturally require continuous and reliable data logging as well as software for visualising and formatting the data. Fronius provides various tools that allow such comparisons to be made. Firstly, comparison algorithms are implemented in every Fronius String Control. Secondly, this method can also be used in Solar.access, the local PC software, or in Solar.web, the online portal. Fronius String Control monitors PV systems by continually measuring the photovoltaic currents. If a problem such as shading, module failure, broken or chafed cabling occurs in one or more strings, the relevant monitoring system informs the operator immediately. Loss of yield can be avoided by early fault detection. There are various reasons for possible variations in the data points in the comparisons described above. For example, shading, corroded DC cabling, incorrectly installed sensors, mains fault, module or inverter fault. Fault messaging/information When a fault is detected, information about it must be sent to the relevant individuals. For larger systems, this will often be the plant supervisor; for smaller systems, the operator himself or an installer who is responsible for
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F3. Fronius String Control 250/25.

maintaining the system. A distinction is always made between local fault notication and remote monitoring/notication. Remote monitoring Among the local options, as previously mentioned, is a signal LED on the inverter or the display on the device, or external displays that are connected to the PV system using a cable or wireless connection. Notication Automated messages sent via e-mail, SMS, fax, etc., or the display in a portal or SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) are used to provide information about the fault. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on local factors, such as whether communication is possible, and the size of the system. Optimum system monitoring is always adapted to the situation in hand and requirements of the system. The following information is relevant for this type of notication: time and date, system name, name of the component reporting the fault, fault description, detailed information about faulty components.

Troubleshooting Troubleshooting commences when the fault has been detected and all the necessary information is available. Three quality criteria can be identied in this nal stage of the system monitoring process: Fault detection: the detection time is the time that elapses between the fault occurring and its detection by the system operator or installer. Analysis: the analysis relates to the length of time from the moment the fault was detected by the operator/installer until analysis of the fault is complete. Fault rectication: the length of time it takes to rectify the fault depends on several factors. These may be the response and service time of the plant supervisor or installer on site, but can also include the service network and quality of the support provided by the manufacturer (Fronius Service Partner concept). In summary, it is fair to say that in addition to good system monitoring that has been congured according to the size of the PV system, the overall service concept provided for the system is the most important factor in achieving maximum system efciency.

Photographs: Fronius International GmbH




Solar Thermal Technology and its Off-Grid Applications


In India, concentrating solar devices producing higher temperatures required for Industrial Process Heat (IPH) and cooling applications have been deployed successfully. This article will shed light on use of concentrated solar energy in industries.

Introduction Industrial process heat (IPH) applications below 250C contribute to about 15 to 20% of Indias total oil consumption (almost 80%-90% of which is imported). Cooling and air conditioning is another energy intensive process amongst the various energy consuming applications. According to a study by McKinsey, the power decit in India could be as high as 25% by 2017. Due to the limited supplies of fossil fuel, its rising costs and pollution problems, and the ever increasing power shortage, there is a need to make use of renewable sources of energy to meet this IPH and comfort cooling energy demand.
1. IndustriaL AppLications Industry / Process Pharmaceutical Industry - Sterilization - Drying - Syrup preparation Textile industry - mercerizing - drying - nishing Chemical Industry - drying - dissolving, distillation - thickening, leaching Pulp & Paper Industry - kraft pulping - kraft bleaching Food Industry - cooking - drying - canning Steam Air, Steam Steam Steam Air Steam Steam Steam Air, Steam Water

About 5 to 7 kWh/sq.m. of global solar radiation (on non-tracking horizontal surface) is available in India for about 300330 days a year. Also, many cooling loads have a high coincidence with the availability of solar irradiation. The use of an appropriate solar technology for cooling and IPH applications can have a positive impact on the Indian energy and environmental scenario. Solar Thermal System applications Industrial sectors such as Food Processing Industries (Dairy Industry, Sea Food Processing Industry, and Sugar Industry), Textile Processing Industry, Pharmaceutical
Temperature range (C) 80 120 120 230 80 130 Up to 100 60 135 60 150 60 125 85 170 85 170 185 140 120 185 120 230 80 130

Industry, Pulp & Paper Industry, Chemical Industry, Auto Component Industry etc. have large requirement of thermal energy in their manufacturing plants. A few processes and the temperature range requirements are mentioned below. COMFORT COOLING APPLIcaTIONS Another interesting application is the use of solar for cooling purposes. Solar assisted cooling systems use the thermal energy of solar radiation captured through solar concentrators to power thermally driven cooling machines. As many cooling loads, such as air conditioning, have a high coincidence with the availability of solar irradiation, the combination of solar thermal and cooling obviously has a high potential to replace conventional cooling machines based on electricity. Cooling and air conditioning is one of most energy intensive processes amongst the various energy consuming applications. Some estimates suggest that HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) networks are to blame for over 30% of a building energy usage. Thus, any technology that can help to save energy in the cooling and air-conditioning applications can help to reduce Indias power shortage burden to a great extent. APPLIcaTIONS IN COMMUNITY COOKING Many religious places and schools/colleges across the country provide meals to devotees and students respectively. Many of them have community cooking facilities which utilize high cost fuels like LPG. Solar energy can be used to substitute the use of these fuels. A brief analysis of the per meal intake and corresponding thermal energy requirement for cooking is as shown in the table 3.
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Working uid

Water, Steam Steam Steam

Water, Steam

2. APPLICATIONS IN HOSPITALITY SECTOR Process - Laundry - Cooking - Cleaning, bathing Working uid Steam Air, Steam Water, Steam Temperature range (C) 150 180 120 140 50-60





Solar Thermal Technologies A brief classication of various types of solar collectors is given below. The at plate collectors are mainly used for low temperature applications and the area required is large compared to concentrated collectors. A range of technologies can be used to concentrate and collect sunlight and to turn it into medium to high temperature heat. Line systems concentrate radiation about 100 times, and achieve working temperatures of up to 550C while point systems can concentrate far more than 1,000 times and achieve working temperatures of more than 1,000C. In India, concentrating solar devices producing higher temperatures (80C to


Per meal intake Rice 100gm Dal 50gm Vegetable 50gm (dry weight) 25gm per chapatti, 2 chapaties per meal 200ml equivalent

Thermal energy required for cooking

Cooking temperature required 120C

Rice, Dal, Veg

85-90 kcal / meal ~50kcal / chapatti, OR 100kcal / meal 50 kcal / day

Chapattis Hot water, milk, etc

~280C ~100C

250C) have been deployed successfully. In the concentrating collector type, majority of the solar thermal installations on ground have been of the parabolic dish collector type. For various reasons parabolic troughs have not been successfully deployed in industrial process heating requirement in In-

dia. In the parabolic dish collector type, two technologies are prevalent the Schefer dish technology and the ARUN dish technology. Schefer dishes have been historically installed for cooking applications at religious places, whereas ARUN dish was developed with a focus on Industrial Process Heat &

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must be ensured so that it is suitable for the temperature range of the application. Operating temperature range must lie at least 50 C below the boiling temperature of the oil. SOLaR cONcENTRaTOR Solar concentrator must be selected carefully so that it is able to supply the load of desired quality. Collector optical efciency and overall heat loss coefcient are generally considered as the important characteristic parameters of the concentrator. comfort cooling applications. System Design Parameters Vast potential exists for the use of solar thermal concentrators to meet the IPH requirements in India. But large scale use of concentrated solar energy for various IPH applications has not been reported. The important reason seems to be that the implementation of such technologies for IPH applications poses many challenges. Such systems need to function as per the stringent process requirements of the industry in spite of variability of solar radiation over the days and seasons. Also, the system needs to be reliable within acceptable range. Further, the designer is expected to design a system with a minimum cost. In order to overcome these hurdles, it was necessary to develop a design methodology and general integration approach that can be used for optimally sizing the solar concentrators for various IPH applications in eld. The solar industrial process heat system needs to be designed properly, considering the random nature of the solar radiation as well as load characteristics. The key points while designing the system are listed below: LOaD cHaRacTERISTIcS Solar industrial process heat system must be designed according to the process with which it is to be integrated. Main parameters to be considered are, Quality of load (Temperature) Daily energy requirement (kJ/day) Duration of the load (batch/ continuous) Medium of heat transfer (steam/water/ oil). The total energy to be supplied can then be decided based on the fraction of the load to be catered by the solar system. SOLaR RaDIaTION DaTa The output of any solar thermal system is dependent on the solar radiation at the place which has both diurnal and seasonal variations. Therefore solar radiation data in the form of daily solar radiation (kWh/day), hourly data of beam normal radiation (kW/ m) may be used for the prediction of the solar system output and designing the system. LOcaTION OF INSTaLLaTION The selection of the actual place of installation of the concentrator is also important so as to minimize the fractional shading of collector (trees/buildings in the surroundings) throughout the year. If no. of collectors is more than one, then arrangement can be made to minimize piping involved and to minimize shading of the collectors. STORaGE Storage is used to partially/fully store the heat supplied by solar collector. It also acts as a buffer which absorbs the output variations due to short time uctuations in the solar radiation. Storage of the energy is very useful as it allows system to deliver the energy as per the load requirement. HEaT TRaNSFER MEDIUM Steam: Flow rate should be adjusted such that ow is either in steam phase (steam content > 90 %) or predominantly in liquid phase (steam content < 40 %). Otherwise entire piping has to be designed for two phase ow. Pressurized water: Optimum ow rate to avoid steam formation and minimize pressure drop in the line, quality of water must be ensured to avoid scaling. Flow rate should be maintained to avoid sudden steam formation. Oil: Properties of the heat transfer oil Economics Since the power source (the sun) is free and solar systems require very little maintenance, the majority of the lifetime cost is made up of the cost of the components and their installation. The basic parameters that should be considered while evaluating the investment in any solar energy system are as follows: Cost of the Solar Energy System Subsidies Financing options Value of Energy generated Non-nance factors that inuence the economics Other than the standard IRR, NPV and the payback period calculations that are most widely used in evaluating investment opportunities, some sector specic economic indicators that must be considered are as below: Cost per kcal of energy delivered over the lifetime Energy per unit area occupied Energy gain ratio Conclusions Due to the limited supplies, high cost and pollution problems associated with fossil fuels there is an urgent need to make use of renewable sources of energy to meet the thermal energy requirements in industries as well as for cooling. The use of an appropriate solar technology for such applications can have a positive impact on the Indian energy and environmental scenario. India is the place where large advances in the solar technologies for satisfying the thermal energy needs of industries are taking place. The technology has moved beyond the pilot installations phase and its performance has now been technically and commercially proven on ground.
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Structured Glass: More Efciency, More Yield


The international PV market keeps changing. There are constantly new claims about efciency by reducing the sizes of modules (i.e. the space between the frame and the cells). True innovation is more and more seldom.

f one takes a look at a solar module, there are so many components: cells, string connectors, back sheet, frame and front glass. Only when all components work properly together, one can expect a top-product. Every little count. So does the front glass. The German-Indian module producer Emmvee was the rst company to utilise structured glass in order to truly increase the yield of their modules. The distinctive feature of that glass, SGG Albarino P and G front glass by SaintGobain Solar Glass is the optimised surface pattern of the glass allows an increased light input into the module, resulting in an increase in yield of up to 4% per year. The solar cells of Emmvee modules are covered with a hardened solar glass panel on the front. On the one hand, the front

glass is to protect the module from environmental inuences, above all UV radiation. On the other hand, it must be extremely transparent and designed in such a way that the modules optimally catch the light of the sun so that any radiation caught will not be released again, if possible. Emmvee realised the potential and became the rst manufacturer to use the structured front. How does it work? The Mannheim based company Saint-Gobain Glass (SGG), one of the global market leaders and long-term partner of Emmvee, produces Securit Albarino P and Securit Albarino G glasses. The glass is deep extruded, extra white cast glass developed specially for photovoltaic modules. It has a low iron oxide content, providing especially favourable reection characteristics. Albari-

THE GErMaN-INDiaN MoDUlE ProDUCEr EMMVEE Was tHE First CoMPaNY to UtilisE strUCtUrED glass iN orDEr to trUlY iNCrEasE tHE YiElD oF tHEir MoDUlEs
no P front glass has a deep pyramidal pattern with the edges and corners blended. With Albarino G front glass, the pattern is wave shaped and rounded. Both surface patterns act as light traps. Part of the radiation is reected in such a way that it again impinges on the surface, i.e. part of the radiation which (with plain glass) is normally lost to the environment is reected back onto the solar cell. This increases the radiation quantity incident on the cell and subsequently the energy yield.
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One can simply see it for themselves: direct a laser pointer to Emmvee modules with structured glass and the beam will not be reected out of the module. If one compares this with at glass, the beam will, of course, be reected out of the module. In Emmvee modules, the energy of the sun is used more than once! Scientic research states an increase in energy yield thanks to energy transmission of three per cent annually compared with un-patterned glass. With an angle of incidence of 70 degrees to the normal line an increase in yield of as much as 10 % can be expected. A study conducted by ISFH Institut fr Solarenergieforschung Hameln (Institute for Solar Energy Research Hameln/Emmerthal, Germany) shows that with patterned front glass an increase in yield of four per cent can be expected as an annual average. Accordingly the efciency gain of photovoltaic modules with specially patterned front glass over conventional plain front glass is highest in the morning and evening hours. Cleaning The edges and corners of the pattern are blended so that dirt and dust particles do not deposit but are ushed away by rain. On Albarino P glass the dirt particles gather in one placethe lowest point in the pyramidal depression and the major part of the surface remains free from contaminants. The optical properties are unchanged; however, the angle of installation should not be less than 10 degrees. The accumulation of dirt particles is more easily discharged by wind or rain than e.g. a large number of small particles on plain glass. This is due with the fact that the ow velocity of rain water is higher around the blended pyramidal edges, similar to a lump of rock in a riverbed where the water ows around the sides more quickly. Modules with Albarino P and G glass require little maintenance also, the contact is considerably smaller than on at glass. Production Cast glass can be produced with rather a small energy input, i.e. at low cost. Special rolls impart their pattern into the molten glass which ows from the melting end. As the rolls are cooled, the glass solidies when passing the rolls and the glass surenergetica india

EMMVEE MoDUlEs lEND tHEMsElVEs iDEallY For rooFs WitH loWEr aNglEs, BIPV aND rooFs FaCiNg sUboPtiMal DirECtioNs, sUCH as NortH-East
face retains the structure. A precisely adjusted online detector system recognises nickel sulphide inclusions from the production process even in patterned glass. This is important as such inclusions may result in glass fracture. Then the glass is cut, the edges machined and the glass hardened. Use Emmvee modules can be used for grid or off-grid installations. In MW plants in elds or on roofs. They lend themselves ideally

for roofs with lower angles, BIPV and roofs facing sub-optimal directions, such as northeast. Since 2009, the use of structured glass has given the company a cutting edge in the market. At the end of the day, the combination of rst-class components, mainly from Germany and the structured glass pays out with a higher efciency and yield. There is a great number of Emmvee modules in international projects and academic research to prove the claim of the glass. Especially in saturated markets, it is important for companies to have that cutting edge, provided by the use of leading technology. The singular components, especially the glass, become economic factors; one should always bear in mind when planning a PV installation. This also gives Emmvees partners at the point of sales a very competitive edge. The complete studies and references are available from Emmvee.


Gamesa: a brief prole

Global Gamesa, one of the world leaders in wind turbine manufacturing, is a technology company with a focus on sustainable energy, mainly wind. In Spain, Gamesa is the leading manufacturer and supplier of wind turbines, with a market share of 38.5% of installed capacity in 2009. With production centres in Europe, the United States, China and India, The Company has a staff of over 6,300 people globally. The Companys mission and strategy involves the continuous improvement of its range of products and services to meet its customers demands, upholding at all times its position of leadership in the sustainable energy sector. Gamesa is one of the most successful Public Share Offers of recent times; with its IPO in October 2000. Within six months of its listing, Gamesa became a member of the selected club of companies whose shares are quoted on the bex35, the main Spanish market index. As a company policy, Gamesa is always looking at to improve competitiveness of its products and ensure the highest quality equipment and services for the client. The Company has a major R&D centre with more than 500 engineers and technicians dedicated to the design and development of new solutions, future technology for products and technical support. In the 850 kW sector, Gamesa offers the Gamesa G52 and G58 wind turbines, while in the multi-megawatt sector its range includes of the Gamesa G80, G87, G90 and G97, delivering 2.0 MW of power. The Gamesa G10X platform, with 4.5 MW rated capacity, is the largest R&D project carried out centres for the manufacture of strategic wind turbine components, such as the gearbox, the generator and the converter. Gamesa offers complete turn-key solution with supply of wind turbines, associated equipment and the installation. Gamesa is one of the leading global companies in the wind space having built over 170 turnkey wind farms (4,352 MW) in 13 countries in Europe, America and North Africa. The company is able to provide the best technical solutions at the most competitive quality/price ratio. All equipment supplied by Gamesa has a twoyear warranty on components, availability, power curve and factor, together with its maintenance services (standard guarantee), with the option of customized longer terms warranty. Gamesa offers After Sales Service to manage all types of activities during the operational phase after the guarantee, with contracts adapted to the customers need in both; terms and scope. India Gamesa has established a world class manufacturing facility in Chennai its 31st facility worldwide. The G58 850 kW nacelles are assembled here. The plant has an annual production capacity of 500 MW. Gamesa has so far installed & commissioned 121 turbines in various sites in Tamil Nadu. It has also commissioned 20MW with AE59 800kW machines in Sri Lanka

M/s. Gamesa Wind Turbines Private Limited No: 489, GNT Road, Thandal Kazhani Village, Vadagarai Post, Redhills, Chennai 600052, India. Ph: +91 44 3098 9898 Web:

by the company placing it at the technological forefront of wind turbine design and manufacture. Gamesa has established production centres in Spain, USA, China and India. Gamesa has seven plants of its own for the assembly of the nacelles for its wind turbines. These production centres are located in La Corua, ZaRagoza, Soria, Valladolid, Pennsylvania (USA), Tianjin (China) and Chennai (India); all added together to reach an annual output capacity equivalent to over 4,600 MW. Besides its own assembly plants, Gamesa has production



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and has plans to expand its base in neighbouring countries. The anticipated turn over for this calendar year is about 1000 crores. In the solar space, Gamesa India offers two types of solar inverters: 100kW Plus, 500kW Plus and other options such as String Boxes and PV Scada. A compact 1MW solution in a concrete or container can be also offered. Leveraging its engineering and power sector experience in India, Gamesa India also offers EPC solution. Gamesa Solar PV Inverters: Gamesa is launching its new Solar Inverter in the range of 100KW and 500KW; named as PLUS. Unique differentiate features of the Gamesa Solar Inverters are: 1 The CCU Solar:

the active power generation up to the rated current of the converter. REMOTE DIAGNOSIS: The CCU Solar is provided with an oscilloscope function, allowing remote diagnosis through the Ethernet or RS485 port; thus also providing possibility of a remote software updates and conguration. The After Sales Service team will provide service to warranty constant functioning of the inverter. WEB SERvER: The CCU has a free Portal Web on account of the serial mounted Micro Web Server. Data logger will store the information related to the plant. SOLUTIONS: Several 500kW can be connected together to a single one step Transformer (oating PV side) thanks to the CCU and the synchronization of the IGBTS.

2 Smart cabin Design:

Picture 2; Central 500kW Plus Cabin.

This two way Air ow system helps to protect the major Inverter Component like IGBT and other PLC which increases the life of the Inverter. The Bottom Part of the Inverter circulates the major sand particles which can be situated in the bottom and protects the Inverter from the Corrosion because of the moisture presence in the air. The Upper Part of the Exhaust System helps to protectfrom the major shot circuits and breakage of the PLC by the accumulation of the sand particle. 3 Hardware Conguration: The CCU controls 2 units of 250kW. Each one can operate independently. IGBTS are always precharge, extending the lifetime of the capacitors.

Leveraging the power engineering experience, Gamesa offers an advance control unit for the PV inverters capable of: VOLTAGE DIPS DETECTION ANd CONTROL: The CCU Solar detects voltage dips (three-phase, biphase and single phase) and controls active and reactive current during the dip. The amount of reactive current injected into the grid varies with the voltage dip. Besides, it is possible to inject active current up to the rated current limit of the converter REACTIvE POWER CONTROL: The CCU Solar enables reactive power controllability with independence of

Picture 1; Voltage Dips example with the oscilloscope function.

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Solarcon 2011, Hyderabad, India


Energetica Team attended the Solarcon 2011 conference and exhibition at Hyderabad from 9th November to 11th November 2011. The team gives the readers a peek into the event.

ndia is grabbing international limelight in the solar sector and SOLARCON India has become a platform for PV stakeholders globally to explore the potential solar market opportunities in India. The 3rd edition of SOLARCON commenced on November 9, 2011 at the Hyderabad International Convention Centre (HICC), Hyderabad. The event comprised an exhibition, a conference and parallel technical events for the three days. SOLARCON India 2011 conference themed Charting Indias Roadmap to Solar Leadership Translating Potential into Reality was certied by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The demand for power is growing quickly in India, owing to the economic development, and is translating to wide range of growth opportunities within all segments of the power sector. Most of the speakers opined that Indias power generating capacity will reach around 750-900 GW by 2030. India needs 150 GW of additional power generating capacity over the next ve years, said Mr. Franciso J. Sanchez, Undersecretary for Commerce for International Trade, US Department of Commerce, in the inaugural ceremony of the event. Dr. Bharat Bhargava, MNRE, Govt. of India, in his inaugural keynote opined that India is facing the following energy challenges: Electricity shortage Indias electricity shortage is estimated at 25-35 GW.

Access to power ~ 400 million people in India do not have access to electricity. Energy security India is largely dependent on oil imports to meet its energy demand. The country imports 81% of its crude oil requirement in 2010. Climate change India aims at 25% reduction in carbon emissions by 2020. Power demand Over the next 12 years Indias electricity needs will grow 2-5 times. To address issues such as electricity shortage, energy security, power access in rural areas and climate change, India needs to move towards renewable sources of energy to reduce its dependency on fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and crude oil and transform into an energy secure nation. Dr. Bharat Bhargava emphasized the need for solar power in India for the following reasons: Energy security perspective Solar is secure and is abundantly and locally available. Most parts of the country receive a solar irradiation of 4-7 kWh/sq.m. Consumption of kerosene and diesel for lighting can be reduced. Widespread access to power and empowerment of the grass root level population. Mr. Jim G Brown, President, Utility Systems Business Group, First Solar, stated that India is largely dependent on imports to meet their energy needs. India imported 10% of coal, 30-40% of natural gas and 80% of

crude oil in 2010, reiterating Dr. Bhargavas opinion. In such a scenario, renewable energy offers energy security and will help India bridge their demand-supply gap of power. He estimated coal based power generation to account for 100 GW, natural gas and wind for 50 GW, nuclear for 80 GW, hydropower for 90 GW and biopower for 40 GW of total capacity of 750-900 GW by 2030. According to the latest research and analysis by GlobalData, a premium market and business intelligence rm, estimates Indias power generating the capacity to be around 426.3 GW by 2020 rising from 171.4 GW in 2010 at a forecast CAGR of 9.5% between 2010 and 2020. The cumulative installed capacity of solar PV in India has reached 145 MW in 2010. The growth in the installed capacity in India is driven by nancial incentives and the policy framework of the Indian Government. The Government of India had announced Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM or NSM) with plans to rapid scale up PV by promoting utility-scale solar PV power plants to reduce the cost of solar PV generation. As part of the National Action Plan (NAP), NSM aims at 20 GW of solar power from integrated facilities by 2022. The main objective is to make solar power cost-competitive in comparison to fossil fuels. Thus, this mission is expected to spur domestic manufacturing of solar PV equipment in India. Support from the govern-



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ment under the NSM is expected to further drive the growth of off-grid and on-grid PV market. The market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 58.1% during the forecast period 2011-2020, thereby reaching 14,020 MW of cumulative installed capacity by 2020. Some of the other speakers included: Mr. Probir Ghosh, CEO and Ambassador invVEST, during his presentation stated, Indias advantage over developed countries lies in the Balance Of the Systems (BOS) of a PV system. Because of the high labor content in BOS, Indias advantage is atleast 20-25% in that area. According to Mr. Larry C. Holmberg, CEO Solar Semiconductor, India is very likely the long term answer to China in the manufacturing space. In India, Solar Semiconductor has the cost structure on par with any Chinese manufacturer. However, he opined that, India should have an integrated end-toend value chain to compete with China. Fred Sisson, CEO, Synnove Energy stated that India provides a fair amount of margins for Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) companies as not many players are operating in the market at the moment. However, he is of the opinion that margins will shrink in the future due to competition. Process efciency is also important in India although labor is cheap, he said. There was also discussion on the challenges being faced by the nascent sector. One of the sessions provided insights on the realities and challenges faced on the ground by developers building solar Photovoltaic (PV) projects in India. This discussion panel comprised of Inderpreet Wadhwa of Azure Power, Ravi Raina of Astoneld Renewable Resources, Alan Rosling of Kiran Energy, Pashupathy Gopalan of SunEdison, Srini Nagabhirava of AES Solar, Sunil Jain of Green Infra and Vish Palekar of Mahindra Solar; where the panelists shared developer experiences in project implementations.
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The industry experts lauded the exibility and responsiveness shown by the industry stakeholders and various government regulatory authorities in facilitating the growth of the PV market. The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan, and MNRE have shown unprecedented exibility in reducing the permitting time by improving the administrative process efciency. The authorities have also offered a singlewindow approach to the permitting process. However, the complexity of the process has not been completely reduced. Regulatory authorities have not been able to resolve certain ambiguities in documentation and the roles of various government authorities which refer developers to other government divisions that often themselves have no specic guidelines or solutions for the cases they receive. More challenges and solutions were discussed. One of the major challenges for project developers has been implementing PV projects in one year when a typical permitting process takes 8 to 10 months, while project construction takes about six months. Another important operational challenge that project developers face is the lack of project pipeline limitations. Moreover, a lack of a long-term project pipeline in India also reduces the credibility of project developers. The government invites bids, selects developers and assigns 12 months to complete these projects; this in the eyes of lenders and nanciers as they are unable to develop current project portfolios to secure more investment. To resolve this issue, the government should provide clarity on bidding plans for the next 2-3 years, suggested Vish Palekar of Mahindra Solar. Land issues have been a key issue as well. The boundaries of PV projects are often not clear, surveyors tend to change the approach and maps, and local villagers often cause issues despite the government providing the projects land by purchasing it from villagers. Moreover, the land price in solar parks is about three times higher than the

price of individual land acquisition. The Rajasthan and Gujarat governments have shown exibility in enabling the import of equipment for solar PV projects. The governments have provided excise duty exemptions. However, the documentation required to acquire these exemptions needs to be rationalized. The regulatory authorities and distribution companies have been very responsive and exible in providing grid interconnections. However, there remain specic challenges related to logistics and labor. Local factors such as festivities-related holidays often result in the delay of project work. Moreover, local environmental issues such as monsoons have also resulted in the delay of work or damage of equipment. Financine is another challenge facing the industry. Some of the nancing challenges in the industry have been addressed as banks have become more informed about the PV industry. The nancial due diligence process of banks has become more efcient. Moreover, the PV developers believe that the government has done a very good job in signicantly reducing the subsidy cost and the current subsidy level is considered scally very responsible. This has resulted in minimal costs to the exchequer. The tariff levels in the country are among the lowest in the world. The environment for non-recourse nancing has improved. However, there is need to improve the overall bankability of projects from an operational perspective. SEMI, the premier solar/PV industry trade body and organizer of SOLARCON India said that it has received an overwhelming response from industry and stakeholders to this years conference on the theme Charting Indias Roadmap to Solar Leadership as well as the exhibition. SEMI will build on this years success and plans an expanded SOLARCON India 2012 to be conducted September 3-5 2012, in Bangalore, India.


Trade in Energy and Environmental Goods and Services: Where are We Heading?

From 2002 to 2005, countries have tabled alternative proposals on environmental, energy goods and services. The future of the trade regime in energy, environmental goods and services seems unclear from the present discourse of negotiations. Anandajit Goswami gives the readers a peek into the challenges in free trade and the different opinion of countries.

nvironmental goods t into segments like renewable energy, waste management, air pollution control, environmental technologies for energy conservation, monitoring and efciency, carbon capture and storage, biofuels. In the trade fora, Japan indicated LEDs as environmental goods whereas Argentina followed a exible stance of identifying these goods on the basis of particular country specic CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects. Challenge of dual usage was identied in these goods and it got aggravated by - a) lack of denition of environmental good, b) technological evolution & tariff classication norms. Large denitional spectrum of environmental goods has been a causal factor behind lack of clarity in goods identication process. Energy goods considered for trade negotiations include coal, oil, and gas. Services for energy goods have got subclasses. For example, transportation of fuels like coal, oil and gas has been put into the broad category of transport services. Further, services incidental to mining comes under other business services and has mentioned upstream activities for oil and gas. Several service activities like drilling, derrick building, oil & gas well casings and exploration, mineral prospecting, seismic, geophysical and geological surveying rendered through a fee and contract basis have been clustered under energy services. Within the international trade regime, developing countries have been negotiating to enhance participation of domestic rms across value chain of energy genera58 NOVEMBER|DECEMBER11

tion, transmission and its nal distribution to end consumers. Major part of energy services are still guided by trade in goods and GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariff) principles. For instance, for an energy good like coal involving least amount of services, trade negotiation is driven by the principle of trade in goods. However, establishments undertaking coal mining and preparatory services associated with such mining on a contract or fee basis will come under the purview of services. Negotiations for those services should be guided by GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) principles. So, a clear basis of energy goods and service trade negotiations is yet to be determined. Practical challenges are being faced owing to non exhaustive classication of energy service sector. Energy service comprises a chain of interrelated activities and sectors. For an equitable trade negotiation in an energy service, a supplier will require market access in all interrelated services and sectors. Many of these interrelated services and sectors are spread throughout the services, sector classication system. In the current situation, it is difcult to determine the extent of the level of actual access in the interrelated services. A well laid out negotiation can open doors for domestic service providers though it will vary across countries depending on their future strategic interests, stakes. Developed countries are bargaining hard to use energy service negotiations as a leverage to get market access in developing country markets. Proposals from developed countries like USA strictly

seek broad market access and national treatment commitment from developing member countries of WTO for facilitating entry of specialized personnel in developing country markets. Developed countries are seeking support of developing countries towards scheduling national treatment, market access and non discriminatory measures. European countries through plurilateral approach are pushing for access in all sectors and subsectors of developing countries. In contrast, developing countries like Venezuela have suggested that the nature of energy services (viz.core and noncore) should be dened on basis of energy sources used for provision of such services. Further, based on the source, type of energy generating associated services, core and non-core energy services can be dened. Such denition can include range of upstream services related to discovery, development and downstream services delving with processing, distribution of energy goods. Any opening up of a sector, subsector through these modes of services should not mean dominance of some new market entrants from developed countries leading to withering of market share of domestic rms of developing countries. A way forward to create an equitable trade regime in environmental and energy goods, services have to internalize equitable technology transfer and market access principles to address fair trade goals and development concerns of developing countries.
Views expressed are personal

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Indias Performance in Renewable Energy


Energetica India peeks into details of numbers of installations and generation capacity in the renewable energy power in India. India is focusing on renewable energy and the results are there to be seen.

enewable energy has been an important component of Indias energy planning process since quite some time. India has been making tremendous progress where the renewable grid capacity as a percentage of total capacity has increased by almost four times. In April 2002, renewable energy based power generation installed capacity was 3497 MW which was 3% of the total installed capacity in the country. As on 31.01.2011, the renewable energy capacity in India reached 18,842 MW, which is about 11% of the total installed capacity of 1,72,283 MW. Major contribution has come from wind power which is about 70% of the total capacity. Please see gure no.1 According to the latest government numbers (as of 30.9.2011), renewable energy as a % of total energy generation in India has nearly touched 12%. During the rst three years of the 11th plan period and the current year upto

31.01.2011, renewable power capacity addition has been 8,584 MW, while the conventional power capacity addition has been 28,529 MW, which corresponds to over 23% of the total capacity addition. It is to be also noted that 23% of all capacity today is large hydro which is renewable but not counted as such. Please see gure no.2. Off-grid renewable energy market is as much a focus as on-grid renewable energy. India is working to achieve off-grid penetration in places devoid of power transmission lines or in areas facing huge power cuts. Please refer to gure no.3. Renewable Energy in India RENEWABLE ENErGY FOr RUrAL APPLICATIONS Under this, the support has come for programmes for the deployment of renewable energy systems band devices such as biogas plants, photovoltaic systems, biomass gasiers, solar cookers and other solar thermal

systems, etc. in rural areas of the country. Biogas production is a clean low carbon technology for efcient management and conversion of organic wastes into clean renewable biogas and organic fertilizer source. National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP) is being implemented in the country since 1981-82 for promotion of biogas plants based on cattle dung and other organic wastes. The NBMMP mainly caters to setting up of family type biogas plants for meeting the cooking energy needs in rural areas of the country along with making enriched bio-fertilizer availability to farmers. In addition, India also has Biogas based Distributed/ Grid Power Generation Programme (BGPG programme) from 200506 with a view to promote biogas based power generation, especially in the small capacity range (from 3 KW to 250 KW), based on the availability of large quantity of animal wastes and wastes from forestry,

Technology Thermal Hydro Renewable Gas Nuclear Source: MNRE

Capacity Installed (MW) 31.1.2011 93838 37367 18842 17456 4780 172283

% of Total 31.1.2011 54,47% 21,69% 10,94% 10,13% 2,77%

Capacity Installed (MW) 30.9.2011 100953 38706 20162 17742,85 4780 182343,85

% of Total 30.9.2011 58,60% 22,47% 11,70% 10,30% 2,77%

Figures no,1 and 2: Renewable Energy as % of Total Installed Capacity in India (as of 31.1.2011 and 30.9.2011)
Resource Estimated Potential MW Wind Small Hydro Bio Power Solar Power Total 48500 15000 23700 20-30 MW/ 1667 1438 390 2 3497 5427 538 795 1 6761 9000 1400 1780 50 12230 Upto 9th Plan During 10th Plan Targets for 11th Plan During 11th Plan upto 31.1.2011 6090 977 1488 29 8584 Total Capacity 31.1.2011 13184 2953 2673 32 18842

Bio Power includes biomass power, bagasse cogeneration, urban and industrial waste to energy.

Figure no.2: Plan-period-wise capacity addition in grid connected renewable energy based power generation installed capacity



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rural based industries (agro/ food processing), kitchen wastes, etc. REMOTE VILLAGE ELECTrIFICATION The Remote Village Electrication Programme is being implemented to provide lighting / electricity using renewable energy, in those remote un-electried villages and hamlets, which are not going to be covered for grid electrication. RENEWABLE ENErGY FOr UrBAN, INDUSTrIAL AND COMMErCIAL APPLICATIONS Solar energy and technologies for energy recovery from municipal, industrial and commercial wastes is also on focus in India to meet niche energy demands of urban, industrial and commercial sectors in the country. The programmes being looked at under this scheme include: i) Solar energy systems and devices including solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems; ii) Energy recovery from urban, industrial and commercial wastes; and iii) Bioenergy and cogeneration in industry. ENErGY EFFICIENT SOLAr/GrEEN BUILDING PrOGrAMME Buildings are major consumers of energy in their construction, operation and maintenance. Under Renewable Energy schemes, MNRE has not forgotten Energy Efcient Solar/Green Buildings Programme; promoting GRIHA rating system. The Country has seen 117 projects with 4.98 million sq.meter built up area with 81 projects from Government Departments with 3.22 million sq. meter built up area have been registered for GRIHA certication. The target was 4 million sq.meter built up area during 11th Plan. SOLAr CITY PrOGrAMME Under Development of Solar Cities Programme the proposal is to support 60 cities/towns for Development as Solar/ Green Cities during the 11th Plan period with the aim to promote the use of renewable energy in urban areas. At least one city in each State to a maximum of ve cities in a State was to be supported. ENErGY RECOvErY FrOM UrBAN AND INDUSTrIAL WASTES Increasing urbanization, industrialization and the developments taking place in the country also lead to generation of larger quantities of wastes necessitating increased efforts

Resources Off-Grid / Distributed Renewable Power (including captive/cogeneration plants) Biomass Power / Cogen (non-bagasse) Biomass Gasier Waste to Energy Solar PV Power Plants Aero-Generators / Hybrid Systems Total Decentralized Energy Systems Family Type Biogas Plants SPV Home Lightning System Solar Latern SPV Street Lighting System SPV Pumps Solar Water Heating- Collector Area Source: MNRE

Cumulative Achievements MW as of 31.1.2011 274 MW 128 MW equivalent 68 MW equivalent 4 MWp 1MW 461 MW equivalent 43.26 lakhs 6,69,805 nos 8,17 ,549 nos 1,22,697 nos 7 ,495 nos 3.97 million sq.m

Figure no.3: Deployment of Off-Grid / Decentralized Renewable Energy Systems

for their management and safe disposal for reducing adverse impact on the environment. With the availability of technologies it is possible to use waste for decentralized energy generation. According to estimates, there exists a potential for generation of over 3600 MW of power from urban and industrial wastes in the country. PrOGrAMME ON BIOMASS CO-GENErATION (NONBAGASSE) IN INDUSTrY Several industries require electrical as well as thermal energy for their operations, which can either be met through different energy sources or through co-generation using only one fuel. The power and steam generated from such co-generation plants can be used for meeting the captive requirements and the surplus power produced can be exported to the grid. Such projects are being set up in a number of industry sectors namely paper and pulp, solvent extraction, rice mills, pharmaceutical industries, etc.

POWEr FrOM RENEWABLE GrID-INTErACTIvE AND OFFGrID RENEWABLE POWEr Wind: Wind energy has today emerged as the most promising renewable energy technology for generating grid connected power amongst various renewable energy sources. India is now the fth largest wind power producer in the world, after USA, Germany, China and Spain. Please refer to gure no.4 Biomass: Biomass power programme is implemented with the main objective of promoting technologies for optimum use of countrys biomass resources for grid power generation. The benets from biomass include its renewable nature, wide availability, being carbon neutral and the potential to provide large productive employment in rural areas. The constraints are competitive uses of biomass leading to possible non-availability or rise in costs.


Potential in MW

Capacity installed during 2010-2011 (upto Jan 2011) 44,8 172,18 121,3 0 7 ,8 125,05 292,7 613 0 1376,83

Cumulative capacity upto Jan 2011 180,9 2035,81 1594,1 27 ,75 237 ,2 2202,8 1381 5519,72 4,3 13183,58

Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Others Total

8968 10645 11531 1171 1019 4584 4858 5530 255 48561

Figure no.4: Status of Wind Power in India in 2010-2011

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Bagasse Cogeneration Programme: One of the success stories of power generation in modern India is that of bagasse based cogeneration in sugar mills. The optimum cogeneration capacity installed in the Indian sugar mills is one of the highest among all the major sugar producing countries of the world. Most of the sugar mills have been using alternative biomass materials at the design stage itself such as rice husk, cane trash, cotton stalk wood, etc

to generate electricity during off season. These advanced optimum bagasse cogeneration projects benet not only the sugar mills but also the sugarcane farmers as the value addition to their cane is enhanced and thus they can realize more for it. Small Hydro Power: Hydro power projects up to 25 MW capacity are classied as small hydro. The estimated potential for power generation in the coun-

try from such plants is over 15,000 MW. The Small Hydro Power (SHP) programme is now essentially private investment driven. 23 States have announced their policies to invite private sector to set up SHP projects. India is looking at least 5000 MW of capacity is added from small hydro projects in next 10 years or so. Solar: The government came out with the Jawa-

New NVVN States Solar PV Projects Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Jharkhand Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Pondicherry Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttarkhand Uttar Pradesh Total Solar Thermal Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Rajasthan Total Source: MNRE 1 1 5 7 50 20 400 470 3 3 30 150 13 21 1 105 5 2 8 1 1 5 5 3 2 10 4 20 No. MW No.

Migration MW No.


Total MW

11 2 10 8

10,5 4 9,8 16

15 2 0 10 8 2

30,5 4 0 9,8 16 10 5,25 21 13 1 15,5 153 12 5 8 304,05

3 11 3 8 1 7 36 7 12 7 3 5 54 80

5,25 5 8 1 8,5 12 7 5 8 100,05

3 7 9 1 9 41 8 3 5 123

1 1 30 30 8 10

50 20 430 500

Figure no.5: Grid Connected Solar Projects under JNNSM

Solar Photovoltaic Systems States Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Gujarat Haryana Maharashtra Mizoram Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Delhi Total Data as of 31.1.2011 Source: MNRE Lanterns 0 0 0 1470 0 2519 0 0 2730 0 54 6773 Home Lights Nos. 1 2000 0 8479 0 2350 0 24449 335 0 0 37614 0 0 0 980 0 0 400 90 0 0 0 1470 Street Lights kWp 25,64 0 235,5 0 0 0 0 964,2 0 0 0 1225,34 Power Plants Stand Alone Grid Connected kWp 0 0 5000 0 1000 0 1000 4800 0 5000 2088 18888

Figure no.6: Installation of SPV Systems during 2010-2011

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harlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) to establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating policy conditions for its rapid diffusion across the country quickly and achieve a scale, large enough to drive down costs to levels required to achieve grid parity by 2022. The Mission targets include (i) deployment of (a) 20,000 MW of grid connected solar power by 2022, (b) 2,000 MW of off-grid solar applications including 20 million solar lights by 2022, (c) 20 million sq. m. solar thermal collector area, (ii) creation of favourable conditions for developing solar manufacturing capability in the country; and (iii) supporting R&D and capacity building activities to achieve grid parity by 2022. The Mission would be implemented in three phases. Government has also approved a target to set up 1,100 MW grid connected solar plants, including 100 MW capacity plants as rooftop and other small

solar power plants for the rst phase of the Mission till March 2013. In addition, a target of 200 MW capacity equivalent off-grid solar applications and 7 million m2 solar thermal collector area has also been approved. Please refer to gure 5 and 6. OFF-GrID RENEWABLE Distributed/decentralized renewable power projects using wind energy, biomass energy, hydro power and hybrid systems are being established and emphasised in India to meet the energy requirements of isolated communities and areas which are not likely to be electried in the near future. Small Wind Energy and Hybrid Systems: Small wind energy systems (SWES), namely water pumping windmills, aero generators and wind-solar hybrid systems are being used for harnessing wind and solar energy in un-electried areas or areas having intermit-

tent electric supply. MNRE is implementing a programme on Small Wind Energy & Hybrid Systems for promotion of the systems. Biomass Gasier Programme: Biomass Gasier based power plants are being promoted to produce electricity using locally available biomass resources in rural areas where surplus biomass such as small wood chips, rice husk, arhar stalks, cotton stalks and other agro-residues are available to meet the unmet demand of electricity for villages for lighting, water pumping and microenterprises. In addition, the industry is also seeing promotion of small biomass gasier and combustion based power plants connected at the tail end of grid for captive power and thermal applications in rice mills and other industries. A summary of renewable energy installations and achievements in India can be done from gure no7.

Renewable Energy Programme Grid-Interactive Power Wind Power Small Hydro Biomass Power Bagasse Cogeneration Waste to Power: 1. Urban 2. Industrial Solar Power (SPV) Total Off-Grid / Captive Power Waste to Power: 1. Urban 2. Industrial Biomass Power (non-bagasse) cogeneration Biomass Gasiers: 1. Rural 2. Industrial Aero-Generators/Hybrid Systems SPV Systems (>1 kW) Water mills/micro hydel Total Remote Village Electrication No. of remote village/hamlets provided with RE systems Other Renewable Energy Systems Family Biogas Plants ( lakhs) Solar Water Heating- collectors area (million sq m) Source: MNRE

Target for 2011-2012 MW 2400,00 350,00 460,00 25,00

Achievement during 2011-2012 MW 833,00 111,30 86,50 111,50 1,20

Cumulative Achievement upto 31.8.2011 MW 14989,00 3153,93 1083,60 1779,03 20,20 53,46 46,16 21125,38 MW equivalent 3,50

200,00 3435,00 MW equivalent

8,50 1152,00 MW equivalent

15,00 80,00 3,00 10,00 0,50 20,00 400 nos 128,50

10,18 31,99 1,20 4,50 0,12 3,50 143 nos 51,49

72,30 327 ,95 15,55 125,88 1,24 72,50 1818 nos 618,92




1,5 0,6

0,12 0,2

44,16 4,67

Figure no.7: Renewable Energy Implementation in India as of 31.8.2011



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Biogas and its use as Vehicle Fuel


In many countries, biogas is viewed as an environmentally attractive alternative to diesel and gasoline for operating buses and other local transport vehicles. Dr.Anil Kurchania from Gujarat shares his knowledge on use of biogas as fuel.

ethane, a combustible gas, is exploited as a source of heat and light. Anaerobic digesters are used to generate methane in the form of biogas by decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen. Biogas production is one of the oldest processes used for the treatment of industrial wastes and stabilization of sludge. It is carried out by a consortium of microorganisms depending on various factors like pH, temperature, HRT, C/N ratio, etc. [HRT= Hydraulic Retention Time, C/N ratio= Carbon/Nitrogen ratio] Biogas is composed of about 60% methane, 40% carbon dioxide, and between 0.2 to 0.4 % hydrogen sulde. It is very corrosive to equipment and requires frequent oil changes in an engine generator set to prevent mechanical failure. The heating value of biogas is about 60% of natural gas and about 25% of propane. The ultimate yield of biogas depends on the composition and biodegradability of the organic feedstock, but its production rate depends on the population of microorganisms, their growth conditions, and fermentation temperature. Methane produced by the anaerobic digestion process is quite similar to natural gas extracted from the wellhead. However, natural gas contains a variety of hydrocarbons other than methane, such as ethane, propane, and butane. As a result, natural gas will always have a higher caloric value than pure methane. Depending on the digestion process, the methane content of biogas is generally between 55%-80%. The remaining composition is primarily carbon dioxide, with trace quantities (0-15,000 parts per million) of corrosive hydrogen sulde and water.

Fig.1 Biogas Purication and Bottling Plant Compressed Biogas CBG

Biogas is also successfully compressed for use as an alternative transportation fuel in light- and heavy-duty vehicles. To obtain enriched methane, the biogas is scrubbed off its carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulde and water. After scrubbing, the technique of fueling with biogas is basically the same as that used for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. Although only a few thousand vehicles are using biogas, it is estimated that worldwide around one million vehicles are now using CNG as a transportation fuel. The change to compressed methane operation means that a vehicle is converted or that a new one is specially built. Vehicles can operate in three different modes: as dedicated compressed methane; as a bi-fuel on either gas or gasoline; or as a simultaneous dual fuel on gas and diesel fuel. The compressed methane is stored in a number of tank cylinders made of steel or berglass at

high pressure. The normal number of tank cylinders will provide enough capacity to cover 150-175 miles. Fleet vehicles that are parked overnight, such as buses, are fueled slowly for 5-8 hours. Quick lling takes about 2-5 minutes, and is used for vehicles in constant use such as service vans. Because methane burns very cleanly, many eet operators have reported savings of 40%-50% in vehicle maintenance costs. In many countries, biogas is viewed as an environmentally attractive alternative to diesel and gasoline for operating buses and other local transport vehicles. The level of sound generated by methane powered engines is generally lower than that generated by diesel engines, which is a positive aspect, particularly in an urban environment. Exhaust fume and gaseous emissions are considerably lower than the emissions from diesel engines.

Plate1: Cylinder cascades for enriched biogas storage and transport

Fig. 2: Plant layout Gas generating system.

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THe ultiMAte YielD of bioGAs DePeNDs oN tHe CoMPositioN AND bioDeGRADAbilitY of tHe oRGANiC feeDstoCK, but its PRoDuCtioN RAte DePeNDs oN tHe PoPulAtioN of MiCRooRGANisMs, tHeiR GRoWtH CoNDitioNs, AND feRMeNtAtioN teMPeRAtuRe

initiative to demonstrate an Integrated Technology-package in entrepreneurial mode on medium size (200-1000 cum/ day) biogas fertilizer plants (BGFP) for generation, purication / enrichment, bottling and piped distribution of biogas. Installation of such plants aims at meeting stationary and motive power, cooling, refrigeration and electricity needs in addition to cooking and heating requirements.
The writer is a renewable energy advisor and can be reached on

Plate 2 & 3: Vehicle lling with pressurized enriched biogas

On the government support, The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) Scheme on National Biogas and Manure Management Programme, which mainly caters to setting up of family type biogas plants, has been under implementation since 1981-82. A cumulative total of 44.30 lakh family type biogas plants have been set up in the country against estimated potential of 12 million plants. Recently The Ministry took up a new

ON tHe GoVeRNMeNt suPPoRt, THe MNRE SCHeMe oN NAtioNAl BioGAs AND MANuRe MANAGeMeNt PRoGRAMMe, WHiCH MAiNlY CAteRs to settiNG uP of fAMilY tYPe bioGAs PlANts, HAs beeN uNDeR iMPleMeNtAtioN siNCe 1981-82






28-30 March 2012 Sofia, Bulgaria

Parallel Event: Save the Planet - Conference & Exhibition on Waste Management, Recycling and Environment
With the Patronage of: In Partnership with: Sponsor: Media Sponsor: Official Hotel: Organizer:


Biogas A Boon for India


Mankind learned to use biogas long time ago. Biogas is gas produced by means of anaerobic fermentation of biomass. The mathematics of fertilizer makes a bio gas plant a self sustainable module. The bio gas plants in the agriculture sector hold the key to Energy Security of India. They have the capacity to reduce the demand of electric power, reduce the consumption of chemical fertilizer and also reduce global warming.

ankind learned to use biogas long time ago. In 1-2 millennium B.C. some primitivebiogas plantsalready existed in the territory of contemporary Germany.Alemans that inhabited wetlands of Elbe basin seemed to see Dragons in the marshes. They thought that re gas that accumulated in marsh pits was bed smelling Dragons breathe. In order to please the Dragon they threw offerings and food remnants to the marsh. People thought that Dragon comes in the night and pits were lled with his breath. Alemans came to the idea to cover the pits with leather blankets and made leather pipes that transported the gas to their homes for cooking. This is obvious as dry wood was difcult to nd and gas (biogas) solved that problem perfectly. Biogas is gas produced by means of anaerobic fermentation of biomass. Biomass decomposition is made by methanogenic bacterium. Gas composition is methane 50%-65%, 25%-45% CO2, and some admixtures. Microorganisms metabolizing carbon from organic substrates in oxygen free conditions (anaerobically). This process is called rotten or oxygen free fermentation. Biogas is also known as sewage gas, mine gas, marsh gas, and methane or gobar gas in India. Green House Gases (GHG) under the Kyoto Protocol There are many gases that contribute to the green house effect. The Kyoto Protocol deals with six of them as mentioned in the below table. Global Warming Potential Green house gases affect global warming with varying intensities. This intensity is measured by the global warming potential of the gas. The global warming potential (GWP) of HFC-23 for example is 11,700. The GWP

Gas Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Hydrouorocarbons (HFCs) Peruorocarbons (PFCs) Sulphur hexauoride (SF6)

Global Warming Potential 1 21 310 140-11,700 7 ,000-9,200 23,900

Source : IPCC Third Assessment Report. 2001 Climate Change : The Scientic Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

of carbon dioxide is one. One tonne of HFC23 has 11,700 times more the green house effect that Carbon dioxide does. Bio Gas Plant would serve many purposes such as: Environment friendly converting waste to energy, which is the need of hour. Generation of fairly good amount of fuel gas, which will reduce dependence on the dwindling energy resources. Generation of high quality manure, which is an excellent soil conditioner. This is very important for replenishing fast decreasing resources of productive soils. Biogas is a color less, odour less and inammable gas. The gas generated in this plant can also be used as a source of natural gas. The production is about 0.25 to 0.35 cubic meters per kg of cake. Production Plant of Bio-Gas World capacity 2008 According to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the world population of animals is 1.3 billion cattle, 1 billion sheep, 1 billion pigs, 800 million goats and 17 billion chickens The waste the animals produce has 55 percent to 65 percent methane, which if released into the atmosphere is bad news for us (it traps heat at 21 times the rate that carbon dioxide does) but when burned is another matter entirely. It gives us energy. 62.5 liters of bio gas can be produced from one kilogram of cow manure (heated at around 28 degrees Celsius or 82.4 degrees Fahrenheit).

Indian Scene Indias human population is 120 crores. Majority lives in villages. Rural population - directly or indirectly - is associated with agriculture. The agriculture economy as such has been dependent on animal power for its energy needs. A family owns 4 to 6 animals. Animals have been a part of family assets which provided all the energy needs of the family- milk for protein & fats, animal dung for cooking & fertilizer for agriculture and horses for transport and bullocks for farm power etc. This is how all the civilizations in the world have evolved over the ages. Industrial revolution is a part of present history. In the new world also the basic need of the family remain unchanged- energy for food and agriculture. People initially used wood/ agriculture waste as a source of energy. When wood became scarce, emphasis shifted to coal. People in Europe started using coal for home heating and industry found it convenient to use. Coal is a fossil fuel. Industrial revolution brought steel, cement, power stations etc to lime light. Coal was the cheapest fossil fuel, so it found wide acceptance. The importance of sustainable future was lost. The main point of reference is sustainable future Energy Security. Fossil fuels for India are - coal, oil, gas. These have limited availability. India needs alternative source of energy which should be renewable, dependable and sustainable.
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All civilizations Rome, Egypt, Mohinjodaro- have depended on domestic animal power. Even the wars were fought on the might of animals- elephant, horse, camel etc. On energy front for cooking of food cake made out of animal dung was the source of energy in addition to agricultural waste. The times have moved forward. In India, the mechanization of agriculture started in sixties through farm machineries, water pumps sets and chemical fertilizers in a big way. With the onset of machines, the concept of agriculture changed. Initially Indian economy was agriculture based through manual labor. All activities of agriculture ploughing the eld, water pumping, harvesting the crop, thrashing the produce and even transporting the produce to market for selling- derived energy from animals power. The writer is a witness of all these activities and has participated in all these activities. There used to be a kind of joy to see the nal produce in the home. The farmer used to grow food for the family The surplus was sold to the market to generate cash. There was hardly any input cost except labor. The mechanization of agriculture changed the scenario. The input cost of agriculture came into being. The farmer now needs to pay for the use of machines, diesel and electricity also which were missing earlier. They are now a part of input cost. Add to this cost of seeds, fertilizer and insecticides. Any increase in the cost of diesel and fertilizer puts a pressure on the input cost of agriculture. Now the farmer grows crops which can provide better returns (nancial term of business) to meet increased input cost. The choice of crop is determined by the market and not by the farmer. Mechanization has created a situation when fodder animal feed- has become scarce. Oxen are no longer required as they became redundant. Cows and buffalos natural provider of milk, protein, calcium and carbohydrates- are no longer considered as family asset. This change of culture from animal based agriculture to mechanized agriculture - should have reduced the total number of animals in India. Fortunately that has not been the case. Rather the numbers have still been growing upwards. Following graph is an indication of the same. There are 529.7 million animals in 2010[2] as compared to 300 million in 1950. These animals are in rural India only as urban population is not allowed to
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keep animals. Villagers are keeping more domestic animals than before as is clear from the above graph. Tractors and trolleys are the automatic choice and the norm in rural urbanized villages. In 1961 the population of live stock was 335.4 million of which 51 million were buffaloes. The numbers went up to 510.2 million in 2007 of which 102.4 million were buffaloes. There is a 100% increase in the number of buffaloes in 46 years. The milk production went up by 100% from 51.4 million tons in 1989-90 to 112.5 million tons in 2009-10. The cost of fertilizer, insecticides, electricity, machines etc. are major cost input of present day agriculture. They cost about 80% of the produce. The farmer is left with only 20% of his produce as his income on which he has to sustain his family. Current Usage of animal dung Currently the practice in rural area is to make cake out of animal waste. People dry it in the open and use it to cook food by burning. A small joint family of a farmer which has four animals will get 40 Kg of animal waste daily. Add to this agriculture and kitchen waste. This mixture will provide 0.8 M3 of pure gas. This amount of gas will burn one burner for two hours. The quantity and quality of cooking gas is sufcient and meets his complete requirements. The Mathematics of Fertilizer A normal farmer has a land of about 5 hectares. He needs 135.3 Kilogram per hectare. The farmer shall consume not more than 676.5 kilograms of fertilizer in his elds. The rest (13.2 Tons) is available for sale which will bring him additional income. With these equations, agriculture turns into a protable proposition. Let us examine the issue from different perspective. As per the statistics of Government of India the total consumption of fertilizer in the country is as follows:
Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium Total 15090.5 Metric Tons 6506.2 Metric Tons 3312.6 Metric Tons 24909.3 Metric Tons

the total population of animals in India- to generate the total desired quantity of fertilizer needed for Indian agriculture. It is already mentioned above that India has about 529.7 million animals. It is clear that if farmer in the village generate biogas for cooking and uses the home produced fertilizer, he does not need to buy fertilizer from the market. This reduces the input cost of agriculture. On the other hand he has surplus fertilizer for the market which brings him more cash. The easy availability of organic fertilizer at comparatively cheaper rates will discourage the usage of chemical fertilizer. This move will save huge amount of electricity used for manufacturing chemical fertilizer. Bio gas is a boon for India One meter cube bio gas plant costs about Rs.20000/-($ 444). This plant is sufcient for the animal waste from 4 animals and some kitchen waste. The farmer also gets 38 Kilogram of organic fertilizer per day i.e 13.87 metric tons per year. This fertilizer is at no cost. At Re.1/- Kg the cost of this fertilizer is Rs. 13870/-($308). This is the earning of the farmer which was earlier missing. The original investment is recoverable in less than 24 months. In addition there will be reduced usage of electricity for pumping and reduction in water usage. If we consider output from waste of 529.7 million animals,
Direct benets Export of organic Fertilizer worth $436 billion at international price. Saving of subsidy amount of $18 billion at current rates withdrawn. Cost of bio gas produced is $286 billion at domestic prices. Total benet = $790 billion per year. Note: India achieved exports of $300 billion in 2011 and targets $500 billion by 2015. Bio Gas can accelerate exports. Collateral Benets Agriculture becomes protable venture. 80% of population rises above poverty line. The economy grows at a faster pace and pushes many into middle class. Biogas holds promise of sustainable future for India & humanity.

13.87 Tons per year is available from four animals which means 3.65 tons per year of fertilizer per animal. Hence we need 6824466 i.e. 6.8 million animals which is 1.29% of

References [1]  Economic Survey 2010-11 [2]  Agriculture Statistics at a Glance 2009, Publication Division, Directorate of Economies & Statistics [3]  Alexender H., in A Hollender, Trends in the biology of fermentation for fuels and chemicals, Ed Plenum Press, New York, Vol 18, p 126-127 and 155, 1981.




Green Building- The Basic Principles


According to the International Energy Agency existing buildings are responsible for more than 40% of the worlds total primary energy consumption and for 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions. Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings through environmentally friendly construction practices. Mr. Sandeep Goswami, energy-efciency & green building professional, puts down the basic principles of green building for the readers of Energetica India.

he Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) denes a green building as one that uses less water, optimizes energy efciency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and provides healthier spaces for occupants, compared to a conventional building. These aims are achieved by combining sustainable design, green construction methods and materials made of renewable resources and operations. Green materials help reduce the environmental impact associated with the extraction, transport, processing, fabrication, installation, reuse, recycling and disposal of building materials. While a lot is written on the process and procedure, what are not dwelled upon are the aspects which can make the whole process of understanding the concept at the level of the end-user. For every movement can gain momentum only when there is enough public participation. The people must want it rather than its remaining a trend which more often than not is a passing phase. For this reason this article shall dwell on the technical aspects of each of the 5 principles but in simple terms as much as possible. A green building functions on 5 basic principles: 1. Sustainable Site 2. Water Efciency 3. Energy Efciency 4. Material & Waste Management 5. Indoor Environmental Quality We shall deal each in brief.

Sustainable Sites Hospitable land is a nite source and more nite are landmass near economically viable zones. The continuous horizontal growth of a city is a recipe for disaster and so is unplanned growth & construction within the city limits. To reduce the impacts of environmental hazards certain basic technique need to be followed. While designing / constructing the building foot-print should be as small as possible to minimize environmental impacts. It is also very important during the construction phase of any building to preserve the existing landscape. Retaining the bio-diversity is of upmost importance, so much so that our very existence depends on it. The UN too recognizes this aspect and bio-diversity is very high on its agenda of Global Climate change program. To do this one must promote plantations at micro and macro level with efforts to encourage planting of native species.


Instead of using water guzzling plants and lawns (which is a vestige of our colonial past) we should design more Bagicha (garden) which is a very Zen thing to do. A Zen garden essentially tries to nd balance and harmony with its surroundings promoting inner peace and harmony which are very Oriental (eastern) thought rather than always designing and demanding an Occidental (western) landscape which is more often than not very unsuitable to our climatic conditions. It is of vital importance to protect soil and reduce water pollution during building construction & operation. Integrating geological rock formations into buildings to reduce their rapid destruction is commendable in designing a Sustainable building. Whenever possible, paving should be done with pervious blocks. They allow water to percolate to the ground thus maintaining the water table underground. Projects which have good mass transport like bus, local train to more than two routes are very good as it reduces pollution. Allowing more open areas within the building compound and on roof-tops reduce the overall heat-island effect, which in effect makes the surrounding cool and thus Air-conditioning is less required. Buildings designed with ample ventilation for air and light circulation potentially reduces a signicant portion of the building energy use and also reduces the sick-building syndrome. One of the biggest culprit of sickness is pollution and vehicular pollution causes enormous harm, by designing gated townships and societies which encourage use of Electric Cars, Solar Auto Rickshaws
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Electricity whenever you need it.

Generate, store and utilize your own energy reliably.

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( Udaipur has some ) & Electric bikes & scooters a building site becomes more environmentally conscious and sustainable. Almost all of us have once in our lifetime happened to be in vicinity of a building which takes our breath away and we feel awe, tranquil and at peace with the surroundings, these feeling are evoked more often than not on places where the site planning and design was not imposed on to the site but developed to identify and enhance the ecological characteristics of the place. It was predetermined in every step what would be the most appropriate for a purpose and thus designed to blend into the mosaic of the building & site. A very careful and conscious effort is taken to lessen the negative impact of human activity over the natural characteristics of the site. This always brings about happiness a precursor to enhanced human comfort & health. Lastly preservation of site resources & judicious use of energy and materials during & post construction in building operations are result of good site design and thus make for Sustainable Sites. Water Efciency Sustainable development is the challenge of meeting growing human needs for natural resources; with India already crossing the 1Billion mark population, effective policies to tackle the ever growing need & scarcity of potable water is a must. It is here that a Green Building plays one of its most crucial roles. Sustainable habitat management and therein water management would insure not only healthy lifestyle but also the ever-growing demand for water can be met without sacricing growth due to lack of it. The rst thing a Green building Design does is it limits or eliminates the use of potable water for landscape irrigation and/ or Air-conditioning make-up. To attain this self sufciency one has to increase the ground water table or to reduce the usage of water through effective and appropriate rainwater management such as grey water treatment plant, rainwater harvesting; designing of SuDS ( suds/). Maximize water efciency within buildings to reduce the burden on municipal water supply and wastewater systems. By reducing the generation of wastewater demand, while increasing the local aqui72 NOVEMBER|DECEMBER11

fer recharge it over the time increases the availability of potable water. The use of Water-efcient appliances and xtures and inducing behavioral changes, such as closing the tap/ shower while applying soap/brushing or lling up a bucket to bathe during the summer when supply of water diminishes and avoiding lling up bath-tubs. Also changes in irrigation methods can reduce consumption by up to 30 percent or more. Soils vary in water-holding ability, nutrient content, pH and salinity, and humus content. Having an expert advice on this from the landscape consultants goes a long way in water preservation. Energy Efciency A green building design always veries and ensures that fundamental building elements and systems are designed, installed and calibrated to operate as intended. This more often than not starts at the building design stage where the bio-climatic conditions decide on the orientation, sun-shading and material aspects. Although material will be dealt separately in this article, it is one of the deciding factors on energy efciency. To make an Energy Efcient Building (EEB) which is what a Green Building mean, energy efciency should rst be derived by designing the building correct. Once that is achieved, one would nd that during the

day, tasks can be achieved through proper day-lighting, thereby reducing use of electricity. As the same openings which would bring in light also would bring in fresh air, a properly shaded & oriented building, using intelligent landscape properties can also make the interior pleasant for most of the time, which again reduces the mechanical means of achieving that comfort. Once this is achieved the energy requirements gets reduced substantially and this makes Renewal Energy sources such as micro Wind turbines, Solar Photo voltaic options easer to apply ( due to its high initial cost ) which in time, in certain cases, brings down the cost of energy to near zero. Material & Waste Management At the construction level reuse of existing materials from previously occupied buildings, including structure, envelope and elements whatever is possible reduces the cost to the builder/developer which can then be passed on to the consumer. Even with intelligent design such as a simple segregation between heavy, light & pedestrian paving can help in reduction in use of material as well as make the site sustainable. Post occupation if one coordinates the size and functionality of the recycling areas with the anticipated collections service of glass, plastic, and ofce paper and newspaper, cardboard and organic waste (to create compost or bio-gas, depending on the amount of organic waste collected) to maximize the effectiveness of the dedicated areas, not only it would help in reducing waste but the continuous inow of money through sale of such can reduce the cost of maintenance. Indoor Environmental Quality Although much is known about the health effects of poor design and ways to overcome them through good design, a tremendous amount of research is needed in this complicated eld. However a good Green building design usually takes into account the types of materials it chooses, especially paints, furnishing, carpets etc which require conforming to certain standards of VOC (volatile organic compound) which help prevent health hazard, other than creating well ventilated spaces.
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ARUN-160 Solar Boiler

Cooper Bussmann
The Cooper Bussmann line up of solar fuse links continues to grow and lead the industry. This year, the company has launched breakthrough circuit protection products that offer PV system OEMs a greater choice in how they protect system arrays and inverters. In the 10 x 38 fuse link category, the voltage rating of the 20 amp version has been increased from 900 to 1000Vdc. This now completes the entire 1 to 20 amp range so they all meet the IEC 60269-6 standard requirements. The new range of XL Style, square body fuse links in voltage ratings up to 1500Vdc provide OEMs greater exibility in the protection of higher power PV arrays. No other fuse manufacturer has achieved this landmark voltage rating in this package, representing a signicant breakthrough in fuse design and performance. The new series of NH1 square bodied photovoltaic fuse links has ratings up to 1000Vdc; these are one of the smallest NH style fuse links to achieve this rating and are the most comprehensive range of NH size fuse link solutions on the market with amp ratings from 50A to 160A. The 14 x 65mm range of photovoltaic fuse links comprises 15 and 20A ratings at 1500Vdc and 25 and 32A ratings at 1300Vdc, making this the only series to offer these voltage and amp ratings in this package size. Also available is a range of IEC 60269-6 (gPV) 14 x 51mm photovoltaic fuse links. This new ferrule-bodied series com-

Clique Technologies have developed, The ARUN dish, a 100% indigenously developed Fresnel Paraboloid Solar Concentrator with a point focus. The innovative dish design and the automatic two-axis tracking system helps it to deliver the highest thermal energy output per sq.m. of collector area compared to other solar concentrators in India. Key performance parameters Saves over 5,00,000 liters of fossil fuel over its lifetime. Indias rst IBR-approved Solar Boiler. Occupies 3m x 3m of footprint area enabling it to be mounted at locations with space limitations. Can deliver 400C (oil) or 25 bar (steam) with an accuracy of +/-1C. Automatic two axis tracking to capture maximum solar radiation. Can be augmented with a heat energy storage facility
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for operation in non-solar hours. 1 ARUN Dish can deliver Applications (all gures are per day) Steam: 1.2 tons of dry saturated steam Hot water: 20,000-25,000 liters of hot water (@ 65C) Cooking: 7,000-8,000 meals Cooling: 25 TR of cooling capacity for 8-10 hours Milk pasteurization: 25,000 liters of milk pasteurization Efuent evaporation: 2.5 m3 of efuent evaporation Laundry: 600kg of laundry per day Desalination: 5.75 m of distilled potable water Savings (all gures are per day) 7,00,000 kcal on a clear sunny day 100 liters of fossil fuel on a clear sunny day 600-700 kWh of effective electrical energy 60-70 tons of CO2 emissions.

prises 15 and 20A ratings at 1100Vdc and 25 and 32A ratings at 1000Vdc, providing PV system OEMs with a compact protection solution for higher voltage distribution networks. New Surge Protective Devices In tandem with the developments in PV fuse links, Cooper Bussmann has strengthened its offering in the surge protection market. Newly launched is a combined lightning current and surge arrester (SPD Class I according to IEC 61643-1) for use in photovoltaic power supply systems. The prewired device can be used in installations up to 1000V UCPV and provides maximum system availability due to its spark gap technology with DC current extinction. There is also a new two module surge protector (with two-step DC switching device) that features easy ID visual indication and optional remote contact signalling (oating changeover contact) for use in photovoltaic systems. It is suitable for all PV systems in accordance with UL 1449 3rd Edition and IEC 60364-7-712.


Belden facilitates new technology for generating Thermosolar power

Torresol Energy develops CSP tower power plants (Concentrating Solar Power) for generating solar power. Gemasolar, a new plant located in Fuentes de Andalucia near Seville, is the companys reference project. It is the rst commercial solar power plant of its kind in the world its main elements are a solar tower and 2,600 heliostat mirrors covering an area of 185 hectares. The power this plant produces around 110 GWh per year is enough to cover the needs of approximately 25,000 households. Gemasolar uses an innovative high-temperature molten salt storage system that makes it possible to operate for longer periods. Because of this system, the plant will achieve some 15 hours of autonomy during which it can continue to generate power even when there is no sunlight. The extension of plant operating time during the absence of sunlight, together with enhanced efciency in the use of the suns heat, means that the Gemasolar production is three times that attained by other technologies in installations having the same power. Key requirements: The Spanish engineering company Sener played the leading role in developing and designing the project and commissioned Schneider Electric Spain to develop, manufacture and implement the solar eld control system (SCS) and the distributed control system (DCS). The overall system was designed to meet the following requirements: Fiber-optic communication (24 lines) Fast redundancy switching Data communication, monitoring and control using Fast-Ethernet technology Gigabit Ethernet in the backbone with routing function Hot-swappable media modules with high port density in the backbone ring Flexible and extendable network Use of robust switches and cables High MTBF values (Mean Time Between Failures) for network devices Resistance to temperature uctuations No Single Point of Failure Extremely high reliability Highest degree of availability and productivity Network management and status monitoring Since network availability plays a key role, and the plants efciency depends on the tracking control of the heliostat mirrors, it was decided that only products displaying the highest degree of quality and reliability should be employed in the project. The network structure must constantly ensure that communication within the power plant cannot be interrupted by a Single Point of Failure. As well as guaranteeing a high degree of system continuity, it also safeguards the performance and productivity of the entire power generation process. The Belden solution Thanks to an optimum redundancy concept based on HIPER Ring Backbones from Hirschmann, Belden was able to offer a tting solution. The HIPER Ring guarantees switching times of less than 300 milliseconds. In addition to this, the ring structure permits costeffective implementation of a redundant network and maintenance and extensions during ongoing operations. The HIPER Ring is therefore particularly suitable for use in complex scenarios. During its many years of involvement in alternative power generation, Belden has shown that its switches meet all requirements with regard to robustness. Beldens ber-optic cables and all the components in Hirschmanns extensive range of network devices for industrial applications fulll the stringent requirements for use in extreme environmental conditions. The network topology is based on a redundant Gigabit Ethernet backbone ring built around four MACH 4002 switches from Hirschmann. Capable of withstanding temperatures of 0 to +60 C, these modular 19 systems support the HIPER Ring concept and are characterized by Gigabit speed and routing functions. Furthermore, these switches are extremely future-proof and also ensure high levels of exibility. Up to 32 of the 48 Fast Ethernet connections use 8-port media modules that can be hot-swapped during operations. 26 ber optic rings are connected to the Gigabit Ethernet backbone ring, each via two RS 20 Hirschmann switches. The compact Fast Ethernet switches have three Fiber Uplink ports for multimode bers and nine twisted-pair ports. To connect the terminal devices, a further 540 switches of a different RS 20 version with two Fiber Uplink and eight twisted pair ports were installed. Like the MACH4002 backbone switches, both RS 20 versions are able to withstand temperatures of 0 to +60 C. The Industrial HiVision software from Hirschmann is used for network monitoring and visualization. As this software is able to automatically detect the network topology via LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol, IEEE802.1AB), both network and terminal devices as well as programmable controllers can be integrated. Belden was able to provide industrial-strength switches that are robust enough to withstand the enormous temperature uctuations experienced during the course of the day. On top of this, the fact that Belden was also responsible for overall technical coordination of network planning and further development as well as staff training brought signicant synergy effects for the customer.



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Low Environmental Burden G-TRAN Series Multi Ionization Gauge SH2 that can connect Sensor Heads with different Measurement Range
ULVAC, Inc. announced that they have developed, commercialized, and will start selling the G-TRAN Series Multi ionization Gauge SH2, which is a transducer type that can connect gauge heads with different measurement ranges. BackGround: It is impossible for vacuum instruments to measure a wide range including atmospheric pressure (10+5 pa) to high vacuum (10-8 Pa) using a single principal. Therefore, different instruments are used to measure the different ranges, such as the Pirani gauge or diaphragm gauge to measure a wide ranging vacuum from atmospheric pressure to the low vacuum range and the ionization vacuum gauge to measure the range from a medium vacuum to a high vacuum. However, customers would like to be able to measure a wide range of vacuum using a single vacuum gauge. In order to meet the needs of customers, a new combined vacuum gauge has been introduced that can measure apparent wide range of vacuum ranges with a single gauge head by combining multiple principles into a single unit. However, this kind of conventional combined vacuum gauge has certain problems including, (1) the entire gauge head has to be replaced if one of the gauge heads failed, (2) the gauge heads are more complicated and break easily, (3) the gauge heads are expensive. Overview: With these issues in mind, ULVAC have developed and commercialized the G-TRAN Multiionization Gauge SH2 (patent pending) transducer type that could connect gauge heads with different measurement ranges. The newly developed G-TRAN Series Multi Ionization Gauge SH2 is separation type wide range vacuum gauge that can connect three different types of vacuum gauges by incorporating signal from Pirani gauge SPU and Atmospheric sensor SAU. In addition to being able to select the gauge head to meet the desired vacuum range by the customer, the vacuum gauge also has following advantages. (1)  Possible to measure a wide range (atmospheric pressure to high vacuum range; 510-8Pa) (2)  Possible to replace only failed gauge heads (3)  Possible to reduce running costs (low environmental burden type) With the new G-TRAN Series Multi ionization Gauge SH2 it is possible to select the gauge head for the range that needs to be measured. The heart of the new product is the Multi ionization gauge SH2 unit which can measure ranges from a medium vacuum to a high vacuum. A wide range of measurements can be performed by using the Pirani gauge (SPU) if a low vacuum range measurement is required, or connect the Atmospheric sensor (SAU) if you would like to precisely measure atmospheric pressure. For this product we focused our development on usability by including a warning function that let the user know when the lament life is low and a highly visible LED that will let the user know from afar when a malfunction has occurred. The price of the consumable Multi ionization gauge head was also lowered to half of original market price. Sales Prices and Objectives: The price of the G-TRAN Series Multi ionization Gauge SH2 combined vacuum gauge will be 120,000 yen for the SH2 Multi ionization gauge unit for measurements between the medium and high vacuum range, 180,000 yen for the SH2 and SPU Pirani gauge connection type that can measure from low to high vacuum range, and 230,000 yen for the type which includes the SH2, SPU and SAU pressure sensor that can measure from the atmospheric pressure to high vacuum range. The consumable Multi ionization gauge head for SH2 is 40,000 yen. The target for the initial sale year is 500 units and 5,000 units in scal year 2013.

UHPLC System; easy to use and delivers productivity gains to obtain maximize ROI
Shimadzu UK has introduced its next-generation Nexera UHPLC system which is a exible modular chromatography solution packed full of ultra-high performance benets including open access, the lowest carryover, highest pressure rating, shortest autosampler cycle time and the highest injection volume precision. The new Nexera UHPLC system ensures fully reliable ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution analysis across an extensive number of application elds by offering an innovative mix of precise solvent delivery, excellent reproducibility and near-zero carryover. Deploying the industrys highest system pressure specication (130MPa) with the lowest carryover performance (<0.0015%) the Nexera UHPLC helps users to easily achieve accurate, high quality chromatography results rst time from their chromatography software. Once users have taken full advantage of the Nexeras chromatographic performance, they can maximize their ROI by using the very fast autosampler (10s injection time) to give the shortest possible run time. The autosamplers exibility also allows the performance of hightemperature analysis, automatic sample pretreatment and multidimensional LC separation. The systems innovative IPad control enables users to check their UHPLC system at

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New Series of scanning Spectrophotometers - surng different Waves

Shimadzu UK is delivering a winning combination of reference grade performance and research grade footprint with the launch of the companys new series of ultra-high performance scanning spectrophotometers. The new instruments offer high-precision spectral analysis of a wide range of samples including organic and inorganic compounds, biological samples, optical materials and photovoltaic devices. New technology with advanced performance for highly sophisticated applications The small footprint UV-2700 is a double-beam double-monochromator system that covers a wavelength range from 185 to 900 nm for direct measurement of high density samples up to 8 Abs or orders of magnitude higher than normal research grade instruments. The new spectrophotometer features an optical system based on Shimadzus revolutionary LO-RAY-LIGH diffraction grating, a new holographic grating that gives exceptionally low stray light and high energy throughput, matching any time by simply connecting to their companys network via a VPN. The interface allows users to maximize productivity by logging into Nexeras built-in Web Server to remotely control, monitor and manage their system. The Nexera UHPLC has been developed to address users looking to achieve higher productivity from their LC systems while offering them the maximum operational exibility. blies. Optional software packages are available for colour, thickness and Tm analysis. For both systems, a large selection of new accessories provides new capabilities in the measurement of lms, powders and liquids. Among the key features of the new scanning spectrophotometers are dual Shimadzu innovations of the LORAY-LIGH gratings, which offer best-in-class ultra-low stray light performance, and the dual detector PM/InGaAs integrating sphere option, explained Dr Robert Keighley, Shimadzu UK Limiteds Spectroscopy and TOC Business Manager. The new instruments deliver performance levels previously conned to reference grade instruments which are typically several times the cost, weight and size of these new models. Now a true reference grade instrument can be sited right on your bench. Weighing only 25Kg, the new instruments take up considerably less than half the bench space of a typical reference grade machine. The new UV-2600 and UV-2700 models offer real innovation at an affordable price. dresses the need for short run times to maximize system throughput. The instruments inherent exibility is ideal for users that have the desire to tailor their own solutions rather than being forced to buy the single box their vendor offers. The Nexera UHPLC enables users to easily recongure their system when their requirements change and means they will not be locked in by their vendors lack of vision.

the performance of the best reference grade systems in an instrument that is a fraction of their size and weight. Wider wavelength range The UV-2600 model greatly expands a researchers measurement capabilities. The instruments ultra-low stray light LO-RAY-LIGH grating delivers 5 Abs performance and, by adding the new ISR-2600 Plus dual detector integrating sphere, extends the transmission or reectance measuring range up to 1400 nm. Researchers can now, for the rst time, study UV-Vis-NIR transmittance of nanostructures, The next generation system is also ideal for users seeking to tailor their LC to meet their specic needs or for those looking to add a UHPLC capability to their analysis portfolio to provide precise QA/QC data for their existing Chromatography Data System (CDS). Shimadzus Nexera UHPLC is extremely modular, explained Stuart Phillips, Shimadzu UKs LC/LCMS Business Manager. The instruments high

architectural glass, photovoltaic devices and more on a compact bench-top machine. Both models offer best in class performance in stray light, photometric range and scan speed. Powerful new software plus the widest scope of accessories The new UV-Probe software version 2.40 includes full validation protocols and USB connectivity which enables precise control of a huge range of optional accessories including a multipurpose large sample bench capable of measuring whole wafers or lens assemdegree of modularity enables users to congure their systems in a variety of ways while the exible architecture means that their UHPLC investment can be rapidly tailored to their needs. Should their needs change it is easy to change from Binary LC to Quaternary LC without having to purchase new pumps. You can have Shimadzus obsession with quality in the format most suitable for you. The Nexera UHPLC ad-



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Komax Solar launches new range of Laminators

Komax Solar has launched an entirely new range of its Laminator series; XLam 21/34E which was earlier showcased to the global solar industry for the rst time in Hamburg, Germany. The new laminator is the single opening and has the capacity of laminating four standard modules or three 72- cell modules at any given moment. Another new offering from Komax Solar in this series is a twostage laminator XLam 21/34-2st, it has a two chamber process and cycle time of 6-8 minutes only. This laminator can handle capacities of 50-60 MW/y. Overview The XLam21/34E product yields an extremely reliable, reproducible lamination process. The large thermal capacity oil heated plate with single temperature calibration control ensures high temperature uniformity. A high performance, industry proven vacuum pump maintains high uptime of the vacuum system and efcient cycle time times due to engineered low volume vacuum chamber design. Very short vacuum membrane replacement times and uniform tensioning are achieved with the automatic membrane tensioning system. Transport and upper release sheets are fully automated and include an integrated cleaning system. An optional pin lift system is also available. The XLam 21/34E has an attractive cost/performance ra Dry vacuum pump User friendly touch screen HMI High reliability Attractive price / performance ratio tio as it is optimally sized for high volume production. Features High temperature uniformity from thermal heated oil Fast process times from large thermal capacity heating plate and advanced vacuum system design Optimal size processing area ts 60- and 72-cell c-Si modules Fully automated transport and release sheet including sheet cleaning Automatic membrane tensioning system Sales and Future Development The new range of XLam laminators are the byproduct of their new facility being built in China. The rst model of Xlam 21/34E will be out of production as early as January 2012 and XLam 21/34E for 50 MW capacities will come out of production by Q2 of 2012 only. These models are priced attractively keeping in mind Asian markets and at the same time keeping European safety standards into consideration.

UL-TRA Symposium on Ecosystem for Solar PV Components

Key Takeaways
[ PV manufacturing key dependencies (Raw materials, Supply chain, QA etc). [ System for logistics and supply chain management [ Polymeric Components used in PV Modules Applicable Standards and Performance Requirements [ Junction Box Assembly - Safety and Performance Requirements [ Selection of Potting Material & Sealant Material [ Infrastructure for PV Manufacturing : Solar PV Special Economy Zone [ Component Level Requirements in IEC 61730 -1 and UL 1703 [ Market trends and selling strategies India, Europe and emerging markets [ Govt policies and regulations

Date : 3rd & 4th November, 2011 Venue : Bengaluru

Visit to State-of-the-art UL India Photovoltaic Laboratory, Bengaluru

Who should attend: ? Solar Panel manufacturers ? Consultants ? Tender specifications decision makers ? PV Components Suppliers

? EPC companies ? Banks ? Insurance Companies

Reservation will be done on first come first serve basis due to limited seat availability.
For more information please connect to Solar Training Development Cell E Mail:, Mob: +91 7428954401,7428954402 & 9312154400

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Foam for alternative Drive Concepts; Optimised for Use In Battery Technology and Fuel Cells
When it comes to the development and optimisation of alternative drive concepts, the open-pored, easily shaped, electrically conductive metal foam produced by Alantum Europe GmbH is providing new opportunities. Whether used as a gas diffusion layer in metal-air batteries or fuel cells, or as a current collector in super capacitors, the innovative material can be adapted ideally to any application, thus facilitating increased energy densities or longer service lives. The versatility of the metal foam is the result of a manufacturing process developed specically by Alantum. Within this process, open porous nickel foam sheets with hollow struts are produced. The pore size is dened to 450, 580, 800 and 1200 m. Subsequent annealing keeps the material exible and easily shaped. The electrically conductive metal foam is used in signicant quantities as a cathode in nickel-metal hybrid (NiMH) batteries, which are state of the art in devices such as electric and hybrid vehicles. In this application, nickel-metal foam also offers optimisation potential for increasing energy density. Namely by applying a coating of graphite or other powdered materials suitable for energy storage to the open-pored structure in a special sintering process. Improved power output in metal-air batteries To achieve improvements in range and acceleration of vehicles, a great deal of research is being conducted around the world into battery technol78 NOVEMBER|DECEMBER11

IFAM_super capacitor Used in conjunction with a molybdenum-vanadium-nitride coating, metal foam can deliver a two to three-fold increase in the energy density in super capacitors.

application-optimised metal powder in a patented, stable process. This helps to promote resistance against aggressive atmospheres and corrosion as well as stability when exposed to temperatures of up to 1000C. Super capacitors with two to three-fold energy density improvements Super capacitors, as well, are capable of delivering signicant improvements to electromobility. This is thanks to their ability to compensate voltage peaks that occur during acceleration and braking, which in turn helps to lengthen the durability of batteries and fuel cells. As the so called supercaps release and absorb energy more quickly than batteries, they do not have such a high energy density. Whether or not this is an area that can be improved upon with the use of foam material was one of the themes of the Alternative Energy Technologies for Transportation (AETT) research project carried out by the Fraunhofer Society in collaboration with the University of Michigan and the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM) and Alantum Europe as the foam supplier. The metal alloy foam was used as a current collector. In contrast to conventional methods, whereby carbon is applied to a lm, the foam was inltrated with molybdenum- and vanadiumnitride as an active material. In comparison to carbon, these materials have an energy density that is two to three times higher. Thanks to the special structure and large surface of

the foam, it is possible to apply sufcient active material to achieve a two to three-fold increase in the energy density of the super capacitor. Gas diffusion layer in fuel cells Metal alloy foam can also offer a number of advantages when used as a gas diffusion layer in fuel cells. On the one hand it provides optimised equal distribution of the gas and the resulting increase in power density across the entire membrane surface. On the other hand, the material can be sintered to the bipolar plates in order to achieve a direct electrical connection. An additional advantage is the ability of the metal alloy foam to resist the very aggressive atmospheres that typically exist in fuel cells. For use as a gas diffusion layer, the material can be coated with conventional alloys such as stainless steel alloy 316L and CroFer as well as with new, application-optimised metal powders. High-volume production and research laboratory Alantum currently produces around four million square metres of nickel foam in China annually. This is in addition to 500,000 square metres of metal alloy foam which are produced in Korea. In order to further optimise the material for applications in electromobility, the Munich-based company is working closely with IFAM in Dresden. Here, a research laboratory is also available in which tests may be conducted and samples can be produced.
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Alantum_battery pack Metal foam offers the potential for increased energy density and improved performance in both nickel-metal hybrid batteries and metal-air batteries.

Altantum_fuel cell Used as a gas diffusion layer in fuel cells, metal alloy foam provides optimised equal distribution of the gas which allows increasing the power density across the entire membrane surface.

ogy. A promising approach is the use of metal-air batteries, whose performance can also be enhanced with the use of the porous material. As a gas diffusion layer, the foam optimises the ow rate of the metal electrode, such as zinc, with oxygen. This results in more even energy production and power output. The material is available as pure nickel foam and as metal alloy foam for this purpose. Following production, the latter is coated with a high-alloy,

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Energetica India would like to apologize for a couple of printing errors in our last issue (September/October 2011).  In the article, New & Upcoming Renewable Energy Companies , the picture printed in the name of Mr.Pradyot Pattnaik, Director, Alfa Solar Technologies Pvt Ltd is not Mr.Pattnaik.  Also in the same article, we wrongly printed name of Mr. Abhishek Harlalka, Director Tapan Solar in the paragraph highlighting the company PV Connect . The name of the person speaking for PV Connect is Mr.Vaibhav Mutha, the Director of The Company. We sincerely apologise to Mr.Pradyot Pattnaik and Mr.Vaibhav Mutha and to all our readers for any inconvenience caused.

ISOLUX-CORSAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover KOMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 MATEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 MEYER BURGER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PROINSO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 PV CONNECT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 REFUSOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 RENEWABLE ENERGY INDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 ROBOTINA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 SCHOTT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back Cover SKYTRON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 SOVA POWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 SPIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 SUN GEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 + Service Guide SUNTECH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 TAPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 TEAMTECHNIK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 TRA INTERNATIONAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 TRINA SOLAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gatefold Cover UL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 US DIGITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 WINDPRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


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