This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FOR SAFETY OFFICERS & SUPERVISORS
Model Questions for the Safety o! Inter"ie#s $For Safety Offi%er & Safety Su&er"isor' 1- What is safety( Safety is the art of protection against accident or any kind of loss or damage. Safety is protection against harm. Being safe means freedom from loss or harm anywhere (at work place or jo site or at home.! "- What is an a%%ident( #ny e$ent resulting into loss of any nature. #n unplanned% unwanted% une&pected e$ent causing loss to man% machine% property or en$ironment. 'he types of accidents are( Minor a%%ident or first aid case( the injured resumes the duty within 4) hours Ma)or accident( the injured is una le to attend duties within 4) hours 'emporary *isa!ility( the injured ecomes in$alid to attend duties after major accident Per+anent *isa!ility( the injured loses his or her lim or ody part for e$er *isaster( 'he major accident causing large scale loss to man% property or en$ironment Man+ade *isaster( spillage of oil% gas etc% arson% wrong operation etc. ,atural *isaster( a large loss due to natural calamities like hurricane% flood% 'sunami% earth+uake etc. E-a+&les of A%%idents. ,ire% e&plosion% Bursting of pressure $essels% collapse of any structure% drowning% electric shock% poisoning% trapping% hit y% trapping under% slip% fall% trip% release of dangerous su stance% spill of oil% leak of dangerous gas% collision of $ehicles% failure of machineries and so on /0AT TO *O I, CASE OF ACCI*E,TIA1 *EAT0( Infor+ the fa%tory +ana2er 3arri%ade the area Find out the #itness 'he manager will inform the death to the ,actory -nspector% Sr. -nspector of .olice of the area% and the nearest relati$e of the diseased person. /- What is ha4ard & ris5 in terms of safety0 1a2ard is anything with &otential to cause harm 3 a dangerous thing or situation is ha2ard (electricity can cause shock% fire can urn! Whereas 4isk is &ossi!ility of accident due to ha2ard present (electricity can cause shock when used improperly or fire can urn when used improperly! 5lectricity and fire carry possi ility of shock and urn accident if misused or so. What is dan2erous o%%urren%e or ,ear +iss a%%ident( #n e$ent in which an accident is just missed ut ne$er happened% there was strong possi ility of happening. 'he term dangerous occurrence and near miss is the same thing and it is reporta le to the safety officer. /- What is the duty or res&onsi!ility of a safety offi%er( Safety 6fficer is appointed y the employer to take care of the safety management duties like( Being a link etween the workforce and the management on safety issues. 'o carryout ha2ard analysis% safety analysis% safety sur$ey% prepare initial work permit% controlling the documentation% in$estigate accidents%
Suggest the management on safety issues% impro$e S7S (safety management system!% finding unsafe conditions and unsafe action% prepare checklist for the ha2ardous work and operation% and so on. 4- What is the duty of a safety su&er"isor( 1e is the key person who remains present all the time on ha2ardous jo s to see that all the safety instructions are followed% ..5 are properly used% unauthori2ed persons are kept away% arrange rescue% fire fighting if need arises. 8ommunicate to the safety officer in case of dou t and emergency and so on. 9- What is SMS and what are its components0 -t is safety +ana2e+ent syste+ adopted y the management to achie$e safety goals like creating safe work atmosphere% pro$iding safe machinery and e+uipment% gi$ing safety training to the workforce% implement safety rules and regulation and so on -ts components are like this( #- Poli%y( it is the written intent of the S7S in order to declare to the work force% ,actory inspectors and any ody concerned a out the goals and targets with regard to the safety (like% to achie$e 2ero accident target in the year ":1: etc! B- Or2anisation( to pro$ide man power and e+uipment and to decide the responsi ility of each mem er of the safety team. 8- Plannin2 & Control. to decide that how to complete the safety targets. 'his replies the +uestion how to do. 'his part contains% risk assessment% jo safety analysis% designing work permit% lock out tag out system% preparing safety check list for ha2ardous work% reporting and documenting procedures and so on *- Monitorin2( this is how to keep an eye on the acti$ities of S7S% checking% in$estigating% and inspecting $arious aspects of the safety. 'his part contains acti$ities like safety sur$ey% safety audit% safety inspection% sampling etc. 5- Audit( this is the complete e&amination and checking of the total S7S. 'his is done y internal and e&ternal audit team with a $iew to understand the functioning and the performance of the safety management system. ,- Re"ie#( this is the most important acti$ity to recheck re esta lish% re$iew the S7S when the need comes. -t is generally done when all the safety dada are collected in audit reports% accident reports etc. 'his is also done if there is change in policy% plant condition% change in safety rules% on research outcomes% instruction got form the manufacturers. technology changes etc. ;- What are the main %auses of a%%idents0 #ccidents don<t happen they are caused ecause of unsafe a%t and unsafe %ondition6 7ajority of times accident happens for these reasons on the part of the work force =ack of knowledge of the work and the ha2ardous condition present improper training -mproper attitude of the indi$idual doing ha2ardous acti$ities ignoring warnings and instructions making haste taking short cuts using defecti$e tools taking wrong position posture diso eying safety rule and so on. 'he unsafe %ondition of working% mainly due to the failure on the management part is >on maintenance of the work e+uipment delaying in repairs not pro$iding ..5s
ignoring complaints from the workforce miscommunications non super$ision improper lighting and $entilation poor or weak factory uilding structures poor +uality of tools and work e+uipment poor condition of electrical installation and so on. ?- What are the main components of A%%ident Pre"ention Plan( -ntroduction of suita le S7S .ro$ision of safe machines% tools% e+uipment% work place y the employer Setting of Safe Work .rocedure (S6.! Safety and other jo s 'raining ,ormation of safety rules -ntroduction of rele$ant ,actory #cts% 8onstruction and Building #ct% ,ire #ct and so on #ppointment of safety personnel (safety officer% safety super$isor% fire man% fire fighter% first aider% .ro$ision for super$ision% inspection% monitoring of jo s in general and ha2ardous acti$ities in particular etc. @- 5&plain fire trian2le0 What are the reasons of fire accident at work place0 Fire is %he+i%al rea%tion $e-other+i%'6 When a com usti le material urns it actually o&idi2ed with o&ygen in the air and release heat or flame. 'he urning or com ustion can e slow% moderate or fast or in same cases there is e&plosion. 'here are three elements necessary for fire to occur% they are Fuel 7 8om usti le material O-y2en or air 0eat (in the form of high temperatureA open flame% spark! -f any one of these elements is remo$ed the fire will e put off so we find three methods of fire fighting namely 1- Coolin2- where heat of the fire is remo$ed using cooling medium such as water etc. "- S+otherin27 here we smother (suffocate! the fire y remo$ing o&ygen or air /- Star"in27 in this case we keep the fire hungry y cutting fuel 1:- What are the major components of Fire Mana2e+ent Plan( 'he fire management plan has three major components such as A7 PREVE,TIO, $3efore Fire' -t contains pro$ision like ,ire risk assessment report .ro$ision for ,ire fighting e+uip (porta le or fi&ed! .ro$ision .ro$ision ,ire *etectors and fire alarm system 5mergency plan 'raining and mock drill .lan B 3 PROTECTIO, (When fire starts! 4aising ,ire #larm 5$acuation of workforce #ctual firefighting -nforming concerned authorities .rocedure for the Shutdown of plant if necessary Barricading the affected area .reser$ing the proof for fire in$estigation
C 8 PRECAUTIO, (actions during fire fighting and after fire is put off! 'o take initiati$e for minimi2ing fire damage 'o start drencher or cooling operation of surrounding area 'o remo$e the fuel or com usti le material from surrounding 'o gi$e first aid to injured 'o seek help from outside agencies 'o arrange for water supply% fire tender% additional support 'o preser$e proof for use in accident in$estigation 11- What are the types of ,ire% Bi$e e&les0 'here are asically four %lasses of fire namely( A Class Fire. solid fuel fire (coal% paper% cotton% jute% plastic% wood% synthetic fi er etc! 3 Class Fire. li+uid or semi li+uid fuels (such as kerosene% petrol% diesel% alcohol% ether% lu ricating oil% grease% wa& etc! C Class Fire( Bas fuel fire (such as hydrogen% ammonia% car on mono o&ide% hydrogen sulphide% methane% utane% propane etc! 9:7 0o# is Ele%tri%al Fire handled( Ele%tri%al fire starts due to fault in electrical e+uipment like wiring% transformer% electrical distri ution panels% ca les% motor% generator% atteries% so on. 'he material that urns in electrical fie is that which is used in construction of the electrical e+uipment. 'he fire starts due to short circuit or arcing or spark. 'hey ser$e as the source of ignition. 'he fire fighting is different from other ,irst of all cut off the electrical supply to the e+uipment >e$er use water ecause it will further damage the e+uip and gi$e shock to the firefighter Cse only 86" ecause it is inert gas and non conductor of electricity. -solate the neigh ouring circuit if possi le 1/- What are the general fire fighting e+uipments0 #- .orta le e&tinguisher B- ,i&ed firefighting system #mong porta le e&tinguishers you will find 97 Stored &ressure ty&e $C; 0alon FM :<<' :7 =as Cartrid2e ty&e $Foa+; *CP; and /ater CO: ' 14- What are the common fire fighting media0 COMMO, FIRE FI=0TI,= A=E,TS ARE. W#'54( does %oolin2 W#'54 6" does %oolin2 *8. (dry chemical .owder! does s+otherin2 86" (8#4B6> *- 6D-*5! does s+otherin2 ,6#7 does s+otherin2 ,-45 B=#>E5' does s+otherin2 S'5#7 does s+otherin2 *4F S#>* does s+otherin2 G#.6C4-S->B =-HC-* (halon A ,7 ":: etc.! does cooling I s+otherin2 ,-45 B5#'54 does s+otherin2 19- What are the fi-ed ,ire fi2htin2 .lants in use0 Water 1ydrant Wet 4iser (for high rise uilding! *ry 4iser for Building less than ; storeys Water Sprinkler 7581#>-8#= .46.64'-6>#'5 '#>E ,6#7
,6#7 B5>54#'64 .=#>' *eluge System 1igh Gelocity Water Spray System *rencher >on Water Based System like *8. .lant% 86" flooding System% ,7 ":: total gas ,looding system 1;- What are the Sources of -gnition at Work .lace0 6.5> ,=#75 (,467 16' W64E! ,4-8'-6>#= 15#' S76E->B 7#'54-#= S'#'-8 81#4B5S 15#'54 16' SC4,#85 6, 7#81->5S (5>B->5S% B6-=54 5'8! 5=58'4-8#= S164' 8-48C-' S.#4E ,467 7#81->5 (grinding% cutting .olishing etc! #4S6> (purposeful damage! 1?- What are $arious types of &orta!le fire e-tin2uishers( Water 86" 86" ,oam *8. *ry Sand Bucket ,ire Blanket Water ucket 1)- What is the /or5 Per+it Syste+0 What are the types of /P( /or5 &er+it is the written document which carries information on the ha2ards and the control measures take on dangerous jo s like electrical work% chemical handling% working on height% confined space work or entry% e&ca$ation work% lifting of hea$y o jects% or any kind of dangerous jo wanting risk assessment and ela orate ha2ard controls. 9>7 /hat are the %o++on a%ti"ities %arried out at Constru%tion Site( 8onstruction -ndustry is ha2ardous industry ecause a no of ha2ardous acti$ities are done at one point of time% no of work force is more from different contractors% there is possi ility of lack of communication among working agencies% the site is full of physical ha2ards like noise% dust% $i ration% a normal heat% lifting of hea$y o jects% 'he major acti$ities are 5D8#G#'-6> 86>845'->B 15#GF 7#'54-#= 1#>*=->B S'64#B5 6, 1#J#4*6CS 7#'54-#= (like steel% diesel% gas cylinders% chemicals% oil% grease% paints etc! 6.54#'-6> 6, 15#GF 5#4'1 76G->B 7#81->5S (like e&ca$ator% cranes% atching plant% generators% compressors% pumps% ack hoe% road rollers% etc.! 16' W64E (like welding% cutting% grinding% heating% ri$eting% polishing% scru ing! W64E->B #' 1-5B1' S8#,,6=*->B 548'-6> *-S75>'#=->B 6.5#4'-6> 6, .6W54 '66=S (like drill machine% grinder% cutter% $i rator% nail gun! 86>,->5* S.#85 W64E MAC0I,E #>* TOO1 OPERATIO, =-E5 W5=*->B% 8C''->B B4->*->B% 81-.->B .#->'->B% .6=-S1->B% W66* W64E->B (for shuttering% shoring% doors% windows framing% form work etc!
":- What is the common layout at construction site0 'he most common layout of construction site includes ,5>8->B 6, '15 #45# W#'817#> .6S' S'64#B5 4667% S'64#B5 F#4* S58C4-'F .6S' #' G#4-6CS =68#'-6>S 8#>'55> '6-=5' #>* B#'1 ,#8-=-'F .64'#B=5 64 '57.64#4F 6,,-85 86>'48#'64S 6,,-85S 86>,5445>85 4667 .#4E->B #45# ,64 '15 15#GF 5HC-.75>' .#4E->B 6, '15 G51-8S#=S #8'C#= 86>S'4C8'-6> S-'5 45S'4-8'5* #45# *5.5>*->B C.6> '15 >55* 7#'54-#= '5S'->B =#B HC#=-'F 86>'46= =#B 75*-8#= 4667 T0E COMMO, ACCI*E,TS at constriction side are ,all of person from the height ,all of material from the height 'rip% slip% fall at the same le$el ,alling into e&ca$ation ,ire 5&plosion =eakage of ha2ardous material (ha2mat like acid% caustic% sprit% thinner% pesticide etc.! 5lectric shock% urn e&plosion ,ailure of e+uipment and tools 1eat stroke% sun urn% heat cramp (this is medical emergency! *rowning into the water tank% water filled e&ca$ation 7achine accidents (such as trapping under% hit y% crushing under% ejection of machine parts% failure of structure% entanglement% Cnconscious ness due to dust% smoke% chemical leakage etc. "1- What are the common I, URIES occur at construction site0 6pen wounds like cut laceration% ruise% puncture% crush% leeding Burn oth electrical and fire 8hemical urn Sprain ,racture -nternal injuries ,ainting% .oisoning ,oreign particles in the eye
""- What is E?CAVATIO,0 What are the related ha2ards0 1ow to control them0 #n E?CAVATIO, is man made cut or hole 96@ + elow the ground. RE1ATE* 0AAAR*S 8#G->B -> (fall of lose soil into the hole! ,all of person (into the hole! ,all of $ehicle (into the hole! *amage to underground utilities *rowning 0AAAR* CO,TRO1S shoring% enching% sloping arricading% sign% designated way% arricading% sign% designated way% sur$ey through authorities% permission from authorities% training and instruction to workforce% super$ision arricading% sign% instruction% fi&ing safety net
"/- What is /or5 at 0ei2ht0 What are the related ha2ards0 1ow to control them0 #ny jo done at the height of 1.) m a o$e the ground le$el is work at the height. RE1ATE* 0AAAR*S ,all of person ,all of material 5lectric shock or urn from heated surface ,ailure of structure 0AAAR* CO,TRO1S guard rail% knee rail% and toe guard. Safety net% arricading% sign% training% use of safety harness% fall arrestor% shock a sor er toe guard. Safety net% arricading% sign% training% suita le clearance% instruction% sign inspection y competent person% super$ision
"4- What is Confined S&a%e0 What are the related ha2ards0 1ow to control them0 'he CO,FI,E* SPACE is an enclosed space where a person does not regularly work% it has limited entry and e&it there is lack of o&ygen% has darkness% poisoning due to to&ic material. ,ire and e&plosion due to com usti le su stance% RE1ATE* 0AAAR*S =ack of 6&ygen 'o&icity ,ire e&plosion *arkness *anger of energies from sources Slip trip fall 6ther re+uirements 0AAAR* CO,TRO1S use of forced $entilation% S8B#% 8#B#% make opening if possi le. checking gas y meter% purging% cleaning checks y e&plosimeter% $entilation% placing fire e&tinguishers using "4 G lights% in uilt headlights in the safety helmet% attery lights lock out tag out energies like pressure% temperatures% steam% mechanical energies% electric supply etc. use of ..5s% notice% instructions etc. posting of rescuer% continuous monitoring of atmosphere% arranging rescue e+uipment% am ulance% first aider% and emergency plan kept ready
"9- What is Ele%tri%al #or50 What are the related ha2ards0 1ow to control them0 'he jo s on electrical circuits like repairs% maintenance% changing of items% monitoring of electrical machines like 'ransformers% motors% generators% transmission lines% ca les% circuit reakers% control panels% distri ution panels etc are electrical work. RE1ATE* 0AAAR*S Shock (can cause death% se$ere injuries% urn! ,ire and e&plosion Other reBuire+ents Cse of insulated tools% +uality e+uipment% ..5S like ru 0AAAR* CO,TRO1S keeping competent person for the jo % using ..5s% using +uality e+uipments% cooling mechanism% inspection% repairs% maintenance% super$ision% placing fire e&tinguishers (86"! er mat on the floor% shock proof ru er hand glo$es% introduction of =68E 6C' '#B 6C' SFS'57
";- What are the types of 1A**ERS and SCAFFO1*I,=S0 What are the related ha2ards0 1ow to control them0 0AAAR*S OF USI,= 1A**ERS ,all of person% fall of material% electric shock% failure of ladder structure ,all of ladder% hitting of ladders% unauthori2ed use of ladders leading to accidents etc. USE OF 1A**ERS. only light jo s are done on the ladder like inspection% wiring% plastering% painting% storing% mo$ing light loads etc. TYPES OF 1A**ERS Straight ladder ,olding ladder Step ladder 5&tension ladder 4oof ladder 1ook ladder 8age ladder 8at ladder Spiral ladder ,i&ed ladder 5tc. 0O/ TO CORRECT1Y USE T0E 1A**ERS -ssue ladder to only competent person -nspect the ladder efore use Select right ladder for the right jo 8lean the ladder from dust oil and grease to a$oid slipping .ut the ladder on firm% le$eled ground Eeep the angle a out ?9 degree =ock the spreader (if it is folding ladder! 'ie the ladder at the ottom or manually support 'ie the ladder at the top (anchoring! Cse safety elt and anchor it at appropriate point *on<t carry material in hand while clim ing up or down ,ace the ladder while clim ing up or down 7aintain the ladder as per the schedule =adder should e repaired y the competent person only *iscard damaged ladder if it is not possi le to reduce the si2e Store the ladder properly one meter a o$e ground le$el.
/0AT IS SCAFFO1*I,=( S%affoldin2 is raised% temporary platform to work on height at and eyond 1.4m -t is erected from 7S pipes joined y couplers. 'he top is guarded y rails and work platform is fi&ed to stand and work on. 'he ase has 7S ase plates% wooden sole oards. TYPES OF SCAFFO1*I,=S -ndependent scaffolding (unsupported! .utlog scaffolding (supported y ties! Scaffolding 'ower (mounted on wheels! ,a ricated scaffolding Slung scaffolding Suspended scaffolding Birdcage scaffolding 'russ out scaffolding Boatswain 8hair SCAFFO1*I,= ACCI*E,TS ,all of person% fall of material% electric shock% failure of scaffolding structure ,all of ladder% hitting of scaffolding% and unauthori2ed use of scaffolding leading to accidents I,SPECTIO, OF SCAFFO1*I,=S 'he ground is firm and le$eled 'he components of the scaffolding are free from defects (post% couplers% transom% ledger% guard rails% sole oard% scaffold oards% access ladder etc.! 'he si2es of the components are correct 8omponents are rightly fi&ed under competent super$ision Work permit is issued for the erection -nspection card is attached #rea around the scaffolding is arricaded if re+uired "?- What is 1o%5 out Ta2 Out system0 (1OTO! 1o%5 out means positi$ely Isolatin2 and physically &uttin2 the lo%5 on the source of energies feeding to the area of work Ta22in2 out means putting the ta2 on the source of isolation% the '#B shows the jo to e done% super$isor<s name% W. num er and other details. 1OTO is re+uired for the ha2ardous jo s where one wants to e positi$e a ut the -solation. Such jo s are eing done process industries% 5lectrical jo s 8hemical cleaning .urging 7aintenance of process e+uip like tanks% $essels% pipes% pits etc. :)- What is Me%hani%al 1iftin20 What are the related ha2ards0 1ow to control them0 'he lifting of hea$y o jects use $arious types of 8ranes or other lifting machines such as fork lift% hoist% tower crane% wheel and a&le and so on. RE1ATE* 0AAAR*S ,all of material 1it y load arricading% keeping riggers 'oppling of machine 0AAAR* CO,TRO1S proper securing% trained rigger competent operator inspection% maintenance
,ailure of crane 'ouching 1igh 'ension lines 7achine engine accidents
competent operator% insp. 7anit. clearance% super$ision% arricading guards on mo$ing parts% locks%
"@- What are the types of Cranes and other 1iftin2 *e"i%es0 76B-=5 84#>5 (on sites runs on chains% has oom and re$ol$ing ca in! '6W54 84#>5 ( uilt of single $ertical steel structure% has re$ol$ing arm Ahori2ontal oom B#>'4F 84#>5 (has four footings% run on rails% used on port! K-B 84#>5 (multiple used in factories% loading unloading ay% single post% hori2ontal oom% cannot mo$e% stationary type! '5=5S86.-8 84#>5 mo ile on huge tires% hydraulic mechanism% and oom can e&tend like telescope! 6G54 15#* 84#>5 (mostly indoor type% runs on o$er head rails% electrically operated! CRA,E SAFETY TIPS '6 B5 6.54#'5* BF 867.5'5>' .54S6> 867.5'5> 4-BB54 (S-B>#=54A,=#B 7#>! >55*5* 4C> 6> ,-47 B46C>* =6#* =-7-'S '6 B5 6BS54G5* '5S'5* #>* 8-4'-,-8#'5S 6B'#->5* #SS68-#'5* 4-BB->B B5#4S% 46.5S% 166ES% S1#8E=5S '5S'5* 7#->'5>#>85 S815*C=5 ,6==6W5* 4-SE #SS5SS75>' *6>5 ,64 84-'-8#= =6#*S SC.54G-6> >585SS#4F W15> ->6.54#'-6> .#4E5* -> *5S-B>#'5* #45# /:- What is *e+olition O&eration0 What are the related 1a2ardsA how to control0 *EMO1ITIO, means remo$ing or reaking the unwanted or old structure% plants% and any such facilities. 'his can e 488% .88 or S'55= structure or plants. *EMO1ITIO, %ontains "arious o&erations +anually or !y +a%hine su%h as B#S 8C''->B S#W 8C''->B B4#5E->B BF *576=-'-6> 1#7754 (.neumatic% mechanical all% sledge hammer! C>S845W->B B6='S% >C'S 5'8 .C4B->B #8-* 8=5#>->B S'5#7->B *4#->->B 8=5#>->B 8=5#4->B *C7.->B 6, *5B4-S *CS' 86>'46= >6-S5 86>'46=
RE1ATE* 0AAAR*S Slip fall trip ,all of person ,all of material ,ire% e&plosion .hysical injuries .remature collapse
0AAAR* CO,TRO1S ..5s% *esignated walkway% clearing in time% signs% arricading safety harness% safety net% arricading% and guard rails safety net% arricading% guard rails purging% hot work permit% ,ire fighting e+uipment% fire watch instructions% notice% training ..5s pro$ision of first aid facilities% first aider. risk assessment% temporary supports% instruction% sign% super$ision
/1- What are the -mportance of 1i2htin2 and Ventilation System0 'he work place must ha$e ade+uate lighting arrangements for jo s =ight jo 19: lu& .assage walkways 1:: lu& 6rdinary jo 9:: lu& 7inute jo s 1:::lu& Workplace must ha$e fresh air circulation of C<%u+D&ersonDhour '1545 #45 '1455 'F.5S 6, G5>'-=#'-6> >#'C4#= G5>'-=#'-6> =68#=-S5* G5>'-=#'-6> ,6485* G5>'-=#'-6> /"- What do you mean y Che+i%al Safety0 Pre"entin2 the ill effe%ts of %he+i%al to +an; +a%hine and en"iron+ent6 C0EMICA1 are e&tensi$ely used in industries like medicines% pesticide% detergents% paints% acids% alkalis% oil% gas% powders etc C0EMICA1S are TO?IC (to health% can go into ody y inhalation% a sorption through skin% ingestion through mouth.! IRRITATIVE (to skin% eyes% respiratory system etc! CORROSIVE (other metals and materials causing decay and failure! F1AMMA31E (like ether% sprit% sol$ents% paints! E?P1OSIVE ($apours forming e&plosi$e mi&ture! T1V L '145S16=* =-7-' G#=C5 (minimum amount of to&ic su stance that a worker can withstand for ) hours without ad$erse effect on health! T/A L '-75 W5-B1'5* #G54#B5 (minimum amount of to&ic su stance that a worker can withstand for ) hours without ad$erse effect on health! STE1 L S164' '547 5D.6SC45 =-7-' (ma& amount of to&ic su stance a worker can withstand for 19 minutes without ad$erse effect on health! PPML .#4'S .54 7-==-6> (+uantity of to&ic su stance in $apour or gas form y $olume into air! M2D%u!i%++ L 7-==-B4#7 .54 75'45 8CB5 (minimum amount of to&ic dust in milligram present in one cu ic meter of the air!
C0EMICA1 SAFETY TIPS '1545 7CS' B5 MS*S (material safety data sheet! for each chemical stored% transported and used at sites. Workforce must e trained and ha2ards communicated to them 8hemicals shall e stored in properly designed containers% place in secured place Suita le antidotes shall e pro$ided Suita le fire fighting e+uipment to e placed 5mergency leakage of gas% spillage of li+uids must e appreciated efore hand 5mergency plan must e drawn out 7ock drill should e done periodically PPEs of Che+i%al Safety ,#85 S1-5=* 1#>* B=6G5S #.46> 45S.-4#'64 B6BB=5S //- What are the Stora2e 0a4ards0 1ow to control them0 #ny material ha2ardous or non ha2ardous must e properly transported% stored and used .roper storage means they should e protected against fall% spill or leakage .laced at designated location 4ight thing at the right place Suita le marked >otice put 4ecords maintained #ppliances for lifting and shifting pro$ided 1ouse keeping done (right thing at right place% cleanliness maintained! RE1ATE* 0AAAR*S ,all of material ,all of person Slip fall trip 'rapped under 8rushed y ,ire and e&plosion 0AAAR* CO,TRO1S safety net% de ris chute% arricading% and sign oard% hard hats safety harness% safety net% training and instruction clearing de ris% o stacles% safety shoes% immediately% designated walkways% arricading completely reaking the structure% using machine to lift% a$oid manual handling completely reaking the structure% using machine to lift% a$oid manual handling purging% draining cleaning% placing fire e&tinguisher% hot work permit #ccess and egress of ade+uate si2e% free from o stacles%
place of refuge% $entilation% drinking water facility
/4- What are the ha2ards related to stora2e of %o+!usti!le Fla++a!le Material0 ,lamma le materials can e petrol% diesel% =.B cylinders% coal% and paper% plastic and so 0AAAR* CO,TRO1S 1- #G6-* S6C485 6, -B>-'-6>A 15#' =-E5( 6.5> ,=#75 (,467 16' W64E! ,4-8'-6>#= 15#' S76E->B 7#'54-#= S'#'-8 81#4B5S 15#'54 16' SC4,#85 6, 7#81->5S (5>B->5S% B6-=54 5'8! 5=58'4-8#= S164' 8-48C-' "- S5.54#'5 4667 ,64 '15 S'64#B5 /- 81#-> #44#>B575>' ,64 8F=->*54 4- 8F=->*54S E5.' #>* S58C45* -> C.4-B1' .6S-'-6> 9- =-B1' SW-'81 '6 B5 .=#85* 6C' 6, '15 4667 ;- >6 S76E->B A >6 6.5> ,=#75 S-B>S .C' ?- *6CB=5 5>'4F #' 6..6S-'5 =68#'-6> -> '15 4667 )- 7#4EE 57.'F 8F=->*54S @- CS5 '46==5F ,64 '4#>S.64'#'-6> 1:- =-HC-* ,C5=S '6 B 5.=#85* -> .46.54 86>'#->54A*4C7 11- '15 *4C7 8#. '6B1'=F 8=6S5* 1"- B66* G5>'-=#'-6> -> '15 4667 1/- B66* =-B1'->B -> '15 4667 14- 8=5#>=->5SS .46B4#775 ,6==6W5* 19- W64E,6485 '#4->5* ,64 '4#>S.64'->B% CS->B #>* S'64->B '581>-8 /9- What is E+er2en%y Res&onse Plannin2 $ERP'0 What are its components0 #>F S-'C#'-6> #' W64E.=#85 '1#' 8#> 8#CS5 7#K64 #88-*5>' -S #> 5754B5>8F #>* S16C=* B5 .=#>>5* '6 1#>*=5 W5== B5,645 '1#' 1#..5>S. '1-S 8#> #=S6 B5 #> ->8-*5>''1#' 8#> #,,58' '15 5>'-45 W64E,6485.
EMER=E,CIES 8#> B5 =arge scale fire 5&plosion ,ailure of hea$y duty e+uipment (tower carne% crane% hoist% lift! =eakage of to&ic gas (chlorine% hydrogen sulphide% ammonia etc! Spill of chemical and so on 8ollapse of structure (wall% sla % scaffolding% $ehicle accidents!
.4685*C45 '6 *4#W ERP (5754B5>8F 45S.6>S5 .=#>! PART A 1- *6 4-SE #SS5SS75>' "- 64B#>-S5 '5#7( #ppoint persons to e$acuate% to do first aid% to carry out emergency repairs% control the plant (shut down% start up etc.! /- 7#E5 #G#-=#B=5 emergency e+uipment% tools% and rescue kits as per the re+uirement 4- 7#E5 #G#-=#B=5 .#S (.CB=-8 #*45SS SFS'57! 9- *5G5=6. .4685*C4 5'6 *58=#45 5754B5>8F (Siren% hooter% alarm! ;- *5G5=6. 5G#8C#'-6> .=#>% ,-45 ,-B1'->B .=#> 5'8. ?- *5S-B>#'5 86>'46= 85>'45 PART 3 1- '4#-> '15 W64E,6485 '6 45S.6>* 864458'=F -> 5754B5>8F "- 7#E5 ,->#= 86.-5S 6, ERP .=#85 '157 -> #== '15 *5.' /- 7#E5 S815*C=5 ,64 768E*-== 4- 6BS54G5 '15 B51#G-6C4 6, '15 .#4'-8-.#>'S *C4->B *4-==S 9- 45864* '15 ,->*->BS% -7.46G5% *5G5=6.% and 81#>B5 -, 45HC-45* /;- What will you do after an #ccident of a worker0 16W '6 do #ccident -n$estigation ACCI*,ET RESPO,SE PROCE*URE AT /OREP1ACE FIRST P0ASE S6C>* 5754B5>8F S-45> 64 S16C' '6 #''4#8' '15 #''5>'-6> ->,647 5754B5>8F S54G-85S% 75*-8#= *5.#4'75>' 64 54. ,-45 *5.'% 86>'46= 85>'45 B-G5 ,-4S' #-* '6 ->KC45* .C' 6,, ,-45 64 86>'46= =5#E#B5 #S '15 8#S5 7#F B5 #44#>B5 '6 '4#>S.64' '15 G-8'-7 .45S5G5 '15 5G-*5>85 B#44-8#*5 '15 S-'5 6, #88-*5>' SECO,* P0ASE ->'54G-5W '15 5F5 W-'>5SS 45864* '15-4 S'#'575>'S 7#E5 ->G5S'-B#'-6> '5#7 86==58' #>* #>#=FS5 '15 5G-*5>85 CS5 ->G5S'-B#'-6> 75'16*S =-E5 ,75#% ,'#% 9W 11 5'8 ,->* 6C4 '15 8#CS5 6, #88-*5>' *58-*5 86>'46= -7.=575>' '15 86>'46= 7#E5 81#>B5S -> '15 54. /?- What is the importance of PPEs0 When they are used0 PERSO,A1 PROTECTIVE EQUIPME,T; ..5 is used only when the e&isting ha2ard is not a$oida le y elimination% isolation% reduction%. 'here is certain important consideration in the use of ..5s -' S16C=* B5 6, #..46G5* HC#=-'F (-S 7#4E5*! -> B66* 86>*-'-6> '15 CS54 -S '4#->5* '6 CS5 S'645* .46.54=F 8=5#>5*% *-S->,58'5* 45864*S 7#->'#->5* ->S.58'5* B5,645 CS5 .54-6*-8#==F '5S'5* 4576G5* 6C' 6, S54G-85 -, ,6C>* *5,58'-G5
/)- What are the PPEs used in /or5in2 at 0ei2ht0 S#,5'F 1#4>5SS ,C== B6*F 1#4>5SS ,#== #445S'64 *46. =->5 #S85>*654% *5S85>*54 S#,5'F >5' *5B4-S >5' BC#4* 4#-= E>55 4#-= '65 4#-= B#44-8#*->B 5'8 /@- What are the ..5s used in Che+i%al 0andlin2 operation0 ,#85 S1-5=* B6BB=5S 1#>* B=6G5S #.46> 8#4'4-*B5 45S.-4#'64S 8#>-S'54 'F.5 45S.-4#'64S% S8B#% 5=S#% 8#B# 4:- What are the PPEs used in Confined S&a%e operation0 1#4* 1#' S#,5'F S165S% BC7 B66'S =5#'154 B=6G5S S8B#% 8#B# ,#85 S1-5=* B6BB=5S ,C== B6*F .456'58'-6> SC-'S 41- What are the PPEs used in Fire Fi2htin2 operation0 ,-45 SC-'S .46D-7-'F SC-'S 5>'4F SC-'S 15=75' ,#85 S8455> =#'154 B=6G5S S#,5'FS165S 4"- What are the PPEs used in 1ea$y 7achines operation0 S#,5'F 15=75' S#,5'FS165S B6-=54 SC-' =5#'154 B=6G5S
4/- What are the ..5s used in 5lectric #rc or Bas Welding operation0 =#5'154 B=6G5S S#,5'F S165S W5=*->B S8455> B6-=54 SC-'S 44- What is Ele%tri%al 0a4ards and 5lectrical safety0 5lectricity is a form of energy -ts fundamental units are( VO1TA=E L 5=58'4-8#= .45SSC45 (-> VO1T! CURRE,TL ,=6W 6, 5=58'4-8-'FA 5=58'46> -> '15 8-48C-' (-> AMPERE! RESISTA,CEL 6..6S-'-6> '6 ,=6W 6, 8C445>' (-> O0M! PO/ERL 8#.#8-'F '6 *6 W64E (G D -! /ATT I,*USTRIA1 USE OF E1ECTRICITY 4C>>->B =-B1' #>* 15#GF 7#81->5S 84#>5S% =-,'S% 76'64S% =-B1'->B S7#== .6W54 '66=S =-E5 *4-==% B4->*54% 8C''54% W5=*->B 7#81->5% 5'8 MA OR E1ECTRICA1 0AAAR*S. S168E BC4>% 8#4*-#8 #445S'% 45S.-4#64F #445S'% *#7#B5 '6 ->'54>#= 64B#>S ,-45 5D.=6S-6> S586>*#4F 5,,58'S 8#> B5 ,#== ,467 15-B1' 64 S#75 =5G5=% W46>B 76G575>' 6, 7#81->5 49- What are the PPEs used in Ele%tri%al o&eration0 4CBB54 B=6G5S 4CBB54 7#' 6> '15 ,=664 6, 6.54#'-6> ->SC=#'5* '66=S (1#7754% .=-54% S845W *4-G54% 8C''54 5'8.! ->SC=#'5* S,#5'F S165S ->SC=#'-6> S1-5=* ,64 8=5#4#>85 ,467 =-G5 .#4' 16' S'-8E% B46C>*->B W-45% 8=#7.S% 4;- What are /or5 EBui&+ent; Tool and Ma%hine Safety( /ORE EQUIPME,TS *rill% grinder% welding transformer% wood cutting machine% metal cutting machine% air compressor% electric generator% $i rator% concrete pump% nail gun% demolition hammer% soon 0EAVY MAC0I,ES 8ranes% do2ers% scrapers% e&ca$ators% ack hoe% dumper% transit mi&er% atching plant% loader% con$eyor% so on MAC0I,E 0AAAR*S are( (5>'-85! E,TA,=1EME,T% ropes% wires getting wound in rotating % mo$ing parts of the machine TRAPPI,= hand% finger% leg% etween two or more parts of the machine and crushed IMPACT hitting y the machine part there y falling or getting injured CO,TACT with rotating or mo$ing art and getting injured E CTIO, means reaking of machine part% flying and hitting.
4?- What is 0AAOP( 0AAOP is 0AAAR* & OPERAT3I1TY Study6 This study is +ostly done in Pro%ess Plants6 'he ha2ards are like 1-B1' 64 =6W '57.54#'C45S 1-B1 .45SSC45% =6W .45SSC45 1-B1 ,=6W 6, =-HC-* 64 B#S '4-..->B 6, .C7.S% 867.45SS64S% 866=->B ,#> 5'8. ,-45% 5D.=6S-6>% =5#E#B5 6, '6D-8 7#'54-#=S 4)- What is RISE ASSESSME,T( 4-SE -S .6S-B-='F 6, #88-*5>' *C5 '6 1#J#4* 4-SE #SS5SS75>' (4#! is done efore starting any ha2ardous operation or acti$ity. -t is the most important part of the ACCI*E,T PREVE,TIO, programme. 7#K64 S'5.S -> RA I*E,TIFYI,= this means recogni2ing the ha2ards% its nature% its se$erity at work place *ECI*I,= this means finding that who are the people at workplace getting affected if the accident takes place and how much injury it will cause EVA1UATI,= this is done on the matri& of se$erity and possi ility of accident on the scale of 1-7- = (high medium low! REPORTI,= after the study is done each finding is written down and recorded for future reference REVIE/I,= is done when condition changes such as go$ernment rule% research findings% changes in plant% and changes in process and so on. 4@- What is Fire Ris5 Assess+ent( Before designing any fire protection system and fire 6rganisation a complete fire risk assessment is necessary and it is generally done y fire officer or safety officer with a team of e&perts. 'he main components of '15 ,-45 4-SE #SS5SS75>' are( #- Identifyin2 the fire ha2ard in the work area. ('he type of fuel used% +uantum of fire load! B- *e%idin2 who the people are and what properties will e affected if the fire reaks out. (What are the means of firefighting% how to fight fire! 8- E"aluate the fire risk on the scale of se$erity and possi ility (e$aluating the two on the scale of 1igh 7edium and =ow! *- Re%ordin2 the findings of the e&ercise in proper manner so as it can help in implementing the plan! 5- Re"ie#in2 the findings and other factors when finali2ing the plan. 9:- What are the Co+&onents of SAFETY AU*IT( SAFETY AU*IT means thoroughly checking the entire safety management system. 'his is complete e&amination done once in a year with ready check list and marks are gi$en to each component of the audit form. 'he 6rganisation is e&pected to score F<G marks. 'he main %o+&onents are( ,-45 #=#47 M .46'58'-6> SFS'57 57545B>8F .#=>>->B W64E .547-' SFS'57 8158E=-S' ,64 G#4-6CS 5HC-.75>' S6. (safe operating system! =68E6C' M'#B 6C' SFS'57 S#,5'F '4#->->B SFS'57% 45.64'S M 45SC='S S#,5'F SC4G5F% 45.64'S *68C75>'#'-6>S #88-*>5'S% ,-4S' #-* #8S5S% >5#47-SS 45.64'S #88-*>5>' ->G5S'-B#'-6> G5>'-=#'-6> M -==C7->#'-6> 86>*-'-6> 45.64'S S-B>S% B#44-8#*->B% B6#4*S 5'8.
..5s S'68E 86>*-'-6> .46'58'-6> ,64 S=-.% ,#== M '4-. W#=EW#FS% BC#4* 4#-=S% 7#>16=5 86G54S 86>*-'-6>S '5S' 854'-,-8#'5S 6, W-45 46.5S% .45SSC45 G5SS5=S% 166ES% .-.5 5'8 =-85>S5 6, 867.5'5>' .54S6>S =-E5 W5=*54% 5=58'4-8-#>S. 6.54#'64S 6, 84#>5% 6'154 7#81->54-5S 5'8. 91- What are the Co+&onents of a Safety Or2anisation( OR=A,SISATIO, is a set up of manpower and allotment of their roles in order to achie$e the safety aims and o jecti$es. 'his arrangement also consists of tools and machineries% e+uipments re+uired to do the safety jo s. 'he 6rganisation has the reporting system. 'he chief is the safety +ana2er% assisted y Safety en2ineer Safety officer ,ire officer and Safety coordinator 'he ottom le$el workforce has Safety super$isors ,ire super$isors ,ire fighters Safety watch Safety steward Safety technicians like fitter% welder% scaffolder% and electrician and so on 9"- What are $arious Physi%al 0a4ards and how they are controlled0 1#J#4*S '1#' 8#CS5 1#47 '6 1C7#> B6*F -S .1FS-8#= 1#J#4* =ike ,OISE can cause hearing pro lem% stress% distraction *UST A SMOEE can cause disease% ill health% suffocation% unconsciousness% death E?TREME TEMPERATURE (too hot or too cold! can cause urn scalding% heat e&haustion% heat crampN cold can cause cold urn% hypothermia% loss of de&terity RA*IATIO, (CG% -4% B=#45% 45,=58'-6>% *-7 =-B1'! skin urn% failure of internal organs% cancer etc VI3RATIO, can cause joint pain% swelling% pain% trigger finger (swelling in tendon! '15 86>'46= .4685*C45 includes 5=->->#'-6> 45*C8'-6> -S6=#'-6> 86>46= ..5s CS5 (only if other control is not possi le! *-S8-.=->5 ( y drafting S6.% -nstruction% rules% notice% signs% monitoring% inspection etc.! 9/- What is /RU1*( What is the remedy0 -' -S OW64E 45=#'5* C..54 =-7B *-S64*54P '15 C..54 =-7B of the operator of machine or e+uipment or tool etc. can e damaged temporarily or permanently 'he upper lim region is neck% shoulder% upper arms% upper ack and head 'he disorder happens when the lim is su jected to repeated mo$ement% force% jerk% tension or continuously working in the same posture etc. T0E CO,TRO1 .46.54 *5S-B>->B 6, '15 '66=S% 5HC-.75>'S M 7#81->54-5S '4#->->B 6, '15 6.54#'64 .46.54 .6S'C45 6, '15 6.5#4'64 5#S5 -> 6.54#'-6>#= ,5#'C45S ->'54G#=S -> *C'F 16C4S
81#>B->B K6B 6, '15 6.54#'64S 864458' 7#>C#= 1#>*=->B CS5 6, 7#'54-#= 1#>*=->B 5HC-.75>'S 94- What is 31EVE0 M 1E1 M UE10 'hese terms elong to e&plosi$e gasses in the industries like methane% utane% propane% acetylene% hydrogen% ammonia% hydrogen sulphide and so on. When in a closed atmosphere the gas and the air form a mi&ture in particular proportion % the said mi&ture ecomes e&plosi$e that means the mi&ture will e&plode on introduction of heat source such as open flame% electrical spark etc. 'he 7inimum Qage of gas (=6W54 5D.=6S-G5 =-7-'! and remaining part eing atmospheric air form e&plosi$e mi&ture 'he ma&imum Qage of gas (C..54 5D.=6S-G5 =-7-F! and remaining part eing atmospheric air form e&plosi$e mi&ture. ,or e&le( Methane Pro&ane 3utane A%etylene 0ydro2en 1E1 ;.9 ".4 1.9 ".9 4.1 UE1 1? @.9 @ ): ?4
3E1EVE Boiling =i+uid 5&panding Gapour 5&plosion When an e&plosi$e gas or flamma le li+uid is placed in a pressure $essel which has a particular pressure taking capa ility% the $essel will e&plode if the pressure is increased y some way. 'his normally happens when y mistake the temperature of the $essel is increased. Cpon increase in temperature the li+uid inside starts oiling hence e&panding takes place. 'his temperature related e&pansion increases the inside pressure. When this pressure increases eyond the earing limit of the $essel the $essel e&plodes and the fire may occur. 99- What are the 0a4ards present in a Refinery0 'here are mainly two types of ha2ards in the refinery. ,irst is the plant ha4ard and second is ha2ards related to handlin2% stora2e% use of %o+!usti!le 2asses and oils in large +uantity. 'hese are fire% e-&losion; s&illa2e; lea5; to-i% ha4ards6 #nother ha2ard is %he+i%al ha4ards ecause the raw materials and the finished products in refinery are asically organic chemicals. 9;- What are the main components of 0a4ard Control in a Refinery( 'he main components of refinery ha2ard control are S#,5'F 64B#>-S#'-6> ,-45 *5.#4'75>' (with man% e+uipment% training% drill! .=#>' S,5'F 4C=5S S6.s SFS'57 =6'6 SFS'57 W. SFS'57 5754B5>8F .#=> 8158E =-S'S
9?- What are the 0a4ards of a Pro%ess Plant0 PROCESS P1A,T is a series of machineries in particular order operated so as to get finished products in the end 'hese are mainly 8157-8#= .#=>'S .6W54 .=#>' 5=58'4-8#= *-S'4-BC'-6> SFS'57 W#'54 SC..=F SFS'57 S5W54#B5 SFS'57 etc. The ha4ard list is. 7#81->5 1#J#4*S .4685SS 1#J#4*S (pressure% temperature% spill% leakage of to&ic gas% fire% e&plosion! 7#'54-#= 1#>*=->B 1#J#4*S S'64#B5 1#J#4*S W64E->B #' 1-5B1' 1#J#4*S 86>,->5* S.#85 1#J#4*S 'he main components of PROCESS 0AAAR* CO,TRO1 are S#,5'F 64B#>-S#'-6> ,-45 *5.#4'75>' (with man% e+uipment% training% drill! .=#>' S,5'F 4C=5S S6.s SFS'57 =6'6 SFS'57 W. SFS'57 5754B5>8F .#=> 8158E =-S'S 9)- What do you mean y a Co+&etent Person( COMPETE,T PERSO, is one who can perform his or her duty with ease and without accident or wrong operation that can cause damage to the machine or materials. 'he competent person is authori2ed y the go$ernment authority pertaining to health and safety like *B,#S=-. .W*% 5lectrical -nspectorate% Steam Boiler and Smoke >uisance 8ontroller% ,ire *epartment etc. Co+&eten%e has three %o+&onents. E>6W=5*B5 #..'-'C5 (skill! '4#->->B 5D.54-5>85 6> K6B S-'5S W5 1#G5 867.5'5>' .54S6>S =-E5 84#>5 6.54#'64 4-BB54 OPERATORS 6, 5#4'1 76G->B 7#81->5S SC81 #S 5D8#G#'64 6.54#'64 *C7.54S *4-G54S B#8E165 '6W54 845#>5 6.54#'64 *6J54S 6.54#'64 B#'81->B .#=>' 6.54#'64 56' 84#>5 6.54#'64 5=8'4-8-#> W-45 7#>
W5=*54 ,-''54 16-S' 6.54#'64 ,-4S' #-*54S ,-45,-B1'54S 5'8. 9@- What is O%%u&ational 0ealth 0a4ard0 '154 #45 'W6 8#'5B64-5S 6, 1#47 '6 #.54S6> ->KC4F that means wounds% urn% inhalation of to&ic gas% fracture% sprain% electric shock '15 15#='1 1#J#4* means ill health caused during work% for e&le e&haustion% fainting% skin diseases% illness of lungs% li$er% heart% cancer tumor% rash% damage of eyes% hearing pro lem and so on ;:- What is A%%ident Rate0 'his is the calculated figure which shows the performance of S7S with regard to the safety and protection against accidents. 'his is calculated e$ery month. 'he employer tries to keep this figure J546. 1owe$er in certain case it is $ery difficult to ha$e J546 figure. But as far as possi le measures are taken to kept this figure at the lowest. 'he formula is >um er of accidents per month D 1:::::: RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR 'otal >um er of man hours worked
;1- What is Se"erity Rate( 'hese shows how serious are the accidents and how much time is lost due to a sence of the injured person. 1ow se$ere are the accidents and what measures are to e taken to stop them.
>um er of man hours lost due to accidents per month D 1:::::: RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR 'otal >um er of man hours worked
;"- What is *OCUME,TATIO, in relation to Safety 7anagement System0 -t is necessary to keep the records of all the Safety #cti$ities in the safety department for future references and risk assessments or safety audits. 'hese 4ecords are in the form of printed check list% work permit% other forms such as% Che%5list for the operation 6, B5>54#'64S 84#>5S 867.45SS64S 86>845'5 .C7.S '4#>S-' 7-D54S =#**54S S8#,6=*S /ORE PERMITS FOR W64E->B 6> 1-5B1'
16' W64E 84-'-8#= =-,' (load a o$e ":: '! #8-* 1#>*=->B 86>,->5* S.#85 5>'4F M W64E 5=58'4-8#= W64E 5D8#G'-6> 1F*46 '5S' W64E->B >5#4 =-G5 8-48C-' W64E->B >5#4 1F*468#4B6> .=#>' ;/- What are the $arious types of 1a2ards present in a #or5&la%e0 T0E 1IST OF 0AAAR*S AT T0E /OREP1ACE IS. P0YSICA1 0AAAR*S (dust% noise% heat% radiation% $i ration% smoke! 8157-8#= 0AAAR*S (entry of 1#J7#' in the ody y inhalation% ingestion% a sorption% spill of to&ic material% leakage of poisonous gas! B-6=6B68#= 0AAAR*S (spread of diseases y acteria% $irus% germs% foul smell% contamination of food% drinking water% air! MEC0A,ICA1 0AAAR*S (struck y% trapped etween% crushed under% cut% shear% sta ing! P1A,T 0AAAR*S (fire% e&plosion% collapse of structures% ursting of pressure $essels% a normal temperature% trip fall slip% drowning% suffocation% failure of machineries chemical leakage! STORA=E 0AAAR*S (fire% e&plosion% fall of material% trip% fall slip% spillage% leak! FIRE #>* 5D.=6S-6> 1#J#4*S MATERIA1 0A,*1I,= 1#J#4*S (fall of material% work at height% collapse of structure% machine failure% hit y% trapped under% caught etween% cut% shear% crush! VE0ICA1 0AARA*S (hit y% collision% fire% run o$er% o$er turning% fall in e&ca$ation! CO,FI,E* SPACE 1#J#4*S (to&icity% suffocation% fire% e&plosion% slip% fall% trip% fall of material% darkness% heat! /ORE EQUIPME,T 1#J4#*S (electric shock% cut% shear% sta ing% fall% fire% e&plosion! /OREI,= #' 0IE=0T 1#J#4*S (fall of person% fall of material% structure failure% electric shock% urn y hot pipe! 0OT /ORE 0AAAR*S (fire% e&plosion% urn% smoke% to&ic gas! E1ECTRICA1 0AAAR*S ( urn% death% fire% e&plosion% arcing% secondary effect of shock! ;4- What are the Trans&ort 0a4ards0 '4#>S.64' means material shifting from one place to another place. 'his can e manual or mechanical transport. 'here are num er of mechanical means of material transport like hand operated trolley% wheel arrow% hand cart or hea$y e+uipment like hoist% crane% dumper% truck% pickup $an% con$eyor% lift% etc. 'he major ha2ards in TRA,SPORT are( 1it y 8ollision ,ire 4un o$er 6$er turning ,all of material ,ire 'o&ic material leak 'heft ;9- What is 3iolo2i%al 0a4ard(
1#J#4*S caused y $irus% acteria% germs% like diseases% septic etc. are called iological ha2ard is mainly health pro lems not the injuries. Some times the effect of contamination is immediate injury also. 'hese ha2ards are present at places like S5W54#B5 .=#>' 16S.-'#=S *C7.->B #45# E-'815> S'64#B5 6, .54-S1#B=5 -'57S (grains% $egeta les% eggs% meat% fruits! C4->#=S% B#'1% '6-=5'% W#S1 B#S-> ;;- What is the importance of Safety SI=,S at workplace0 SI=,S are the most important #ay of ha4ard %o++uni%ation6 'he most commonly used communication media are S#,5'F .6S'54S S#,5'F B#>>54S S#,5'F S-B>S >6'-85 B6#4*S ->S'4C8'-6> 81#4'S W#4>->B .6S' '66= B6D '#=E (short meeting efore any ha2ardous jo s start! S#,5'F 8677-''55 755'->B S#,5'F '4#->->B B#44-8#*->BS ;?- What are the roles of SAFETY COMMITTEE0 #S .54 '15 ,#8'64F #8' 1@4) S58'-6> 41-B it is the duty of the employer to form the safety committee comprising of e+ual mem ers from management side and workforce for the tenure of two years. 'he role of the committee is to 16=* # S#,5'F 755'->B 6>85 -> # 76>'1 E55. '15 45864*S SC81 #S >6'-85% 75764C>*57% '6.-8S *-S8CSS5*% *58-S-6> '#E5> '6 ->S.58' '15 .=#>' 64 W64E.=#85 ,64 1#J#4*S *58-*5 '15 86>'46= 75#SC45S =-S'5> '6 '15 867.=#->'S 6, '15 W64E54S W-'1 45B#4* '6 S#,5'F '#E5 .#4' -> #88-*5>' ->G5S'-B#'-6>% S,#5'F #C*-'% S#,5'F SC4G5F% K6B S#,5F #>#=FS-S #> M S6 6> ;)- What are the topics of SAFEY TARI,I,=% who is responsi le for gi$ing training0 S,#5'F '4#->->B -S '15 *C'F 6, '15 57.=6F54 S#,5'F 6,,-854 #>* 75*-8#= 6,-854 #45 45S.6>S-B=5 ,64 '15 '4#->->B The +ain to&i%s of SAFEY TARI,I,=% in%lude 1#J#4* 8677C>-8#'-6> 75'16* 6, 4#-S->B #=47 5754B5>8F .#=>>->B ,-4S' #-* '6 ->KC45* .54S6> ,-45 ,-B1'->B 5G#8C#'-6> .=#> 45S8C5 6.54#'-6> S.-== 6, '6D-8 7#'54-#= #>* 86>'46= S#,5'F 4C=5 S6, '15 867.#>F S#,5'F .6=-8F ,->*->B C>S#, 86>*-'-6> #>* C>S#,5' #8'
#88-*5>' .45G5>'-6> 75'16*S 8#CS5S #>* 4575*F 6, >5#4 7-SS #88-*>5'S 5'8.
HF liftin2 2ears ha4ard and %ontrol -n case if mechanical or manual material handling some tools and tackles are used they are called lifting gears such as 1ooks * shackle 8hain 4ope (natural fi er or synthetic fi er or steel wire rope! 5ye olts SE1ECTIO, OF CORRECT =EARS Before lifting any load y machine% proper care is to e taken to select the rope. 'his means the rope must e strong to lift the desired load (SW= marked on the rope! -t must e free from cut% a rasion% twisting% kinking% and rust or any other $isi le defects. -t must e tested% properly stored and free from duct% oil grease or any other contaminant. OPERATIO, 'he load must e correctly tied% checked for looseness% load secured y pads if re+uired. 5$ery lifting lowering and shifting operation to e done slowly and under super$ision. 6nly competent person must operate the lifting machine. 'he operation area must e duly arricaded. 'he lifting gears must e tested once e$ery year.