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S OME CRITICAL COMMENTS ON THE

LANDSLIDES MODELLING
D ENYS D UTYKH1
de Recherche CNRS Senior Research Fellow UCD & Charge
1 University College Dublin School of Mathematical Sciences

UCD Wave Group Seminar

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ICT, N OVOSIBIRSK , RUSSIA :


Prof. Leonid Chubarov [CKS11] Prof. Gayaz Khakimzyanov [KS10] Sonya Beisel [BCK11] Nina Shokina [BCS11]

R ECENT DEVELOPMENTS :

Dimitrios Mitsotakis (UC Merced, CA, USA) [DMBS12] Henrik Kalisch (University of Bergen, Norway) [DK11]

O UTLINE

W HAT IS A LANDSLIDE ? W HAT YOU WILL NOT LEARN . . .


Solid mechanics based approaches (DEM) Subaerial processes Two-phase models

W HAT YOU WILL LEARN


Some constructive critics Simple classical mechanics-based method

W HAT IS A LANDSLIDE ?
S OURCE : E NCYCLOPDIA B RITANNICA , NOT W IKIPEDIA !

D EFINITION ( FROM B RITANNICA ):


Landslide, also called landslip, the movement downslope of a mass of rock, debris, earth, or soil (soil being a mixture of earth and debris). Landslides occur when gravitational and other types of shear stresses within a slope exceed the shear strength (resistance to shearing) of the materials that form the slope.
F IGURE : La Conchita, CA

T YPES OF LANDSLIDES

L ANDSLIDES IN COASTAL AREAS

subaerial / partially submerged / underwater landslide generation / propagation / run-up

E XPERIMENTS ON SUBAERIAL LANDSLIDES


C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

E XPERIMENTS ON SUBAERIAL LANDSLIDES


C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

E XPERIMENTS ON SUBAERIAL LANDSLIDES


C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

E XPERIMENTS ON SUBAERIAL LANDSLIDES


C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

E XPERIMENTS ON SUBAERIAL LANDSLIDES


C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

E XPERIMENTS ON SUBAERIAL LANDSLIDES


C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

E XPERIMENTS ON SUBAERIAL LANDSLIDES


C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

E XISTING MODELING APPROACHES - I


D ISCRETE E LEMENT M ETHOD (C REDIT: PAUL W. C LEARY (CSIRO, AUSTRALIA )

E XISTING MODELING APPROACHES - II


L ANDSLIDE MODELING IN WATER WAVE COMMUNITY

Two-layer shallow water models


Rheology is unknown Shallow water approximation for the slide is questionable Uncertainties in data!

Sevilla [FNBB+ 08], Paris XIII [BSS10], Paris 6 [MCVB+ 03] Since geophysical uncertainties are important, we will simplify the model

C ENTER OF MASS - BASED MODELS


W E SHOULD SIMPLIFY, BUT NOT TOO MUCH !

Our assumptions:

Landslide is a solid quasi-deformable body: (x , t ) = 0 (x xc (t )) Shape is prescribed Mass and volume are conserved

C ONCLUSION :
It is sufcient to determine the trajectory of the barycenter x = xc (t ) to know the motion of the whole body.

T HREE APPROACHES FOR xc (t ):


Trajectory is prescribed [RS10] Trajectory is measured Trajectory is modeled

E XPERIMENTS ON CONSTANT SLOPES


E XPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE LANDSLIDE TRAJECTORY: [EG07]

Experimental set-up of Enet & Grilli (2007) [EG07]:

S IMPLE MODEL OF THE BARYCENTER MOTION


W E USE THE 2 ND N EWTON LAW

NATURAL ARC - LENGTH PARAMETRIZATION :


x

s = L( x ) =
x0

( ))2 d . 1 + ( h0

W E APPLY THE N EWTON LAWS TO WRITE :


m d2 s = F ( t ) dt 2

s F (t ) = Fg + sign d dt Fd : tangential component of forces acting on the moving submerged body

m = ( + cw w )V : the total mass Fg (t ) = ( w )Wg R (x , t ) sin (x ) dx : gravity and buoyancy force

D ISSIPATIVE FORCES
F RICTION AND DISSIPATION HAVE TO BE ACCOUNTED FOR !

Water resistance to the motion: ds 1 Fr = cd w AW 2 dt Friction force: Ff = cf N (x , t ) (x , t ) cos (x ) dx +


R

N (x , t ) = gW

( w ) W
R

(x , t )(x ) .

ds dt

dx .

(x ) =

(x ) h0 (x ))2 1 + ( h0
3 2

N (x , t ): Normal (reaction) force (x ): signed curvature of the bottom

G OVERNING EQUATION
J UST A 2 ND ORDER ODE
TO SOLVE !

( + cw )S

d2 s = ( 1)g I1 (t ) cf (t )I2 (t ) dt 2 ds 2 ds ds ds 1 cv S , cb (t ) cf I3 (t ) + cd A 2 dt dt dt dt I1 ( t ) =
R

(x , t ) sin (x ) dx , (x , t ) cos (x ) dx ,
R

I2 ( t ) = I3 ( t ) =

(x , t )(x ) dx .
R

W E CAN SOLVE IT EASILY NUMERICALLY !


See one Matlab example.

3D L ANDSLIDE EXAMPLE
C REDIT: ICT T SUNAMI G ROUP (
H T T P :// T S U N A M I . E S E M C . N S C . R U /

3D L ANDSLIDE EXAMPLE
C REDIT: ICT T SUNAMI G ROUP (
H T T P :// T S U N A M I . E S E M C . N S C . R U /

C ONCLUSIONS

Initial problem is too complex Lack of data (initial location. . . ) Many parameters even after simplication

Identify most important parameters Experimental campaign to measure their values

Go beyond quasi-deformable assumption

Shape evolution equation?

T HANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !

R EFERENCES I
S. A. Beisel, L. B. Chubarov, and G. S. Khakimzyanov. Simulation of surface waves generated by an underwater landslide moving over an uneven slope. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling, 26(1):1738, 2011. S. Beisel, L. Chubarov, and Yu. Shokin. Some features of the landslide mechanism of surface waves generation in real basins. In E. Krause et Al., editor, Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design, pages 137148. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011. F. Benkhaldoun, S. Sahmim, and M. Sea d. A two-dimensional nite volume morphodynamic model on unstructured triangular grids. Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids, 63(11):12961327, 2010.

R EFERENCES II

L. B. Chubarov, G. S. Khakimzyanov, and N. Yu. Shokina. Numerical modelling of surface water waves arising due to movement of underwater landslide on irregular bottom slope. In Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design: Computational Science and High Performance Computing IV, pages 7591. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, vol. 115 edition, 2011. D. Dutykh and H. Kalisch. Boussinesq modeling of surface waves due to underwater landslides. http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00654386/, 2011.

R EFERENCES III
D. Dutykh, D. Mitsotakis, S. Beisel, and N. Yu. Shokina. Dispersive waves generated by an underwater landslide. In M. E. Vazquez-Cendon, editor, Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations: Theory and Applications, http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00637102/, 2012. F. Enet and S. T. Grilli. Experimental study of tsunami generation by three-dimensional rigid underwater landslides. J. Waterw. Port C-ASCE, 133:442454, 2007. E. D. Fernandez-Nieto, F. Bouchut, D. Bresch, M. J. Castro-Diaz, and A. Mangeney. A new Savage-Hutter type models for submarine avalanches and generated tsunami. J. Comput. Phys., 227(16):77207754, 2008.

R EFERENCES IV
G. S. Khakimzyanov and N. Y. Shokina. Numerical modelling of surface water waves arising due to a movement of the underwater landslide on an irregular bottom. Computational technologies, 15(1):105119, 2010. A. Mangeney-Castelnau, J.-P. Vilotte, M. O. Bristeau, B. Perthame, F. Bouchut, C. Simeoni, and S. Yerneni. Numerical modeling of avalanches based on Saint-Venant equations using a kinetic scheme. J. Geophys. Res., 108:2527, 2003. E. Renzi and P. Sammarco. Landslide tsunamis propagating around a conical island. J. Fluid Mech, 650:251285, March 2010.