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LANDSLIDES MODELLING

D ENYS D UTYKH1

de Recherche CNRS Senior Research Fellow UCD & Charge

1 University College Dublin School of Mathematical Sciences

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Prof. Leonid Chubarov [CKS11] Prof. Gayaz Khakimzyanov [KS10] Sonya Beisel [BCK11] Nina Shokina [BCS11]

R ECENT DEVELOPMENTS :

Dimitrios Mitsotakis (UC Merced, CA, USA) [DMBS12] Henrik Kalisch (University of Bergen, Norway) [DK11]

O UTLINE

Solid mechanics based approaches (DEM) Subaerial processes Two-phase models

Some constructive critics Simple classical mechanics-based method

W HAT IS A LANDSLIDE ?

S OURCE : E NCYCLOPDIA B RITANNICA , NOT W IKIPEDIA !

Landslide, also called landslip, the movement downslope of a mass of rock, debris, earth, or soil (soil being a mixture of earth and debris). Landslides occur when gravitational and other types of shear stresses within a slope exceed the shear strength (resistance to shearing) of the materials that form the slope.

F IGURE : La Conchita, CA

T YPES OF LANDSLIDES

C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

C REDIT: P H D OF VALENTIN H ELLER , VAW ETH Z URICH (2007)

D ISCRETE E LEMENT M ETHOD (C REDIT: PAUL W. C LEARY (CSIRO, AUSTRALIA )

L ANDSLIDE MODELING IN WATER WAVE COMMUNITY

Rheology is unknown Shallow water approximation for the slide is questionable Uncertainties in data!

Sevilla [FNBB+ 08], Paris XIII [BSS10], Paris 6 [MCVB+ 03] Since geophysical uncertainties are important, we will simplify the model

W E SHOULD SIMPLIFY, BUT NOT TOO MUCH !

Our assumptions:

Landslide is a solid quasi-deformable body: (x , t ) = 0 (x xc (t )) Shape is prescribed Mass and volume are conserved

C ONCLUSION :

It is sufcient to determine the trajectory of the barycenter x = xc (t ) to know the motion of the whole body.

E XPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE LANDSLIDE TRAJECTORY: [EG07]

W E USE THE 2 ND N EWTON LAW

x

s = L( x ) =

x0

( ))2 d . 1 + ( h0

m d2 s = F ( t ) dt 2

D ISSIPATIVE FORCES

F RICTION AND DISSIPATION HAVE TO BE ACCOUNTED FOR !

R

N (x , t ) = gW

( w ) W

R

(x , t )(x ) .

ds dt

dx .

(x ) =

(x ) h0 (x ))2 1 + ( h0

3 2

G OVERNING EQUATION

J UST A 2 ND ORDER ODE

TO SOLVE !

( + cw )S

d2 s = ( 1)g I1 (t ) cf (t )I2 (t ) dt 2 ds 2 ds ds ds 1 cv S , cb (t ) cf I3 (t ) + cd A 2 dt dt dt dt I1 ( t ) =

R

(x , t ) sin (x ) dx , (x , t ) cos (x ) dx ,

R

I2 ( t ) = I3 ( t ) =

(x , t )(x ) dx .

R

See one Matlab example.

3D L ANDSLIDE EXAMPLE

C REDIT: ICT T SUNAMI G ROUP (

H T T P :// T S U N A M I . E S E M C . N S C . R U /

3D L ANDSLIDE EXAMPLE

C REDIT: ICT T SUNAMI G ROUP (

H T T P :// T S U N A M I . E S E M C . N S C . R U /

C ONCLUSIONS

Initial problem is too complex Lack of data (initial location. . . ) Many parameters even after simplication

R EFERENCES I

S. A. Beisel, L. B. Chubarov, and G. S. Khakimzyanov. Simulation of surface waves generated by an underwater landslide moving over an uneven slope. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling, 26(1):1738, 2011. S. Beisel, L. Chubarov, and Yu. Shokin. Some features of the landslide mechanism of surface waves generation in real basins. In E. Krause et Al., editor, Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design, pages 137148. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011. F. Benkhaldoun, S. Sahmim, and M. Sea d. A two-dimensional nite volume morphodynamic model on unstructured triangular grids. Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids, 63(11):12961327, 2010.

R EFERENCES II

L. B. Chubarov, G. S. Khakimzyanov, and N. Yu. Shokina. Numerical modelling of surface water waves arising due to movement of underwater landslide on irregular bottom slope. In Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design: Computational Science and High Performance Computing IV, pages 7591. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, vol. 115 edition, 2011. D. Dutykh and H. Kalisch. Boussinesq modeling of surface waves due to underwater landslides. http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00654386/, 2011.

R EFERENCES III

D. Dutykh, D. Mitsotakis, S. Beisel, and N. Yu. Shokina. Dispersive waves generated by an underwater landslide. In M. E. Vazquez-Cendon, editor, Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations: Theory and Applications, http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00637102/, 2012. F. Enet and S. T. Grilli. Experimental study of tsunami generation by three-dimensional rigid underwater landslides. J. Waterw. Port C-ASCE, 133:442454, 2007. E. D. Fernandez-Nieto, F. Bouchut, D. Bresch, M. J. Castro-Diaz, and A. Mangeney. A new Savage-Hutter type models for submarine avalanches and generated tsunami. J. Comput. Phys., 227(16):77207754, 2008.

R EFERENCES IV

G. S. Khakimzyanov and N. Y. Shokina. Numerical modelling of surface water waves arising due to a movement of the underwater landslide on an irregular bottom. Computational technologies, 15(1):105119, 2010. A. Mangeney-Castelnau, J.-P. Vilotte, M. O. Bristeau, B. Perthame, F. Bouchut, C. Simeoni, and S. Yerneni. Numerical modeling of avalanches based on Saint-Venant equations using a kinetic scheme. J. Geophys. Res., 108:2527, 2003. E. Renzi and P. Sammarco. Landslide tsunamis propagating around a conical island. J. Fluid Mech, 650:251285, March 2010.

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