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ump to! Four"stroke cycle used in gasoline#petrol engines. The right blue side is the intake and the left yello$ side is the e%haust. The cylinder $all is a thin slee&e surrounded by cooling $ater. Today, internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, aircraft, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. The four strokes refer to intake, compression, combustion 'po$er(, and e%haust strokes that occur during t$o crankshaft rotations per $orking cycle of the gasoline engine and diesel engine. The cycle begins at Top Dead Center 'T)C(, $hen the piston is farthest a$ay from the a%is of the crankshaft. * stroke refers to the full tra&el of the piston from Top )ead Center 'T)C( to Bottom )ead Center 'B)C(. (See Dead centre.) 1. INTAKE stroke: +n the intake or induction stroke of the piston , the piston descends from the top of the cylinder to the bottom of the cylinder, reducing the pressure inside the cylinder. * mi%ture of fuel and air is forced by atmospheric 'or greater( pressure into the cylinder through the intake port. The intake &al&e's( then close. 2. COMP E!!ION stroke: With both intake and e%haust &al&es closed, the piston returns to the top of the cylinder compressing the fuel"air mi%ture. This is kno$n as the compression stroke.
: While the piston is close to Top )ead Center. usually by a spark plug 'for a gasoline or +tto cycle engine( or by the heat and pressure of compression 'for a diesel cycle or compression ignition engine(. This action e&acuates the products of combustion from the cylinder by pushing the spent fuel"air mi%ture through the e%haust &al&e's(.9 Energy balance 5 4ee also 7 6eferences 9 E%ternal links T(e Otto cycle ./ 3ntake#e%haust port flo$ 1.1 4upercharging 1.1./ 8al&e clearance o 1. The resulting massi&e pressure from the combustion of the compressed fuel"air mi%ture dri&es the piston back do$n to$ard bottom dead center $ith tremendous force. This is kno$n as the power stroke.1.1. the piston once again returns to top dead center $hile the e%haust &al&e is open. $.: )uring the exhaust stroke. fuel mi%ture is ignited. the compressed air.7./ Fuel octane rating o 1. Contents [hide] • • • • • / 0istory o /.5 Turbocharging o 1.ue and po$er. $hich is the main source of the engine-s tor. E%&A'!T stroke.5 6od and piston"to"stroke ratio o 1. PO#E stroke.7 8al&etrain 1./ The +tto cycle 1 )esign and engineering principles o 1.".1 2o$er output limit 1.
/<9>. 3n the case of a four"stroke +tto cycle.uest. at Turin. in about /<97. The cycle is closed by an isochoric process and an isobaric compression.uest bears the no. The +tto cycle consists of adiabatic compression. usually ignored since in an ideali:ed process those do not play any role in the heat intake or $ork output. t$o 3talians 'Eugenio Barsanti and Felice . on )ecember 5@. .ain article! +tto cycle The four"stroke engine $as first patented by *lphonse Beau de 6ochas in /<=/. We do not ha&e the te%t of the patent re.9>. We do not e&en kno$ if it $as a ne$ patent or an e%tension of the patent granted three days earlier. >@@ of 8olume 833 of the 2atent +ffice of the 6eign of 2iedmont. there are also an isobaric compression and an isobaric e%pansion. That is $hy the four"stroke principle today is commonly kno$n as the +tto cycle and four"stroke engines using spark plugs often are called +tto engines. ?The re. Through the combustion of fuel an isochoric process is produced.The ideali:ed four"stroke +tto cycle p"8 diagram! the intake '*( stroke is performed by an isobaric e%pansion. performed by an adiabatic compression. . heat addition at constant &olume. only a photo of the table $hich contains a dra$ing of the engine.? The first person to actually build a car $ith this engine $as Aerman engineer Bikolaus +tto. characteri:ing the e%haust ')( stroke. follo$ed by the compression 'B( stroke. follo$ed by an adiabatic e%pansion. characteri:ing the po$er 'C( stroke. but the patent $as lost.atteucci( in&ented an engine that $as rumored to be &ery similar. adiabatic e%pansion and reCection of heat at constant &olume. Before.
&irtually eliminating the risk of damage due to self" ignition. by increasing the temperature at $hich it $ill self"ignite.uently. )iesel engines rely on self"ignition for the engine to function.les )e*it+ Fuel oct-ne r-ting .This is a &ideo montage of the +tto engines running at the Western . 57@ kbit#s &ideo( )e*it+ . This damage is often referred to as engine knocking and can lead to permanent engine damage if it occurs fre. *ir $ithout fuel can be compressed to a &ery high . . a fuel $hich self"ignites at T)C but before the piston has started do$n$ards can damage the piston and cylinder due to the e%treme thermal energy concentrated into a &ery small space $ith no relief. *lternately.innesota 4team Threshers 6eunion 'W. * fuel $ith a greater octane rating allo$s for a much higher compression ratio.ain article! +ctane rating 3nternal combustion engine po$er primarily originates from the e%pansion of gases in the po$er stroke. The premature ignition problem is sol&ed by separately inCecting high"pressure fuel into the cylinder shortly before the piston has reached T)C.4T6(.esign -n* engineering . * highly flammable fuel $ith a lo$ self"ignition temperature can combust before the piston reaches top"dead"center 'T)C(. The octane rating is a measure of the fuel-s resistance to self"ignition. in 6ollag. potentially forcing the piston back$ards against rotation.innesota. Compressing the fuel and air into a &ery small space increases the efficiency of the po$er stroke. 51@D17@. but increasing the cylinder compression ratio also increases the heating of the fuel as the mi%ture is compressed 'follo$ing Charles-s la$(.rinci. '1 min /= sec.
Po/er out. and the highly pressuri:ed fuel in the fuel inCection system cannot ignite $ithout the presence of air.uickly. *t high speeds the lubrication of piston cylinder $all interface tends to break do$n. The speed is ultimately limited by material strength and lubrication.uickly enough to close the &al&es. $hether it is a t$o"stroke or four"stroke design.ut li0it The four"stroke cycle /ET)C 1EB)C A: Int-ke 1: Co0. and it can result in piston to &al&e contact. 6ing flutter compromises the seal bet$een the ring and the cylinder $all $hich results in a loss of cylinder pressure and po$er.: E2(-ust The ma%imum amount of po$er generated by an engine is determined by the ma%imum amount of air ingested. 2iston ring flutter occurs $hen the rings oscillate &ertically $ithin the piston groo&es they reside in.(. *t high engine speed. 3f an engine spins too .degree $ithout concern for self"ignition.ression C: Po/er . This limits the piston speed for industrial engines to about /@ m#s. 8al&es. o%ygen content of the air and speed '62. Int-ke3e2(-ust . This is commonly referred to as -&al&e float-. &al&e springs cannot act . physical breakage and piston ring flutter can occur. air"to"fuel ratio. resulting in po$er loss or e&en engine destruction. The amount of po$er generated by a piston engine is related to its si:e 'cylinder &olume(.fuel mi%ture( and e%haust matter to mo&e . typically located in the cylinder .ort flo/ The output po$er of an engine is dependent on the ability of intake 'air.uickly through &al&e ports. pistons and connecting rods suffer se&ere acceleration forces. losses. the calorific &alue of the fuel. &olumetric efficiency. se&erely damaging the engine.
echanically dri&en supercharging has the disad&antage that some of the output po$er is used to dri&e the supercharger. Tur4oc(-rging * turbocharger is a supercharger that is dri&en by the engine-s e%haust gases.uired. This process is called porting. and at lo$"to"moderate speeds. . and. the turbine produces little po$er from the small e%haust &olume. as the air has been compressed t$ice and then gains more potential &olume in the combustion but it is only e%panded in one stage. *nother difficulty is that the higher e%haust pressure causes the e%haust gas to transfer more of its heat to the mechanical parts of the engine. This can be done using some type of air compression de&ice kno$n as a supercharger. o* -n* . the turbocharger has little effect and the engine operates nearly in a naturally"aspirated manner.ost commonly. due to the need to sharply increase engine 62. When much more po$er output is re. irregularities in the intake and e%haust paths. the engine speed and throttle opening are increased until the e%haust gases are sufficient to -spin upthe turbocharger-s turbine to start compressing much more air than normal into the intake manifold. When idling. and the other side that is po$ered by the e%haust gas outflo$.head. to build up pressure and to spin up the turbo. before the turbo starts to do any useful air compression. and so forth until steady high po$er operation is reached.erc(-rging +ne $ay to increase engine po$er is to force more air into the cylinder so that more po$er can be produced from each po$er stroke. 4upercharging increases the po$er output limits of an internal combustion engine relati&e to its displacement. by means of a turbine. Turbocharging allo$s for more efficient engine operation because it is dri&en by e%haust pressure that $ould other$ise be 'mostly( $asted. the supercharger is al$ays running. . but there is a design limitation kno$n as turbo lag.iston-to-stroke r-tio The rod"to"stroke ratio is the ratio of the length of the connecting rod to the length of the piston stroke. but there ha&e been designs that allo$ it to be cut out or run at &arying speeds 'relati&e to engine speed(. $hich can be po$ered by the engine crankshaft. $ith the aid of an air flo$ bench. $hile po$er is $asted in the high pressure e%haust. the radii of &al&e port turns and &al&e seat configuration can be modified to reduce resistance. The increased intake &olume causes increased e%haust and spins the turbo faster. * longer rod $ill reduce the side$ise pressure of the piston on the cylinder . such as casting fla$s. The increased engine po$er is not immediately a&ailable. To increase an engine-s output po$er. can be remo&ed. and it can be done by hand or $ith a CBC machine. 3t consists of a t$o piece.. !u. high"speed turbine assembly $ith one side that compresses the intake air.
By contrast. 3n other engine designs the camshaft is in the crankcase. as in the illustration. 59H of the energy generated by combustion is con&erted into useful rotational energy at the output shaft of the engine. $hile the remainder appears as $aste heat. +n engines $ith mechanical &al&e adCustment e%cessi&e clearance $ill cause noise from the &al&e train. in $hich case each cam contacts a push rod.@@@ km( $ith a feeler gauge. . Energy 4-l-nce +tto engines are about 59H efficient . The o&erhead cam design typically allo$s higher engine speeds because it pro&ides the most direct path bet$een cam and &al&e. hence increasing engine life. This is necessary for emission controls such as e%haust gas recirculation and catalytic con&erters that reduce smog and other atmospheric pollutants.uare engine? is an engine $ith a bore diameter e. an engine $ith a bore diameter that is smaller than its stroke length is an unders.any engines use one or more camshafts Fabo&eG a ro$ 'or each ro$( of cylinders.uare engine. con&ersely.ual to its stroke length. Typically the clearance has to be readCusted each 1@. * tappet bet$een &al&e and cam is a contact surface on $hich the cam slides to open the &al&e. each designed to open a &al&e during the appropriate part of an intake or e%haust stroke. 3t also increases the cost and engine height and $eight. 5-l6etr-in The &al&es are typically operated by a camshaft rotating at half the speed of the crankshaft. .ost modern production engines use hydraulic lifters to automatically compensate for &al&e train component $ear. $hich contacts a rocker arm $hich opens a &al&e. .odern engines are often intentionally built to be slightly less efficient than they could other$ise be.[/] .uare engine. *n engine $here the bore diameter is larger than its stroke length is an o&ers. 6eductions in efficiency may be counteracted $ith an engine control unit using lean burn techni. a si%"stroke engine may con&ert more than 9@H of the energy of combustion into useful rotational energy.$all and the stress forces.@@@ miles '51. in $hich each cam directly actuates a &al&e through a flat tappet. 5-l6e cle-r-nce 8al&e clearance refers to the small gap bet$een a &al&e lifter and a &al&e stem that ensures that the &al&e completely closes. 3t has a series of cams along its length. * ?s.ues. )irty engine oil may cause lifter failure. in other $ords.
and compression stroke. . intake stroke.Starting position.
Ignition of fuel. . and exhaust stroke. power stroke.
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