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(or otherwise) l. On homogeneity 1.1.Thehomogeneity illusion 1.2.Thehomogeneity assumption in linguistics 1.3.Knockingdownthe homogeneity hypothesis: Typesof variation temporalvariation speaker-based variation:sex,age,occupation etc. sociological variation cultural variation geographical variation pragmatic/situational variation interpersonal variation idiosyncratic variation 1.4.The whys andwherefores of heterogeneity in language 1.4.1. Conditions personal conditions cultural conditions naturalconditions

l.4.2.T}lre social-psychological approach: "us andthem 1.5.The opponent of heterogeneity: Accommodation" 1.6.Practical implications of linguisticheterogeneity 1.7.Aims of the lectureseries 1.7.1. Descriptive 1.7.2. Theoretical

2. A surveyof Englishas spoken around the world "MainlandEnglish" in Europe:Gibraltar,Malta in Ausfalia andNew Zealand in America in Africa in Asia

3. Why is meantby "Englishis spoken"? Englishasa(n) 3.I . firsVsecond/foreign language 3.2.offrcial language 3.3. language of instruction 3.4. language of the media 3.5.written language 3.6. language of the socialelite 3.7.language of international tradeandtraffic 3.8.linguafranca 3.9.Conclusion: Thethreecirclesof English

4. Englishasa globallanguage 4.1.English:a uniquesuccess story 4.2.Whatis a globallanguage 4.3. Whatmakes a globallanguage? 4.4.Theriseof Englishasa globallanguage 4.5. Conclusion: Englishandglobalization

5. Standard regionaldialects, dialects, socialdialects 5.1.On therelation between regionanddialect 5.2.Dialectsandlanguage change 5.3.On the relationship between dialects andsocialclass

<- dialectal variation ->

Social class

Percentageof aitch-dropping in Bradford (Yorkshire)

Uppermiddleclass Lower middleclass Upperworking class Middle working class

t2 28 67 89

Lower working class


Standard: He's a manwho/thatlikes his car. Dialectalvariation: a) He's a manat likes his car. b) He's a manaslikes his car. c) He's a manwhatlikes his car. d) He's a manhe likes his car. e) He's a manlikeshis car.

5.4. Standard language vs. dialect


Standard language

dialectr dialectz .... dialectn 5.4.2.Standardization andcodification 5.4.3.The attraction to the elite 5.4.4.Differences between standard dialectanddialect 5.4.5.The multiplicity of standard languages/dialects 5.5.Thecomparison problem 5.6.Dialectandidentity 5.7.Determining dialectboundaries 5.8.The fuzziness of dialectboundaries 5.9. Non-categorical differences between dialects Examplel: The useof shouldandoughtin threestandard (tokens per 10,000 dialects words) British Should 12.9 Ought 1.1 American 9.2 0.7 Australian 7.5 0.3

Example 2: The useof will andshall in threestandard (tokens per 10,000 dialects words) British will Shall 28.0 3.5 American 27.0 2.7 Australian 34.2 1.2

5.10.Dialectvs. accent

6. Why do languages havedialects? 6.1.Social factors patterns 6.1.L Settlement 6.1.2. Migrationpatterns 6.I .3. Geographical factors 6.1.4. Language contact 6.1.5.Economic ecology 6.1.6. Socialstratification 6.1.7. Communication networks 6.1.8.Groupreference 6.1.9.Personal identity 6.2. Linguisticfactors 6.2.1 . Ruleextension/regulari zation 6.2.2. Analogy 6.2.3. Levelling 6.2.4.Transparency 6.2.5. Overemphasis 6.2.6.Grammatic alization 6.2.7.Minor processes: Dissimilation: colonel-> kernel Metathesis:ask-> ar< Assimilation:I haveto -> I hafta 6.2.8. Conclusion

7. Terminology: Differenttypesof variation 7.1.Dialect 7.2.Sociolect 7.3.Etlnolect 7.4.Register "situationlect" 7.5.Urban/rural varieties "cifflect" 7.6.Genderlect 7.7. *FaffLulylect" 7.8."Couplelect" 7.9.Idiolect


8. Comparingtwo standards: British vs. AmericanEnglish 8.1.Spelling - our - ur: favour - favor - re - er: centre- center - consonant doubling after suffrxing : travelled- traveled - catalog - logue- log: catalogue - defense - ce- se:defence - e - null : judgement- judgment - ction- xion : connection - connexion - jeopardise - ize- ise : jeopardize - encyclopedic - Ve - e : encyclopaedic jail - gaol Idiosyncratic differences: - skeptical sceptical tyre - tire - check cheque yoghurt- yogurt -progftlm prograrnme - capitalizationafter colon Punctuation: - orderof quotationmark andfull stop 8.2.Pronunciation - [a:] - [e]: chance, fast - null - [r]: course, car - [o] - [a:]: hot, top - tVdl - [r]: writer, rider - [ar] - [r]: hostile,missile - 1- null: tune,new - [ar] - [sr]: courage, hurry Individualcases: stafus, ate,clark Secondary stress: territory, ceremony Individual cases: adult, laboratory,cigarette Prosody: speech rate,intonation 8.3.Morphology

6 lnflection 8.3.1. Verb inflection: a) Irregularin BE - Regularized in AE to burn,bumt-bumed to dream,dreamt- dreamed b) Regularizedin BE - irregularin AE to dive,dived- dove to fit, fitted - fit - snuck to sneak.sneaked c) Othercases to get,got, got - gotten to prove,proved,proved- proven Derivation 8.3.2. a) Suffix productivity:-iff: to ugliff, to humidi$ -ize:to hospitalize, to decimalize b) Zero derivation:an author- to author a sky rocket- to sky-rocket 8.4.Lexicon 8.4.1.Reasons for vocabulary differences - difflerent ecologies: the case of robins - homerun - differenttechnological public school andculturalC:velopments: - different influencesfrom otherlanguages: tornado,tortilla, tepee - independent linguistic change within onevariety: autumn- fall 8.4.2.Categories of lexicaldifflerences - line, nought- differentword form: tap- faucet, tin - can,queue Same concept zero,to ring - to call, match- game word form - difflerent meaning Same Form pants BE underpants AE trousers road surface bold, cheeky Additional meaningin AE room with toilet onlv

pavement footpath nervy nervous Same word form - additional meaning in onevariety Form batlroom Commonmeaning room with

7 good Form to mind smart surgery fine Commonmeaning to obeY intelligent operation BE negative/neutral (common) positive to like (common) valid asof tickets Additional meaningin BE to look after well-groomed adoctor'soffice AE Positive (lesscommon) negative (uncommon)

of use or frequency in style,connotation word form - difference Same Form quite clever to fancy

with collectivenouns: Pluralagleement 8.5.Morphosyntax: jury, Staff,audienCe, etc. teams sportS team, committee, government, crew,Crowd, BE: I don't think the RoyalFamily arerealiyknownfor their intelligence. aboutdifferentkindsof people. AE: I think my family wasprettyopen-minded 8.6.Syntax 8 . 6 . 1V .P I haven'tthe faintestidea.- I don't havethe faintestidea' Auxiliaries:do-support: I haven'treadthis yet,but I will do. - I haven'treadthis yet, but I will. Modals:shall:WhatshallI do?- Whatwill I do? Shan't - Thatmustbe the postman. Will: Thatwill be thepostman. Would:WhenI wasyoung,I would go to the dentistandfaint. must not havebeenopentoday- therewasno freshbread. Must: the bakeries - You wantto takethis medicine. Oughtto: You oughtto takethis medicine. Goingto: She'sgonnawin the game. Havegot to -> gotta:You gottabelieveme. 1.3.Verbcomplementation 8.6. Infinitive vs. gerund:I hategettingup early.- I hateto get up early. For to construction:I want for her to fetch the strawberries. verbs:Go get the bananas. Compound He wantedout andshewantedin. of auxiliaries: Omission - I already ate eaten. I havealready Prefect: Pastvs. Present Tense andaspect: He would havebeenrich evenif he hadnot beenso good-looking.-He would have beenrich evenif he wasn't sucha looker.

8 I wish he had doneit. - I wish he would havedoneit. Phrasal Verbs:to finish offi to finish up Mediopassives: Thebook normallyshipswithin a week.The setinstallsin minutes. Subjunctive: He suggested that sheplay. How come Demonstratives: 8.6.2.Pronouns: Who is thatlit?- Who is this? Relativepronouns: The boy that helpedyou is my nephew. Indefinitepronouns: Onehasto do one'sduty.- Onehasto do his/theirduty. 8.6.3.Adverbsandadverbials: Omission of "1y": Drive slow.It wasan awful hot day. Placement You canseldom of adverbs: /often/never tell. - You seldom/often/never cantell. - underthe circumstances 8.6.4.Prepositions: in the circumstances 8.6.5. Conjunctions: Do asI do.- Do like I do. - It lookslike you lost tenpounds. It looksasif you lost tendpounds. Johnleft directly after Mary arrived.- Johnleft directly Mary arrived. greater 8.7.Conclusion: informalityin AE thanBE

9. LinguisticBackground 9.1.1. Vowels


\ ^


9.1.2. Consonants

9 - palatalization: processes: Consonantal [k] -> [kj] - glottalization:butter [t] -> [?] - flapping: writer: [t] -> [r] - voicing:farmerlfl -> [v] - devoicing: noise:[z] -> [s] -labialization: brother-> bruwer - stopping:river -> ribber - vocalization: bull -> bouw - rhoticization: car.the ideaof it 9.2.Morphology - Reflexivepronoum:hisself,theirselves, meself,theirself - Adjectivecomparison: kind of girl. Sheis the beautifullest - Plural markingon measure nouns:for five year - Present formation:He don't like me. Tense - PastTense catched formation:to catch,catched, - "a"-prefrxingon "ing" forms:Thetimes,they area-changing. - Adverbformation:That'sreal good. 9.3.Synta,r Pronouns 9.3.1. - Demonstrative: in themdays - Possessive: He's me brother. - Personal: Me andmy brother 9.3.2.Articles:I hadthe toothache. Thatis somuchmoreeasier. Doublecomparative: 9.3.3.Adjectives: He won't do me no harm. concord: Doublenegation/negative 9.3.4.Negation: Verbs 9.3.5. - Progressive: I'm liking it. - habitual"be": He be sick. - Present Wereyou everin London? tense: Perfect/Past - completive "done":He donego fishing. - doublemodals:You might couldsaythat we don't rightly know. - epistemic "musr't": This musfr't be true. Agreement 9.3.6. - "there"constructions: There'stwo menwaitingin the hall. Verb agreement:

l0 - NorthernSubject Rule:I sing.- Birds sings. My car,he'sbruken. Pronoun agreement: The man_ livesnext dooris a nice chap. 9.3.7.Relativeclauses: pronouns: which I paintedit yesterday. This is the house Resumptive whatareyou gonnado. I'm wondering Indirectquestions: 9.3.8.Complementation: 'oforto" infinitives: We had guttersfor to drain the water away.

THE DIALECTS OFENGLISH of England: WestCountryEnglish(DialectI) 10.The southwest - rhotic,postvocalic /r/ is retroflex 10.1.Phonology: - epenthetic lll afterschwain Bristol: America-> [amerrkal] - lowering:[e] -> [a]: trap - diphthongs: [er] -> [e:]: face [au] -> [o:]: goat - initial fricativevoicing(highly recessive): farmer-) varmer beastes on plural nouns:ghostes, 10.2.Morphology:Syllabicallomorphs - Verb inflection: "be" in all persons in the plural also"am" and andbothnumbers, ...m)) We'm happy. Regularization of irregularverbs:to know, knowed to take,tooked Doublemarkingof tense: to steal,stoled; perfect:to break,broke,broke Levelingofpast tenseandpresent scrope to creep, crope;to scrape, Irregularization: 10.3.Syntax - Extended the church articleuse:the chickenpox, the Christmas, - doublecomparison: I'd be morehappier out there. - pronounexchange: pron.'ms in objectfunctionandvice versa: the useof subject TheyalwayscalledI Willie, see. Us don't think naughtaboutthings like that. - Gendered pronouns I likesthis bread- it's very tasty. Pass the loaf - he's overthere. That'sa carrot.I've beenwatering'im. out. I jumpedoverher (a ditch).It's time shewascleared

The hierarcbyof individuation(Sasse1993) ABSTRACTS MASSNOUNS

Figure I :






Rules:a) Animate nouns:Natural genderrule pronoun masculine animals: b) Female pronoun c) Inanimatecount nouns:masculine d) Inanimatemassnoun:neuterpronoun pronoun e) Inanimatereferentswhen individuated:masculine f) abstractentities:neuterpronoun - demonstrative andcount/mass pronouns:three-waydistinction:number,proximaUdistal Count:Like thick onewhat's in therenow. Mass:Whenyou cometo thattherecomer. - Possessive pronoun:analyticstrategy of niarkingpossession That wasthe owner of her. Sherfordwasthe nameof it. - Reflexivepronouns:Regularization system of standard Everybody enjoyedtheirselves. Yeso we madethat ourself. - Relativepronoun:Preference for uninflectedforms: that, as,what My dearsisterasdeadandgone relativepronoun of subject Omission I know a man'll do it for thee. - Prepositions aspect asdirectobjectmarkerafterprogressive I beendriving ofher for 15years. - Adverbs:"-Iy'' dropping ln the endthey wasturning out real goodturniture. - Periphrastic habituality "do": expresses

As I do sayto my niece,you're far betteroffthan whatwe were. HomeCounties of England: 11.The Southeast @ialectII) th-frontingin all positions:think -> fink 11.1.Phonology: mouth -> mouf brother-> bruwer glottalization:t -) ? quite nice -> [kwar?] bottle-> [bozl] 1-> u mill -> [miu]; milk -> [miuk] lateralvocalization: 'ome": - possessive Morphology: 11.2. the fact wasthat me brotherleft home. - Reflexivepronouns: regularization He put his handto steadyhisself on top of the winch. Two bob for meselfandeightbob for the hoardandlodging. - Subject "us": whenfollowedby anNP apposition Us old boyswould be drinkingbeer,too. - Singular to imperatives "us": restricted Showus themboots. ('othose") - Demonsfative"them": for distantplural objects themold drinkinghorns. I don't know if you've everseen Syntax 11.3. - Verb agreement: "was", "has" and"does" and alsofull verbswith plural pronouns We/you/theywaswithout food. We hasa muck aroundin there. Every time we doesanythingwrong. I goesinto the shelter. - Existentialo'there" + singularforrn lf o'tobe": There'sno falseceiling,there'sno columns. 'to 'to - Negation only auxiliaryverb be" and have" i ooain't'replaces I ain't beenfishingfor the last six days. Thereain't nothingYoucando. He don't live in there. "don't" for all persons: He wouldn't give me nothing. Multiple concord: "never" as a pasttensenegator:I neverwent to schooltoday'

- Relativeclause the marking:"whaf': The stuffwhat camefrom the gascorroded cable. "as": Thatnoiseasyou heard - Question "innif'. He getsupsetquick,innit? tags:invariable - Pragmatic approximation. markerfunctioningasexemplification, "like": discourse It's just like all stickingout all overtheplace. English(DialectIII) 12.Scottish

Englishvs. UrbanScots Scottish Standard History 12.1. - rhoticity 12.2.Phonology: - Scottish beforevoiced lengthening Vowel LengthRule:Phonetic and"brief' in "breathe" fricativesandhl,length contrast Monophthongization: [er] -> [e:] in "face" and [au] -> [o:] in "goat"; house-> [u] bite -> [ai] dentalarticulationof alveolarconsonants 'glottalizationofltl formation:to kill, killt; to sell,sellt 12 3. Morphology: Verb inflection:pasttense in: Noun inflection:eliminationof stemallomorphy wife - wifes; loaf - loafs plural you: yous,yousyins Pronouns: Pluralis/was:Thewindieswiz aw broken 12.4.Syntax:- Agreement: 'The windowsareall broken.' - Doublemodals: He'll canhelp in the mom. - Aspect:Progressive with stativeverbs: really wantingto go last year. We werenae Progressive turning into imperfective: areforgettingthe new number. and students The codeis often changed - Tense: past: referringto an eventin the immediate PastTense just phoned. The electrician - Conditional If she'."ouldcometo seethingsfor herself,shewould ... clauses: - Interrogative pronouns: "hod'for "why'': How did you not apply?

t4 - Coordination for subordination in relativeclauses: Theboy I wastalkingto - andhe actuallyworksin the yard- wassaying... No subjectrelativepronoun:It wasJimmy Brown wasthe fireman.

13.Orkney/Shetland English(DialectIV)

13.1. History 13.2.Phonology - Complementary lengthening in the rime: back[bak] - baulk [ba:k] Stopping of dentalfricatives: thu -> du Retroflex(Scandinavian) hl+ /s/ as [g] in "force" and"nurse'o Dentalization of alveolar consonants 13.3.Morphology - regularization of inegularverbs:He selled. indefinitearticleis always"t'a auncen'stangeman' irregularplural nouns:freider'brothers';een'eyes';kye 'cows'

seenrheard it' ratherthan I'm "have": r3.4. Morpn"nn"-lJli*lt;,'T;ffi:Till'obe"

a) -it after all stops b) --edaftervoicedphonemes otherthanstops phonemes c) -t aftervoiceless otherthanstops Example: He flippit ('folded') up his trousers. pronouns: personrealized 13.5.Syntax - Personal as"thu/thoo"and"you" Second - Agreement "s" after'othu": Du minds('remind') me aafil a deegrandfaider. - Naturalgender in nouns:Toolsandphenomena of naturearemasculine. Someexpressions of time, o'fish"and"lamp" arefeminine. Example: Da tide fardernort,he streams on da westside.

14.WelshEnglish(DialectV) 14.1. History 14.2.Phonology:- loweringof lel: trap [trap] - rhotic - word-medial lengthenin;of consonants, e.g.pepper[pep:ar] 14.3.Morphology: verb inflection:he do/hedoth hath he have/he I be,you am,theeart,theebist, shebe,we am,they am,they be,thembe.

15 14.4.Syntax - question tag o'isn'tif': invariant:I've heardthe word,isn't it. - word orderin indirectquestions asin directquestions: e.g.I don't know whattime is it. - "for to" construction:I went to town for to seethe doctor. - predicatefronting: Coal they are gettingout mostly. - variouswaysof codinghabituality: He goesto the cinemaeveryweek.(standard) He do go to the cinemaeveryweek (habitual"do") progressive) He's goingto the cinema everyweek.(habitual 15.Irish English(DialectVI) 15.1. History 15.2. Terminology - Anglo-Irish - Hibemo-English - Irish English - UlsterScots 15.3. Phonology a) in UlsterScots - retention of Older Scots /u:/: cow /ku:/ - frontingandraisingof O.E.long "a": home - no roundirg of lal afterlwl: swan/swan/ - retentionof final /x/: bought lbc:xtl - vocalization of final lU: wall lwc:l - palatalization of velar stops:cat kjatl; gap lgapl b) in Irish English - epenthesis in codaclusters: film /filam/ c) in Dublin English - vowel breaking:clean lHijan/; fool /fuwal/ - raising of laul: down ldew/ or /deun/ - retention of lul: Dublin /dublan/(alsoin BelfastEnglish) d) in BelfastEnglish - raising of lel to lel: back/beV - lowering of lel to lel: set lsetl

t6 Protestants ll tolllin Catholicbut Differences between andCatholics: Shift from intervocalic not in Protestant speech. perfectformationwith o'be": They'renot left schoolyet. 15.4.Morphology - Present distinctionbetween singular "you" andplural "yous(e)" Pasttense an eventwhich took placeat 15.5.Syntax - Perfective aspect: usedto encode point in a periodleadingup to the present. someunspecified e.g.Wereyou everin Kenmare? - the "after" perfect:refersto eventsor states in the recentpast e.g.You're afterruiningme. 'You have(ust) ruinedme. - progressive with stativeverbs aspect: e.g.They'renot believingit. - habitual"do" and"be: e.g.Theybe shooting andfishingout at the forestrylakes. you be's boreddoingnothingat home. e.g.It's betterbecause - Imperatives: overtsubject imperative e.g.Go you there;readyou that book. - NegativeConcord, e.g.You've not heardof that nothing. - relativeclauses: resumptive Dronouns thatthey wouldn't hunt e.g.Theyjumpedbanksthattime on therace-course overthemtoday. - Complementation: "for to"-construction for to makethetea. e.g.Therewasalwaysonemanselected - Subordination Subordinate of a subordinate clause. with 66and" asintroducer usuallycontains a subject nounor pronounfollowedby a participle. clause whenever we werewee('little'), andmy mother e.g.I mind ('remember') rearingus,hey, shehadto washall... - NorthernSubject a Rule:A plural nounsubject takes"s" on the verbwhereas plural pronounsubjectdoesnot (unlessthereare someother sentence between the subjectandthe verb) elements e.g.Sonsof their comes overhere. - Definitearticlewith - institrrtions, e.g.I left the schoolin earlyage. - diseases, e.g.But she's themeasles. - with schoolsubjects, to be complicated. seems e.g.Themathsnowadays - physicalsensations, with the hunger. werestarved e.g.Thepoorpeople

t7 English(DialectVII) 16.Canadian History 16.1. asa North Americanvariety 16.2.T\e language lol, asin "lot" and"caught" 16.3.Phonology:- mergingof lol andlil towards

in tet' as towards tetmetge :tetand .T**;:ffi:T. .,':#

laul -> lzul,asin "mouth" - retractionof le.l to lal, asin "trap" - raisingof diphthongs lail -> lzil, asin o'price" consonants: beforevoiceless

English(DialectVIII) 17.Appalachian History 17.1. 17.2.Morphophonology:- verb inflection:syllabicallomorphafterl-stl me to drive downthroughthis cove. It disgustes It nevercostedme onered cent. - nouninflection:syllabicallomorphafterl-sCl andI remember... We haddeskes, in the springhouse. Thebirdshavebuilt nestes 17.3.Morphology: - verb inflection:a greatdealof formalvariation begin,begun- begin,begun To begin- began, blown-blowed,blown To blow-blew, blowed, To break- broke- broke,broken To bring - brought,brung- brought,brung - catched, cotch,cotched caught, cotch,cotched caught, To catch- catched, nouninflection:no plural on mea$re nouns: e.g.We cut it into four quarter. powders? Massnounsascountnouns:e.g.Haveyou got any easing e.g.Thereusedto be plentyof deers. Pluralsfor animals: you, ye person singular: pronouns: personal two formsfor second plural:you, ye, you'uns,you all, y'all person five formsfor second two forms for third personsingularneuter:it, hit I know positivethathit wasn'tall true. type pronouns: /n/-final insteadof /s/-final forms of the independent possessive The colts is theirn. - Work themjust like they was yourn.

asin otherdialects habituality 17.4.Syntax: - finite "be", doesnot express

18 e.g.I be too old for suchtomfoolery. If it be barn-curved tobacco,you havea different thing. finite "have":They('there') havebeena big change. perfectsplit up by object) VPs (present Discontinuous e.g.We hadall our work doneup. alongthe road. Doublemodals, e.g.You might couldasksomebody extending to stative verbs Progressive aspect, e.g.We wasliking youjust fine. "done"('already','completely') Completive e.g.We thoughtPaandMa haddonegoneto church. Ingressive verbs:e.g.He took runningoff ('beganto run ofP) habifual"s": e.g.I drinksthreeandfour cupsto a meal. all thetime a-working. e.g.It just took somebody a-prefixing: He was a-justtearingthat window open. Multiplenegation/concord e.g.I've not neverheardof that. We didn't haveno usefor it nowavs. Personalpronounsusedreflexively you ('yourself) a mole. e.g.You cancatch pronounsin demonstrative Personal function (both aspronounsanddeterminers) thanthey did in my youngdays. e.g.Them('these')looksa wholelot steeper I've wentup overthemrocksa manya time. ninein total, including"what","as", 'othats" Relativeclause markers: a womanthatschild hasdied. e.g.We needto remember Doublecomparative/superlative backthenthanI am now. e.g.I'd sayI wasmorehealthier Doc wasthe most healthiest man in this pan of the country. Who's got therefirstest? Prepositionafter verbsof mentalactivity e.g.I canrecollectof him a-goingto school. Stacking of prepositions up on Mill Creek. houses on up around e.g.Theywasseveral habituality PPsto express ('everynighVevery Sunday') e.g.We would havesingingof a night andof a Sunday

19 - Conjunctionsfollowed by redundant "that" there... that I'm born ard raised e.g.Not just because - Omission assubject of relativepronoun a gooddwellinghouse. e.g.Theyis six fees would havemadeanybody Left dislocation him. e.g.Thebear,it madea passa-toward English(DialectIX) 18.Australian History 18.1.

posi'lion I82Phonorogv:' :Trff:,,u;,1'fi';::l

- flapping of ltl -< [r] intervocalically:thirteen - alternationbetweenpalatalized alveolarsand affricates: tune [tjun] - ttjunl assume [asjum]- [aJum] of the "goat" vowel: [eu,ey,ou,oy] variationin the pronunciation of /U, e.g.oomilko' vocalization Raisingof [au] to [eo], asin "mouth"

Verb inflection:Levelingof pasttenseandpastparticiple: 18.3.Morphology: e.g.sing,sang,sang shrink, shrunk,shrunk useof progressive 18.4.Syntax:- extended - present perfectwith pasttensefunction: e.g.Thenhe's hit her on the head. - no marking of anteriorityin reportedspeech: Kim saidshehasa bad cold. - "haveto" asfull verb:Theyhaveto makea decision by Friday,don't they. - gerunds pronoun in ratherthanpersonal preceCed preferentially by possessive writing British Po Pe American Po Pe Ausfalian Po Pe

378s1191622 (DialectX) 19.New ZealardEnglish 19.1. History

20 19.2.Phonology- non-rhotic - celery - neutralizationof lel andlelbeforelU: e.g.salary - neutralization of /u:/ and lulbeforelU, e.g.pull - pool - centalizationof /r/: kit -> [kat], e.g.affect - effect - lowering of lelto la/:trap - lowering of lJ to lol: force - mergingof lpl andlealt;wards the former:e.g.near- square

- precedent president devoicingof voicedfricatives: to interdental fronting of dentalfricatives:from postdental yields"student"-> [ftJudant] Assimilationof ltjlto lttl. Furtherassimilation Vocalization of /l/, [smoo] syllables Rhythm:useof full vowelsin unstressed

plural form "yous": e.g.I asked the children:Are yousreadyyet? 19.3.Morphology: - lessfrequent useof inflected("s") genitive 19.4.Syntax:possessive: - subjunctive:relatively frequent(ike AE) - *will" in suggestions, e.g.Will I closethewindow? - deletionof auxiliary"have": her put the car in the garage. e.g.I'm sureI seen - "would of instead of "would have": just overthe correctage. e.g.I would of been - doublecomparative: e.g.Oneclassis morebrighterthanthe other. English(BlackEnglish) 20. African AmericanVernacular An ethnolectratherthan a dialect Origin of AAVE Creolehypothesis Dialect mixture hypothesis 20.1.Phonology:- raisingof la'lto lel:bang of lu/: mine -> [ma:n] monophthongization -> [bIdrus] business of fricatives: stopping -> {sebn] seven

2l thing -> [tE] those[doz] vocalization of /r/: floor -> [floa] of /l/: help -> [hep] vocalization/deletion -> [kamputa] deletionof glide:computer metathesis of /s/ + stop:ask-> [eks] backingof /V: street-> [skrit] land-> [len] clusters: of consonant simplification on first syllable:police-> [plis] stress: it. Participle aspast.Theyseen Infinitive aspast:They run thereyesterday. regularization:Everybodyknowedhim. No third personsingularinflection:Shehavemoney. Plural"was": The folks wasthere.

verb inflection:pastasparticiple:I hadwentdownthere. 20.2.Morphology:

oxen-) oxes Noun inflection:regularization: -> gooses geese -> sheeps sheep plural) children-> childrens(redundant nouns:I got 50 cent. no plural on measure of "mine": Thebook is mines. Pronouns: regularization - invariant"be": Sometimes they be playinggames. - deletionof /l/ beforelabial:She'll be -> shebe Shebe herein a minute,won't she? "done": Theydoneusedall the goodones. completive up. I donetold you 'ot to mess intensifuing'odone": Resultative "be done":My ice creambe donemeltedby the time we getthere. Remote "been":I beenhadit aboutthreeyears. Pastperfectwith pasttense(narrative)meaning up the yard. andthentheyhadmessed e.g.Theyhadwent outside It wasn'tnothing. doublenegation: ooair.'t'for tense "be": Sheain't here. preverbal for present negative for "didn't": Sheain't do it. Also asa substitute

- copula/auxiliary deletion:Shenice.Theyactingsilly. 20.3.Syntan:

22 no possessive marking:the dogtail no plural marking:two boy personal pronouns in possessive It's they book. fi.rnction: personal pronouns in demonstrative function:Shelikesthemapples. questionformationwithout inversion:Wherethat is? oosay": quotative I told him say,"Leave". 21.Conclusion 21.I . Varietiesbeyondregionalones



Pidgins e.g.WestAfrican PidginEnglish(es)

Creoles Creole e.g.Jamaican

e.g. Black English Englishes spoken by non-native speakers

2l.2.Determiningthe "distance" amongthe varieties: Hierarchical clusteranalysis

=E* s fug;rl $*E;sg ;H!*45*EFH s gt

21.3.Recunent deviations from the standard language Phonology 21.3.1. - glottalizationof lt/ - rhoticity - vocalizationof /1/ - lowering of la,lto lal Morphology 21.3.2. - doublecomparison (e.g.morebrighter)

23 - regularization formsof verbs(e.g.He showup andsay) tense of present - regalanzation of inegular verbs(e.g.knowed) - levellingof pasttenseandpastparticiple(e.g.He hadwent) - regularization of nounplurals(e.g.sheeps) - regularization (e.g.hissell theirself) of reflexivepronouns - adverbs marker(e.g.real good) without adverbial - numberdistinctionfor second ( - youse) pronouns pers^nal person - Present perfectformationwith'obe"ratherthan"have'o 21.3.3. Syntax - wider rangeof usesof progressive (e.g.Sheis liking) aspect - negative (e.g.He won't do no harm) negation concord/multiple - zero-relativizationin position(e.g.The manlivesthereis a nice chap) subject - levellingof differences perfectandpasttense(e.g.Wereyou everin present between London?) - doublemodals(e.g.I tell you whatwe might shoulddo) - invariantquestiontag (e.g.inni| - personal pronoun( themdays) instead of demonstrative - personal pronoun(e.g.He's me brother) of possessive instead - extension (e.g.We go to the churcheverySunday) of anicleusage features for recurrent 21.4.Explanations 2l .4.1 . Simplification - glottalizationof /t/ - morphologicalregularization - invariantquestiontag at a slowerpace Historicalchange 21.4.2. - lowering of lelto lal - rhoticity - present perfectformationwith "be" - zero-relativization of subjectpronouns linguisticconstaints for "artificial" (i.e. unnatural) Lesser respect 21.4.3. - doublecomparative - multiple negation - doublemodals - wider rangeof usesof progressive aspect

24 21.5.Towarda theoryof (social)dialectvariation flux Language in a constant assumption: 21.5.1. Background Main Claim:It's all sociological 21.5.2. introduced? How is the linguisticdifference 21.5.3. 21.5.4. From socialto regionaldialectvariation

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25 Graham:A grammarof the dialectof the Bolton area.Frankfurta. M.: Lang, 1999. Sharrocks, 2008. Peter:Pronominalgenderin English.New York: Routledge, Siemund, Sznrecsanyi,Benedikt& Bemd Kornann:The morphosynta(of varietiesof English perspective. In: Lingua l19 (2009)1643-1663. worldwide:A quantitative of England. Oxford:Blackwell,21999. Trudgill, Peter:The dialects Trudgill, Peter& JeanHannah:InternationalEnglish.A guideto varietiesof Standard English.London:Arnold, 1982. 1982. UniversityPress, Cambridge of English.3 Vols. Cambridge: Wells,JohnC.: Accents American English.Oxford:Blackwell,1998 Wolfram,Walt & NatalieSchilling-Estes: