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Preface Page No.

1. Functions
Exercise 01 - 28
2. Limits
Exercise 29 - 53
3. Continuity and derivability
Exercise 54 - 78
4. Method of differentiation
Exercise 79 - 100
5. Application of derivatives
Exercise 101 - 126
6. Solution of triangle
Exercise 127 - 149
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MATHEMATICS
CLASS : XII
CONTENT
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 1
FUNCTIONS
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A–3. (i) f(x) =
1 x
3 x 5 x
2
3
÷
+ ÷
f(x) =
) 1 x )( 1 x (
3 x 5 x
3
+ ÷
+ ÷
Division by zero is undefined x = ± 1
Domain x e R – {1, –1} ¬ x e (–·, –1) (–1, 1) (1, ·)
(ii) f(x) =
x
x sin
1 ÷
For sin
–1
x, x e [–1, 1]
and division by zero is undefined x = 0 Domain x e [–1, 0) (0, 1]
(iii) f(x) =
| x | x
1
+
for function to be defined x + |x| > 0 for x > 0, x + |x| = 2x > 0
for x s 0, x + |x| = 0 Domain is x e (0, ·)
(iv) f(x) = e
x + sin x
Domain x e R as there is no restriction for exponent of e.
(v) f(x) =
) x 1 ( log
1
10
÷
+
2 x +
1 – x > 0 and x + 2 > 0 and 1 – x = 1
¬ x e (– ·, 1) – {0} and x > – 2 ¬ x e [–2, 0) (0, 1)
(vi) f(x) =
x 2 1÷
+ 3 sin
–1

|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
1 x 3
1 – 2x > 0 and – 1 s
2
1 x 3 ÷
s 1 ¬ x s
2
1
and –
3
1
s x s 1
Taking intersection
1 1/2 –1/3
x
Domain x e (
¸
(

¸

÷
2
1
,
3
1
(vii) f(x) =
x sin
1
2
÷

2 x
1
÷
– 1 s x s 1 and x > 2 ¬ x e |
(viii) f(x) = log
x

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ 2 / 1 x
1
log
2
In case of composite function in log.
x > 0, x = 1 and
2
1
x
1
÷
> 1 ¬ x e (0, 1) (1, ·) and 0 < x –
2
1
< 1
¬ x e (0, ·) – {1} and
2
1
< x <
2
3
1 3/2 1/2
x
0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 2
Taking intersection
x e
|
.
|

\
|
1 ,
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
2
3
, 1
A–6. (i) f(x) = 3 sin x + 4 cos x + 5

2 2
4 3 +
s 3 sin x + 4 cos x s
2 2
4 3 +
¬ – 5 s 3 sin x + 4 cos x s 5 ¬ 0 s 3 sin x + 4 cos x + 5 s 10
¬ Range y e [0, 10]
(ii) f(x) =
x 1
1
+
· >
x
> 0 ¬ · > 1 + x > 1
¬ 0 <
x 1
1
+
s 1 Range y e (0, 1]
(iii) f(x) = !n (sin
–1
x)
Domain sin
–1
x > 0 ¬ x e (0, 1]
Range 0 < sin
–1
x s
2
t
– · < !n (sin
–1
x) s !n
|
.
|

\
| t
2
Inequality doesn't change as !n is increasing function
(iv) f(x) = 2 – 3x – 5x
2
Domain x e R
Method 1
y = – 5x
2
– 3x + 2
opening downward parabola
– D/4a
2
0
Range y e
(
¸
(

\
| ÷
· ÷
a 4
D
,
¬ y e
(
¸
(

\
|
· ÷
20
49
,
Method 2
5x
2
+ 3x + (y – 2) = 0
D > 0 ¬ 9 – 20 (y – 2) > 0 ¬ 20y – 49 s 0 ¬ y s
20
49
(v) f(x) = 3 |sin x| – 4|cos x|
f(x) is a periodic function with period t. So analysis is limited in [0, t]
f
max
= 3.1 – 4.0 = + 3 at x =
2
t
, |sin x| = 1, |cos x| = 0
f
min
= 3.0 – 4.1 = – 1 at x = 0, |sin x| = 0, |cos x| = 1 Range y e [–4, 3]
(vi) f(x) =
x tan 1
x sin
2
+
+
x cot 1
x cos
2
+
f(x) = sin x |cos x| + cos x |sin x|
periodic period = 2t
f(x) =
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
e
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
e ÷
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
e
|
.
|

\
| t
e
2 ,
2
3
x , 0
,
2
x , x 2 sin
,
2
x , 0
2
, 0 x , x 2 sin
Range y e [–1, 1]
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 3
Section (B) :
B–1. (i) f(x) =
2
x
and g(x) =
2
) x (
Domain x e R, Domain x e [0, ·)
non-identical functions
(ii) f(x) = sec(sec
–1
x) and g(x) = cosec (cosec
–1
x)
Domain x e (–·, –1] [1, ·), Domain x e (–·, –1] [1, ·)
f(x) = x g(x) = x
Identical functions
(iii) f(x) =
2
x cos 1+
and g(x) = cos x
f(x) = |cos x|
non-identical function
(iv) f(x) = x and g(x) = e
!nx
, Domain x e R
+
Domain x e R
non-identical function
B–5. (i) f(x) = e
x
and g(x) = !n x
fog(x) = e
!n x
= x, x > 0
gof(x) = !n e
x
= x, x e R
(ii) f(x) = |x| and g(x) = sin x
fog(x) = f(sin x) = |sin x|
gof (x) = g(|x|) = sin |x|
(iii) f(x) = sin
–1
x and g(x) = x
2
fog(x) = sin
–1
(g(x)) = sin
–1
x
2
gof(x) = (f
2
(x)) = (sin
–1
x)
2
(iv) f(x) = x
2
+ 2, g(x) =
1 x
x
÷
fog(x) = g
2
(x) + 2 =
2
2
) 1 x (
x
÷
+ 2 =
2
2
) 1 x (
2 x 4 x 3
÷
+ ÷
gof(x) =
1 ) x ( f
) x ( f
÷
=
1 x
2 x
2
2
+
+
B–6. f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s < +
s +
2 x 1 , x 1
1 x , x 1
2
g(x) = 1 – x, – 2 s x s 1
fog(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
e ¬ s < +
e ¬ s +
) 0 , 1 [– x 2 ) x ( g 1 , ) x ( g 1
] 1 , 0 [ x 1 ) x ( g , g 1
2
¬ fog (x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
e +
e +
) 0 , 1 [– x , ) x – 1 ( 1
] 1 , 0 [ x , ) x – 1 ( 1
2
¬ fog (x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
e
e +
) 0 , 1 [– x , x – 2
] 1 , 0 [ x , x x 2 – 2
2
Section (C) :
C–1. (i) y = |(x + 2) (x + 3)|
many - one function
(ii) y = |!nx|
many - one function
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 4
(iii) f(x) =sin 4x, x e
|
.
|

\
| t t
8
,
8

period =
2
t
one-one function
(iv) f(x) = x +
x
1
, x
x
1
e (0, ·)
many one function
(v) f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
1 –
x
1
e – 1
f' =
0
e – 1 2
x
1
. e
1 –
x
1
2
1 –
x
1
>
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
increasing function
Hence one - one
(vi) f(x) = ) x cos( –
4
x 3
2
t
t
even function
Hence many - one
(vii) f(x) = sin
–1
x – cos
–1
x = 2 sin
–1
x –
2
t
monotonically increasing.
C–5. (i) f(x) = sin (x
2
+1) ¬ f(– x) = f (x) = even function
(ii) f(x) = x + x
2
¬ f(– x) = x
2
– x

= f (x) or – f(x) Neither even nor odd function
(iii) f(x) = x – x
3
¬ f(–x) = – x + x
3
= – f(x) odd function
(iv) f(x) = x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 a
1 – a
x
x
¬ f(–x) = – x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 a
1 – a
x –
x
¬ f(–x) = x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 a
1 – a
x
x
= f(x) even function
(v) f(x) = log (x +
1 x
2
+
) ¬ f(–x) = log (–x +
1 x
2
+
)
f(x) + f(– x) = log
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + + ) 1 x x )(– 1 x x (
2 2
= log [(x
2
+ 1) – x
2
] = 0 hence odd function
(vi) f(x) = sin x + cos x ¬ f(– x) = – sin x + cos x = f(x) or – f(x)
Neither even nor odd.
(vii) f(x) = (x
2
– 1) |x| ¬ f(–x) = f(x) even function.
(viii) f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
1 >
< < ÷ ÷ + | + |
÷1 s
÷
÷
x ) x sec(sec
1 x 1 ] x 2 [ x 2
x | ) x tan(tan |
1
1
f(x) =
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
1 >
< <
= 4
0 < < 1 ÷ 3
÷1 s
x x
1 x 0 3
0 x
x
x | x |
¬ f(x) =
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
1 >
< <
= 4
0 < < 1 ÷ 3
÷1 s ÷
x x
1 x 0 3
0 x
x
x x
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 5
C–6. (i) even extension of f(x) = f(–x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s +
s <
1 – x , e x –
0 x 1 – , x sin – x
x
2
(ii) odd extension of f(x) = – f(– x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s
s < +
1 – x , e – x
0 x 1 – , x sin x –
x
2
Section (D) :
D–2. (i) f(x) = 2 + 3 cos (x – 2) ¬ fundamental period = 2t
(ii) f(x) = sin 3x + cos
2
x + |tan x| ¬ period ÷
3
2t
, t, t
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
|
t t
t
, ,
3
2
= 2t ¬ for fundamental period
f(x + t) = – sin x + cos
2
x + |tan x| = f(x) fundament period = 2t
(iii) f(x) = sin
4
x t
+ sin
3
x t
period ÷ 8, 6
period of f(x) = L.C.M. (8, 6) = 24
fundamental period = 24
(iv) f(x) = cos
5
x 3

7
x 2 sin
period ÷
3
10t
, 7 t
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
7 ,
3
10
= 70 t Fundament period = 70t
(v) f(x) = [sin 3x] – |cos 6x| period ¬
3
2t
3
t
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
| t t
3
,
3
2
=
3
2t
Fundamental period =
3
2t
(vi) f(x)=
x cos 1
1
÷
fundamental period = 2t
(vii) f(x) =
x 6 cos 1
x 12 sin
2
+
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
| t t
3
,
6
=
3
t
for fundamental period
f
|
.
|

\
| t
+
6
x
=
|
.
|

\
| t
+ +
|
.
|

\
| t
+
6
x 6 cos 1
6
x 12 sin
2
= f(x) Fundament period =
6
t
(viii) f(x) = sec
3
x + cosec
3
x ¬ period ÷ 2t 2t
Fundamental period = L.C.M. (2t, 2t) = 2t
Section (E) :
E–1. (i) f : D ÷ R
f(x) = 1 – 2
–x
¬ f '(x) = 2
– x
!n2 > 0 increasing function ¬ one one function
D : [x e R), Range : (–·, 1) = codomain
function is not bijective f
–1
does not exist
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 6
(ii) f(x) = (4 – (x – 7)
3
)
1/5
f '(x) =
5
1
(4 – (x – 7)
3
)
– 4/5
. (– 3 (x – 7)
2
) s 0 decreasing function ¬ one one function
· =
· ÷
– ) x ( f Lim
x
· =
· ÷
) x ( f Lim
– x
D : R Range : R = codomain ¬ onto function
function is bijective (invertible)
y = (4 – (x – 7)
3
)
1/5
4 – y
5
= (x – 7)
3
x = 7 + (4 – y
5
)
1/3
or f
–1
(x) = 7 + (4 – x
5
)
1/3
(iii) f(x) = !n
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
x 1 x
D : x e R, Range : R
y = !n
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
x 1 x or x =
2
e e
y y ÷
÷
f
–1
(x) =
2
e e
x x ÷
÷
E–5. f(x) . f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
= f(x) + f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
¬ f(x) = 1 ± x
n
f(3) = – 26 ¬ f(x) = 1 – x
3
f'(x) = – 3x
2
or f'(1) = – 3
E–6. f(x + y) = f(x) . f(y) and f(1) = 2
¿
=
10
1 n
) n ( f
= f(1) + f(2) + ........... + f(10)
= 2
1
+ 2
2
+ 2
3
+ ....... + 2
10
= 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
1 2
1 2
10
= 2046
PART - II
Section (A) :
A–2. For domain – log
0.3
(x – 1) > 0 and x
2
+ 2x + 8 > 0
¬ log
0.3
(x – 1) s 0 and ¬ (x + 1)
2
+ 7 > 0
¬ (x – 1) > 1 and ¬ x e R
¬ x > 2
Taking intersection x e [2, ·)
A–3. f(x) = cot
–1
) 3 x ( x + + cos
–1

1 x 3 x
2
+ +
for domain
x(x + 3) > 0 and 0 s x
2
+ 3x + 1 s 1
¬ x e (–·, –3] [0, ·) and x
2
+ 3x + 1 > 0 and x
2
+ 3x s 0 ¬ x e [–3, 0]
Taking intersection
x e {–3, 0}
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 7
A–5. f(x) = 4
x
+ 2
x
+ 1
Let 2
x
= t > 0, ¬ x e R f(x) = g(t) = t
2
+ t + 1, t > 0
g(t) =
2
2
1
t |
.
|

\
|
+
+
4
3
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
1
t
>
2
1
¬
2
2
1
t |
.
|

\
|
+
>
4
1
¬
2
2
1
t |
.
|

\
|
+
+
4
3
> 1 Range is (1, ·)
Section (B) :
B–2.* (A) f(x) =
) x (sec n
1 –
e
!
= sec
–1
x, x e (–·, – 1] (1, ·)
g(x) = sec
–1
x, x e (–·, – 1] [1, ·)
non-identical functions
(B) f(x) = tan (tan
–1
x) = x, x e R g(x) = cot (cot
–1
x) = x, x e R
identical functions
(C) f(x) = sgn (x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
<
=
>
0 x 1 –
0 x 0
0 x 1
g(x) = sgn(sgn x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
<
=
>
0 x 1 –
0 x 0
0 x 1
Identical functions
(D) f(x) = cot
2
x . cos
2
x, x e R – {n t}, n e I
g(x) = cot
2
x – cos
2
x
= cot
2
x (1 – sin
2
x) = cot
2
x. cos
2
x x e R – {n t}, n e I
Identical functions
B–4. Domain of f(g(x))
Range of g(x) ÷ Domain of f(x)
¬ – 5 s |2x + 5| s 7 ¬ 0 s |2x + 5| s 7 ¬ –7 s 2x + 5 s 7
¬ – 12 s 2x s 2 ¬ – 6 s x s 1
B–6.* f(x) =
x 1
x – 1
+
, 0 s x s 1 ¬ g(x) = 4x (1 – x),0 s x s 1
fog(x) =
) x ( g 1
) x ( g – 1
+
=
) x – 1 ( x 4 1
) x – 1 ( x 4 – 1
+
=
2
2
x 4 – x 4 1
x 4 x 4 – 1
+
+
gof(x) = 4f(x) . (1 – f(x)) = 4 |
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ x 1
x – 1
– 1
x 1
x – 1
=
2
) x 1 (
) x – 1 ( x 8
+
Section (C) :
C–2. One One / Many One
f(x) =
10 x 2 x 7
5 x x 2
2
2
+ +
+ ÷
, Domain x e R
f'(x) =
2 2
2 2
) 10 x 2 x 7 (
) 5 x x 2 )( 2 x 14 ( ) 10 x 2 x 7 )( 1 x 4 (
+ +
+ ÷ + ÷ + + ÷
f'(x) =
2 2
2
) 10 x 2 x 7 (
20 x 30 x 11
+ +
÷ ÷
> 0 ¬ x e (– ·, 0)
|
.
|

\
|
· ,
11
30
f' (x) < 0 ¬ x e
|
.
|

\
|
11
30
, 0
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = 0,
11
30
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 8
Function is increasing and decreasing in different intervals, so non monotonic
Many one function.
Onto / Into
f(x) =
10 x 2 x 7
5 x x 2
2
2
+ +
+ ÷
2x
2
– x + 5 > 0, ¬ x e R and 7x
2
+ 2x + 10 > 0 ¬ x e R
" a = 2 > 0 and " a = 7 and D = 4 – 280 < 0
D = 1 – 40 = – 39 < 0
f(x) > 0 ¬ x e R
Also f(x) never tends to ±· as 7x
2
+ 2x + 10 has no real roots, Range = Codomain so into function.
C–3. f(x) = x
3
+ x
2
+ 3x + sin x, x e R
f'(x) = 3x
2
+ 2x + 3 + cos x
" 3x
2
+ 2x + 3 >
12
32
as a = 3 > 0 and D < 0
–1 s cos x s 1 so f'(x) > 0 ¬ x e R
· ÷ x
lim
f(x) = + ·
÷· ÷ x
lim
f(x) = – ·
Hence f(x) is one-one and onto function (as f(x) is continuous function)
C–6. f(g(x
1
)) = f(g(x
2
)) ¬ g(x
1
) = g(x
2
)
as f is one - one function ¬ x
1
= x
2
as g is one - one function
hence f(g(x
1
)) = f(g(x
2
))
¬ x
1
= x
2
¬ f(g(x)) is one - one function
Section (D) :
D–2. f(x) = sin ( ) x ] a [ . Period =
] a [
2t
= t
[a] = 4 ¬ a e [4, 5)
D–3. f(x) = x + a – [x + b] + sin tx + cos 2tx + sin (3tx) + cos (4tx) + ........ + sin (2n – 1)t + cos (2px)
f(x) = {x + b} + a – b + sin (tx) + cos (2tx) + sin (3tx) + cos (4tx) + .... + sin (2n – 1) + cos (2ntx)
Period of f(x) = L.C.M (1, 2,
3
2
,
4
2
, .........,
1 n 2
2
÷
,
n 2
2
) = 2
period of f(x) = 2
since f(1 + x) = f(x) , hence fundamental period is 2
D–7.* (A) f(x) = cos (cos
–1
x)
= x, x e [–1, 1] odd function
(B) f (x + t) = cos (sin (x + t)) + cos (cos (x + t))
f (x + t) = cos (sin x) + cos (cos x) = f(x)
f |
.
|

\
| t
+
2
x
= cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| t
+
2
x sin
+ cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| t
+
2
x cos
= cos (cos x) + cos (sin x) = f(x)
fundamental period =
2
t
(C) f(x) = cos (3 sin x), x e [–1, 1]
– 3 sin1 s 3 sin x s 3 sin 1
¬ cos (3 sin 1) s cos (3 sin x) s 1 Range is [cos (3 sin1), 1]
Section (E) :
E–1.
1
y
=
x x
x x
e e
e e
÷
÷
+
÷
By compnendo and dividendo
y 1
y 1
÷
+
=
2
e 2
x
¬ x = !n |
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
y 1
y 1
f
–1
(x) = !n
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
x 1
x 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 9
E–7. f(1) = 1 = 2 – 1
f(n + 1) = 2f(n) + 1 f(2) = 2f(1) + 1 = 2. 1 + 1 = 3 = 2
2
– 1
f(3) = 7 = 2
3
– 1
f(4) = 15 = 2
4
– 1
Similarly f(n) = 2
n
– 1
E–8. Method 1 : (usual but lengthy)
x
2
f(x) + f(1 – x) = 2x – x
4
.....(1)
replace x by (1 – x) in equation (1)
(1 – x)
2
f(1 – x)+ f(x) = 2 (1– x) – (1 – x)
4
.....(2)
eliminate f(1 – x) by equation (1) and (2)
we get
f(x) = 1 – x
2
Method 2 :
Since R.H.S. is polynomial of 4
th
degree and also by options consider f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c
x
2
f(x) + f(1 – x) = 2x – x
4
¬ x
2
(ax
2
+ bx + c) + a (1 – x)
2
+ b (1 – x) + c = 2x – x
4
by comparing coefficients
a = – 1
b = 0
c = 1
f(x) = – x
2
+ 1
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
1. (i) f(x) =
x x
2 . 2 2 3
÷
÷ ÷
3 – 2
x
– 2 .2
–x
> 0 or (2
x
)
2
– 3.2
x
+ 2 s 0
or (2
x
– 1) (2
x
– 2) s 0 ¬ 2
x
e [1, 2]
¬ x e [0, 1]
(ii) f(x) =
2
x 1 1 ÷ ÷
1 –
2
x 1÷ > 0 ¬
2
x 1÷
s 1 ¬ 0 s 1 – x
2
s 1 ¬ x e [– 1, 1]
(iii) f(x) = (x
2
+ x + 1)
–3/2
D : x e R
(iv) f(x) =
2 x
2 x
+
÷
+
x 1
x 1
+
÷
2 x
2 x
+
÷
> 0 and
x 1
x 1
+
÷
> 0
x e (– ·, –2) [2, ·) and x e (–1, 1]
D : |
(v) f(x) =
x tan x tan
2
÷
tan x – tan
2
x > 0 or 0 s tan x s 1 or x e
\$
I e n
(
¸
(

¸
t
+ t t
4
n , n
(vi) f(x) =
2
x
sin 2
1
sin
2
x
= 0 or x = 2nt
(vii) f(x) =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
4
x x 5
log
2
4 / 1
4
x x 5
2
÷
s 1 and 5x – x
2
> 0 or x e (0, 1] [4, 5)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 10
(viii) f(x) = log
10
(1 – log
10
(x
2
– 5x + 16))
1 – log
10
(x
2
– 5x + 16) > 0 or x
2
– 5x + 6 < 0
or x e (2, 3)
2. (i) f(x) = 1 – |x – 2|
|x – 2| e [0, ·) f(x) e (– ·, 1]
(ii) f(x) =
5 x
1
÷
D : x e (5, ·)
R : f(x) e (0, ·)
(iii) f(x) =
x 3 cos 2
1
÷
range of cos 3x is [–1, 1] cos 3x [–1, 1] f(x) e (
¸
(

¸

1 ,
3
1
(iv) f(x) =
4 x 8 x
2 x
2
÷ ÷
+
= y
x + 2 = yx
2
– 8yx – 4y or yx
2
– x (8y + 1) – (4y + 2) = 0
for x to be real D > 0
(8y + 1)
2
+ 4y (4y + 2) > 0
64y
2
+ 16y + 1 + 16y
2
+ 8y > 0
80y
2
+ 24y + 1 > 0 or y e (
¸
(

\
|
÷ · ÷
4
1
,

|
.
|

¸

· ÷ ,
20
1
(v) f(x) =
4 x 2 x
4 x 2 x
2
2
+ +
+ ÷
= y
x
2
– 2x + 4 = yx
2
+ 2xy + 4y
x
2
(1 – y) – 2x(1 + y) + 4(1 – y) = 0
D > 0
4(1 + y)
2
– 16(1 – y)
2
> 0 or y e (
¸
(

¸

3 ,
3
1
(vi) f(x) = 3 sin
2
2
x
16
÷
t
D : x e (
¸
(

¸
t t
÷
4
,
4
2
2
x
16
÷
t
e (
¸
(

¸
t
4
, 0
f(x) e
(
¸
(

¸

2
3
, 0
(vii) f(x) = x
3
– 2x
2
+ 5 = (x
2
– 1)
2
+ 4
R : [4, ·)
(viii) f(x) = x
3
– 12x , x e [–3, 1] = x (x
2
– 12)
f'(x) = 3x
2
– 12 = 0 or x = ± 2 R : [–11, 16]
(ix) f(x) = sin
2
x + cos
4
x
= sin
2
x + 1 + sin
4
x – 2 sin
2
x
= sin
4
x – sin
2
x + 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
1
x sin
2
+
4
3
R : (
¸
(

¸

1 ,
4
3
.
7. (i) f(–x) =
6 x
7 x
) 2 (
) 1 2 ( +
(ii) f(–x) =
x sin x
9 x x sec
2
÷ +
= f(x) even
(iii) f(–x) = – f(x) odd
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 11
(iv) f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> ÷
< < ÷ ÷ + +
÷ s ÷
1 x x
1 x 1 ] x [ ] x [ 2
1 x x
2
2
, even by graph of function
(v) f(x) =
1
x
2
) x tan x (sin x 2
+
(
¸
(

¸

t
+
if x = nt, f(nt) = 0
if x = nt
(
¸
(

¸

t
÷ x
= –
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

t
+
x
1
f(–x) = – f(x)
odd function
8. (i) f(x) = 1 –
x tan 1
x cos

x cot 1
x sin
2 2
+ +
period of f(x) = L.C.M. (t, t) = t
For fundamental period
f
|
.
|

\
| t
+
2
x
= 1 –
x cot – 1
x sin

x tan – 1
x cos
2 2
= f(x)
fundamental period = t
(ii) f(x) = tan
|
.
|

\
| t
] x [
2
: [x] = 2n + 1
f (x) = 0
By graph fundamental period = 2
(iii) f(x) = log (2 + cos 3x)
fundamental period of f(x) = fundamental period of (2 + cos 3x)
(as log is a monotonic function)
(iv) f(x) = e
!n sin x
+ tan
3
x – cos (3x – 5)
f(x) = sin x + tan
3
x – cos (3x – 5), sin x > 0
period ÷ 2t ; t ,
3
2t
Period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
| t
t t
3
2
, , 2
= 2t
(v) f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + |
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
n 5 3 1 – n 4 2
2
x
tan ...
2
x
tan
2
x
tan
2
x
tan
2
x
sin ....
2
x
sin
2
x
sin x sin
Period of f(x) = L.C.M. of ( ) t t t t t t t
n 3 n 5 3
2 ..... 2 , 2 , 2 ,...... 2 , 2 , 2
= 2
n
t
(vi) f(x) =
x 3 cos x cos
x 3 sin x sin
+
+
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
| t
t
t
t
3
2
, 2 ,
3
2
. 2
= 2t
For fundamental period
f(x + t) =
) 3 x 3 cos( ) x cos(
) 3 x 3 sin( ) x ( sin
t + + t +
t + + t +
=
x 3 cos – x cos –
x 3 sin – x sin –
Fundamental period = t
11. f(x) =
2
x 1
x 1
+
÷
¬ f'(x) = 0 at x = 1 ± 2
for x e | | 2 1 , 1 2 + + ÷ f is bijective function hence f is invertible.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 12
2
x 1
x 1
+
÷
= y
or x
2
y + x + (y – 1) = 0
or x =
y 2
) 1 y ( y 4 1 1 ÷ ÷ ± ÷
=
y 2
1 y 4 y 4 1
2
+ ÷ ± ÷
f
–1
(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= =
=
+ ÷ + ÷
0 ) 1 ( f as 0 x , 1
0 x ,
x 2
1 x 4 x 4 1
2
13. ¿
=
+
n
1 k
) k a ( f
= 16 (2
n
– 1)
or f(a + 1) + f(a + 2) + ......... + f(a + n) = 16 (2
n
– 1)
f(x + y) = f(x) . f(y)
f(0) = 1, f(1) = 2
or f(x) = 2
x
Now f(a + 1) + f(a + 2) + ........ + f(a + n)
= 2
a
[2 + 4 + ......... + 2
n
] = 2
a
. 2(2
n
– 1)
or 16 = 2
a + 1
or a = 3
15. (i) f(x) = Ax
2
+ Bx + C
x e I and f(x) e I
at x = 0, f(0) = C ¬ C is integer
at x = 1, f(1) = A + B + C
" C is integer A + B is also integer
at x = –1, f(–1) = A – B + C
f(1) + f(–1) = 2A + 2C " C is integer
2A is also integer
(ii) f(x) = A x(x – 1) + (A + B) x + C
f(x) = 2A
2
) 1 x ( x ÷
+ (A + B)x + C
If x is an integer then
2
) 1 x ( x ÷
is also an integer and 2A, (A+ B), C e I
¬ f(x) is also an integer.
PART - II
2. f(x) =
( ) x 3 tan ) 1 x 2 ( cos 1 x
1
1
+ ÷
÷
here – 1 s 2x + 1 < 1 ¬ – 2 s 2x < 0 ¬ – 1 s x < 0
¬ x e [–1, 0)
But x = – 1 as |x| – 1 = 0
x e (–1, 0)
for x e (–1, 0), (|x| – 1) is –ve
tan 3x < 0
0 > 3x > –
2
t
or x e |
.
|

\
| t
÷ 0 ,
6
Domain :
|
.
|

\
| t
÷ 0 ,
6
· (–1, 0) ÷ |
.
|

\
| t
÷ 0 ,
6
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 13
3. f(x) = sin
–1

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2 / 3
3
x 2
x 1
+ ) x sin(sin + log
(3{x} + 1)
(x
2
+ 1)
Domain : 3{x} + 1 = 1 or 0 ¬ x e I
and – 1 s
2 / 3
3
x 2
x 1+
s 1
– 2x
3/2
s 1 + x
3
s 2x
3/2
1 + x
3
+ 2x
3/2
> 0
(1 + x
3/2
)
2
> 0 ¬ x e R
1 + x
3
– 2x
3/2
s 0 or (1 – x
3/2
)
2
s 0
or 1 – x
3/2
= 0 or x = 1
Hence domain x e |
6. f(x) = (sin
–1
x + cos
–1
x)
3
– 3 sin
–1
x cos
–1
x (sin
–1
x + cos
–1
x)
=
8
3
t
– 3 sin
–1
x
|
.
|

\
|
÷
t
÷
x cos
2
1

2
t
=
8
3
t

4
3
2
t
sin
–1
x + 3
2
t
(sin
–1
x)
2
=
8
3
t
+
2
3t

(
(
¸
(

¸

t
+
t
÷
÷ ÷
16
x sin
2
) x (sin
2
1 2 1

32
3
3
t
=
32
3
t
+
2
3t

2
1
4
x sin |
.
|

\
| t
÷
÷
maximum value of f(x) at x = – 1 ¬ f
maximum
=
32
3
t
+
2
3t
×
16
9
3
t
=
8
7
3
t
8. Here (2 – log
2
(16 sin
2
x + 1) > 0
¬ 0 < 16 sin
2
x + 1 < 4 ¬ 0 s sin
2
x <
16
3
¬ 1 s 16 sin
2
x + 1 s 4 ¬ 0 s log
2
(16 sin
2
x + 1) < 2
¬ 2 > 2 – log
2
(16 sin
2
x + 1) > 0 ¬ 2 log
2
>
2
log (2 – log
2
(16 sin
2
x + 1)) > – ·
¬ 2 > y > – ·
Hence range is y e (– ·, 2]
11. (A) f(x) = e
1/2 !n x
=
x
, D : x > 0
g(x) = x , D : x > 0
(B) tan
–1
(tan x) = x D : x = ± (2n +1)
2
t
cot
–1
(cot x) = x D : x = ± nt
(C) f(x) = cos
2
x + sin
4
x = cos
2
x + (1 – cos
2
x)
2
= 1 – cos
2
x + cos
4
x = sin
2
x + cos
4
x
g(x) = sin
2
x + cos
4
x
(D) f(x) =
x
| x |
, D : x = 0
g(x) = sgn (x), D : x e R
12. f(6{x}
2
– 5{x} + 1) ¬ f((3{x} – 1) (2 {x} – 1))
(3{x} – 1) (2{x} – 1) s 0 or {x} e (
¸
(

¸

2
1
,
3
1
x e
\$
I e n
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
2
1
n ,
3
1
n
13. f(x) = cot
–1
x R
+
÷
|
.
|

\
| t
2
, 0
g(x) = 2x – x
2
R ÷ R
f(g(x)) = cot
–1
(2x – x
2
), where x e (0, 1]
hence f(g(x)) e
|
.
|

¸
t t
2
,
4
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 14
20. f
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
1
x
= (
¸
(

¸

+
3
1
x
+ (
¸
(

¸

+
3
2
x
+ [x + 1] – 3
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
1
x
+ 15
= (
¸
(

¸

+
3
1
x
+ (
¸
(

¸

+
3
2
x
+ [x] – 3x + 15 = f(x) fundamental period is 1/3
21. f(x) = |x – 1| f : R
+
÷ R
g(x) = e
x
, g : [–1, ·) ÷ R
fog(x) = f[g(x)] = |e
x
– 1|
D : [–1, ·)
R : [0, ·)
25. f(x) =
} x {
]) x [ sin(t
= 0 , x e I
(A) By graph fundamental period is one
(B) f(–x) = 0 = f(x) even function
(C) Range y e {0}
(D) y = sgn
|
|
.
|

\
|
} x {
} x {
sgn – 1, x e I
y = sgn (1) – 1 ¬ y = 1 – 1
y = 0, x e I Identical to f(x)
28. f(x) = sin x + tan x + sgn (x
2
– 6x + 10)
f(x) = sinx + tan x + sgn ((x – 3)
2
+1)
f(x) = sin x + tan x + 1
period = L.C.M. (2t, t) = 2t
fundamental period = 2t
29. f : N ÷ I
f(n) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
÷
even n ,
2
n

odd n ,
2
1 – n
For n ÷ odd numbers
f(n) ÷ 0, 1, 2, 3, ......
For n ÷ even numbers
f(n) ÷ –1, –2, –3, ...... f(n) is one -one
range e I onto function.
EXERCISE # 3
2. (A) sin
–1
x
+ cos
–1

x
=
2
t
¬ x e [0, 1]
(B) sin
–1
x + cos
–1
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
x 1
= 0
¬ cos
–1 2
x 1÷ = – sin
–1
(x) ¬ x e [–1, 0]
(C) g
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
x 1
x – 1
= 2h(x)
¬ cos
–1

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
x 1
x – 1
= 2 tan
–1
x ¬ x e [0, ·)
(D) h(x) + h (1) = h
|
.
|

\
| +
x – 1
x 1
¬ tan
–1
x + tan
–1
= tan
–1

|
.
|

\
| +
x – 1
x 1
¬ x e (–·, 1)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 15
Comprehension # 2 (6, 7, 8)
Period of
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
4
x
tan
e is 4
cost
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
]) x [ 2 1 (
= 0 ¬ x e R
Period of sin
|
.
|

\
|t
2
] x [
is 4 Period of f(x) is 4
p = 4 then y =
2
] x [ ] x [ 2 8 ÷ + – [x]
2
+ 2 [x] + 8
>
0
[x]
2
– 2[x] – 8
s
0 i.e., ([x] – 4) ([x] + 2)
s
0
– 2
s
[x]
s
4 – 2
s
x < 5
q = – 2 , r = 5
r – q – 1 = 5 + 2 – 1 = 6
f
2
(x) =
¹
´
¦
< ÷
> +
0 x , x 2
0 x , 2 x
f
2
(f
2
(x)) =
¹
´
¦
< ÷
> +
0 (x) f ), x ( f 2
0 (x) f , (x) f 2
2 2
2 2
=
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
< < ÷ ÷ ÷
< > ÷ ÷ +
> < + + ÷
> > + + +
0 x , 0 x 2 , x) (2 2
0 x , 0 x 2 , x 2 2
0 x , 0 2 x , ) 2 x ( 2
0 x , 0 2 x , 2 x 2
=
¹
´
¦
< ÷
> +
0 x , x 4
0 x , x 4
Range of f
2
(f
2
(x)) is [4, · ) (4 , · ) = [4 , · ) = [p , · )
11. f : [0, 3] ÷ [0, 13]
y = f(x) = x
2
+ x + 1
¬ x =
2
) y – 1 ( 4 – 1 1 – ±
¬ x =
2
3 – y 4 1 – ±
f
–1
(x) =
2
3 – x 4 1 – +
as f
–1
[1, 13] ÷ [0, 3]
Hence option ‘B’ is correct
14. f(x + 4) = sin |
.
|

\
|
+
t
] 4 x [
2
= sin
|
.
|

\
|
t +
t
2 ] x [
2
= sin
|
.
|

\
| t
] x [
2
= f(x)
17. f(x) =
) 4 x 4 x 7 (
1 x x 2
2
2
+ ÷
+ ÷
f'(x) =
2 2
2
) 4 x 4 x 7 (
x 2 x
+ ÷
+ ÷
¬ f(x) is not monotonic
f(x) is many one.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 16
22. 1 < 2 < 3
¬ f(1) s f(2) s f(3)
1 5 5 5
1
2
5
5 , 4
5
4 4
1
2
3
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5
4
3
3
1
2
3
4
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5 , 4 , 3 , 2
5
4
3
2 2
1
2
3
4
5
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5 , 4 , 3 , 2
5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
5
4
3
2
1 1
maps of . No ) 3 ( f ) 2 ( f ) 1 ( f
1 5 5 5
1
2
5
5 , 4
5
4 4
1
2
3
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5
4
3
3
1
2
3
4
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5 , 4 , 3 , 2
5
4
3
2 2
1
2
3
4
5
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5 , 4 , 3 , 2
5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
5
4
3
2
1 1
) 3 ( f ) 2 ( f ) 1 ( f dh la[;k Qyuksa
24. f(x) =
) x cos( } x { x cos
4
e
t + + t
Since e
x
is a monotonic function fundamental period = L.C.M. (1, 1, 2) = 2
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1. f : [0, ·) ÷ [0, ·)
f(x) =
x 1
x
+
1
1
x 1
x
+
=
2
2
x 1
x
+
¬ x
1
= x
2
only
for given domain
f(x) < 1 function is into
2. y =
1 x x
2 x x
2
2
+ +
+ +
, x e R ¬ x
2
(y – 1) + x(y – 1) + (y – 2) = 0
D > 0 ¬ (y – 1)
2
– 4(y – 1) (y – 2) > 0
¬ (y – 1) (3y – 7) s 0 ¬ 1 s y s
3
7
but for y = 1 quadratic vanishes so
put y = 1 1 =
1 x x
2 x x
2
2
+ +
+ +
¬ 1 = 2 not possible
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 17
¬ No real values of x. y = 1 is not in the range
3. y =
6
x 2 sin
1
t
+
÷
For domain sin
–1
2x +
6
t
> 0 ¬ –
6
t
s sin
–1
2x s
2
t
¬ –
2
1
s 2x s 1 ¬ –
4
1
s x s
2
1
4. g(f(x)) = (sin x + cos x)
2
– 1
= 1 + sin 2x – 1 = sin 2x ¬
2
t
s 2x s
2
t
gof(x) is invertible in (
¸
(

¸
t t
÷
4
,
4
5. y = (f – g) (x) =
¹
´
¦
e
e ÷
Q x , x
Q x , x
Which is one-one and onto function
6. For option A
f
–1
(f(A)) = A A' = A Hence A is wrong
For option B
f(X) = Y " f is onto but it will not effect on mapping of function
Hence B is wrong
For option A & B other explaination can be given else if Y is a singleton set then the function f is constant
function and hence is trivially onto (unless X = |). But in such a case, even if A consists of just one point,
f(A) is entire set Y and so f
–1
(f(A)) is the entire set X, which could be much bigger than A. So A and B are
wrong even if f(X) = Y
For option C
f(X) c Y (range = co-domain)
f(X) is a proper subset of Y (so that f is not onto), then for B = Y option C is wrong because f
–1
(Y) = X but
f(f
–1
(Y)) = f(X) = Y.
For option D
If B = Y, then f(f
–1
(Y)) is the range of the function f. If this is equal to Y, then function must be onto, thus f(X)
= Y is necessary condition
Hence D is correct
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 18
7. A = {x |x
2
+ 20 s 9x} = {x |x e [4, 5]}
Now, f'(x) = 6(x
2
– 5x + 6)
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = 2, 3
f(2) = –20, f(3) = –21, f(4) = –16, f(5) = 7
from graph, maximum of f(x) on set A is f(5) = 7
8. g(f(x)) = x
¬ g'(f(x)) f'(x) = 1 ........(i)
if f(x) = 1 ¬ x = 0, f(0) = 1
substitute x = 0 in (i), we get
g'(1) =
) 0 ( f
1
'
¬ g'(1) = 2 (f'(x) = 3x
2
+
2
1
e
x/2
¬ f'(0) =
2
1
)
9. f(x) = x
2
; g (x) = sin x
gof (x) = sin x
2
¬ gogof (x) = sin (sin x
2
)
¬ (fogogof) (x) = (sin (sin x
2
))
2
= sin
2
(sin x
2
)
Now sin
2
(sin x
2
) = sin (sin x
2
) ¬ sin (sin x
2
) = 0, 1
¬ sin x
2
= nt, (4n+1)
2
t
; I e q ¬ sin x
2
= 0

¬ x
2
= nt

¬ x = t ± n ; n e W
10. F : [0, 3] ÷ [1, 29]
f(x) = 2x
3
– 15x
2
+ 36 x + 1
f'(x) = 6x
2
– 30 x + 36
= 6(x
2
– 5x + 6)
= 6(x – 2) (x – 3)
in given domain function has local maxima, it is many-one
Now at x = 0 f(0) = 1
x = 2 f(2) = 16 – 60 + 72 + 1 = 29
x = 3 f(3) = 54 – 135 + 108 + 1
= 163 – 135 = 28
Has range = [1, 29]
Hence given function is onto
11. cos4u =
3
1
¬ 2cos
2
2u – 1 =
3
1
¬ cos
2
2u =
3
2
¬ cos2u =
3
2
±
Now f(cos4u) =
u
2
sec – 2
2
=
u
u +
2 cos
2 cos 1
= 1 +
u 2 cos
1
¬ f
|
.
|

\
|
3
1
= 1 ±
2
3
NOTE : Since a functional mapping can't have two images for pre-image 1/3, so this is ambiguity in this
question perhaps the answer can be A or B or AB or marks to all.
PART - II
1. We have f : N ÷ I
If x and y are two even natural numbers then
f(x) = f(y) ¬
2
x
÷ =
2
y
÷ ¬ x = y
Again if x and y are two odd natural numbers then
f(x) = f(y) ¬
2
1 x ÷
=
2
1 y ÷
¬ x = y f is one-one
Also each –ve integer is an image of even natural number and each +ve integer is an image of odd natural
number. f is onto.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 19
2. f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)
function should be y = mx
f(1) = 7 m = 7 ¬ f(x) = 7x
¿
=
n
1 r
) r ( f
= ¿
=
n
1 r
r 7
=
2
) 1 n ( n 7 +
.
3. 4 – x
2
= 0 , x
3
– x > 0
x = ±2 and –1 < x < 0 or 1 < x < ·
D = (–1, 0) (1, ·) – {2}
or D = (–1, 0) (1, 2) (2, ·).
4. f(x) = log |
.
|

\
|
+ + 1 x x
2
f(–x) = log |
.
|

\
|
+ + ÷ 1 x x
2
= log
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ + ÷
1 x x
1 x x
2
2 2
= –log |
.
|

\
|
+ + 1 x x
2
= –f(x) ¬ f(x) is an odd function.
5. We know that –
2 2
b a +
s a sin u + b cos u s
2 2
b a +
–2 s sin x –
3
cosx s 2 ¬ –1 s sin x –
3
cosx + 1 s 3
f(x) e [–1, 3].
6. Let us consider a graph symmetric w.r.t. line x = 2 as shown in figure
from figure f(x
1
) = f(x
2
)
where x
1
= 2 – x & x
2
= 2 + x
f(2 – x) = f(2 + x)
7. f(x) =
2
1
x 9
) 3 x ( sin
÷
÷
÷
is defined if
–1 s x – 3 s 1 ¬ 2 s x s 4 ...(1)
& 9 – x
2
> 0 ¬ –3 < x < 3 ...(2)
Hence from (1) & (2)
we get 2 s x < 3
Domain = [2, 3).
8.
3 x
x 7
P
÷
÷
is defined if
7 – x > 0, x – 3 > 0 and 7 – x > x – 3
¬ 3 s x s 5 and x e I x = 3, 4, 5
f(3) =
3 3
3 7
P
÷
÷
=
0
4
P = 1
f(4) =
3 4
4 7
P
÷
÷
=
1
3
P = 3
f(5) =
3 5
5 7
P
÷
÷
=
2
2
P = 2
Hence range = {1, 2, 3}.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 20
9. f(x) = tan
–1

|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
x 1
x 2
= 2 tan
–1
x for x e (–1, 1)
If x e (–1, 1) ¬ tan
–1
x e
|
.
|

\
| t t
÷
4
,
4
¬ 2 tan
–1
x e
|
.
|

\
| t t
÷
2
,
2
Clearly, range of f(x) =
|
.
|

\
| t t
÷
2
,
2
for f to be onto, co-domain = range Codomain of function = B =
|
.
|

\
| t t
÷
2
,
2
.
10. f(2a – x) = f(a – (x – a)) = f(1) f(x – a) – f(a – a) f(a + x – a)
= f(1) f(x – a) – f(0) f(x)
= – f(x) [" x = 0, y = 0, f(0) = f
2
(0) – f
2
(1) ¬ f
2
(1) = 0 ¬ f(1) = 0]
¬ f(2a – x) = –f(x).
11. f(x) is defined if –1 s
2
x
–1 s 1 and cos x > 0
or 0 s
2
x
s 2 and –
2
t
< x <
2
t
or 0 s x s 4 and –
2
t
< x <
2
t
x e
|
.
|

¸
t
2
, 0
.
12. y = 4x + 3 ¬ x =
4
3 y ÷
¬ f
–1
(y) = g(y) =
4
3 y ÷
.
13. f(x) =
x | x |
1
÷
| x | – x > 0
| x | > x ¬ x < 0 x e (–· , 0) Ans.
14. f(x) = (x – 1)
2
+ 1, x > 1
f : [1, ·) ÷ [1, ·) is a bijective function ¬ y = (x – 1)
2
+ 1 ¬ (x – 1)
2
= y – 1
¬ x = 1 ± 1 – y ¬ f
–1
(y) = 1 ± 1 – y
¬ f
–1
(x) = 1 +
1 – x
{ x > 1}
so statement-2 is correct
Now f(x) = f
–1
(x) ¬ f(x) = x ¬ (x – 1)
2
+ 1 = x
¬ x
2
– 3x + 2 = 0 ¬ x = 1, 2
so statement-1 is correct
PART-I
1. f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
÷
+
x 3
1 x 2
log log
2
2
4 x
For domain :
2
4 x
log
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
x 3
1 x 2
log
2 s 0
Case-I
0 <
2
4 x +
< 1 ¬ – 4 < x < – 2 ..........A
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 21
then
2
4 x
log
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
x 3
1 x 2
log
2
s
0
¬ log
2

x 3
1 x 2
+
÷

>
1 ¬
x 3
1 x 2
+
÷

>
2 ¬ x < –3 ..........B
¬ on A · B x e (–4, –3) ..........(i)
Case-II
2
4 x +
> 1 or x > –2 ..........A
2
4 x
log
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
x 3
1 x 2
log
2
s
0 ¬ 0 < log
2

x 3
1 x 2
+
÷

s
1 ¬ 1 <
x 3
1 x 2
+
÷

s
2
¬ x e (4, · ) ..........(ii) (i) (ii) Domain x e (– 4, – 3) (4, ·)
2. f(x) = (x
12
– x
9
+ x
4
– x + 1)
–1/2
Dr : x
12
– x
9
+ x
4
– x + 1 > 0
For x s 0 it is obvious that for f(x) to be defined Dr > 0.
For x > 1, (x
12
– x
9
) + (x
4
– x) + 1 is positive
Since x
12
> x
9
, x
4
> x.
For 0 < x < 1, Dr = x
12
+ (x
4
– x
9
) + (1 – x) > 0
Since x
4
> x
9
, x < 1.
Hence Dr > 0 for all x e R
Domain is x e R
3. f(x) =
| x | x
| x | x
e e
e e
+
÷
÷
if x
>
0, f(x) =
x
x x
e 2
e e
÷
÷
=
2
1

2 x
) e ( 2
1
=
2
1

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2 x
) e (
1
1
; f(x) e
|
.
|

¸

2
1
, 0
........(i)
f(x) e
|
.
|

¸

2
1
, 0
if x < 0, f(x) =
x x
x x
e e
e e
÷
+
÷
= 0 .........(ii) range of f(x) is (i) (ii) =
|
.
|

¸

2
1
, 0
4. f(a) =
a a 2
2
÷
for domain of f(x)
2a
2
– a > 0 ¬ a(2a – 1) > 0 a e (–·, 0]
|
.
|

¸

· ,
2
1
Let g(x) ÷ x
2
+ (a + 1)x + (a – 1) = 0
(i) D > 0
(a + 1)
2
– 4(a – 1) > 0 ¬ a e R ...(i)
(ii) –2 < –
A 2
B
< 1 ¬ – 2 < –
2
) 1 a ( +
< 1 ¬ a e ( ) 3 , 3 ÷ ....(ii)
(iii) g(– 2) > 0 ¬ 4 – 2(a + 1) + (a – 1) > 0 ¬ a < 1
(iv) g(1) > 0 ¬ 1 + a + 1 + a – 1 > 0 ¬ a > –1/2
Now (i) · (ii) · (iii) · (iv) we get
5. f(x) = sin
–1
(
¸
(

¸

+
2
1
x
2
+ cos
–1
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2
1
x
2
Domain : –1
s
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2
1
x
2
s
1 ¬ x e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
5
,
2
5
and – 1
s (
¸
(

¸

+
2
1
x
2
s
1 ¬ x e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
3
,
2
3
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 22
¬ domain is x e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
3
,
2
3
or x
2
e
|
.
|

¸

2
3
, 0
if (i) x
2
e
|
.
|

¸

2
1
, 0
, then f(x) = t
if (ii) x
2
e
|
.
|

¸

1 ,
2
1
, then f(x) = t
if (iii) x
2
e
|
.
|

¸

2
3
, 1
, then f(x) = t ¬ range = {t}
6. |
.
|

\
|
2
1
f
= (
¸
(

¸

2
1
+ (
¸
(

¸

+
2000
1
2
1
+ (
¸
(

¸

+
2000
2
2
1
+....... (
¸
(

¸

+
2000
1999
2
1
= 1000
7. f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c
f(0) = c ¬ c e I
f(1) = a + b + c ¬ (a + b + c) e I ¬ (a + b) e I
8. f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
s +
÷
0 x , 6 . 2
0 x , 6 6
x
x x
9. f(x) =
8 x sin 8 x sin 2
5 x sin 4 x sin
2
2
+ +
+ +
= y
sin
2
x (1 – 2y) + 4sinx (1 – 2y) + (5 – 8y) = 0
vertex (–2, 1)
Let sin x = t, where t e [–1,1]
g (–1) · g (1) s 0 or 2(1 – y) . 2(5 – 9y) s 0 or y e (
¸
(

¸

1 ,
9
5
10.
y
x
–2 2 0 4
y = f(x + 2) is drawn by shifting the graph by 2 units horizontally.
11. f(–x) =
( ) { }
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> ÷
÷ ÷ e ÷
=
t
| | x | x x
0 ) 1 , 1 ( x sin x
0 x 0
x
2
= – f(x)
odd function
PART - II
1. (i) ) 5 ] x ([ log log
2
4 3 / 1
÷
Domain
(i) log
1/3
log
4
([x]
2
– 5)
>
0 or log
4
([x]
2
– 5)
s
1
or [x]
2

s

9 or x e [–3, 4) .........(i)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 23
(ii) log
4
([x]
2
– 5) > 0
or [x]
2
– 5 > 1
or x e (–· , –2) [ 3, · ) .........(ii)
(iii) [x]
2
– 5 > 0
x e (–· , –2) [ 3, · ) .........(iii)
Now (i) · (ii) · (iii)
¬ x e [–3, 2) [ 3, 4)
(ii) f(x) =
11 ] | x 12 | [ ] | 1 x | [
1
÷ ÷ + ÷
Case-# x > 12
f(x) =
11 12 ] x [ 1 ] x [
1
÷ ÷ + ÷
¬ f(x) =
) 12 ] x ([ 2
1
÷
Now for f(x) to be defined [x] = 12 ¬ x e [12, 13) but x > 12
x e (12, 13)
Case-## 1 s x s 12
f(x) =
11 ] x [ 12 1 ] x [
1
÷ ÷ + + ÷
=
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
e
e
÷ ÷ +
I
I
x if defined not
x if
]) x [ 1 ( ] x [
1
¬ x e {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
Case-###
x < 1
f(x) =
11 12 ] x [ ] x [ 1
1
÷ + ÷ + ÷ +
f(x) =

¸

e
÷
e
÷
I
I
x if
] x [ 2
1
x if
]) x [ 1 ( 2
1
¬ x e (0, 1) " x < 1
(iii) f(x) = ( ) 3 x 4
2
x 4
3 x 2
2
x
) x 5 . 0 (
log
5 . 0 x ÷ ÷
÷ +
+
+
x + 0.5 > 0, x + 0.5
=
1 ¬ x e (–0.5, · ) & x
=
0.5 .....(A)
&
3 x 4 x 4
3 x 2 x
2
2
÷ ÷
÷ +
> 0 or
) 1 x 2 )( 3 x 2 (
) 1 x )( 3 x (
+ ÷
÷ +
> 0
or x e (– · , –3)
|
.
|

\
|
÷ 1 ,
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
· ,
2
3
.....(B)
(A) · (B) Domain of f(x) : x e
|
.
|

\
|
÷ 1 ,
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
· ,
2
3

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
(iv) f(x) =
2
x 6 x 35 6
2
1
x cos
÷ +
÷
cos x –
2
1

>
0 or x e (
¸
(

¸
t
+ t
t
÷ t
3
n 2 ,
3
n 2
, n e I
and 6 + 35x – 6x
2
> 0 or x e
|
.
|

\
|
÷ 6 ,
6
1
¬ Domain
|
.
|

¸
t

(
¸
(

\
| t
÷ 6 ,
3
5
3
,
6
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 24
(v) f(x) =
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2
1 x
5
÷
2 1
x sin
3
÷
+

1 x
! ) 1 x 7 (
+
+
(
¸
(

¸
÷
2
1 x
= 0 ¬ x e [1, 3) & x e [–1, 1]
& x + 1 > 0 ¬ x e (–1, · ) & 7x + 1 e w
Domain
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
7
6
,
7
5
,
7
4
,
7
3
,
7
2
,
7
1
, 0 ,
7
1
2. (i) f(x) =
1 x ÷
+ 2
x 3 ÷
D : x – 1 > 0 & 3 – x > 0 ¬ x e [1, 3]
Range : f'(x) =
1 x 2
1
÷

x 3
1
÷
= 0 or f'(x) = 0 at x =
5
7
f'
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
5
7
> 0 & f'
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
5
7
< 0 ¬ maxima at x =
5
7
Range : | | 10 , 2
(ii) For domain (i) [x] > 0 and [x] = 1 so [x] > 2, so x e [2, ·)
for range if x e [2, ·), then
x
| x |
= 1 so f(x) = cos
–1
0 =
2
t
Range of f(x) =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
2
(iii) f(x) = ] 5 x 4 x [ log log
2
2 2 / 1
+ +
D : 0 < log
2
[x
2
+ 4x + 5] s 1 or 1 < [x
2
+ 4x + 5] s 2
¬ [x
2
+ 4x + 5] = 2 or 2 s x
2
+ 4x + 5 < 3
D : x e (–2 –
2
, – 3] [–1, –2 +
2
)
R : {0}
(iv) f(x) = sin
–1

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
2
x
log
2
2
¬ –1 s log
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
2
x
2
< 2
¬
2
1
s
2
x
2
< 4 ¬ x e (–
8
, –1] [1,
8
)
and R :
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t t
÷
2
, 0 ,
2
(v) f(x) = log
[x – 1]
sinx
sin x > 0 ¬ x e (2nt,(2n+1)t)
here [x – 1] > 0 & [x – 1] = 1 ¬ x e [3, · ]
Domain x e [3, t) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

t + t
·
=
) 1 n 2 ( , n 2
1 n
\$ .
For range sin x e (0, 1] and [x – 1] e [2, ·) so range e (–·, 0]
(vi) f(x) = tan
–1
| x | 2 ] x [ ] x [ ÷ + ÷ + +
2
x
1
Domain : (i) [x] + [–x] > 0 ¬ x e I
(ii) 2 – | x | > 0 ¬ |x| s 2 ¬ x e [–2, 2]
(iii) x = 0
For domain (i) · (ii) · (iii) Domain : {–2, –1, 1, 2}
Range :
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2 ,
4
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 25
3. f(x) =
5
x
sin
2
x
sin
5 3
+
T
1
= 2t, T
2
= 5t T = 10t
4. (i) y = cos (sin x)
sin x e [–1, 1]
–t
2
3t
÷
2
t
÷
2
t
2
3t
2
5t
O
t
1
cos 1
(ii) y = | !n | x
2
– x | |
(rough sketch)
(iii) y = min (x – [x], – x – [–x])
=
¹
´
¦
e ÷
e
I
I
x , }) x { }, x ({ min
x , 0
–1
0
1 2 3
½
(iv) y = (sin 2x)
x tan 1
2
+
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 26
(v) y = sin x + | sin x |
Ans. y = 2 sin x if sin x
>
0
= 0 if sin x < 0
(vi) y = In x –
| x In |
) x In (
2
=
¹
´
¦
< < <
> >
1 x 0 , 0 x ln , x ln 2
1 x , 0 x ln , 0
5. [x] [y] = x + y
(i) if x, y e I then xy = x + y
or y =
1 x
x
÷
¬ (x, y) is (0, 0), (2, 2)
(ii) if x, y e I Let x = I
1
+ f
1
and y = I
2
+ f
2
then I
1
+ I
2
+ f
1
+ f
2
= I
1
I
2
¬ f
1
+ f
2
e I
0 < f
1
+ f
2
< 2 ¬ f
1
+ f
2
= 1.
I
1
+ I
2
+ 1 = I
1
I
2
I
1
=
1
2
1
1
1
2 2
2
÷
+ =
÷
+
I I
I
.
I
2
– 1 = ± 1, ± 2, I
2
= 2, 0, 3, – 1
\ I
1
= 3, –1, 2, 0
I
1
I
2
= 6, 0
x + y = I
1
I
2
¬ x + y = 0 or x + y = 6
6. (i) | [x] – 2x | = 4
or [x] – 2x = ± 4
let x = I + f
then (a) I – 2I – 2f = – 4 or f =
2
I ÷ 4
¬ 0 s
2
I ÷ 4
< 1 ¬ I = 3, 4
I = 3, f = 1/2, I = 4, f = 0 ¬ x = 4, 7/2
(b) I – 2I – 2f = 4
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 27
f = –
2
I) + 4 (
¬ 0 s –
2
I) + 4 (
< 1
I = – 4, f = 0 ¬ x = –4
I = –5, f =
2
1
¬ x = –
2
9
x =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
2
7
, 4 ,
2
9
, 4
(ii) [x – 1] + [1 – x] + x – {x} > 0
[x] + [–x] + [x] > 0
If x e I, x > 0
¬ x : {1, 2, 3, 4, .......... } .......(A)
If x e I
[x] – 1 > 0
¬ [x] > 1 ¬ x e [2, ·) .......(B)
A B
x e {1} [2, ·)
7. Case # y = x x < 1
x = y y < 1
f
–1
(x) = x x < 1
Case ## y = x
2
1 s x s 4
x
2
= y 1 s y s 16
x =
y
1 s y s 16
f
–1
(x) =
x
1 s x s 16
Case ### y = x 8 x > 4
x =
64
y
2
y > 16
f
–1
(x) =
64
x
2
x > 16
8. Let x = y = 1
f(x) + f(y) + f(xy) = 2 + f(x) . f(y)
3f (1) = 2 + (f(1))
2
¬ f(1) = 1, 2. But given that
f(1) = 1 so f(1) = 2
Now put y =
x
1
f(x) + f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
+ f(1) = 2 + f(x) . f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
¬ f(x) + f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
= f(x) . f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
so f(x) = ± x
n
+ 1
Now f(4) = 17 ¬ ± (4)
n
+ 1 = 17 ¬ n = 2
f(x) = +(x)
2
+ 1. f(5) = 5
2
+ 1 = 26
9. Put x = 1, y = 1
(f(1))
2
= f(1) + 6 ¬ f(1) = 3, – 2
f(1) = 3 [Since f(x) > 0]
Put y = 1 in given relation
f(x) f(1) = f(x) + 2(x + 2)
2f(x) = 2x + 4
f(x) = x + 2
10. | f(2
k
) – f(2
i
)| = | f(2
k
) – f(2
k –1
) + f(2
k–1
) – f(2
k–2
)......... f(2
i+1
) – f(2
i
)|
s | f(2
k
) – f(2
k–1
)| + | f(2
k–1
) – f(2
k–2
)| + ...........| f(2
i+1
) – f(2
i
)|
Consider | f(2
k–1
+ 2
k–1
)| – f(2
k–1
)

| s 1
So | f(2
k
) – f(2
i
)| s 1 + 1 + ........(k – i) term
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 28
¿
| ) 2 ( f – ) 2 ( f |
i k
s
¿
=
k
1 i
) i – k (
s
2
) 1 – k ( k
Hence proved.
11. (x + 1)
2
f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
1
= f(x + 1)
f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
1
=
2
) 1 x (
) x ( f 1
+
+
...........(i)
Also f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
1
= f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
x
– 1
= 1+ f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
x

= 1 – f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
x
= 1 – f
|
.
|

\
| +
x
1 x
2
1 x
x
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2
) 1 x (
x
– 1
+
f
|
.
|

\
|
+
x
1
1
=
2
2
) 1 x (
x
– 1
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
x
) x ( f
1
.........(ii)
from equation (i) and (ii), we can say that
(i) = (ii) ¬
2
) 1 x (
) x ( f 1
+
+
=
2
2
) 1 x (
) x ( f x
– 1
+
+
¬ 1+ f(x) = 1 + 2x – f(x) f(x) = x
12. (i) Put x = y = 1 in given relation, we get f(f(1)) = f(1)
(ii) Now put x = 1, y = f(1) in given relation, we get f(f(1)) =
) 1 ( f
) 1 ( f
= 1
from (i) and (ii)
f(f(1)) = 1 f(1) = 1
Put x = 1, f(f(y)) =
y
) 1 ( f
¬ f(f(y)) =
y
1
now substitute y = f(x)
f(f(f(x))) =
) x ( f
1
¬
|
.
|

\
|
x
1
f
=
) x ( f
1
13. " f(x, y) = f(2x + 2y, 2y – 2x) .......(i)
= f(2(2x + 2y) + 2 (2y – 2x), 2(2y – 2x) – 2(2x + 2y)) from (i)
¬ f(x, y) = f(8y, –8x) .......(ii)
= f(8(–8x), –8(8y)) (using (ii))
¬ f(x, y) = f(–64x, –64y) .......(iii)
= f((–64) (–64 x), (–64) (–64y)) (using (iii))
¬ f(x, y) = f(2
12
x, 2
12
y)
¬ f(x, 0) = f(2
12
x, 0)
Replace x by 2
y
f(2
y
, 0) = f(2
12
. 2
y
, 0)
¬ f(2
y
, 0) = f(2
12+y
, 0)
¬ f(2
x
, 0) = f(2
12+x
, 0)
¬ g(x) = g(12 + x) [" given g(x) = f(2
x
, 0)]
Hence g(x) is periodic function with period 12.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 29
LIMITS
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-6. (i)
+
÷0 x
im !

x
] x [
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ value ve
0
÷ Not an indeterminate form
(ii)
÷· ÷ x
im !

1 x
2
+
– x = · + · = · ÷ Not an indeterminate form
(iii)
2
x
im
t
÷
!
(tan x)
tan2x
= (·)º form ÷ Yes
(iv)
+
÷1 x
im !
{ } ( )
nx
1
x
!
) h 1 ( n
1
0 h
} h 1 { im
+
÷
+
!
!
) h 1 ( n
1
0 h
} h { im
+
÷
!
! = (0
·
form) = 0 ÷ Not an indeterminate form
SECTION (B) :
B-2. (i)
0 x
im
÷
!
x 5 cos 1
x 4 cos 1
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x 5
sin 2
x 2 sin 2
2
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
2
2
2
2
x 5
2
x 5
sin
2
5
x 2
x 2 sin
2
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
25
16
(ii)
6
x
im
t
÷
!

6
x
x cos x sin 3
t
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
using L' Hospital rule
=
6
x
im
t
÷
!

1
x sin x cos 3 +
=
2
1
2
3
+ =2
(iii)
0 x
im
÷
!

x sin x 3
x 2 x 3 tan
2
÷
÷
0 x
im
÷
!
x
x sin
. x sin – 3
2 –
x 3
x 3 tan . 3
=
1 . 0 – 3
2 – ) 1 ( 3
=
3
2 – 3
=
3
1
(iv)
0 x
im
÷
!

x
a sin a ) x a sin( ) x a (
2 2
÷ + +
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
using L' Hospital rule
=
0 x
im
÷
!
1
) x a cos( ) x a ( ) x a sin( ) x a ( 2
2
+ + + + +
= 2a sina + a
2
cos a
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 30
B-4.
a x
im
÷
!
a x
) 2 a ( ) 2 x (
2
5
2
5
÷
+ ÷ +
R.H.L. =
a – x
) 2 a ( – ) 2 x (
im
2
5
2
5
a x
+ +
+
÷
!
=
a – h a
) 2 a ( – ) h 2 a (
im
2
5
2
5
0 h +
+ + +
÷
!
=
h
1 –
2 a
h
1 ) 2 a (
im
2
5
2
5
0 h
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
÷
!
=
h
1 – .....
) 2 a (
h
.
! 2
2
3
2
5
2 a
h
.
2
5
1 ) 2 a (
im
2
2
2
5
0 h
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+ +
÷
!
=
2
5
2
3
) 2 a ( +
L.H.L. =
h –
) 2 a ( – ) h – 2 a (
im
2
5
2
5
0 h
+ +
÷
!
=
( )
h –
1 – ....
2 a
h
! 2
2
3
2
5
2 a
h
2
5
– 1 2 a
im
2
2
5
0 h
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ |
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+
÷
! =
2
3
) 2 a (
2
5
+
L.H. L. = R.H.L.
So
) a – x (
) 2 a ( – ) 2 x (
im
2
5
2
5
a x
+ +
÷
! =
2
5
2
3
) 2 a ( +
SECTION (C) :
C-1. (i)
· ÷ x
im !

|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
2 2 2
x
x
....
x
2
x
1
=
· ÷ x
im !

( )
2
x
x ..... 2 1 + + +
=
· ÷ x
im !
2
x 2
) 1 x ( x +
=
· ÷ x
im !
2
1
(
¸
(

¸

+
x
1
1
=
2
1
(ii)
· ÷ x
im !
( ) ( ) { } x cos 1 x cos ÷ +
=
· ÷ x
im !
2sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
1 x x
. sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
1 x – x
=
· ÷ x
im !
2 sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
1 x x
. sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ) 1 x x ( . 2
1 – x – x
=2
· ÷ x
im !
sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
1 x x
.
· ÷ x
im !
sin
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + ) 1 x x ( . 2
1 –
= 2x (oscillating –1 to 1) × 0
= 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 31
(iii)
· ÷ x
im !
( ) x x 8 x
2
+ ÷
= (· + ·) = ·
(iv)
5 3 7 4 5 6
3 4 2 3
n
1 n 3 n 2 n 6 n
1 n 1 n 2 n
im
+ + ÷ + +
+ + + ÷
· ÷
!
=
7 4
5
7
6
2
3
4
3
4
3
2
3
n
n
1
n
3
1 n –
n
2
n
6
1 n
n
1
1 n
n
1
n
2
– 1 n
im
+ + + +
+ + +
· ÷
!
=
7 4
10
1

6
4
6
1

3
n
n
1
n
3
1 n –
n
2
n
6
1
n
1
1 n
n
1
n
2
– 1
im
+ + + +
+ + +
· ÷
!
=
0 – 1
0 1+
= 1
(v)
· ÷ x
im !

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
2
3
2
) 1 – x ( – 1 x
=
· ÷ x
im !
( ) ( )
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + +
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + +
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
3
2
3
2
) 1 – x ( ) 1 – x ( 1 x ) 1 x (
) 1 – x ( ) 1 – x ( 1 x ) 1 x ( 1 – x – ) 1 x (
=
· ÷ x
im !
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + +
+
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
2 2
) 1 – x ( ) 1 – x ( 1 x ) 1 x (
) 1 – x ( – ) 1 x (
=
· ÷ x
im !
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
3
4
3
2
3
4
1 x
1 – x
1 x
1 – x
1 ) 1 x (
x 4
=
· ÷ x
im !
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +
3
4
3
2
3
1
1 x
1 – x
1 x
1 – x
1 ) 1 x )( 1 x (
x 4
=
] 1 1 1 [ ) ( ) 0 1 (
4
+ + × · × +
= 0
SECTION (D) :
D-1. (i)
2 x
im
÷
!

x ) 2 x 7 (
) 2 x 15 ( ) 2 x (
4
1
5
1
2
1
÷ +
+ ÷ +
Let x = 2 + h
=
0 h
im
÷
!

) h 2 ( – ) h 7 16 (
) h 15 32 ( – ) h 4 (
4
1
5
1
2
1
+ +
+ +
=
0 h
im
÷
!
) h 2 ( –
16
h 7
1 2
32
h 15
1 2 –
4
h
1 2
4
1
5
1
2
1
+
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
0 h
im
÷
!
) h 2 ( – ......
64
h 7
1 2
....
32
h 15
2
5
4

5
1
32
h 3
1 2 – ....
16
h
2
2
1

2
1
8
h
1 2
2
2
+
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
0 h
im
÷
!

..... 1 –
32
7
h
...
256
9

64
1
– h
16
3

4
1
h
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
1 –
32
7
16
3

4
1
= –
25
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 32
(ii)
0 x
im
÷
!

3
2
x
x
2
x tan
x sin 1 e ÷ ÷ ÷

3
2
3 5 3 4 3 2
0 h
x
...
3
x
x
2
1
– ...
! 5
x
! 3
x
– x – ...
! 4
x
! 3
x
! 2
x
x
im
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
÷
!
=
3
4 3 2
0 h
x
....
3
1

! 4
1
x
6
1

6
1
x
2
1

2
1
x
im
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷
!
=
6
1
+
6
1
=
3
1
SECTION (E) :
E-2. (i)
4
x
im
t
÷
!
(tan x)
tan2x
=
x 2 tan ) 1 – x (tan
4
x
im
e
t
÷
!
=
x tan 1
x tan 2 –
4
x
im
e
+ t
÷
!
= e
–1
=
e
1
(ii)
· ÷ x
im !

x
x 3 1
x 2 1
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
· ÷ x
im !
x
3
x
1
2
x
1
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
·
|
.
|

\
|
3
2
= 0
(iii)
1 x
im
÷
!
( )
2
x
sec
nx 1
t
+ ! =
2
x
sec ). nx (
1 x
im
e
t
÷
! !
=
2
x
cos
nx
1 x
im
e
t
÷
!
!
(
0
0
form) =
2
x
sin
2

x
1
1 x
lim
e
t t
÷
=
|
.
|

\
|
t
2 –
e
(iv)
+
÷0 x
im !
( )
2
x
x ((0)
0
form)
Let y =
+
÷0 x
im !
( )
2
x
x
¬ y = +
÷0 x
im
e
!
x
2
(!nx) ¬ y =
2
x
1
nx
0 x
im
e
!
!
+
÷
¬ y =
3
x
2

x
1
0 x
im
e
+
÷
!
= e
0
= 1
(v)

2
x
im
t
÷
!
(tan x)
cosx

0
form) ¬ y =
) x tan n .( x cos

2
x
im
e
! !
t
÷
¬ y =
x sec
x tan n

2
x
im
e
!
!
t
÷
¬ y =
x tan x sec
x
2
sec
x tan
1

2
x
im
e
×
t
÷
!
¬ y =
x
2
sin
x cos

2
x
im
e
t
÷
!
¬ y = e
0
= 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 33
(vi)
÷
÷1 x
im !
([x])
1–x
0 h
im
÷
!
[1 – h]
1 – (1 – h)
0 h
im
÷
!

(0)
h
= 0
E-3.
· ÷ n
im !

3
n
] x ) 1 n ( . n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [ + + + +
(1.2)x – 1 < [1.2x] s (1. 2)x
(2.3)x – 1 < [2.3x] s (2.3)x

%

%

%
n(n + 1) x – 1 < [n (n + 1)x] s n(n + 1)x
so (1.2)x + (2.3)x + ... n (n + 1)x – n
< [1.2 x] + [2. 3 x] + .... [n(n +1)x]
s (1. 2) x + (2. 3) x + .... n(n +1)x
x . (En
2
+ En) – n s [1. 2x] +

[2. 3x] +......[n(n+1)x] s x (En
2
+ En)
¬
· ÷ n
im !

3
n
n –
2
) 1 n ( n
6
) 1 n 2 ( ) 1 n ( n
. x
(
¸
(

¸
+
+
+ +
<
3
n
n
] x ) 1 n ( n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [
im
+ + + +
· ÷
!
s
· ÷ n
im !

3
n
2
) 1 n ( n
6
) 1 n 2 ( ) 1 n ( n
x
(
¸
(

¸
+
+
+ +
· ÷ n
im !
x
2
2
n
1

2
n
1
n
1
6
n
1
2
n
1
1 . 1
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
3
n
n
] x ) 1 n ( n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [
im
+ + + +
<
· ÷
!
s
· ÷ n
im !
x
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
2
n
1
n
1
6
n
1
2
n
1
1 . 1
2
3
x
n
] x ) 1 n ( n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [
im
3
x
3
n
s
+ + + +
<
· ÷
!
so
· ÷ n
im !

3
n
] x ) 1 n ( n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [ + + + +
=
3
x
E-5. f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !
1 x
1 x
n 2
n 2
+
÷
case (i) when x = 1 f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !
1 1
1 – 1
+
= 0
case (ii) when x > 1 f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !
n 2
n 2
x
1
1
x
1
– 1
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 1
0 – 1
+
= 1
case(iii) when x < 1 f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !

1 x
1 x
n 2
n 2
+
÷
=
1 0
1 – 0
+
= – 1
range of f(x) is {–1, 0, 1}
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 34
PART - II
Section (A) :
A-3*. f(x) =
] x [ x
20 x 9 x
2
÷
+ ÷
÷
÷5 x
im !

] x [ x
20 x 9 x
2
÷
+ ÷
=
1
20 45 – 25 +
= 0
+
÷5 x
im !

] x [ x
20 x 9 x
2
÷
+ ÷
=
] h 5 [ – h 5
20 ) h 5 ( 9 – ) h 5 (
im
2
0 h + +
+ + +
÷
!
=
h
20 h 9 – 45 – h h 10 25
im
2
0 h
+ + +
÷
!
=
h
h h
im
2
0 h
+
÷
! =
h
) 1 h ( h
im
0 h
+
÷
! = 1
" –
5 x
im
÷
!
f(x) = +
÷5 x
im !
f(x) so
5 x
im
÷
!
f(x) does not exist
SECTION (B) :
B-2.
0 x
im
÷
!
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
3
x
1 n
p
x
sin
) 1 4 (
2
3 x
!
=
0 x
im
÷
!
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
x
1 n .
p
x
p
x
sin
p
x
x
1 – 4
x
2
3
x
3
!
= 3p .
0 x
im
÷
!

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
p
x
p
x
sin
x
1 – 4
3
x
.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
x
1 n
3
x
2
2
!
= 3 p (!n 4)
3
B-6.
2
x
im
t
÷
!
tan
2
x |
.
|

\
|
+ + ÷ + + 2 x sin 6 x sin 4 x sin 3 x sin 2
2 2
=
2
x
im
t
÷
!
tan
2
x
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + +
+ + ÷ + +
2 x sin 6 x sin 4 x sin 3 x sin 2
) 2 x sin 6 x (sin 4 x sin 3 x sin 2
2 2
2 2
=
2
x
im
t
÷
!
tan
2
x .
2 6 1 4 3 2
) 2 x sin 3 – x (sin
2
+ + + + +
+
=
2
x
im
t
÷
!
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
x cos
2 x sin 3 – x sin
6
1
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
(use L'Hospital rule)
=
6
1

2
x
im
t
÷
!

) x sin (– x cos 2
x cos 3 – x cos x sin 2
=
6
1
2
x
im
t
÷
!
x sin 2 –
3 – x sin 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
6
1
=
12
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 35
B-7*. Let f(x) =
| x | x
x 2 cos 2 cos
2
÷
÷
(A)
) x ( f im
1 x ÷ ÷
!
for x = – 1 |x| = – x f(x) =
x x
x 2 cos 2 cos
2
+
÷
Now
x x
x 2 cos 2 cos
im
2
1 x
+
÷
÷ ÷
!
(
0
0
form) =
1 x 2
x 2 sin 2
im
1 x
+
÷ ÷
! = 2sin2
(B)
x x
x 2 cos 2 cos
im
2
1 x
÷
÷
÷
!
(
0
0
form) =
1 x 2
x 2 sin 2
im
1 x
÷
÷
! = 2sin2
SECTION (C) :
C-1. sinh < h < tanh , h e
|
.
|

\
| t
2
, 0
1
sinh
h
>
¬ 1 –
h sin
h –
<
LHL =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷
t
t
÷ ÷
t
÷
h
2
cos
2
h
2
im
0 h
!
= (
¸
(

¸
÷
÷
sinh
h
im
0 h
!
= –2
RHL =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
t
t
÷ +
t
÷
h
2
cos
2
h
2
im
0 h
!
= (
¸
(

¸
÷
÷
sinh
h
im
0 h
!
= –2 LHL = RHL = –2
C-3.
· ÷ n
im !

n
n
) 1 ( n 4
) 1 ( n 3
÷ ÷
÷ + ÷
=
· ÷ n
im !

n
1
. ) 1 ( 4
n
1
) 1 ( 3
n
n
÷ ÷
÷ + ÷
=
0 – 4
0 3 – +
= –
4
3
C-6*. (A)
· ÷– x
im !
6 x 3
2 x
2
÷
+
=
· ÷ x
im !
6 x 3 –
2 x
2
÷
+
=
· ÷ x
im !
x
6
– 3 –
x
2
1
2
+
= –
3
1
(B)
· ÷ x
im !
6 – x 3
2 x
2
+
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
6
– 3
x
2
1
2
+
=
3
1
SECTION (D) :
D-4.
0 x
im
÷
!
x sin x
x cos – e
3
2
2
x

=
0 x
im
÷
!
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
2 2
.......
! 3
x
– x x
...... –
! 4
x
! 2
x
– 1 – ...... –
! 2 . 4
x
2
x
– 1
3
3
4 4
=
0 x
im
÷
!
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

.......
! 3
x
– 1 x
.....
! 6
1

! 3 . 8
1
x –
! 4
1

8
1
x
2
4
6 4
= (
¸
(

¸

24
1

8
1
=
12
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 36
D-5*. For
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
x cos a 1+
for |
|
.
|

\
|
0
0
form
1 + a = 0 ¬ a = – 1
for
0 x
im
÷
!
3
x
x sin b
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
b
so b = 0
Now ! =
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
x cos a 1+

0 x
im
÷
!

3
x
x sin b
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
x cos – 1
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
2
x
2
sin 2
=
0 x
im
÷
!
4
2
2
2
x
2
x
sin
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
. (1)
2
=
2
1
(a, b) = (–1, 0) and ! =
2
1
SECTION (E) :
E-3.
) x (tan n
1
4
x
]) x [ 1 ( im
!
! +
t
÷
=
) x (tan n
1
4
x
) 1 exact ( im
!
!
t
÷
= 1
E-7.
· ÷ n
im !
1
4
n
( ) ] x n [ ... ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [
3 3 3
+ + +
1
3
x –1 < [1
3
x]
s
1
3
x
2
3
x –1 < [2
3
x]
s
2
3
x
. . .
. . .
. . .
n
3
x –1 < [n
3
x]
s
n
3
x
(1
3
+ 2
3
+ 3
3
...........+ n
3
) x – n < [1
3
x] + [2
3
x] + ...........[n
3
x]
s
(1
3
+ 2
3
+ ..........n
3
) x
4
2 2
n
n x
4
) 1 n ( n
÷
+
<
4
3 3 3
n
] x n [ .... ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [ + + +
s

4
2
n
x
2
) 1 n ( n
|
.
|

\
| +
3
2
n
n
1
4
x
n
1
1 im ÷ |
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!
<
4
3 3 3
n
n
] x n [ ......... ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [
im
+ + +
· ÷
!
s

4
x
n
1
1 im
2
n
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!
4
3 3 3
x
n
] x n ........[ ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [
im
4
x + +
<
· ÷
!

s

4
x

4
x
n
] x n [ ........ ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [
im
4
3 3 3
x
=
+ + +
· ÷
!
E-9*. ÷
÷0 x
im !
f(x)=
0 h
im
÷
!
| 0 – h|
sin(0 –h)
=
0 h
im
÷
!
h
sin(–h)
=
) nh ( ) h sin (–
0 h
im
e
! !
÷ = e
0
= 1
+
÷0 x
im !
f(x) =
) h 0 ( sin
h
| h 0 | im
+
· ÷
+ !
=
· ÷ h
im !
h
sin h
=
) nh ( ) h (sin im
h
e
! !
· ÷
= e
0
= 1
" ÷
÷0 x
im !
f(x) = +
÷0 x
im !
f(x) = 1
0 x
im
÷
!
f(x) = 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 37
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
1. (i) P
n
=
1 2
1 2
3
3
+
÷
.
1 3
1 3
3
3
+
÷
.
1 4
1 4
3
3
+
÷
..........
1 n
1 n
3
3
+
÷
¬ P
n
=
) 1 2 2 )( 1 2 (
) 1 2 2 )( 1 2 (
2
2
+ ÷ +
+ + ÷
.
) 1 3 3 )( 1 3 (
) 1 3 3 )( 1 3 (
2
2
+ ÷ +
+ + ÷
...........
) 1 n n )( 1 n (
) 1 n n )( 1 n (
2
2
+ ÷ +
+ + ÷
¬ P
n
=
3 . 3
7 . 1
.
7 . 4
13 . 2
.
13 . 5
21 . 3
........
) 1 n n )( 1 n (
) 1 n n )( 1 n (
2
2
+ ÷ +
+ + ÷
¬ P
n
=
) 1 n ( .......... 5 . 4 . 3
) 1 n .( .......... 3 . 2 . 1
+
÷
.
) 1 n n ( .......... 13 . 7 . 3
) 1 n n .( .......... 21 . 13 . 7
2
2
+ ÷
+ +
¬ P
n
=
) 1 n ( n
2 . 1
+
.
3
1 n n
2
+ +
¬ P
n
=
3
2
) 1 n ( n
) 1 n n (
2
+
+ +

· ÷ n
im !
P
n
=
3
2
) 1 n ( n
) 1 n n (
3
2
im
2
n
=
+
+ +
· ÷
!
(ii)
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
¿ ¿ ¿
÷
=
÷
= =
· ÷
1 . ) 1 n 2 ( ...... k 5 k 3 k 1
n
1
im
2 n
1 k
1 n
1 k
n
1 k
4
n
!
=
4
n
1 k
1 k n
1 r
n
n
r ) 1 k 2 (
im
¿ ¿
=
+ ÷
=
· ÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
!
= ¿
=
· ÷
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
n
1 k
4
n
n 2
) 2 k n )( 1 k n )( 1 k 2 (
im !
= ¿
=
· ÷
÷ + ÷ + ÷
n
1 k
4
n
n 2
) k 2 n )( k 1 n )( 1 k 2 (
im !
=
| |
¿
=
· ÷
+ + ÷ + + ÷
n
1 k
4
2
n
n 2
k ) 3 n 2 ( k ) 2 n )( 1 n ( ) 1 k 2 (
im !
= ¿
=
· ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
÷ +
÷
+ + ÷
n
1 k
4
2 3
4
2
4
n
n 2
k k 2
n 2
) k k 2 ( ) 3 n 2 (
n 2
) 2 n )( 1 n ( ) 1 k 2 (
im !
= ¿
=
· ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ +
+
÷
+ + ÷
n
1 k
4 4
3
4
2
4
n
n 2
k ) 3 n 2 (
n 2
k 2
n 2
k ) 7 n 4 (
n 2
) 2 n )( 1 n ( ) 1 k 2 (
im !
=
12
1
2. (i)
1 x
im
÷
!

) 1 – x sin( ] ) x 3 1 ( – ) x 7 [(
) x 3 – 4 . 3 ( ) 2 n – ) x 1 ( n (
2 / 1 3 / 1
1 – x
+ +
+ ! !
=
0 h
im
÷
!

h sin ] ) h 3 4 ( – ) h 8 [(
] h 3 – 3 – 4 . 3 [ ] 2 n – ) h 2 ( n [
2 / 1 3 / 1
h
+ +
+ ! !
=
0 h
im
÷
!

| |
h sin
4
h 3
1 –
8
h
1 2
h 3 – ) 1 – 4 ( 3
2
h
1 n
2 / 1 3 / 1
h
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ !
=
0 h
im
÷
!
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
h
8
h 3
1 –
24
h
1
h
h sin
4
3 –
h
) 1 – 4 ( 3
·
) 2 / h (
2
h
1 n
h
!
=
4
9

3
1
– 4
) 3 – 4 n 3 .( 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
!
(!n 4 – 1) =
|
.
|

\
|
e
4
n
4
9
– !
(ii) "
x
1
) x 1 ( + = e (
¸
(

¸

÷ + ..... x
24
11
2
x
– 1
2
Now ! =
0 x
im
÷
!

x tan
) x 1 ( e
x
1
+ ÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!

.....
15
x 2
3
x
x
..... – x
24
11
2
x
– 1 e – e
5 3
2
+ + +
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
2
e
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 38
8. tan o =
AQ
AT
sin 2o =
r 2
AT
r 2
AP
=
r 2
AT
tan 1
tan 2
2
=
o +
o
r 2
tan AQ
tan 1
tan 2
2
o
=
o +
o
AQ =
o +
2
tan 1
r 4
A P
im
÷
!
AQ =
0
im
÷ o
!

o +
2
tan 1
r 4
= 4r = 2 (Diameter)
11. L
1
=
· ÷ x
im !
(f'(x) – ìf(x))
¬ L
1
=
· ÷ x
im !

{ }
x –
x –
e
) x ( f – ) x ( f e
ì
ì
ì '
¬ L
1
=
· ÷ x
im !

x –
x – x –
e
e ) x ( f – ) x ( f e
ì
ì ì
ì '
¬ L = L
1
=
· ÷ x
im !
{ }
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
1
. e –
dx
d
e ) x ( f
dx
d
x –
x –
¬ L =
· ÷ x
im !
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
x –
x –
e

e ) x ( f
¬ L =
· ÷ x
im !
– ì f(x) ¬ L = – ì
· ÷ x
im !
f(x)
¬ L = – ì L
2
¬ L
2
=
ì
L

12. 1 < 2 < n
1 < 3 < n
1 < 4 < n
1 < 5 < n
. . .
. . .
. . .
1 < n – 1 < n
multiply all these inequilities
1 < 2 . 3. 4 . 5 ... (n– 1) < n
n–2
1 < (n – 1)! < n
n–2
n < n! < n
n – 1
n
n
n
<
n
n
! n
<
n
1
¬
· ÷ n
im !

1 – n
n
1
<
· ÷ n
im !

n
n
! n
<
· ÷ n
im !
n
1
0 <
· ÷ n
im !

n
n
! n
< 0
· ÷ n
im !
n
n
! n
= 0
14.
CN
AN
= tanu
CN = AN cotu
Area of AABC =
2
1
(AB) (CN) = AN.CN = AN. AN
u
u
sin
cos
= r cosu.
(
(
¸
(

¸

u
u
sin
cos r
2
=
u
u
sin
cos r
3 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 39
2
1
(DE) (CM) = (DM) (CM) = (CM)
2
tanu = (OC – r)
2
tanu
=
2
r –
sin
r
|
.
|

\
|
u
tanu =
u u
u ÷
cos sin
) sin 1 ( r
2 2
now
0 AB
im
÷
!

DEC
ABC
A
A
=
2
im
t
÷ u
!

2 2
3 2
) sin – 1 ( r . sin
sin . cos . cos r
u u
u u u
=
2
im
t
÷ u
!
2
4
) sin – 1 (
cos
u
u
=
2
im
t
÷ u
!

2
2 2
) sin – 1 (
) sin – 1 (
u
u
=
2
im
t
÷ u
!
(1 + sinu)
2
= (2)
2
= 4
PART - II
1.
· ÷ x
im !
x
n
e
x
= 0 (n e integer)
case(i) when n = 0
then
· ÷ x
im !

x
e
n
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
e
1
= 0
case(ii) when n is +ve integer
· ÷ x
im !
x
e
n
x
|
.
|

\
|
·
·
form
=
· ÷ x
im !
x
e
! n
= 0
case(iii) when n is – ve n = –m where m e z
+
· ÷ x
im !

x
e
n
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
e
m –
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
e .
m
x
1
= 0
so
· ÷ x
im !
x
n
e
x
= 0
3.
0 x
im
÷
!
f(g (h (x)))
L.H.L. x ÷ 0

0 x
im
÷
!
h (x) = 0
+
+
÷0 x
im !
f(g(x))
then
+
÷0 x
im !
g(x) = 1
+
+
÷1 x
im !
f(x) = 1 – 1 = 0
R.H.L. x ÷ 0
+
+
÷0 x
im !
h (x) = 0
+
so
+
÷0 x
im ! f(g(x)) = 0 L.H.L. = R.H.L. = 0
5.
· ÷ x
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
x
1
sin
x
1
sin x
· ÷ x
im !
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
x
1
sin
x
1
x
1
sin
= 1 + 0 = 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 40
6.
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

÷
3
a
x

a
3
| x |

a x
im !
(a > 0) x = a – h
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
3
a
h – a

a
3
| h – a |
0 h
im !
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
3
a
h
– 1 –
a
3
| a |
0 h
im !
= a
2
– 0 = a
2
12.
· ÷ x
im !
sec
–1

|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
x
replace x ÷
y
1
¬
· ÷ x
im !
÷
0 y
im
÷
!
=
0 y
im
÷
!
sec
–1

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ 1
y
1
y
1
=
0 y
im
÷
!
sec
–1

|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 y
1
when y ÷ 0
+
;
1 y
1
+
< 1
so
0 y
im
÷
!
sec
–1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 y
1
does not exist.
14. (i) ! =
( ) x sin 1 x sin im
x
÷ +
· ÷
!
¬ ! =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
· ÷ 2
x 1 x
sin .
2
x 1 x
cos 2 im
x
!
¬ ! =
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
· ÷
x 1 x 2
x 1 x
sin .
2
x 1 x
cos 2 im
x
!
¬ ! =
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
· ÷
1 x x 2
1
sin
2
1 x x
cos 2 im
x
!
¬ ! = (oscillating value –1 to 1) × 0 = 0
(ii) m =
| | x sin 1 x sin im
x
÷ +
÷· ÷
!
when x ÷ ÷·
then
x
undefined
m is undefined
16. To find
0 x
im
÷
!
f(x)
L.H.L. =

0 x
im
÷
!
f(x)
=

0 x
im
÷
!
} x { cot } x { =
0 h
im
÷
!
) h – 1 ( cot ) h – 1 ( =
1 cot
R.H.L. =
+
÷0 x
im !
f(x) =
+
÷0 x
im !
2 2
2
] x [ – x
] x [ tan
=
0 h
im
÷
!
2 2
2
] h 0 [ – ) h 0 (
] h 0 [ tan
+ +
+
=
0 h
im
÷
!

2
2
h
0 tan
= 0
" L.H.L. = R.H.L. so
0 x
im
÷
!
f(x) does not exist. f(x) is not continuous at x = 0.
Now cot
–1

2

0 x
) x ( f im |
.
|

\
|
÷
!
= cot
–1

2
) 1 cot ( = cot
–1
(cot 1) =1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 41
18. sinu < u < tanu , u e
|
.
|

\
| t
2
, 0
u
u
< <
u
u tan
1
sin
u
u
< <
u
u tan n
n
sin n
0
im
÷ u
!

|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

u
u
+
(
¸
(

¸

u
u tan n sin n
; n e N
L.H.L. = ÷
÷ u 0
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

u
u
+
(
¸
(

¸

u
u tan n sin n
= n – 1 + n = 2n – 1
R.H.L. =
+
÷ u 0
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

u
u
+
(
¸
(

¸

u
u tan n sin n
= n – 1 + n = 2n – 1 L.H.L. = R.H.L = 2n – 1
20.
· ÷ n
im !
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
n 2 n
1
... ..........
2 n
1
1 n
1
n
1
2 2 2 2
using sandwitch theorem
2
n
1
s
n
1
1 n
1
2
+
s
n
1

%

%
n 2 n
1
2
+
s
n
1
n 2 n
1
... ..........
2 n
1
1 n
1
n
1
2 2 2 2
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
s
n
n 2
Taking both side
· ÷ n
im !
· ÷ n
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
n 2 n
1
... ..........
2 n
1
1 n
1
n
1
2 2 2 2
= 2
21. f(x) =
0 t
im
÷
!

|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
2
1
t
x
cot
x 2
Case-I : when x = 0
f(x) = 0
Case-II : when x > 0
f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
÷
2
1
0 t
t
x
cot
x 2
im !
=
) ( cot
x 2
1
· ×
t
÷
=
t
x 2
. 0 = 0
Case-III when x < 0
f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
÷
2
1
0 t
t
x
cot
x 2
im !
=
t
x 2
× cot
–1
(– ·) =
t
x 2
. t = 2x
¬ f(x) = 2x
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 42
25.
0 y
im
÷
!
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷ y
1 n x exp 1 n x exp
im
x
y b
x
y a
x
! !
!
=
0 y
im
÷
!
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ |
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷ y
1 1
im
x
x
x
x
y b
x
y a
!
by expansion =
0 y
im
÷
!

|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
· ÷ y
.... .
! 2
) 1 – x ( x
by 1 ..... .
! 2
) 1 – x ( x
ay 1
im
2
2 2
2
2 2
x
x
y b
x
y a
!
=
0 y
im
÷
!
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
y
..... ) b – a (
2
y
) b – a ( y
2 2
2
= a – b
29.
A x
) 1 ax (
im
n
n
x
+
+
· ÷
!
(A) If n e N
· ÷ x
im !
n
n
x
A
1
x
1
a
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
0 1
) 0 a (
n
+
+
= a
n
(B) If n e Z

& a = A = 0
then
· ÷ x
im !

A x
) 1 ax (
n
n
+
+
=
· ÷ x
im !

n
x
1
= · n e Z

(C) If n = 0
then
· ÷ x
im !
A x
) 1 ax (
n
n
+
+
=
· ÷ x
im !

A 1
1
+
=
A 1
1
+
(D) If n e Z

, A = 0 & a = 0
then
· ÷ x
im !

A x
) 1 ax (
n
n
+
+
=
· ÷ x
im !
n
n
x
) 1 ax ( +
=
· ÷ x
im !

n
x
1
a |
.
|

\
|
+
= (a + 0)
n
= a
n
EXERCISE # 3
1. (A)
0 x
im
÷
!
x sin
x ] e tan[ x ] e tan[
2
2 2 2 2
÷ ÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
x
x sin
x
x ] e [
x ] e tan[
x ] e [–
x ] e [
x ] e tan[
x ] e [
÷
÷
÷
= [e
2
] – [– e
2
] = 15
(B)
0 x
im
÷
!
( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
x
x sin
) 6 t 4 t min(
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!
(
¸
(

¸

x
x sin 2
" sin x < x ¬
x
x sin 2
< 2 ¬ (
¸
(

¸

x
x sin 2
= 1 So
0 x
im
÷
!
(
¸
(

¸

x
x sin 2
= 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 43
(C)
0 x
im
÷
!
2
4
1
3 / 1 2
x x
) x 2 – 1 ( – ) x 1 (
+
+
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
2
2
x x
.... x 4
! 2
1 –
4
1
4
1
2
x
– 1 – ....
3
x
1
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
2
1
(D)
0 x
im
÷
!
=
x sin
x cos 1 2
2
+ ÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!
x sin
4
x
sin 2 2
2
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
2 2
2
x
x sin
.
16
x
. 16
4
x
sin 2 2
=
8
2
Comprehension # 1
(For Q.No. 3 to 5)
f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !

n
n
x
cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n . 1
n
x
cos im
n
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
· ÷
!
Substituting, n =
2
t
1
¬ f(x) =
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
2
0 t
t
1 tx cos
im
e
!
=
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
÷
2 2
2
0 t
x t
tx cos 1
x im
e
!
=
2
x
2
1
e
÷
g(x) = –
b 4
x ¬ b =
· ÷ x
im !
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ + + 1 x 1 x x
2 2
=
· ÷ x
im !
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
÷ ÷ + +
1 x 1 x x
1 x 1 x x
2 2
2 2
=
2
1
g(x) = –
2
1
. 4
x = – x
2
By observation, graphs of f(x) and – g(x) intersect each other at two points
Number of solutions is 2.
9. Statement -1 is true as
(
¸
(

¸

÷ x
x sin
im
0 x
!
= 0 and (
¸
(

¸

÷ x
x sin
im
0 x
!
= 1
Statement - 2 is true as
)) x ( g ( h im
a x÷
!
= h
)) x ( g ( im (
a x÷
!
if h(x) is continuous at x = g(a).
10. Statement -1
0 x
im
÷
!

x
2
x 2 cos – 1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

x
| x sin |
¬ L.H.L. = – 1 & R.H.L. = 1
Statement -2 is true
14. True indeterminate form of type · – ·
18.
1 x
im
÷
!
1 ) x 2 (
2 ) x 5 (
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
1 x
im
÷
!
2 ) x – 5 (
1 ) x – 2 (
1 – ) x – 2 (
4 – ) x – 5 (
+
+
×
=
1 x
im
÷
!
4
2
x – 1
x – 1
× =
2
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 44
21.
· ÷ x
im !
( ) x ) b x ( ) a x ( ÷ + +
=
· ÷ x
im !
x ) b x ( ) a x (
x – ) b x ( ) a x (
2
+ + +
+ +
=
· ÷ x
im !

(
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+
+
+ +
1
x
ab
x
) b a (
1 x
ab x ) b a (
2
=
1 1
b a
+
+
=
2
b a +
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1.
0 x
im
÷
!
2
) x 2 cos 1 (
x tan x 2 x 2 tan x
÷
÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2 2
) x sin 2 (
x
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
x tan 2
x tan 1
x tan 2
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!
x sin . 4
x tan . x tan x . 2
4
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!

4
3
x
x sin
x
x tan
.
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
1
.
2
1
=
2. for x e R ,
x
x 2 x
3 x
im |
.
|

\
|
+
÷
· ÷
!
=
x · 1 –
2 x
3 – x
im
x
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ · ÷
!
=
x ·
2 x
5 –
im
x
e
|
.
|

\
|
+ · ÷
!
= e
–5
3.
2
2
0 x
x
) x cos sin(
im
t
÷
!
=
2
2
0 x
x
) x sin 1 ( sin(
im
÷ t
÷
!
=
2
2
2
2
0 x
x
x sin
x sin
) x sin sin(
im
t
×
t
t
÷
!
= 1.t.1 = t
4.
0 x
im
÷
!

n
x
x
) e x (cos ) 1 x (cos ÷ ÷
0 x
im
÷
!

n
3 2 4 2 4 2
x
.........
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1 ......... –
! 4
x
! 2
x
1 1 ......... –
! 4
x
! 2
x
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
0 x
im
÷
!

n
2
3
x
......... –
! 2
1
! 2
1
x 1 ......... –
! 4
x
! 2
1
x
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!
3 – n
2
x
......... –
! 2
1
! 2
1
x 1 ......... –
! 4
x
! 2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
is finite and non-zero if n = 3
5.
0 x
im
÷
!

2
x
nx sin ) x tan nx ) n a (( ÷ ÷
= 0
¬
0
x
x tan
n ) n a ( ) n (
nx
nx sin
im
0 x
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷
!
¬ (1) (n) [(a – n) (n) – 1] = 0
¬ n(a – n) –1 = 0 [" n = 0]
¬ a – n =
n
1
¬ a = n +
n
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 45
6. for x > 0
0 x
im
÷
!
( )
x sin
x
1
x
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|
+
x sin
0 x
x
1
0 x
x
1
im ) x (sin im |
.
|

\
|
+
÷ ÷
! ! = 0 +
x sin
0 x x
1
im |
.
|

\
|
÷
!
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
x
1
n ). x (sin
im
0 x
e
!
!
=
x ec cos –
) x ( n
im
0 x
e
!
!
÷
|
.
|

\
|
·
·
form
=
) x cot ecx (cos
x
1
0 x
im
e
÷
!
=
x cos x
x sin
im
2
0 x
e
÷
!
= eº = 1
7*. L =
4
2
2 2
0 x
x
4
x
x a a
im
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
! =
0 x
im
÷
!

4
2
4
4
2
2
x
4
x
....
a
x
.
2
1
2
1
2
1
a
x
.
2
1
1 . a a ÷
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ ÷ ÷
(" a > 0)
=
0 x
im
÷
!

4
2
3
4 2
x
4
x
......
a
x
.
8
1
a 2
x
÷ + +
Since L is finite ¬ 2a = 4 ¬ a = 2 L =
0 x
im
÷
!

3
a . 8
1
=
64
1
8.
x
)
2
b 1 ( n x
0 x
e lim
+
÷
!
= 1 + b
2
= 2b sin
2
u ¬ sin
2
u =
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
+
b
1
b
We know b +
b
1
> 2 ¬ sin
2
u > 1 but sin
2
u s 1
¬ sin
2
u =1 ¬ u = ±
2
t
9.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
· ÷
b – ax –
1 x
1 x x
im
2
x
!
= 4
· ÷ x
im !
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
1 x
) b – 1 ( ) b – a – 1 ( x ) a – 1 ( x
2
= 4
Limit is finite it exists when 1 – a = 0 ¬ a = 1
then
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
· ÷
x
1
1
x
b – 1
b – a – 1
im
x
!
= 4 1 – a – b = 4 ¬ b = – 4
10. ((1 + a)
1/3
– 1)x
2
+ ((a+1)
1/2
– 1)x + ((a+1)
1/6
– 1) = 0
let a + 1 = t
6
(t
2
– 1)x
2
+ (t
3
– 1)x + (t – 1) = 0
(t + 1)x
2
+ (t
2
+ t + 1)x +1 = 0
As a ÷ 0 , t ÷ 1 2x
2
+ 3x + 1 = 0 ¬ x = – 1 and x = –
2
1
PART - II
1.
0 x
im
÷
!
x 2
x 2 cos – 1
0 x
im
÷
!

x 2
x sin 2
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!

x
| x sin |
LHL =
0 h
im
÷
!
1 –
h –
h sin
= , RHL =
0 h
im
÷
!
1
h
h sin
=
LHL = RHL
So limit does not exist
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 46
2.
· ÷ x
im !

x
2 x
3 – x
|
.
|

\
|
+
(1
·
form)
=
x 1 –
2 x
3 – x
im
x
e
|
.
|

\
|
+ · ÷
!
=
2 x
x 5
– im
x
e
+ · ÷
!
=
x
2
1
5 –
im
x
e
+
· ÷
!
= e
– 5
3. f(2) = 4, f'(2) = 4
2 x
im
÷
!
2 – x
) x ( f 2 – ) 2 ( f x
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
2 x
im
÷
!

1
) x ( f 2 – ) 2 ( f '
= f(2) – 2f'(2) = 4 – 8 = – 4
4. f(1) = 1, f'(1) = 2
1 x
im
÷
!

1 x
1 ) x ( f
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
1 x
im
÷
!

) x ( f 2
x 2 ) x ( f'
=
2
1
2
) 1 ( f
) 1 ( f
= =
'
5.
· ÷ x
im !

] x [
] x [ – x n
n
!
=
· ÷ x
im !

] x [
nx
n
!

· ÷ x
im !

] x [
] x [
=
· ÷ x
im !

] x [
nx
n
!

· ÷ x
im !
1 = 0 – 1 = – 1
6.
· ÷ x
im !
x
2
2
3 x x
3 x 5 x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
2
3 x x
1 x 4
1 |
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
+
(1
·
form) =
3 x x
) 1 x 4 ( x
im
2
x
e
+ +
+
· ÷
!
= e
4
7.
2
x
im
t
÷
!
3
) x 2 – (
2
x
tan 1
) x sin – 1 (
2
x
tan – 1
t |
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
x
im
t
÷
!
3
) x 2 – (
) x sin – 1 (
2
x

4
tan
t
|
.
|

\
| t
put x = y
2
+
t
y ÷ 0
+
=
0 y
im
÷
!

3
) y 2 (–
) y cos – 1 (
2
y
– tan |
.
|

\
|
=
0 y
im
÷
!
3
y 8
) y cos – 1 (
2
y
tan |
.
|

\
|
=
0 y
im
÷
!

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
y
2
y
tan

64
2
·
4
y
2
y
sin
2
2
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= (1) (1) ·
32
1
32
1
=
8.
0 x
im
÷
!
k
x
) x – 3 ( n – ) x 3 ( n
=
+ ! !
¬
0 x
im
÷
!

k
x
3
x
– 1 n –
3
x
1 n
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ! !
¬
0 x
im
÷
!
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
1

3
x

3
x
– 1 n

3
1
·
3
x
3
x
1 n ! !
= k
¬ k
3
1
3
1
= + ¬ k =
3
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 47
Alt.
0 x
im
÷
!
k
x
) x – 3 ( n – ) x 3 ( n
=
+ ! !
Apply L' Hospital rule
¬
0 x
im
÷
!

k
x – 3
1
x 3
1
= |
.
|

\
|
+
+
¬ k
3
1
3
1
= +
¬ k =
3
2
9.
a x
im
÷
!

4
) x ( f – ) x ( g
) a ( g ) x ( f ) a ( g – ) a ( f – ) x ( g ) a ( f
=
+
Apply L' Hospital rule
¬
a x
im
÷
!
|
|
.
|

\
|
' '
' '
) x ( f – ) x ( g
) x ( f ) a ( g – ) x ( g ) a ( f
= 4
¬
a x
im
÷
!
4
) x ( f – ) x ( g
) x ( f – ) x ( g
k =
|
|
.
|

\
|
' '
' '
¬ k = 4
10.
· ÷ x
im !

2
x 2
2
e
x
b
x
a
1 = |
.
|

\
|
+ +
¬
2
x 2
x
b
x
a
im
e e
2
x
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!
¬
· ÷ x
im !
2
x
2 ) b ax (
=
+
¬
· ÷ x
im !
2
x
b 2
a 2 = +
b e R, a = 1
11. ax
2
+ bx + c = 0
a(x – o) (x – |) = 0
2
2
x
) x (
) c bx ax cos( 1
im
o ÷
+ + ÷
o ÷
!
=
2
2
2
x
) x (
2
c bx ax
sin 2
im
o ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
o ÷
!
=
o ÷ x
im !

2
2
) – x (
) – x ( ) – x (
2
a
sin 2
o
|
.
|

\
|
| o
=
o ÷ x
im !

4
) – x ( a 2
·
2
) – x ( ) – x ( a
2
) – x ( ) – x ( a
sin
2 2
2
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
| o
|
.
|

\
| | o
= (1)
2
) – ( a
4
) – ( a 2
2 2 2 2
| o
=
| o
12.
0 x
lim
÷

) x ( f
) x 3 ( f
= 1
f(x) < f(2x) < f(3x) Divide by f(x)
) x ( f
) x 3 ( f
) x ( f
) x 2 ( f
1 < <
using sandwitch theorem
¬
· ÷ x
lim

) x ( f
) x 2 ( f
= 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 48
13.
2 lim
2 x÷

) 2 x (
) 2 x ( sin
÷
÷
does not exist
14.
0
| 5 – x |
9 – ) ) x ( f (
im
2
5 x
=
÷
!
0 ] 9 – )) x ( f [( im
2
5 x
=
÷
!
5 x
im
÷
!
f(x) = 3
1.
0 x
im
÷
!

x
1
x
2
x
1
x
2
x
1
b b
a a
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
x
1
1
b b
a a
im
x
2
x
1
x
2
x
1
0 x
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
+
÷
!
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
x
2
x
1
x
2
x
1
x
2
x
1
0 x
b b
1
x
) 1 b (
x
) 1 b (
x
1 a
x
1 a
im
e
!
=
) b log b log a log a (log
2
1
2 e 1 e 2 e 1 e
e
÷ ÷ +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
2 1
2 1
e
b b
a a
log
2
1
e =
2 1
2 1
b b
a a
2.
1 x
im
÷
!

q p q p
q p
x x x 1
px qx q p
+
+ ÷ ÷
÷ + ÷
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
1 x
im
÷
!

1 q p 1 q 1 p
1 q 1 p
x ) q p ( qx px
pqx pqx
÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+ + ÷ ÷
÷

|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
1 x
im
÷
!

2 q p 2 q 2 p
2 q 2 p
x ) 1 q p )( q p ( x ) 1 q ( q x ) 1 p ( p
x ) 1 q ( pq x ) 1 p ( pq
÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ + + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
2
q p ÷
3.
0 t
im
÷
!

t
1
1 t 1 t
a b
a b
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
+ +
=
0 t
im
÷
!

t
1
1
a b
a b
1 t 1 t
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷
+ +
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷
÷ a b
1
t
) 1 a ( a
t
) 1 b ( b
im
t t
0 t
e
!
=
a b
na a nb b
e
÷
÷ ! !
=
a b
1
a
b
a
b
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
4. LHL = +
÷0 h
im !
f(0 – h) = +
÷0 h
im !
f(– h) = +
÷0 h
im !
( )
| |
2
h
1 –
=1
RHL = +
÷0 h
im !
f(0 + h) = +
÷0 h
im !
f(h) = +
÷0 h
im !

|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
n
n
h 1
1
im !
= 1
5.
0 x
im
÷
!

) x tan x (sin
x k
2
x n
cos 2 e e
2 x n x n
÷
÷ ÷ +
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷ ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
÷
....... x
15
2
3
x
x ........
! 3
x
x
x k ........
! 4 . 16
x n
! 2 . 4
x n
1 2 .....
! 4
x n
! 2
x n
1 2
im
5
3 3
2
4 4 2 2 4 4 2 2
0 x
!
=
..........
3
1
! 3
1
x
! 4 . 16
n 2
! 4
n 2
x k
4
n
n x
im
3
4 4
4
2
2 2
0 x
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
÷
!
limit exists, if coff. of x
2
is zero.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 49
¬ n
2
+
4
n
2
– k = 0 ¬ 4k = 5n
2
so the possible value match that is n = 2, k = 5
6. L =
2
1
x
) x 4 x 3 ( cos
im
3 1
2
1
x
÷
÷
÷
÷
!
=
2
1
x
) x 3 x 4 ( cos
im
3 1
2
1
x
÷
÷ ÷ t
÷
÷
!
Let u = cos
–1
x " As x ÷
2
1
u ÷
3
t
¬ L =
2
1
cos
) 3 (cos cos
im
1
3
÷ u
u ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
!
Now LHL =
2
1
cos
) 3 (cos cos
im
1
3 ÷ u
u ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
÷
!
=
2
1
cos
3
im
3 ÷ u
u ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
!
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
u ÷
÷
÷
t
÷ u
sin
3 im
3
!
= 3 2
Also, RHL =
2
1
cos
) 3 (cos cos
im
1
3 ÷ u
u ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
+
!
=
2
1
cos
)) 3 2 (cos( cos
im
1
3 ÷ u
u ÷ t ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
+
!
=
2
1
cos
) 3 2 (
im
3
÷ u
u ÷ t ÷ t
+
t
÷ u
!
=
2
1
cos
3
im
3 ÷ u
t ÷ u
+
t
÷ u
!

|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
u ÷
+
t
÷ u sin
3
im
3
!
= – 3 2
¬ LHL = RHL Limit does not exist
7.
¿
¿
=
=
· ÷
+ ÷
n
1 r
3
n
1 r
2
n
r
) 1 r n ( r
im !
=
¿
¿ ¿
=
= =
· ÷
÷ +
n
1 r
3
n
1 r
3
n
1 r
2
n
r
r r ) 1 n (
im !
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
+ +
+
· ÷
1
4
) 1 n ( n
6
) 1 n 2 ( ) 1 n ( ) n (
) 1 n (
im
2 2
n
!
=
4 / 1
3 / 1
– 1 =
3
1
1
3
4
= ÷
8.
· ÷ n
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ÷
÷
...
n 6
C
n 2
C
C n
n
2
3
x
2
x
1
x 1 x
1999
=
2000
1
the limit obviously exists if 2000 – x = 0 ¬ x = 2000
9. Let u = sin
–1
x " as
2
1
x ÷
4
t
÷ u
2
1
sin
) cos sin 2 ( cos
im
1
4
÷ u
u u
÷
t
÷ u
!
=
2
1
sin
) 2 (sin cos
im
1
4
÷ u
u
÷
t
÷ u
!
=
2
1
sin
2
2
cos cos
im
1
4
÷ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
u ÷
t
÷
t
÷ u
!
Left hand limit =
2
1
sin
2
2
cos cos
im
1
4 ÷ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
u ÷
t
÷
t
÷ u
÷
!
=
2
1
sin
2
2
im
4
÷ u
u ÷
t
÷
t
÷ u
!
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 50
=
u
÷
t
÷ u
cos
2
im

4
!
= 2 2 ÷
Right hand limit =
+
t
÷ u
4
im !
2
1
sin
2
2
cos cos
1
÷ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
u ÷
t
÷
=
+
t
÷ u
4
im !

2
1
sin
2
2 cos cos
÷ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| t
÷ u
=
+
t
÷ u
4
im !

2
1
sin
2
2
÷ u
t
÷ u
=
+
t
÷ u
4
im !

u cos
2
= 2 2 ¬ LHL = RHL Limit does not exist
10.
0 x
im
÷
!

x
k
x
f ...
3
x
f
2
x
f ) x ( f |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
0 x
im
÷
!

(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
' + + |
.
|

\
|
' + |
.
|

\
|
' + '
k
x
f
k
1
...
3
x
f
3
1
2
x
f
2
1
) x ( f
= 1 +
2
1
+
3
1
+ .... +
n
1
=
}
÷
+ + + +
1
0
1 n 2
dx ) x ... x x 1 ( =
}
÷
÷
1
0
n
dx
x 1
x 1
=
}
÷ ÷
1
0
n
dx
x
) x 1 ( 1
=
n
C
1

2
C
2
n
+
3
C
3
n
– ........ + (–1)
n–1
.
n
C
n
n
PART - II
1. Let L
n+1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
1 n 3 2 1
x
) x a cos( )....... x a ( cos ). x a ( cos . ) x a cos( – 1
+
¬ L
n+1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
1 n 2 1 1 n 1 n
x
) x a ( cos ..... ) x a ( cos . ) x a ( cos – ) x a ( cos ) x a ( cos – 1
+ + +
+
¬ L
n+1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
n 2 1 1 n 1 n
x
)} x a ( cos )..... x a cos( ). x a cos( – 1 { ) x a ( cos ) x a cos( – 1
+ +
+
¬ L
n+1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
1 n
x
) x a cos( – 1
+
+
0 x
im
÷
!
cos (a
n+1
x) . L
n
¬ L
n+1
=
( )
2
a
2
1 n+
+ L
n
L
1
=
2
a
2
1
, L
2
=
2
a
2
2
+ L
1
=
2
a
2
2
+
2
a
2
1
, L
3
=
2
a
2
3
+ L
2
=
2
a
2
3
+
2
a
2
2
+
2
a
2
1
, L
n
=
2
1
¿
=
n
1 i
2
i
a
2.
· ÷ ÷ x
im !
x x a x b
2
1 ÷ + + ÷
|
\

|
.
| = 0
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ + +
· ÷
b ax 1 x x im
2
x
!
= 0
Let x =
h
1
0
h
bh a h h 1
im
2
0 h
=
÷ ÷ + +
+
÷
! " limit exists
So 1 – a = 0 ¬ a = 1
0
h
bh 1 h h 1
im
2
0 h
=
÷ ÷ + +
+
÷
!
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 51
¬
2 0 h
h h 1 2
) 1 h 2 (
im
+ +
+
+
÷
!
– b = 0 ¬
2
1
– b = 0 ¬ b =
2
1
So a = 1, b =
2
1
3. "
· ÷ x
im !
x
n
f(x) = p
¬
· ÷ x
im !

x
) x ( f x
1 n+
= p
using L- Hospital rule, we get
· ÷ x
im !

1
) x ( f x ) x ( f x ) 1 n (
1 n n
' + +
+
= p ¬ (n + 1) p +
· ÷ x
im !
x
n+1
.f'(x) = p ¬
· ÷ x
im !
x
n+1
f'(x) = –np.
4. Let f(x) =
3
2 x
x
x 1 – x – e +
Since limit exists ¬ +
÷0 h
im !
f(0 + h) = +
÷0 h
im !
f(0 – h) = L (say)
L = +
÷0 h
im !

3
2 h
h
h 1 – h – e +
Also, L = +
÷0 h
im !

3
2 h –
h –
h 1 – h e + +
¬ 2L = +
÷0 h
im !

3
h – h
h
h 2 – e – e
Put h = 3t
¬ 2L = +
÷0 t
im !

3
t 3 – t 3
t 27
t 6 – e – e
¬ 54 L = +
÷0 t
im !

3
t – t t 2 – t 2 3 t – 3 t
t
t 6 – ) e – e ( 3 – ) e – e ( 3 ) 1 – e ( – ) 1 – e ( +
¬ 54 L = +
÷0 t
im !

(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
t – t
3
t 2 – t 2
3
t –
3
t
t
) t 2 – e – e (
3 –
t
) t 4 – e – e (
3
t –
1 – e
t
1 – e
¬ 54 L = +
÷0 t
im !

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
t – t
3
t 2 – t 2
3
t –
3
t
t
t 2 – e – e
3 –
) t 2 (
t 4 – e – e
24
t –
1 – e
t
1 – e
¬ 54 L = 1 + 1 + 48 L – 6L ¬ 12 L = 2 ¬ L =
6
1
5.
· ÷ n
im !
n
n ÷
2
( ) ....... n n n n
n
n
+ +
|
\

|
.
|
+
|
\

|
.
|
+
|
\

|
.
|
¦
´
¹
¹
`
)
÷
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
=
· ÷ n
im !
n
n
1 – n
n
2
1
n .......
2
1
n ) 1 n (
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
· ÷ n
im !

n
1 – n
n . 2
1
1 .......
n 2
1
1
n
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
(1
·
form )
=
· ÷ n
im !
n
n
1
1 |
.
|

\
|
+

2
n 2
n 2
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ........
1 – n
1 – n
2
n . 2
1 – n
n . 2
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= e
1
. e
1/2
. e
1/4
.......
term ......
2
1
1 – n
e
·
{ using
· ÷ n
im !

p
pn
e
n
1
1 = |
.
|

\
|
+
} {
· ÷ n
im !

p
pn
e
n
1
1 = |
.
|

\
|
+
}
= e
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 52
6. Let x
2
=
1 1+
=
2
; x
3
=
1 2 +
=
3
; x
4
=
4
; x
5= 5 ;......;
x
n = n
n
n
1 n
n x
x
im
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!

=

n
n n
1 n
im
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!

=
n 1
n
1 n
n
im
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
· ÷
!

=
( ) n n 1 n
n
im
e
÷ +
· ÷
!

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + · ÷ n 1 n
n
n
im
e
!
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷·
1
n
1
1
1
n
im
e
!

=
2
1
e

=

e
7. Now,
n n
1
2
+
<
k n
1
2
+
<
1 n
1
2
+
¬
n n
k
2
+
<
k n
k
2
+
<
1 n
k
2
+
¬
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
n n
k
<
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
k n
k
<
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
1 n
k
¬
( )
2
1 n n
.
n n
1
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
<
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
k n
k
<
( )
( ) 1 n 2
1 n n
2
+
+
¬
· ÷ n
im !

( )
2
1 n n
.
n n
1
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
<
· ÷ n
im !
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
k n
k
<
· ÷ n
im !

( )
( ) 1 n 2
1 n n
2
+
+
¬ ¿
=
· ÷
+
n
1 k
2
n
k n
k
im !
=
2
1
(By Sandwich theorem)
8.
( ) ( ) 1 x sin sin
x log
im
e
1 x ÷
÷
÷
!
let y = x –1 ¬ x = 1 + y
Given limit =
( )
( ) y sin sin
y 1 log
im
e
0 y
+
÷
÷
!
=
( )
y
y 1 log
im
e
0 y
+ ÷
÷
!
×
( )
y sin
y sin sin
1
×
y sin
y
= –1 × 1 × 1 = –1
9.
· ÷ x
im !
x
3
x x x
2 4
1 2 + + ÷
¦
´
¹
¹
`
)
=
· ÷ x
im !
x
3

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
÷ + +
2 x x 1 x
x 2 x 1 x
4 2
2 4 2
=
· ÷ x
im !

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
2 4
4 4
4 2
3
x x 1
) x x 1 (
2 x x 1 x
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
2 4 4 2
3
x x 1 2 x x 1 x
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

2 4
1
2
1
.
2 2
1
1
x
1
1 2 1
x
1
1 x
x
4 4
3
3
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
10. Let y = x–
2
t
y cot
0 y
e im
÷
÷
+
!
=
y cot
0 y
e
1
im
+
÷
!
= 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 53
11. Let L =
( )
x
e e
x
e
x log log
im
· ÷
!
¬ L =
( )
x log
x log log 2
im
e
e e
x · ÷
!
.
x
x log
e
.
x
e
x
= 2×0×0×0 = 0
Since
x
x log
im
e
x · ÷
! = 0 and
0
e
x
im
x
x
=
· ÷
!
(using L.H. Rule)
12.
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) x 1 n 4 sin log
x 1 m 4 sin log
im
e
e
2
x
+
+
t
÷
!
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) 1 n 4 . x 1 n 4 cos .
x 1 n 4 sin
1
1 m 4 . x 1 m 4 cos .
x 1 m 4 sin
1
im
2
x
+ +
+
+ +
+
t
÷
!
=
( )
( )
( )
1 n 4
1 m 4
.
x 1 m 4 tan
. x 1 n 4 tan
im
2
x
+
+
+
+
t
÷
!
Put x–
2
t
= y ¬ x =
2
t
+ y (4m+1)x = (4m+1)
2
t
+(4m+1)y
¬ tan (4m+1)x = – cot(4m+1)y
similarly tan (4n+1)x = – cot(4n+1)y
Given limit =
0 y
im
÷
! ( )
( )y 1 m 4 cot
y 1 n 4 cot
+
+
.
( )
) 1 n 4 (
1 m 4
+
+
=
( )
( )
( )
) 1 n 4 (
1 m 4
.
y 1 n 4 tan
y 1 m 4 tan
im
0 y +
+
+
+
÷
!
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
0 y
1 n 4
1 m 4
.
y ) 1 n 4 (
y 1 n 4 tan
1
.
y ) 1 m 4 (
y 1 m 4 tan
im
+
+
+
+ +
+
÷
!
=
( )
( )
2
2
1 n 4
1 m 4
+
+
13. Let x–1 = y ¬ x = 1 + y
given limit =
y cot
y
2
cot y log
im
e
0 y t
t
÷
+
÷
!
=
( )
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
t
|
.
|

\
| t
÷ t
+
÷ y cot
y
2
cot
y tan y log im
e
0 y
!
=
( )
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| t
t
t
t
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| t
+
÷
y
2
tan
y
2
.
y
y tan
. 2
y
y tan
y log y im
e
0 y
!
= 0.t – 2.1.1 = – 2
14.
( )
1
x
nx 1 n
) e ( x
e x
e
im
1
÷
+
÷
÷
+ ÷
! !
!
=
( )
( )
1
nx 1 n
e x e x
e
im
x / 1
1
÷
+
÷ ÷
+
÷
! !
!
=
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
1
x
x 1
e x
1
x / 1
e x e x
nx 1 . nx 1
im
e x
nx 1
im
1 – 1 –
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
+ +
=
÷
+
+ +
! !
!
!
!
=
( )
( ) x
x 1
e x
nx 1 .
1 ex
ex n e
im
1 –
÷
÷
+
÷
+
!
!
!
= e.1. (0)
e–1 |
.
|

\
|
=
÷
÷
1
1 x
nx
im
1 x
!
!
"
= 0
15. (i) Since x
2
>0 and limit equals 2, f(x) must be a positive quantity. Also since
( )
2
0 x
x
x f
im
÷
!
= 2, the
denominator ÷ zero and limit is finite therefore f(x) must be heading towards zero. If f(x) tends
to some non-zero number then limit will cease to be a finite quantity.
f(x) > 0 in small neighbourhood of x = 0
thus
( ) | | x f im
0 x÷
!
= 0
(ii)
( ) ( )
2
x
x xf
x
x f
=
¬
( )
x
x f
im
0 x÷
! =
( )
2
0 x
x
x f
. x im
÷
!
=
( )
2
0 x 0 x
x
x f
im . x im
÷ ÷
! !
= 0 ×2 = 0
if we find RHL of
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ x
x f
im
0 x
!
then it is zero but if we find LHL of
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ x
x f
im
0 x
!
=
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2
0 x
x
x f . x
im !
= –1
Hence limit does not exist.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 54
CONTINUITY AND DERIVABILITY
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-3. (i) h(x) = {x} [x]
at x = 1 h(1) = 0 LHL = 0 RHL = 0
at x = 2 h(2) = 0 LHL = 1 RHL = 0
(ii) h(x) = {x} + [x] = x at x = 1 continuous
(iii) h(x) = {x} – [x] = x – 2[x] discontinuous at x = 1
(iv) h(x) = } x { + [x]
at x = 1 h(1) = 1 LHL = 1 RHL = 1
at x = 2 h(2) = 2 LHL = 2 RHL = 2
A-4. f (x) = (x + 2) (x – 2) (x – 3)
h (x) =
¹
´
¦
=
= ÷ +
3 x , k
3 x , ) 2 x ( ) 2 x (
for continuity k =
3 x
lim
÷
h(x) = 5
h(x) = (x + 2) (x – 2) = x
2
– 4 which is even ¬ x e R
Section (B) :
B-2. f(x) = x + {–x} + [x] Since {–x} =
¹
´
¦
I e
I e ÷
x
x
, 0
}, x { 1
=
¹
´
¦
I e
I e
+
+ ÷ +
x
x ,
, ] x [ x
] x [ } x { 1 x
=
¹
´
¦
I e
I e +
x
x
,
,
x 2
] x [ 2 1

Curve of y = f(x)
discontinuous at all integers in [–2, 2]
B-5._ u =
2 x
1
+
is discontinuous at x = – 2
f(u) =
3 – u 5 u 2
3
2
+
=
3 – u – u 6 u 2
3
2
+
=
) 3 u ( ) 1 – u 2 (
3
+
is
discontinuous at u =
2
1
& –3

2 x
1
+
=
2
1
and
2 x
1
+
= – 3
¬ x = 0 and x = –
3
7
Hence y = f(u) is discontinous at x = –
3
7
, – 2, 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 55
Section (C) :
C-5. f

(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
> |
.
|

\
|
0 x ; 0
0 x ; sin x
x
1 m
for continitity f(0) = 0 = RHL (x = 0)
0
n
1
sin h lim
m
0 h
= |
.
|

\
|
÷
m
0 h
h lim
÷
[a finite quantity between [–1, 1]] = 0
It hold only when m > 0
if m s 0 neither continuous ¬ nor derivable
for derivability
h
) 0 ( f ) h ( f
lim
0 h
÷
÷
= finite ¬
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ h
1
sin h lim
) 1 m (
0 h
it is finite and unique
and equal to zero if m > 1 ¬ when m >1 continuous and derivable
if 0 < m s 1 continuous but not derivable
Section (D) :
D-2. y = f(x)
Section (E) :
E-2. f : R ÷ R and f(x + y) = f(x) f(y) ¬ x, y e R
Put x = y = 0 f(0) = f
2
(0) since f(0) = 0
¬ f(0) = 1
f '(x) =
h
) x ( f ) h x ( f
lim
0 h
÷ +
÷
=
| |
h
1 ) h ( f
) x ( f lim
0 h
÷
÷
= f(x) f '(0)
Let f(x) = y ¬
dx
dy
= y.f '(0)
On solving !ny = x f '(0) + c
y = f(x) = e
c
. e
x f '(0)
" f(0) = 1 ¬ c = 0
Thus f(x) = e
x.f '(0)
¬ x e R
E-3._ f(x) is continuous and
3
7
e [f(–2), f(2)], by intermediate value theorem (IVT), there exists a point
c e (–2, 2) such that f(c) =
3
7
PART - II
Section (A) :
A-2.* (A) f(x) is continuous no where
(B) g(x) is continuous at x = 1/2
(C) h(x) is continuous at x = 0
(D) k(x) is continuous at x = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 56
Section (B) :
B-4. y =
2 t t
1
2
÷ +
, where t =
1 x
1
÷
, y = f(x) is discontinuous at x = 1, where t is discontinuous and y =
) 1 t )( 2 t (
1
÷ +
at t = – 2 and t = 1
¬
1 x
1
÷
¬ –2x + 2 = 1, x =
2
1
1 –
1 x
1
÷
¬ x = 2 f(g(x)) is discontinuous at x =
2
1
, 2,1
Section (C) :
C-9. ÷
÷2 x
Lim
f(x) =
5
3
= f(2) = +
÷2 x
Lim
f(x) = 1
f(x) is not continous at x = 2
÷
÷3 x
Lim
f(x) = +
÷3 x
Lim
f(x) = f(3) =
2
9
Now LHD (x =3) is
0 h
Lim
÷

h
2
9
) ) h 3 ( ) h 3 ((
4
1
2 3
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
0 h
Lim
÷

4
21
4
21 h 8 h
2
=
+ ÷
and RHD (x = 3) is
0 h
Lim
÷

0
h
2
9
|) h 1 | | 1 h (|
4
9
=
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
f(x) is not differentiable at x =2 and x = 3
Section (D) :
D-3.*
0 x
0 x
0
x / 1 cos ) x (sin
) x ( f y
2 1
=
=
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= =
÷
f(x) can be discontinuous only at x = 0 in [–1,1]
So we check only at x = 0
LHD (x = 0) =
h
0
n
1
cos ) h (sin
lim
2 1
0 h ÷
÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷
÷ n
1
cos h .
n
h sin
lim
2
1
0 h
= –1. 0. [finite quantity between [–1,1]] = 0
RHD (x = 0) is
( )
0
n
1
cos .
n
h sin
h lim
2
2
1
0 h
= |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
÷
Hence f(x) is differentiable as well as continuous in [–1,1]
D-4.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 57
D-6.
1 x
1 x 2 / 1
2 / 1 x 0
x sin
4 / 1
x x
) x ( g y
2
>
s <
s s
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
t
÷
= =
Section (E) :
E-1. f(x + 2y) = f(x) + f(2y) + 4xy R y , x e ¬
Replace 2y with y we have
f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) + 2xy R y , x e ¬
diff. w.r.t. x
f '(x+y) = f '(x) + 2y
Put x = 1 y = –1 f '(0) = f '(1) –2
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
2. f(0) = 0
f(0
+
) =
) 1 h 3 )( 1 h 2 (
h
) 1 h 2 )( 1 h (
h
1 h
h
lim
0 h + +
+
+ +
+
+ ÷
+ ...............·
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
· +
+
÷
+
+
+
÷
+
+
+
÷
÷
.. ..........
1 h 3
1
1 h 2
1
1 h 2
1
) 1 h (
1
1 h
1
1 lim
0 h
f(x) is not continous at x = 0 since f(0) = f(0
+
)
4. f(1) =
2
1 sin 3 log
1 1
1 sin 1 3 log
lim
n 2
n 2
n
÷
=
+
÷
· ÷
f(1
+
) =
0 h
lim
÷
1 sin
1 ) h 1 (
) h 1 sin( ) h 1 ( ) h 3 log(
lim
n 2
n 2
n
÷ =
+ +
+ ÷ + ÷ +
· ÷
f (1

) =
0 h
lim
÷
3 log
1 ) h 1 (
) h 1 sin( ) h 1 ( ) h 3 log(
lim
n 2
n 2
n
=
+ ÷
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
· ÷
discontinous at x = 1
6. y = f(x)

RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 58
y = |f(x)|
y = f(|x|)
9. y = f(x) = xsin 1/x. sin
x / 1 sin x
1
when x = 0,
t r
1
, r = 1,2,3
y = 0, x = 0,
t r
1
where r = 1,2,3,...............
Let t = x sin1/x as
+
÷0 x

, t 0 ÷
and as x ÷
t r
1
, t ÷ 0
y = t sin1/t 0 t sin t lim y lim
0 t 0 x
= =
÷ ÷
= f(0)
also 0 t sin t lim y lim
0 t
r
1
x
= =
÷
t
÷
= f
|
.
|

\
|
t r
1
¬ f(x) is continous at x = 0 and
t r
1
¬ f(x) is continous ] 1 , 0 [ x e ¬
We know that t = xsin1/x is not differentiable at x = 0
therefore y = tsin1/t = xsin1/x. sin
x
1
sin x
1
is not differentiable at x = 0
Section (D) :
10. y = |sinx|
y = sin|x|
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 59
y = f(x) = |sinx| + sin|x|
f(x) is continous every where
f(x) is not differentiable at x = nt
f(x) is not periodic
16. Differentiability at x = 1
f'(1

) =
0 h
Lim
÷

h
) b a ( b ) h 1 ( a
8 ) h 1 ( 3 ) h 1 (
] ) h 1 sin[(
3
2
2
÷
+ ÷ + ÷ +
+ ÷ ÷ ÷
t ÷
=
0 h
Lim
÷

h
a ) h 1 ( a
3
÷
÷ ÷

|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
0 h
Lim
÷

1
) h 1 ( a 3
2
÷
f'(1

) = 3a
f'(1
+
) =
0 h
Lim
÷

h
b a ) h 1 ( tan ) h 1 cos( 2
1
÷ ÷ + + t +
÷
=
0 h
Lim
÷

h
) b a ) h 1 ( tan h cos 2 (
1
÷ ÷ + + t ÷
÷
Function is differentiable
– 2 +
4
t
= a + b .....(1)
=
0 h
Lim
÷

h
2 / 2 ) h 1 ( tan h cos 2
1
t + ÷ + + t ÷
÷
=
0 h
Lim
÷
2t sin th +
2
) h 1 ( 1
1
+ +
=
2
1
Now f'(1

) = f'(1
+
) 3a =
2
1
a =
6
1
....(2) by (1) and (2) b =
4
t

6
13
PART - II
3. f
|
.
|

\
| t
2
=
] h 4 1 [ n
(cosh) n
h 4
cosh 1
lim
2 2
0 h
+
÷
÷
!
!
=
) h 4 1 ( n
h 4
.
2 / h
2 / h sin
16 16
2
lim
2
2
2
2
0 h
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
× ÷
!
.
2 / h sin 2
) 2 / h sin 2 1 ( n
2
2
÷ !
.
2 / h
2 / h sin 2
2
2
=
64
1
. 1. 1.(–1) .1 =
64
1
÷
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 60
5. f(x) = [sin[x]] =
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
t < s ÷ =
< s ÷ =
< s ÷ =
< s =
< s =
< s =
< s =
2 x 6 1 ] 6 [sin
6 x 5 1 ] 5 [sin
5 x 4 1 ] 4 [sin
4 x 3 0 ] 3 [sin
3 x 2 0 ] 2 [sin
2 x 1 0 ] 1 [sin
1 x 0 0 ] 0 [sin
f(x) is discontinuous at (4, –1)
9. f(x) =
¹
´
¦
+ +
s
otherwise , c bx ax
1 x , x
2
f(x) should be continous at x =1
it gives a+b+c =1
f(x) should be differentiable at x= 1
it gives 2a+b=1
¬ b =1–2a c= 1–a–b= a
10.
1 e x lim ) x ( f lim
) 1 x ( 2 2
1 x 1 x
= =
÷
÷ ÷
÷
f(1) = 1
1 x 1 x
lim ) x ( f lim
÷ ÷
=
+
a sgn (x +1) cos2(x–1) + bx
2
= a.1.1+ b
for continuity a + b = 1
LHD (x = 1) is
h
1 e ) h 1 (
lim
h 2 2
0 h
÷ ÷
÷
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ +
÷
÷ ÷
÷ h
1 e
he e 2 lim
h 2
h 2 h 2
0 h
= 2 + 0 + 2 = 4
RHD (x = 1) is
h
1 ) h 1 ( b h 2 cos ) h 2 sgn( a
lim
2
0 h
÷ + + +
÷
=
h
) b a ( bh 2 bh b h 2 cos a
lim
2
0 h
+ ÷ + + +
÷
=
b 2 bh
h
1 h 2 cos
a lim
0 h
+ + |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
= 2b
f(x) is differentiable at x = 1 if 2b = 4
¬ b = 2 a = –1
11. f(x) = [x]

[sin tx], x e (–1, 1)
=
¹
´
¦
e
÷ e
) 1 , 0 [ x ,
) 0 , 1 ( x ,
0
1
f(x) is continuous in (–1, 0)
13. Given f''(0) = 4
0 x
lim
÷

2
x
) x 4 ( f ) x 2 ( f 3 ) x ( f 2 + ÷
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
form
using L' Hospital rule
0 x
lim
÷

x 2
) x 4 ( f 4 ) x 2 ( f 6 ) x ( f 2 ' + ' ÷ '
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
form
using L' Hospital rule
0 x
lim
÷

2
) x 4 ( f 16 ) x 2 ( f 12 ) x ( f 2 '' + '' ÷ ''
=
2
4 . 16 4 . 12 4 . 2 + ÷
= 12
17. f(x) = [n + psinx] , x e (0, t)
graph of y = n + p sinx
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 61
obviously
f(x) = [n +psinx] is discontinous at points mark in above curve
¬ number of such points ¬ (p –1) + 1 + p –1 = 2p –1
21. f(x) = [x] + } x {
Curve of y = f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< s ÷ +
< s
< s ÷ + + ÷
2 x 1 , 1 x 1
1 x 0 , x
0 x 1 , 1 x 1
Method : II y = f(x) can be discontinuous only at x e I
so we check continuity only at x = n e I
f(n) = [n] + n 0 n } n { = + =
LHL (x = n) is
0 h
Lim
÷
[n – h] + } h n { ÷ = (n–1) + 1 = n
RHL (x = n) is
0 h
Lim
÷
[n + h] + } h n { + = (n+0) = n
f(x) is continous for x e R
22. f(x) =
¿
=
n
0 k
k
k
| x | a
= a
0
+ a
1
|x| + a
2
|x|
2
+ a
3
|x|
3
+ ............+ a
n
|x|
n
f(0) = a
0
we know that
0 | x | lim
0 x
=
÷
0
0 x
a ) x ( f lim =
÷
f(x) is continous for x = 0
|x|
n
is differentiable if n = 1, n e N
f(x) is not differentiable at x = 0, due to presence of |x|
If all a
2k+1
= 0, f(x) does not contains |x|
¬ f(x) is differentiable at x = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 62
EXERCISE # 3
2. (A) f(x) = |x
3
| is continuous and differentiable
(B) f(x) = | x | is continuous
f '(x) =
| x | 2
1
.
| x |
x
{does not exist at x = 0}
(C) f(x) = |sin
–1
x| is continuous
f '(x) =
| x sin |
x sin
1
1
÷
÷
.
2
x 1
1
÷
{does not exist at x = 0}
(D) f(x) = cos
–1
|x| is continuous
f '(x) =
2
x 1
1
÷
÷
.
| x |
x
{does not exist at x = 0}
Comprehension # 1_
3. (A) f (x) =
| x | n
1
!
LHL = 0 = RHL
(B) f (x) =
x
sin x
t
LHL = 0 = RHL
(C) f (x) =
x cot
2 1
1
+
f (0) = not define
LHL = 1
RHL = 0 ¬ LHL = RHL
(D) f (x) =
|
.
|

\
|
x
| x sin |
cos
LHL (at x = 0) = cos (– 1) = cos 1
RHL (at x = 0) = cos 1
LHL = RHL
4. (A) ÷
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = 1 +
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = 0
(B) ÷
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = –
2
t
+
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) =
2
t
(C) ÷
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = –1 +
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = 1
(D) ÷
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = +
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = 0
5. f(x)

¸

4
t
> +
4
t
s
÷
x 1 ] x [ n
x x tan tan
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
4
f
= 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
4
f
= x =
4
t
Jump P - 1 –
4
t
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 63
Comprehension # 3 (9 to 11)
Given function f(x) can be rewritten as, f(x) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s < ÷
s s ÷ +
÷ <
1 x , 0
1 x 0 , x 1
0 x 1 , x 1
1 x , 0
¬ f(x – 1) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
> ÷
s ÷ < ÷ ÷
s ÷ s ÷ ÷ +
÷ < ÷
1 1 x , 0
1 1 x 0 , ) 1 x ( 1
0 1 x 1 , ) 1 x ( 1
1 1 x , 0
or f(x – 1) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s < ÷
s s
<
2 x , 0
2 x 1 , x 2
1 x 0 , x
0 x , 0
also, f(x + 1) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
> +
s + < + ÷
s + s ÷ + +
÷ < +
1 1 x , 0
1 1 x 0 , ) 1 x ( 1
0 1 x 1 , ) 1 x ( 1
1 1 x , 0
or f(x + 1) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s < ÷ ÷
÷ s s ÷ +
÷ <
0 x , 0
0 x 1 , x
1 x 2 , x 2
2 x , 0
Now, g(x) = f(x – 1) + f(x + 1) =
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s < ÷
s <
s < ÷ ÷
÷ s < ÷ +
÷ <
2 x , 0
2 x 1 , x 2
1 x 0 , x
0 x 1 , x
1 x 2 , x 2
2 x , 0
It is easy to check that g(x) is continuous for all x e R and non-differentiable at x = – 2, –1, 0, 1, 2.
13. Statement - 1
f (x) = {tanx} – [tan x]
f(x) = tanx – 2 [tan x] =

¸

< s
t
÷
t
< s
÷
2 tan x
4
, 2 x tan
4
x 0 , x tan
1
obviously at x =
3
t
f(x) is continuous. (True)
Statement-2
y = f (x) & y = g(x) both are continuous at x = a
then y = f(x) ± (g(x) will also be continuous at x = a (True)
Statement-1 can be explained with the help of statement-2.
21. f(x) = |x sgn (1 – x
2
)| =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
· e
÷ =
· ÷ ÷ ÷· e ÷
) , 1 ( ) 1 , 0 ( x
1 , 0 , 1 x
) , 1 ( ) 1 , ( x
x
0
x
function is discontinous at x = –1, 1
and non differentiable at x = –1, 0,1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 64
24. f(x) = (x
2
|x|)
1/3
=

¸

< ÷ = ÷ = ÷
> =
0 x , x x ) 1 ( ) x (
0 x , x ) x (
3
1
3
1
5
3
1
3
= – x
f(x) is differentiable every where except at x = 0
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1.
0 h
lim
÷

4
6
=
0 h
lim
÷
) 1 ( ) 1 h h (
) 2 ( ) h 2 h 2 (
) 1 ( f ) 1 h h ( f
) 1 ( ) 1 h h (
) 2 ( ) h 2 h 2 (
) 2 ( f ) h 2 h 2 ( f
2
2
2
2
2
2
÷ + ÷
÷ + +
÷ + ÷
÷ + ÷
÷ + +
÷ + +
=
0 h
lim
÷

) h 1 ( h
) h 2 ( h
.
) 1 ( f
) 2 ( f
÷
+
'
'
= 3
2. We have given
L.H.D. at x = a is zero
¬ f'(a

) = 0
¬
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h ÷
÷ ÷
+
÷
= 0 ...........(1)
Now, L.H.D. at x = – a
¬ f'(–a

) =
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+
÷
=
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h ÷
+ + ÷
+
÷
[" f is an odd function]
=
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h
÷ +
+
÷
=
h
) a ( f )] h – a ( a 2 [ f
lim
0 h
÷ ÷
+
÷
=
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h
÷ ÷
+
÷
[" f(2a – x) = f(x) ]] a 2 , a [ x e ¬
=
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim –
0 h ÷
÷ ÷
+
÷
= – f'(a
_
)
= – (0) = 0 [using (1)]
Thus, f'(–a

) = 0
3. Since f(x) is differentiable at x = 0 ¬ continuous at x = 0
i.e.,
) 0 ( f ) x ( f lim ) x ( f lim

0 x 0 x
= =
÷ ÷
+
2
a
2
a
·
2
h
a
1 – e
lim
h
1 – e
lim ) x ( f lim
2 / ah
0 h
2 / ah
0 h 0 x
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
+
also,

0 x
lim
÷
f(x) =
0 h
lim
÷
b sin
–1
|
.
|

\
|
2
h – c

= b sin
–1

2
c
b sin
–1

2
1
2
a
2
c
= =
¬ a = 1 ... (i)
Also, f(x) is differentiable at x = 0
¬ f' (0
+
) = f'(0

)
f' (0
+
) =
0 h
lim
÷
h
2
1

h
1 – e
2 / h
=
0 h
lim
÷

2
2 / h
h 2
h – 2 – e 2
=
8
1
and f' (0

) =
0 h
lim
÷

h
2
1

2
h – c
sin b
1 –
÷
|
.
|

\
|
=
4
c
– 1
2 / b
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 65

8
1
c – 4
b
2
=
or 64b
2
= (4 – c
2
)
¬ a = 1 and 64b
2
= (4 – c
2
)
4.
0 x
lim
÷
) 0 ( f ) x ( f
) x ( f ) x ( f
2
÷
÷
. Put x = 0 and we get
0
0
form. Also because ‘f’ is strictly increasing and differentiable.
Apply L-Hospital rule, weget
0 x
lim
÷
) x ( f
) x ( f ) x ( f x 2
2
'
' ÷ '
= – 1. Since ‘f’ is strictly increasing f'(x) = 0 in an internal
5. Graph of f(x) is
From graph f(x) is not differentiable at x = 0, ± 1.
6. As f is continuous
f(0) =
) x ( f lim
0 x÷
=
) n / 1 ( f lim
n · ÷
=
0 0 lim
n
=
· ÷
Also f'(0) =
x
) 0 ( f ) x ( f
lim
0 x
÷
÷
=
x
) x ( f
lim
0 x÷
=
) n / 1 (
) n / 1 ( f
lim
n · ÷
=
) n / 1 (
) zero exact ( 0
lim
n · ÷
= 0 So f(0) = 0 = f'(0)
7. f(x – y) = f(x).g(y) – f(y) g(x) ...................(1)
put x = y in (1) we get f(0) = 0
put y = 0 in (1) we get g(0) = 1
given that f'(0
+
) =
h
) 0 ( f ) h 0 ( f
lim
0 h
÷ +
÷
=
h
) 0 ( f ) h ( f ) 0 ( g ) h ( g ). 0 ( f
lim
0 h
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
=
h
) h ( f
lim
0 h ÷
÷
÷
=
h
) 0 ( f ) h 0 ( f
lim
0 h ÷
÷ ÷
÷
= f'(0

)
Hence f(x) is differentiable at x = 0
Let g(x – y) = g(x) . g(y) + f(x). f(y) ..................(2)
Put y = x in (2) ¬ 1 = g
2
(x) + f
2
(x) ¬ g
2
(x) = 1 – f
2
(x) ¬ 2g(x). g'(x) = –2f(x). f'(x)
Put x = 0 ¬ g'(0) = 0
8*.
From graph broken at x = 2, 3 & does not have definite tangent at x = 2, 3
9*. Here, f(x) = min. {1, x
2
, x
3
} which could be graphically
shown as
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 66
f(x) =
¹
´
¦
<
>
1 x , x
1 x , 1
3
¬ f(x) is continuous for x e R and not differentiable at x = 1 due to sharp edge.
Hence (A) and (C) are the correct answer.
10. (A) y = x|x| (A) ÷ p, q, r
(B) y = | x | (B) ÷ p, s
(C) y = x + [x] (C) ÷ r, s
(D) y = |x – 1| + |x + 1| =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ < ÷
< s ÷
>
1 x ; x 2
1 x 1 ; 2
1 x ; x 2
(D) ÷ p, q
11. f'(x) = g(x) cos x + g'(x) sin x
f'(0) = g(0) = 0
f''(0) =
0 x
Lim
÷

x
) 0 ( f ) x ( f ' ÷ '
=
0 x
Lim
÷

x
) 0 ( g x sin ) x ( g x cos ) x ( g ÷ ' +
=
0 x
Lim
÷

x
) 0 ( g x cos ) x ( g ÷
+
0 x
Lim
÷

x
x sin ) x ( g'
=
0 x
Lim
÷

x
) 0 ( g x cos ) x ( g ÷
=
0 x
Lim
÷

x sin
) 0 ( g x cos ) x ( g ÷
=
0 x
Lim
÷
(g(x) cot x – g(0) cosec x)
12. Clearly ‘p’ =
+
÷0 h
Lim

h
) 1 ( f ) h 1 ( f
÷
÷ ÷
=
h
0 | h |
÷
÷
= – 1
Now
+
÷1 x
Lim

) 1 x ( cos log
) 1 x (
m
n
÷
÷
= – 1
+
÷1 x
Lim

] 1 ) 1 x [cos(
1 ) 1 x cos(
] 1 ) 1 x cos( 1 [ log
m
) 1 x (
n
÷ ÷ ×
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ +
÷
= – 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 67
or,
+
÷1 x
Lim

m
) 1 x (
n
÷

2
) 1 x (
sin 2
1
2
÷
÷
= – 1
Hence n = 2, m = 2. (C) is correct answer.
Aliter : LHD of |x – 1| at 1 is – 1 ÷ p
+
÷1 x
lim
g(x) =
+
÷0 t
lim

t cos log
t
m
n
=
m
1

+
÷0 t
lim
t
n–2
.
t cos log
1 t cos ÷
.
1 t cos
t
2
÷
= –
m
2

+
÷0 t
lim
t
n–2
("
0 t
lim
÷

2
t
t cos 1÷
=
2
1
)

m
2

+
÷0 t
lim
t
n–2
= – 1 ¬ n = 2, m = 2
13. f(x) = kx
Hence f(x) is continuous & differentiable at x e R & f ’(x) = k (constant)
14. (A) at x =
2

t
Lf
|
.
|

\
| t
2

= 0 = f
|
.
|

\
| t
2

Rf
|
.
|

\
| t
2

= 0
¬ continuous
(B) at x = 0 Rf'(0) = 1
Lf'(0) = 0 ¬ not differentiable
(C) at x = 1 Rf'(1) = 1
Lf'(1) = 1 ¬ differentiable at x = 1
(D) at x =
2
3
– >
2

t
¬ f(x) = – cos x ¬ differentiable at x =
2
3

15. f(x) =
1 bx
b x
÷
÷
=
b
1
+
) 1 bx (
b
b
1
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
f'(x) =
2
) 1 bx (
b
b
1
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
b, f'(x) < 0 ¬ x (0, 1)
Range of f(x) is (–1, b)
so range = co-domain
so f is not invertible
f
–1
doesnot exist
No comparison with f
–1
16. (I) for derivability at x = 0
L.H.D. = f '(0

) =
+
÷0 h
im !

h –
) 0 ( f – ) h – 0 ( f
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h –
0 –
h
– cos . h
2
|
.
|

\
| t
=
+
÷0 h
im !
– h .
h
cos
t
= 0
RHD f '(0
+
) =
+
÷0 h
im !

h
) 0 ( f – ) h 0 ( f +
= +
÷0 h
im !

h
0 –
h
cos . h
2
|
.
|

\
| t
= 0
So f(x) is derivable at x = 0
(ii) check for derivability at x = 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 68
RHD = f '(2
+
) =
+
÷0 h
im !
h
) 2 ( f – ) h 2 ( f +
=
+
÷0 h
im !
h
0 –
h 2
cos . ) h 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
+
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h
h 2
cos . ) h 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
+
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h
h 2

2
sin . ) h 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
t t
+
=
+
÷0 h
im !
) h 2 ( 2
.
h
) h 2 ( 2
) h 2 ( 2
h
sin . ) h 2 (
2
+
t
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
+
= (2)
2
.
) 2 ( 2
t
= t
LHD =
+
÷0 h
im !
h –
) 2 ( f – ) h – 2 ( f
=
+
÷0 h
im !
h –
0 –
h – 2
cos . ) h – 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
| t
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h –
0 –
h – 2
cos – . ) h – 2 (
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| t
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h
h – 2
cos ) h – 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
| t
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h
h – 2

2
sin . ) h – 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
| t t
=
+
÷0 h
im !
) h – 2 ( 2

.
) h – 2 ( 2
h

) h – 2 ( 2
h
– sin . ) h – 2 (
2
t
|
|
.
|

\
| t
|
|
.
|

\
| t
= – t
So f(x) is not derivable at x = 2
17.
correct is B So
1 b a
1 b a
1 b ) n 2 ( f
a ) n 2 ( f
a ) n 2 ( f
n n
n n
n
n
n
= ÷
+ =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
+ =
=
=
÷
+
1 b a
1 b a
1 b a
1 b ) ) 1 n 2 (( f
a ) ) 1 n 2 (( f
a ) 1 n 2 ( f
n 1 n
1 n n
1 n n
1 n
n
n
÷ = ÷
÷ = ÷
÷ =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
÷ = +
= +
= +
÷
+
+
+
+
÷
PART - II
1. Continuity at x = 0
LHL = ) x ( f lim

0 x÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
) h (–
1
| h – |
1

0 h
e ) h – 0 ( lim
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
h
1

h
1

0 h
e ) h (– lim
=
) h (– lim
0 h÷
= 0
RHL =
) x ( f lim
0 x
+
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
+
h
1
| h |
1

0 h
e ) h 0 ( lim
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
h
1
h
1

0 h
he lim
=
h
2
0 h
e
h
lim
÷
= 0
¬
) x ( f lim

0 x÷
=
) x ( f lim
0 x
+
÷
= f(0)
Therefore, f(x)is continuous for all x.
Differentiability at x = 0
Lf ' (0) =
0 – ) h (–
0 – e ) h (–
lim
h
1

h
1

0 h
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
0
0 h
e lim
÷
= 1
Rf ' (0) =
0 – h
0 – he
lim
h
1
h
1

0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=
h
2
0 h
e
1
lim
÷ = 0 ¬ Rf ' (0) = Lf' (0)
Therefore, f (x) is not differentiable at x = 0.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 69
2. Since, f(x) =
t – x 4
x tan – 1

|
.
|

\
|
t
=
t
÷
t
÷
– x 4
x tan – 1
lim ) x ( f lim
4
x
4
x
(Using L'Hospital's rule)
= |
|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
4
x sec –
lim
2
4
x
=
4
2

4
4
sec –
2
=
|
.
|

\
| t
¬
2
1
– ) x ( f lim
4
x
=
t
÷
Also, f(x) is continuous in (
¸
(

¸
t
2
, 0
, so f(x) will be continuous at
4
t
.
f |
.
|

\
| t
4
=
2
1
– ) x ( f lim
4
x
=
t
÷
3. Since |f(x) – f(y)| s (x – y)
2
| y – x | lim
| y – x |
| ) y ( f – ) x ( f |
lim
y x y x ÷ ÷
s
¬ | f '(y)| s 0 ¬ f '(y) = 0
¬ f (y) = constant ¬ f (y) = 0 [" f(0) = 0 given]
¬ f (1) = 0
4. f '(1) =
h
) 1 ( f – ) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h
+
÷
=
h
) 1 ( f
lim –
h
) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h 0 h ÷ ÷
+
Since,
h
) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h
+
÷
= 5, so
h
) 1 ( f
lim
0 h÷
must be
finite as f '(1) exist and
h
) 1 ( f
lim
0 h÷
can be finite
only, if f(1) = 0 and
h
) 1 ( f
lim
0 h÷
= 0 f '(1) =
h
) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h
+
÷
= 5.
5. Since, f(x) =
| x | 1
x
+
Let f(x) =
) x ( h
) x ( g
=
| x | 1
x
+
It is clear that g(x) = x and h(x) = 1 + |x| are differentiable on (–·, ·) and (–· , 0) (0, ·) respectively.
Thus, f(x) is differentiable on (–· , 0) (0, ·).
Now we have to check the differentiability at x = 0

0 – x
) 0 ( f – ) x ( f
lim
0 x÷
=
x
0 –
| x | 1
x
lim
0 x
+
÷
=
| x | 1
1
lim
0 x + ÷
= 1
Hence, f (x) is differentiable on (–·, ·).
6. Now,
|
.
|

\
|
÷
1 – e
2

x
1
lim
x 2
0 x
=
) 1 – e ( x
x 2 – 1 – e
lim
x 2
x 2
0 x÷
=
x 2 x 2
x 2
0 x
xe 2 ) 1 – e (
2 – e 2
lim
+
÷
(using L'Hospital's rule)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 70
=
x 2 x 2
x 2
0 x
xe 4 e 4
e 4
lim
+
÷
= 1 (using L'Hospital's rule)
f(x) is continuous at x = 0, then
0 x
lim
÷
f(x) = f(0)
¬ 1 = f(0)
7. f(x) = min {x + 1, |x| + 1}
f(x) = x + 1, ¬ x e R.
It is clear from the figure that
f (x) > 1, ¬ x e R.
8. Now, f' (1) =
h –
) 1 ( f – ) h – 1 ( f
lim
0 h÷
=
h –
0 –
1 – h – 1
1
sin ) 1 – h – 1 ( f
lim
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷ h
1
– sin lim
0 h
= –
h
1
sin lim
0 h÷
and f' (1
+
)=
h
) 1 ( f – ) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h
+
÷
=
h
0 –
1 – h 1
1
sin ) 1 – h 1 (
lim
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
÷
=
h
1
sin lim
0 h÷
f'(1

) = f'(1
+
)
f is not differentiable at x = 1.
Again, now
f' (0) =
h –
1 sin –
1 h 0
1
sin ) 1 h 0 (
lim
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
÷
=
1 –
1 h
1
sin
) 1 h (
1
1 h
1
cos ) 1 h ( –
lim
2
0 h
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
× |
.
|

\
|
+
+
÷
(using L' hospital's rule)
= cos 1 – sin 1
and f' (0
+
) =
h
1 sin –
1 – h 0
1
sin ) 1 – h 0 (
lim
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
÷
=
1
1 – h
1
sin
) 1 – h (
1 –
1 – h
1
cos ) 1 – h (
lim
2
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
× |
.
|

\
|
÷
(using L'Hospital's rule)
= cos 1 – sin 1
¬ f' (0

) = f' (0
+
)
f is differentiable at x = 0.
9. gof (x) = sin (x |x|)
gof (x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
= +
0 x , |) x | x cos( | x |
0 x , )
| x |
x
. x | x |)(| x | x cos(
gof is differentiable at x = 0 and the derivatives is continuous
statement-1 is true
Statement-2
+
÷0 h
lim

h
) 0 ( ) gof ( ) h 0 ( ) gof ( ' ÷ + '
=
+
÷0 h
lim
h
| h |
h
h | h | |) h | h cos(
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
h
) h h )( h cos(
2
+
= 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 71
÷
÷0 h
lim

h
) 0 ( ) gof ( ) h 0 ( ) gof ( ' ÷ ÷ '
=
÷
÷0 h
lim
h
| h |
h
| h | |) h | h cos(
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
÷
÷0 h
lim

h
) h h )( h cos(
2
÷ ÷ ÷
= – 2
not differentiable
statement-2 is false
10. f(0) = q
f(0
+
) =
x
1 – ) x 1 (
im
2 / 1
0 x
+
+
÷
!
=
x
1 – ..... x
2
1
1
im
0 x
+ +
+
÷
!
=
2
1
f(0

) =
x
x sin x ) 1 p ( sin
im

0 x
+ +
÷
!
¬ f(0

) =
1
) x (cos ) 1 p )( x ) 1 p (cos(
im

0 x
+ + +
÷
!
= (p + 1) + 1 = p + 2 p + 2 = q =
2
1
¬ p = –
2
3
, q =
2
1
11. f(x) =
¹
´
¦
=
=
0 x
0 x
,
,
0
) x / 1 sin( x
at x = 0
LHL =
+
÷0 h
lim
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
h
1
– sin h –
= 0 × a finite quantity between – 1 and 1
RHL =
+
÷0 h
lim
h sin
h
1
= 0 f(0) = 0
f(x) is continuous on R. f
2
(x) is not continuous at x = 0
12.
a – x
) x ( f a – ) a ( f x
im
2 2
a x÷
! =
1
) x ( f a – ) a ( xf 2
im
2
a x
'
÷
! = 2af(a) – a
2
f' (a)
Alter
a – x
) x ( f a – ) a ( f x
im
2 2
a x÷
! =
a – x
) x ( f a – ) a ( f a ) a ( f a – ) a ( f x
im
2 2 2 2
a x
+
÷
! =
a – x
)) a ( f – ) x ( f ( a – ) a ( f ) a – x (
im
2 2 2
a x÷
!
=
a x
im
÷
!
(x + a) f(a) – a
2

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
) a – x (
) a ( f – ) x ( f
= 2af(a) – a
2
f' (a)
13. Doubtful points are x = n, n e I
L.H.L =

n x
lim
÷
[x] cos
|
.
|

\
|
2
1 – x 2
t = (n – 1) cos
|
.
|

\
|
2
1 – n 2
t = 0
R.H.L. = [x] cos t = n cos t = 0
f(n) = 0
14. f(x) = 3 2 s x s 5
f'(x) = 0 2 < x < 5 f'(4) = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 72
PART - I
1. ·
= – = = –
2. " R.H.L = =
" L.H.L = =
= = 1 × – 1 = – 1
L.H.L = R.H.L
3. " L.H.L. = f(x) = =
and R.H.L = f(x) =
= L.H.L = R.H.L
(D)
4. f(x) =
discontinuity may arise at the points where
, and = 0
x = ; x = , ; x = , five points
5. =
¬ = 1 similarly f(x) = 1
6. = = 2
now, L.H.D. = = = ÷ ·
L.H.D does not exist.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 73
7. As 0 < {e
x
} < 1
¬ f(x) = – 1 ¬ x e R
8. f(x) =
¬ (1 + 0) = 1
" f(x) ¬ (0 + 1) = 1
and f(1) = 1 ¬ f(x) = f(1)
continuous at x = 1
similarly we check for another integers
9. As f(x) is continuous for all x e R
Thus f(x) = f
since f(x) = , x =
f(x) = = = 2
Thus =
10. Let f(x) = ¬ f(t) = 2
= = f'(t)
Now f'(x) =
f'(t) = 0
11. Function
f(x) = (x
2
– 1) |x
2
– 3x + 2| + cos (|x|) ....... (i)
Imp Note : In differentiable of |f(x)| we have to
consider critical points for which f(x) = 0
|x| is not differentiablity at x = 0
but cos | x | =
¬ cos | x | =
Therefore it is differentiable at x = 0
Next, |x
2
– 3x + 2| = |(x – 1) (x – 2)| =
Therefore,
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 74
f(x) =
Now, x = 1, 2 are critical point for differentiability
Because f(x) is differentiable on other points in its domain
Differentiability at x = 1
L f' (1) =
= = 0 – sin 1 = – sin 1
(\$ = (cos x)
at x = 1 – 0 = – sin x at x = 1 – 0 = – sin x at x = 1 = – sin1
and R ]' (1) = =
= 0 – sin 1 = – sin 1 (same approach)
" Lf' (1) = Rf' (1).
Therefore, function is differentiable
at x = 1.
Again Lf' (2) =
= = – (4 – 1) (2 – 1) – sin 2 = – 3 – sin 2
and R f' (2) = = = (2
2
– 1) – sin 2 = 3 – sin 2
So L f' (2) = R f' (2), f is not differentiable at x = 2
12. f(x) = [x sin tx]
f(0) = 0
f(0

) = [–h sint(–h)] = 0 ; f(0
+
) = [h sin th] = 0
Here f(0

) = f(0
+
) = f(0) = 0
So continuous at x = 0
Since graph of f(x) is as shown in the figure
Now all options can be checked from graph.
PART - II
1. f(x) =
(i) for 0 < sin x < 1,
f(x) = = 1
(ii) for sin x = 0,
f(x) =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 75
(iii) for – 1 s sinx < 0,
f(x) = f(x) =
f(x) is discontinuous at integral multiples of t
2.
= =
= =
for g(x) to be continuous (!na)
2
= (!n2a)
2
¬ (!na + !n2a) = 0
¬ a = g(0) = (!n 2)
2
3. " f(x) =
by definition of g(x)
g(x) =
g'(x) =
clearly g(x) is discontinuous at x = 0 and not differentiable at x = 0, 2
4. f(x) =
graph of f(x) is as shown is figure
f(x) is continuous for all x but
non-differentiable for integral points.
5. " f(x) =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 76
" f(x) = = 0 and f(x) = = 0
and f (0) = 0 f(x) is continuous at x = 0
" f(x) = = and f(x) = ÷ ·
f(x) is discontinuous for x = 1
Similarly we can check that f(x) is discontinuous at x = – 1
" L.H.D. at (x = 0) is = = = 1
" R.H.D. at (x = 0) is = = = 1
¬ L.H.D. = R.H.D.
at x = 0, f(x) is derivable.
6. is 1 or 0 according to x is a rational number or an irrational number. As m!tx will
become integral multiple of t when x is rational, then cos (m!tx) = ± 1. And when m!tx is not an integral multiple
of t i.e. when x is irrational then –1 < cos (m!tx) < 1
f(x) =
f(x) is discontinuous and non-differentiable at every real number.
7. f(x) + f(y) =
f ’(x) = f ’
f ’(x) = f’
put x = 0
f ’(0) = f ’(y) (1+y
2
)
= f ’(y)
Integrating both sides
f ’(0) tan
–1
y = f(y) + c ..... (1)
Now put x = 0 & y = 0 in f(x) + f(y) = f
we get 2f(0) = f(0)
f(0) = 0 ............. (2) and " = 2
¬ = 2 ¬ f' (x) = 2 f'(0) = 2 ........... (3)
from (2) & (3) & (1)
2tan
-1
y = f(y) + c
now put y = 1, we get 2tan
-1
1 = f(1) + c
= + c ¬ c = 0
f(x) = 2tan
-1
x
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 77
8. " R.H.L. = f(0 + h) =
= .
(putting 1–h
2
= cos2u)
= = =
" L.H.L = f(0 – h) =
= = = =
since R.H.L. = L.H.L, therefore no value of f(0) can make f continuous at x = 0
9. As f is continuous on R, so f(0) = f(x)
Thus f(0) = f

=

= 0 + 1 = 1
10. " f(1) = 0
R.H.L. = f(1 + h) = cos
–1
= cos
–1
= 0
L.H.L. = f(1 – h) = cos
–1
= cos
–1
(0) =
" f(–1) = 0
f(x) is discontinuous hence non-derivable at x = 1
" f'(–1
+
) = = 0
and f'(–1

) = = 0
¬ f'(–1
+
) = f'(–1

) = 0
f(x) is derivable at x = – 1
11. " f'(x) = =
= f(x) = ¬ f'(x) =
so dx = =
12. we have
f(x) = (sin(–h) + cos(–h))
cosec(-h)
= (cosh – sinh)
–cosech
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 78
= = = e
Now we have
f(x) = = =
If ‘f’ is continuous at x = 0 , then
e = a = gives a = e and b = 1
13. Given that
f(xy) = e
xy–x–y
(e
y
f(x) + e
x
f(y)) x,y e R
+
putting x = y = 1 , we get
f(1) = e
–1
(ef(1) + ef(1))
¬ f(1) = 0
now " f'(x) = =
= = f(x) +
¬ f'(x) = f(x) + ¬ = ¬ =
Integrating both sides w.r.t. ‘x’ , we get
!n |x| + c =
or f(x) = e
x
(!n|x| + c)
since f(1) = 0 ¬ c = 0
f(x) = e
x
!n|x|
14. Given f(x + y
3
) = f(x) + [f(y)]
3
and f ’(0) > 0
putting x = y = 0, we get
f(0) = f(0) + (f(0))
3
¬ f(0) = 0
also f'(0) = =
Let L = f ’(0) = = = L
3
or L = L
3
or L = 0 , 1, –1 as f'(0) > 0 ¬ f'(0) = 0, 1
Thus f ’(x) =
= ¬ f ’(x) = ¬ f ’(x) = 0 , 1
Integrating both sides, we get
f(x) = 0 or f(x) = x + c
As f(0) = 0 , we have f(x) = 0 or f(x) = x
Now f(x) = 0 is imposible as f(x) is not identically zero
f(x) = x and f(10) = 10
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 79
METHOD OF DIFFERENTIATION
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-1. (i) f(x) = sinx
2
f(x) = =
= = . · cos
= · (2x + h) . cos ¬ (f(x)) = (1) . (2x) . cosx
2
f'(x) = 2x cosx
2
(ii) f(x) = e
2x + 3
f(x + h) = e
2(x + h) + 3
(f(x)) = = = e
2x + 3
. 2
= 2e
2x + 3
¬ f(x) = 2e
2x + 3
. 1 ¬ f'(x) = 2e
2x + 3
A–2. (i) y = x
2/3
+ 7e – + 7 tan x
= x
–1/3
+ + 7 sec
2
x
(ii) y = x
2
.!n x.e
x
= 2x.!n x .e
x
+ x.e
x
+ x
2
.!nx.e
x
(iii) y = !n
= . sec
2
= . = = sec x
(iv) y =
=
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 80
(v) y = tan
y =
y = tan ¬ = sec
2
Section (B) :
B–3. (i) ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
¬ = – ¬ = –
(ii) xy + xe
–y
+ y. e
x
– x
2
= 0
= – ¬ =
Section (C) :
C–3. (i) y = tan
–1
+ tan
–1

y = tan
–1
+ tan
–1

y = tan
–1
5x – tan
–1
x + tan
-1
+ tan
–1
x
=
(ii) y = sin
–1
, 0 < x < 1
y = – cos
–1

Let tan
–1
x = u, u e
y = – cos
–1
(cos 2u)
0 < 2u <
y = – 2 tan
–1
x
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 81
(iii) y = sin
–1
, – 1 < x < 1
y = – cos
–1
let 2u = cos
–1
x
y = – cos
–1
y = – cos
–1
(cosu)
y = – cos
–1
x = .
Section (D) :
D–1. (i) y = tan
–1
, z =
y = tan
–1
(1) + tan
–1
(2x)
=
= .8x ¬ = . =
(ii) y = tan
–1
, z = tan
–1
x, z e
¬ x = tanz ¬ y = tan
–1

y = tan
–1
(tan z/2)
y = "
=
Section (E) :
E–1. (i) e
y
(x + 1) = 1
x + 1 = e
–y
1 = –e
–y

= e
–y
...(1)
¬ = –e
y
¬ = –e
y
(–e
y
) =
(ii) y = sin (2sin
–1
x) ..... (i)
= .... (ii)
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 82
=
¬ (1 – x
2
) = – 4y + x ¬ (1 – x
2
) = x – 4y
E–5. (i) y = = = = e
1/3
(ii) (cosecx)
1/!nx
!n y =
!ny = · (– cosec x cotx) · By L.H.Rule
!ny = – · cosx ¬ y = e
–1
E–7. H'(1) = 1, g'(1) = 2, H(1) = 1, g(1) = 2

= By L.H. Rule
= = 0
PART - II
Section (A) :
A–2. f(x) = log
x
(!nx)
¬ f(x) = ¬ f'(x) = ¬ f'(e) = = 1/e
Section (B) :
B–1. y = x
3
– 8x + 7 and x = f(t)
" t = 0 , = 2 and x = 3
" = ¬ = ¬ =
t = 0, x = 3
t = 0, =
B–3. sin(xy) + cos (xy) = 0 ¬ cos(xy) – sin(xy) = 0
¬ = – ¬ = –
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 83
Section (C) :
C–3. f(x) = |x|
|sinx|
at x = t/4, |x| = x and |sinx| = sinx
f(x) = x
sinx
¬ !n(f(x)) = sinx . !nx ¬ f'(x) = cosx !nx +
¬ f'(t/4) =
C–4. y = sin
–1
+ cos
–1
, |x| > 1
¬ y = = 0
Section (D) :
D–2.* y = sin
–1
, z = cos
–1
" – 1 < < 1 and 0 < s 1 ¬ t e R
let sin
–1
= u ¬ u e (– t/2, t/2)
= sinu ¬ cosu =
(i) if u e , then
y = u, z = u
¬ = 1
(ii) if u e , then
y = u, z = – u ¬ = – 1
Section (E) :
E–2. = f'(e
x
).e
x
= e
x
f'(e
x
) + e
2x
f''(e
x
)
E–5.* u = e
x
sin x, v = e
x
cos x
v – u = v(e
x
cos x + e
x
sin x) – u(e
x
cos x – e
x
sin x)
= e
x
sin x(v + u) + e
x
cos x( v – u)
= u(v + u) + v(v – u) = v
2
+ u
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 84
again = e
x
sin x + e
x
cos x
= e
x
sin x + e
x
cos x + e
x
cos x – e
x
sin x
= 2v
similarly other options can be checked.
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
3. x = at
3
and y = bt
2
= 3at
2
, = 2bt
= .
= . = – . .
= – . . = =
4. y = 1+ + +
= + + = +
= = · ·
¬ !ny = !nx – !n(x – c
1
) + !nx – !n(x – c
2
) + !nx – !n(x – c
3
)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x , we get
¬ = = –
¬ =
10. y = x!n ¬ = !n –
¬ = – ...(1) ¬ = –
¬ = – ¬ (1 + x) = – from equation (1)
¬ (1 + x) = – + –
¬ (1 + x) = –x + y – 1 ¬ (1 + x) + x = y – 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 85
12. let g(x) = ¬ g’ (x) = + 0 + 0
" g(o) = g'(o) = 0
i.e. o is the repeated root of g(x) = 0 and h(x) is a polynomial of degree 3
" f(x) = 0 has repeated root o
hence g(x), is divisible by f(x)
PART - II : OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
3. x + y = 0
x
2
(1 + y) = y
2
(1 + x)
x
2
– y
2
+ x
2
y – y
2
x = 0
(x + y) (x – y) + xy (x – y) = 0
(x – y) (x + y + xy) = 0 " x = y ¬ y = –
¬ = = –
5. y = sin
–1
+ sin
–1
x
= + = + ¬ P =
6. f'(x) = , g(2) = a & g'(2) = ?
g is inverse of f
f(g(x)) = x
Differentiating w.r.t. x
f' (g(x)) . g'(x) = 1
g'(x) = ¬ g'(2) = = ¬ g' (2) =
10. u = ax + b
Let y = f(ax + b)
= a f'(ax + b)
=a
2
f''(ax + b)
= a
3
f'''(ax + b)

= a
n
f
n
(ax + b) ¬ f(ax + b) = a
n
f
n
(u) = a
n
f(u)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 86
12. y = f & f'(x) = sin x
¬ = f' . = sin .
14. y
2
= P(x)
¬ 2y = P' (x) ¬ =
¬ 2 = ¬ 2y
3
= y
2
P''(x) – P'(x) . y
¬ 2y
3
= P(x) P''(x) – " y
2
= P(x) & y =
¬ 2 = P'(x) . P''(x) + P(x) . P'''(x) – 2
2 = P(x) . P'''(x)
17. f''(x) = – f(x) .... (i)
f'(x) = g(x) .... (ii)
h'(x) = (f(x))
2
+ (g(x))
2
.... (iii)
h(0) = 2, h(1) = 4
Differentiating equation (ii) w.r.t. x
f''(x) = g'(x) = – f(x)
Differentiating equation (iii) w.r.t. x
h''(x) = 2f(x) . f'(x) + 2 g(x) . g'(x)
= 2f(x) . f'(x) – 2f'(x) . f(x) = 0 {" g'(x) = – f(x)}
¬ h'(x) is constant
¬ h(x) is linear function
" h(0) = 2 ¬ h(x) not passing through (0, 0)
Let y = h(x) = ax + b
at x = 0
y = 2 = b ¬ y = ax + 2
at x = 1
a + 2 = 4
a = 2 ¬ curve is y = 2x + 2
20. y = cos
–1

= · ·
¬ = · ¬ = ·
¬ = when x < 0 ¬ =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 87
when x > 0 ¬ =
Alternate :
put x = tanu
tan
–1
x = u e ¬ y = cos
–1
= cos
–1

y = cos
–1
(cosu/2) ¬ y = ¬ =
EXERCISE # 3
2. (A) y = f(x
3
)
= f'(x
3
) . 3x
2
= f' (1) . 3 = 9
(B) f(xy) = f(x) + f(y)
f(1) = f(1) + f(1)
f(1) = 0 " f(1) = f(e) + f f(e) + f = 0
(C) f

ª(x) = – f(x), f'(x) = g (x)
g'(x) = f

''

(x) = – f

(x)
h (x) = (f

(x))
2
+ (g

(x))
2
h' (x) = 2

f

(x) . f

'(x) + 2g(x) . g'

(x)
= 2

f

(x) . g (x) + 2g(x) (– f (x)) = 0
h (x) = c, x e R h (10) = h (5) = 9
(D) y = tan
–1
(cot x) + cot
–1
(tan x), < x < t
= + . sec
2
x
= – 1 – 1 = – 2
Comprehension # 2 (6, 7, 8)
= – = – = at (1, 1)
¬ = = ¬ =
For question 8
Slope of normal at (1, 1) = – =
Equation of normal
y – 1 = (x – 1) ¬ 5y – 5 = 8x – 8 ¬ 8x – 5y – 3 = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 88
11_. y = x
2
= 2x
= 2
again 2x = 1
2 + 2x = 0 ¬ x = – ¬ = – ¬ = 1
Statement-2 :
" = ¬ = – = –
15. " x = 1/2 0 < x < 1
then tan
–1
x = , 0 < <
u = sin
–1
= sin
– 1
(sin y) = y
= 1 Statement is true.
19. =
=
¬ = =
¬ = 4y ¬ a = ±
21. F(x) = f(x).g(x).h(x)
F'(x
0
) = 21F(x
0
), f'(x
0
) = 4f(x
0
), g(x
0
) = –7g(x
0
)
h'(x
0
) = kh(x
0
)
F'(x) = f'(x).g(x).h(x) + f(x).g'(x).h(x) + f(x).h'(x).g(x)
at x = x
0
21F(x
0
) = 4f(x
0
)g(x
0
)h(x
0
) – 7f(x
0
).g(x
0
).h(x
0
) + kf(x
0
)g(x
0
).h(x
0
)
21(f(x
0
).g(x
0
).h(x
0
)) = (4 – 7 + k) f(x
0
).g(x
0
).h(x
0
)
¬ k = 24
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1. We have x
2
+ y
2
= 1
Differentiating w.r.t. x.
2x + 2yy' = 0
Again diff. w.r.t. x.
1 + y'y' + yy'' = 0
yy'' + (y')
2
+ 1 = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 89
2. p(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ ........ + a
n
x
n
¬ p'(x) = a
1
+ 2a
2
x + ......... + na
n
x
n – 1
¬ p'(1) = a
1
+ 2a
2
+ ........ + na
n
.......(i)
Now | p(x) | s |e
x – 1
– 1| ¬ x > 0 (given)
¬ |p(1)| s |e
0
– 1| = |1 – 1| = 0
But |

p(1)

| > 0 ¬ p(1) = 0
Now for – 1 < h < · , h = 0, 1 + h > 0
and |p(x)| s |e
x – 1
– 1| ¬ x > 0
¬ |p(1 + h)| s |e
h
– 1| ¬ h > –1, h = 0
¬ |p(1 + h) – p(1)| s |e
h
– 1| " p(1) = 0
¬ s
Taking limit as h ÷ 0, we get
s ¬ |

p'(1)| s 1
¬ |a
1
+ 2a
2
+ 3a
3
+ ........ na
n
| s 1 {from (i)}
Hence proved
3. f : R ÷ R, f(1) = 3, f'(1) = 6
y =
¬ !ny = !n ¬ !ny = × By L.H. Rule
¬ !ny = = = 2 ¬ y = e
2
4. At x = 0, !ny = 0 ¬ y = 1
Also on differentiating w.r.t x on both sides, we get (1 + y') = 2y + 2xy'
Putting x = 0, we get, = 2y..
¬ y' = 2y
2
– 1 = 1.
5. Let P(x) = bx
2
+ ax + c b = 0
P(0) = 0 c = 0
P(1) = 1 a + b = 1
P(x) = (1 – a) x
2
+ ax
P'(x) = 2(1 – a)x + a
Now P'(x) > 0 for x e [0, 1]
P'(0) > 0 & P'(1) > 0
a > 0 & 2(1 – a) + a > 0
0 < a < 2
S = {(1 – a) x
2
+ ax; 0 < a < 2}
6. x sin y + y cos x = t
x = 0, y = t
x cos y + sin y + y (– sin x) + cosx = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 90
= y'(0) = 0
=
= t
7. " g(x) = f'(x) ..... (i)
¬ g'(x) = f''(x) = – f(x) ..... (ii)
F(x) = +
¬ F'(x) = 2f(x/2) . f'(x/2) . + 2 g(x/2) . g'(x/2) . ¬ F'(x) = + g g'
¬ F'(x) = f . f' – f' f {Using (i) & (ii)}
¬ F'(x) = 0 ¬ F(x) = constant ¬ F(5) = F(10) = 5
8. =
= – . = –
9. g(x + 1) = log [f(x + 1)] = log [xf(x)] = log x + log [f(x)] = log x + g(x)
¬ g(x + 1) – g(x) = log x
¬ g''(x + 1) – g''(x) = – ¬ g'' – g'' = – 4
¬ g'' – g'' = – ¬ g'' – g'' = –
Adding all, g'' – g'' = – 4
PART - I
1. = n . =
=
=
¬ (1 + x
2
) = n
2
y – x ¬ (1 + x
2
) + x = n
2
y
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 91
2. x =
= ¬ =
3. x
y
= e
x–y
x – y = y !n x
1 – = !n x . +
¬ (1 + !n y) = ¬ = ¬ =
4. Let f(a) = a
1
x
2
+ a
2
x + a
3
" f(1) = f(–1)
¬ a
1
+ a
2
+ a
3
= a
1
– a
2
+ a
3
¬ a
2
= 0
¬ f(x) = a
1
x
2
+ a
3
f'(x) = 2a
1
x
f'(a) = 2a
1
a
f'(b) = 2a
1
b
f'(c) = 2a
1
c
" a, b, c are in AP ¬ f'(a), f'(b), f'(c) are also in AP
5. f'(x) = nx
n–1
f''(x) = n(n – 1) x
n–2
f'''(x) = n(n – 1) (n – 2) x
n–3
f
n
(x) = n(n – 1) ..... 3 . 2 . 1
Now f(1) – + – + ....... + = 1 –
n
C
1
+
n
C
2

n
C
3
+ ..... + (–1)
n

n
C
n
= 0
6. x = e
y+x
x + y = !n x
1 + =
=
7. x
m
y
n
= (x + y)
m+n
taking log both sides
m !n x + n !n y = (m + n) . !n (x + y)
+ =
¬ = – ¬ =
8. x
2x–1
. 2x + 2x
2x
!n x – 2 (x
x
!n x + x . x
x–1
) cot y + 2x
x
cosec
2
y . y' = 0
" at x = 1, y = t/2
¬ 2 + 0 – 0 + 2y' = 0 y' = – 1
9. g'(x) = 2f(2f(x) + 2) . f' (2f(x) + 2) . 2f'(x)
g'(0) = 2f (2f(0) + 2) f' (2f(0) + 2) . 2f'(0) = 2f(0) f'(0) 2f'(0) = (2) (–1) (1) (2) (1) = – 4
Hence correct option is (1)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 92
10.
= = – =
PART - I
1. y = ... (i)
taking log
e
both sides, we get
!ny = (!n x)
!n (!n x)
. !nx
Again taking log
e
, we get
!n (!n y) = !n (!n x) . !n (!n x) + !n (!n x)
= {!n (!n x)} [!n (!n x) + 1]
Diff. w.r.t. x,
= [!n (!n x) + 1] + {!n (!n x)}
¬ = y !ny
¬ = y !ny
2. At x = – ,
cos(4x) = cos = – cos
¬ |cos 4x| = – cos 4x
and sin x = sin = – sin ¬ |sin x| = – sin x.
y = log
u
| cos 4x| + |sin x| ¬ y = ... (1)
¬ (y + sinx) !n sec (2x) = !n (– cos 4x)
Diff. w.r.t. x,
(y
1
+ cosx) !n sec(2x) + (y + sin x) =
¬ (y
1
+ cosx) !n sec(2x) + (y + sin x) 2 tan (2x) = – 4 tan 4x ... (2)
Put x = – in (1), y =
Put this in (2) and x = – , we get !n 2 +
¬ y
1
= =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 93
3. Here =
¬ .....(i)
but y = .....(ii)
From (i) and (ii) ¬ = 0
4. x = cosecu – sinu
¬ x
2
+ 4 = (cosecu + sinu)
2
and y
2
+ 4 = (cosec
n
u + sin
n
u)
2
Now = = =
Squaring both sides, we get =
or (x
2
+ 4) = n
2
(y
2
+ 4)
5. (y
1/5
+ y
–1/5
)
2
= (y
1/5
– y
–1/5
)
2
+ 4
Then y
1/5
– y
–1/5
= ... (1)
Given y
1/5
+ y
–1/5
= 2x ... (2)
From (1) & (2)
y =
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
or (x
2
– 1) = 25y
2
Again differentiating w.r.t. x, 2x

+ 2(x
2
– 1) · = 50 y
Dividing by 2 on both sides
x + (x
2
– 1) = 25y
6. " 1 < < 2
If x = ¬ [x] = 1
so, f(x) = sin x
3
¬ f'(x) = 3x
2
cos x
3
f'
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 94
7. y = (tan
–1
(x + 1) – tan
–1
x) + (tan
–1
(x + 2) – tan
–1
(x + 1)) + .........+ (tan
–1
(x + n) – tan
–1
(x + (n – 1)))
¬ y = tan
–1
(x + n) – tan
–1
(x)
Hence, = –
8. Given that g
–1
(x) = f(x)
¬ x = g(f(x)) or g'(f(x)) f'(x) = 1
¬ g'(f(x)) = ¬ g''(f(x)) · f'(x) = ¬ g''(f(x)) = –
9. y = sin(m sin
–1
x) ¬ = cos(m sin
–1
x) .
Squaring and cross multiplying,
(1 – x
2
) y
1
2
= m
2
(1 – y
2
), Again differentiating w.r.t.x
(1 – x
2
) 2y
1
y
2
+ (– 2x) y
1
2
= m
2
(– 2yy
1
)
Dividing by 2y
1
,
(1 – x
2
) y
2
– xy
1
= – m
2
y
10. Take u = tan
–1
x, so u e (–t/2, t/2)
then y = cos
–1
so |secu| = secu
or y = ¬ y = tan
–1
x ¬ =
11. x
y
. y
x
= 1 ¬ y !nx + x !ny = 0
Diff. w.r.t. x, we get
. !nx + + !ny +
¬ = –
12. y = x(!nx – !n (a + bx)) ... (1)
¬ = !nx – !n (a + bx) + ... (2)
¬
¬ x
3
... (3)
By (1) and (2),
x – y =
¬ x
3
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 95
PART - II
1. x = a(t – sint), y = a(1 – cost)
= a(1 – cost) ... (1)
= a sint
¬ = = =
¬ = cot t/2
¬ =
= – from (1) ;
= –
2. " y = + k !n
Differentiating both sides w. r. t. x, we get
= 2 · +
= !n
¬ = 2 !n – 2 !n a + k
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
+ · =
or + =
or (x
2
– a
2
) + x = 2
hence value of
(x
2
– a
2
) is 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 96
3. Let f(x) = x
x
From definition
f'(x) = = =
= =
=
= = x
x
(1 + !n x)
4. (a + bx) e
y/x
= x
or e
y/x
= ... (1)
Taking log
e
both sides, we have = !nx – !n (a + bx)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we have = =
or (xy' – y) = = ae
y/x
from (1)
Again taking log
e
on both sides, we have
!n(xy' – y) = !n a +
Again differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we have
(xy'' +y' – y') = 0 +
¬ x
3
y'' = (xy' – y)
2
5. " = a tan
–1
(a !n y)
¬ a !n y = tan .... (1)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we get
= sec
2

¬ = sec
2

= 1 + tan
2

¬ = 1 + a
2
(!n y)
2
(from (1))
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 97
Again differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we get = 2a
2
(!ny) . y'
y y''

– (y')
2
= yy' (!ny)
¬ y y'' – yy' (!ny) = (y')
2
6. Let y
1
= tan
–1

and y
2
= tan
–1

Let a = 2 !n x,
then y
1
= tan
–1
= tan
–1
= tan
–1
= – o, where a = tan o
Similarly y
2
= tan
–1
= | + o, where tan | = 3
¬ y = + (| + o) = + tan
–1
3 = constant
¬ = 0 ¬ = 0
7. y = tan
–1
¬ =
¬ =
=
8. x
y
= e
x – y
¬ y !nx = x – y ... (1)
Diff. w.r.t. x, we get
!nx = 1 – y' ¬ y + y' . x!nx = x – xy' ¬ y' =
From (1),
y =
¬ x – y = ¬ y' =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 98
9. y
3
– y = 2x ... (1)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we get (3y
2
– 1) = 2
or ... (2)
Again differentiating w.r.t.x,
= ......... from (2)
= ... (3)
Now L.H.S. =
= +
=
=
Let 3y
2
– 1 = o
= = = = R.H.S.
10. " y = 1 + + + ..... (n + 1) terms
= + ....... (n + 1) terms.
= + ...... (n + 1) terms,
finally we get
y =
Taking log
e
of both sides, we have
!ny = n !nx – !n (x – a
1
) – !n (x – a
2
) – !n (x – a
3
) – .......– !n (x – a
n
)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
=
¬
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 99
=
=

=
11. Let z = cos x + i sinx ¬ z
–1
= cos x – i sin x
2 i sin x =
(2 i sinx)
9
=
¬ 2
9
i sin
9
x = ¬ y = .... (1)
Binomial coefficients of (with sign) are
1, – 9, 36, – 84, 126, – 126, 84, – 36, 9, – 1
= z
9
– 9z
7
+ 36z
5
– 84z
3
+ 126z – + – +
= – 9 + 36 – 84 + 126
= 2 i sin 9x – 9.2 i sin 7x + 36.2 i sin 5x – 84.2 i sin 3x + 126. 2 i sinx ..... (2)
From (1) & (2), we get
y = (sin 9x – 9 sin 7x + 36 sin 5x – 84 sin 3x + 126 sinx)
y
n
= – 9.7
n
sin + 36.5
n
sin – 84.3
n
sin
+ 126 sin , where n e w..
12. Given y =
or (x
2
+ c)y = ax + b
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
(x
2
+ c)y' + y . 2x = a
Again differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
(x
2
+ c) y'' + y' . 2x + 2 (xy' + y.1) = 0
or (x
2
+ c) y'' = – 4xy' – 2y or – x
2
– c =
Now differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 100
– 2x =
or – x(y'')
2
= 2x(y'')
2
+ 3y' y'' – (2xy' + y) y'''
or (2xy' + y) y''' = 3 (xy'' + y') y''.
13. We have
sec
–1
(2x) + 2
x
tan (!n (x + 2)) = 0 .... (1)
¬ sec
–1
(2x) + 2
x
tan (!n (x + 2)) = 0
¬ e
sin(tx/2)!n sin y
+

sec
–1
(2x) + 2
x
tan (!n (x + 2)) = 0
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
. . 2
+ 2
x
. sec
2
(!n (x + 2)) . + tan (!n (x + 2)) . 2
x
!n 2 = 0 ... (2)
Putting x = – 1 in (1), we get
(sin y)
–1
= – sin y = – .... (3)
and putting x = – 1 in (2), we get
e
–!n sin y
. 2 + = 0
¬
¬
Hence {from (3)}
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 101
APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-3. Let AC be pole, DE be man and B be farther end of shadow as shown in figure
From triangles ABC and DBE
3y = 1.5 x
= 2, (x + y) =
= 4 + 2 = 6
A-4_. Let r be the radius of the sphere and Ar be the error in measuring the radius. Then r = 8 cm, and
Ar = 0.03 cm, Now the voume V of the sphere is given by
Let r be the radius of the sphere and Ar be the error in measuring the radius. Then r = 8 cm, and
Ar = 0.03 cm, Now the voume V of the sphere is given by
V = tr
3
= 4tr
2
AV = Ar = (4tr
2
) Ar = 4t(8)
2
× 0.03 = 7.68 tcm
3
Section (B) :
B-3. Here x
2/3
+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
Differentiating w.r.t. to x.
Equation (y – k) = – (x – h)
P(0, k
1/3
(h
2/3
+ k
2/3
)) or P(0, a
2/3
k
1/3
)
And, Q (h
1/3
a
2/3
, 0)
PQ = = |a| = constant.
B-7. f(x
1
) = g(x
1
) = 0
m
1
m
2
= – 1 and |m
1
| = |m
2
|
¬ m
1
= 1 ; m
2
= – 1 or m
1
= – 1 ; m
2
= 1
[(0 + h) (0 – h)] = [0 – h
2
] = – 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 102
B-9. Minimum distance = 10
Section (C) :
C-3. (i) f'(x) = 3x
2
– 3
= 3(x – 1) (x + 1)
at x = 1point of minima Neither increasing nor decreasing
at x = 2increasing
(ii) at x = – 2 decreasing
at x = 0 decreasing
at x = 3 neither increasing nor decreasing
at x = 5 increasing
C-6. g(x) is monotonically increasing
¬ g'(x) > 0 & f(x) is M.D. ¬ f'(x) s 0
(fog) (x) = =
as f'(x) s 0 & g'(x) > 0
¬ (fog) (x) is monotonically decreasing
Also x + 1 > x – 1
¬ f(x + 1) < f(x – 1) as f(x) is M.D.
¬ g(f(x + 1) < g(f(x – 1)) as g(x) is M.I.
C-7. Let f(x) = , x e
f'(x) = .
Let g(x) = x sec
2
x – tan x
g'(x) = 2x sec
2
x tanx > 0
x > 0
¬ g(x) > g(0), g(x) > 0 ¬ f'(x) > 0 ¬ f(x) is M.I.
x
1
< x
2
f(x
1
) < f(x
2
)
< ¬ <
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 103
Section (D) :
D-2. (i) f'(x) = 3x
3
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = 0
x = – 2, f(–2) = – 8
x = 0, f(0) = 0
x = 2, f(2) = 8
Minimum = – 8, maximum = 8
(ii) f'(x) = cos x – sin x
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x =
x = 0, f(0) = 1
x = , f =
x = t, f(t) = – 1
Minimum = –1, Maximum =
(iii) f'(x) = 4 – x
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = 4
x = – 2,f(–2) = – 10
x = 4, f(4) = 8
x = , f =
Minimum = –10, Maximum = 8
(iv) f'(x) = cos x – sin 2x
f'(x) = 0 ¬ cos x = 0, sin x =
¬ x = , x =
x = 0, f(0) = ¬ x = , f = ¬ x = , f =
Minimum = , Maximum =
D-6_. Let No. of children of john & anglina = y
x + (x + 1) + y = 24 ¬ y = 23 – 2x
Number of fights
F = x(x + 1) + x(23 – 2x) + (x + 1) (23 – 2x)
F = – 3x2 + 45x + 23 ¬ = 0 ¬ – 6x + 45 = 0 ¬ x = 7.5
But 'x' wil be integral. check x = 6 or x = 7, F = 191
D-8. R
2
+ r
2
= h
2
R
2
= h
2
– r
2
volume of cylinder ,
V = tR
2
(2h) = t (2h) ( )
2
= 2t (r
2
– h
2
) + 2th(–2h) = 0
¬ r
2
= 3h
2
¬ h =
< 0 at h = ¬ V
max
= 2t =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 104
D-10. 2! + 2tr = 440
A = ! 2r = – 2tr
2
+ 440r
= – 4tr + 440 = 0
at r =
D-12. Let x, y be dimensions of rectangle.
¬ 2x + 2y = 36.
Let V be volume sweeped
V = tx
2
y
V = tx
2
(18 – x)
= tx.3.(12 – x)
At x = 12, V has maximum value ¬ y = 6
Section (E) :
E-2. Let (h, k) be point of inflection h sin h = k ...(1)
y' = sin x + x cos x
y'' = cos x + cos x – x sin x
y'' = 0 ¬ 2 cos h – h sin h = 0 ¬ 2 cos h = k ...(2)
sin
2
h + cos
2
h = 1
+ = 1 ¬ 4k
2
+ h
2
k
2
= 4h
2
locus y
2
(4 + x
2
) = 4x
2
Section (F) :
F-2. Let f'(x) = 3x
2
+ px –1
¬ f(x) = x
3
+ – x + c ¬ f(–1) = + c = f(1)
¬ f(x) satisfies conditions in Rolle's theorem ¬ f'(c) = 0 for atleast one c e (–1,1)
¬ 3x
2
+ px –1 = 0 has atleast one root in (–1,1).
F-4. Let h(x) = f(x) g'(x)
h(a) = 0 = h(b)
By Rolle’s theorem on [a, b] h'(x) = 0, for at least one c e (a, b).
¬ f '(c) g'(c) + f(c) gª(c) = 0
PART - II
Section (A) :
A-1. V =
V = =
77 × 10
3
= × 70 × 70 × (" 1 litre = 10
3
c.c.)
= 20 cm/min.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 105
A-3_. =
Let x = 25 and Ax = 0.2 such that f(x) =
f '(x) = f(x + Ax) = f(x) + f'(x). Ax
= + . Ax
= + × 0.2 = = 5 + = 5 + 0.02 = 5.02
A-4_. V = x
3
AV = Ax = (3x
2
) Ax = (3x
2
) (0.04x) = 0.12x
3
m
3
Section (B) :
B-5*. 2y
3
= ax
2
+ x
3
6y
2
= 2ax + 3x
2
= =
Tangent at (a, a) is 5x – 6y = – a
o = , | =
o
2
+ |
2
= 61 ¬ = 61
a
2
= 25.36
a = ± 30
B-8. P
1
: y
2
= 8x
C
1
: x
2
+ (y + 6)
2
= 1
Equation of normal of parabola
y = mx – 2am – am
3
if passes through (0,–6)
–6 = – 2am – am
3
" a = 2
¬ 3 = 2m + m
3
m
3
+ 2m – 3 = 0 m = 1.
Point on parabola (am
2
, – 2am) ÷ (2, –4).
Section (C) :
C-2. f'(x) = 5x
4
– 3
It is sufficient to solve for p, the condition f'(x) s 0 ¬ x e R
5x
4
– 3 s 0 ¬ x e R
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 106
Case - # 1 – p < 0 p > 1
Inequality holds true.
Case - ## 1 – p > 0 p < 1
Inequality holds if – 1 s 0
¬ p > – 4, p + 4 s (1 – p)
2
¬ p > – 4, p
2
– 3p – 3 > 0
¬ – 4 s p s
Hence p e (1, ·)
C-5*. g(x) = and
g'(x) = f'(x/2) – f'(1 – x)
Now g(x) is increasing if g'(x) > 0
f' > f'(1 – x)
[" f''(x) < 0 i.e. f'(x) is decreasing]
¬ s 1 – x ¬ x s 2 – 2x
¬ 3x s 2 ¬ x s 2/3 ¬ 0 s x s
¬ g(x) increases in 0 s x s 2/3
and g'(x) s 0 for decreasing
¬ s f'(1 – x) ¬ > 1 – x
¬ x > 2/3
¬ 2/3 s x s 1
Section (D) :
D-3. f(x) = 2 – |x + 1|
From figure it is clear that greatest, least values are respectively 2, 0
D-6*. f'(x) =
The only factor in f'(x) which changes sign is cosx – x.
Let us consider graph of y = cos x and y = x
It is clear from figure that for x e (0, x
0
), cos x – x > 0 and for x e
cos x – x < 0, ¬ f' (x) has maxima at x
0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 107
D-8*. f'(x) = , x > 0
= x > 0.
f(x) is decreasing x > 0.
On , greatest value is f = !n and least value is
f( ) = – !n .
D-10.
S = 2trh
= 2tH
= 2tH
Maximum at r =
D-13. Let d be distance between (k, 0)
and any point (x, y) on curve.
d =
d = (" y
2
= 2x – 2x
2
).
Maximum d = Maximum d =
Section (E) :
E-3. x = 1 ¬ 3 = a + b
= 0 ¬ 3a + b = 0
a = – , b =
E-4. f(x) = !n(x – 2) –
f'(x) = = = = .
As !n(x – 2) is defined when x > 2
¬ f(x) is M.I. for x e (2, ·) ¬ f
–1
(x) is M.I. wherever defined
Also f''(x) = < 0 ¬ f(x) is always concave downward
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 108
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
1. y = 50 – 16t
2
So,
tanu = ¬ y = . x
=
=
¬ = – 16
= – 1500 ft/sec.
2. at t = 0 ; x = 0, y = 1
= 2cm/sec
A =
(At, t = 7/2 sec, change in y -co-ordinate = 7 hence, pt. C has
y-co-ordinate = 8 and x- co-ordinate = 6 at t = 7/2 sec.)
= (4 + 7) × ×2 = cm
2
/sec
7. f'(x) =
=
= > 0 x e [0, ·)
¬ f(x) is increasing ¬ f(x) is injective.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 109
12. Let |(x) = x +
|'(x) = 1 +
If x < 0 , –|x| = x
|'(x) =
= > 0
If x > 0, |'(x) > 0
Hence |(x) is increasing
As we know e
x
> x + 1 ¬ |(e
x
) > |(x + 1)
e
x
+ > x + 1 +
13. Let x > –1
Consider f(x) = (1 + x)!n(1 + x) – tan
–1
x
f'(x) = !n(1 + x) + 1 –
f''(x) = > 0
¬ f'(x) is increasing For x < 0, f'(x) < f'(0)
¬ f'(x) < 0 ¬ f(x) decreasing ¬ f(x) > f(0) ¬ f(x) > 0
¬ (1 + x)!n(1 + x) – tan
–1
x > 0 !n(1 + x) >
For x > 0, f'(x) > f'(0)
¬ f'(x) > 0 ¬ f(x) is increasing ¬ f(x) > f(0) ¬ f(x) > 0
¬ !n(1 + x) >
Hence larger of these is !n(1 + x).
15. f(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ a
3
x
3
+ a
4
x
4
+ a
5
x
5
+ a
6
x
6
a
0
= a
1
= a
2
= a
3
= 0
= e
2
a
4
= 2
f(x) = 2x
4
+ a
5
x
5
+ a
6
x
6
f'(x) = x
3
( 8 + 5a
5
x + 6a
6
x
2
)
f'(1) = 0, f'(2) = 0
, ¬ f(x) = 2x
4

17. xy = 18
Area of printed space =
=
Maximum when
x = y =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 110
21. f(x) = 0 ¬ sin = 0 ¬ = nt
¬ x = , n e N
x = ......., , , ....... , , 1.
Consider interval ¬ = 0 =
By Rolle’s theorem f'(x) vanishes at least once in
Infinite number of such intervals are there. Hence f'(x) vanishes at infinite number of points in (0, 1)
24. Let g(x) = , x e [a, b]
By Rolle’s theorem, g’(x
0
) = 0
¬ = 0 ¬ f'(x
0
) =
25. Let f'(x) = |'(x + a) – |'(x)
¬ f(x) = |(x + a) – |(x) + k
f(0) = |(a) – |(0) + k
f(2a) = |(3a) – |(2a) + k ¬ f(0) = f(2a)
By Rolle's theorem on [0, 2a], f'(c) = 0 for at least one c e (0, 2a)
¬ |'(x + a) = |'(x) has at least one root in (0, 2a)
PART - II
3. f'(x) = > 0
f(x) increasing
hence g(x) is also increasing function
7. Let ì be quantity
y = y
2
= y ì
ì = =
ì = a = ì = a
9. f(x) = ; g(x) =
for a > 1, a = 1 and x e R
!n a h(x) = !n f(x) + !ng(x)
¬ (!n a) h(x) = !na + !n a
¬ h(x) = +
¬ h(x) = a
|x|
sgn x
Now h(–x) = a
|–x|
sgn (–x) = –h(x)
¬ h(x) is an odd function
Also graph of h(x) is
It is clear from the graph that h(x) is an increasing
function
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 111
12. f(x) =
f'(x) =
For 0 < x < 1, tan ¬ f' (x) > 0 ¬ f(x) is increasing.
13. f(1

) s f(1) and f(1
+
) s f(1)
– 2 + log
2
(b
2
– 2) s 5 ¬ 0 < b
2
– 2 s 128 ¬ 2 < b
2
s 130
16. !
2
= h
2
+ x
2
Area of base (triangle) is
3x = a
Volume V = h a
2
= h . 4 . 3.x
2
= 3 h (!
2
– h
2
)
= 3 (!
2
– 3h
2
) ¬ V is maximum when h = .
18. Maximum of f(x) is
Given expression is f(x
1
) + f(x
2
) ¬ f(x
1
) s ¬ f(x
2
) s ¬ f(x
1
) + f(x
2
) s
20. f' (x) =
> 1
+ 1 – > 2 – > 0
At x = 0, f(x) is least.
Least value = f(0) = 1
23. f'(x) =
m – n is odd.
f' (x) < 0 x e (–·, 0) ¬ f' (x) > 0 x e (0, ·)
25. |' (x) = (3(f(x))
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x) + 5 + 3 cos x – 4 sin x
5 – s 5 + 3 cosx – 4 sin x s 5 +
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x)
(3(f(x))
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x) s |' (x) s (3(f(x))
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x) + 10
" 3(f(x))
2
– 6f(x) + 4 = 3 (f(x) – 1)
2
+ 1 > 0
(3(f(x))
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x) > 0 when ever f(x) is increasing.
¬ |' (x) > 0 ¬ | (x) is increasing, when ever f(x) is increasing.
If f' (x) = – 11 then
(3(f(x))
2
– 6f(x) + 4) f'(x) + 10 = – 33 (f(x) – 1)
2
– 1 < 0
¬ |' (x) < 0 ¬ | (x) is decreasing.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 112
28. f'(x) =
f'(x) = 0
at x = 0, x = – 3, x = 1
so at x = 0, f(x) has local minima.
and at x = –3, x = 1 ; f(x) has local maxima
f(1) = , f(– 3) = . f(–3) < 0, f(1) > 0 and f(x) = 0
¬ f(x) is undefined at point(s) in (–3, 1). Hence f(x) has no absolute maxima.
EXERCISE # 3
PART - I
2. (A) f(x) is continuous and differentiable f(0) = f(t)
Hence condition in Rolle’s theorem and LMVT are satisfied.
(B) f(1

) = –1, f(1) = 0, f(1
+
) = 1
f(x) is not continuous at x = 1, belonging to
Hence, atleast one condition in LMVT and Rolle’s theorem is not satisfied
(C) f’(x) = (x – 1)
–3/5
, x = 1
At x = 1, f(x) is not differentiable.
Hence at least one condition in LMVT and Rolle’s theorem is not satisfied.
(D) At x = 0
L.H.D. = = = –1
R.H.D. = 1
At x = 0, f(x) is not differentiable
Hence at least one condition in LMVT and Rolle’s theorem is not satisfied.
3. (A) Let PQ = x
Then BP =
PS = tan60º =
area A of rectangle = (4 – x) x
= (4 – 2x) = 0 ¬ x = 2
= – < 0
A is maximum, when x = 2.
Maximum area = 2.2 = .
Square of maximum area = 12
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 113
(B) Dimensions be x, 2x, h
72 = x . 2x . h
36 = x
2
h ....(1)
S = 4x
2
+ 6xh
S = 4x
2
+ 6
= 8x – =
For least S, x = 3 and least S is 108.
(C) Let y =
x
2
+ y
2
– 4x + 3 = 0
(x – 2)
2
+ y
2
= 1, center C = (2, 0)
Consider point P(5, – 4)
CP = = 5
Maximum value of is (5 + 1)
2
= 36.
(D)
x
2
+ y
2
= 5
= cosu, b = sinu
Let f(u) be perimeter
f(u) = 2a + 2b
= 2 (2cosu + sinu)
f' (u)= 2 (– 2sinu + cosu)
fª(u)= 2 (–2cosu – sinu)
f'(u) = 0 ¬ tanu = and fª (u) < 0
¬ f(u) is greatest
a = 4, b = 1
a
3
+ b
3
= 65
Comprehension # 2 (7 to 9)
Let g(x) = , x e [0,t ]. g(x) is increasing function of x.
range of g(x) is
f(x) = , x e [0, t]
Now let t s t s 2t, then
f(t) + f(2t – t) = t
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 114
i.e f(t) + = t
i.e f(t) + t – – = t
i.e f(t) =
f(x) = for t s x s 2t
Thus f(x) = for 0 s x s 2t
Also f(x) = f(4t – x) for all x e [2t, 4t]
¬ f(x) is symmetric about x = 2t
from graph of f(x)
o = 2t – 0 = 2t
| = o
Maximum value is f(2t) = t =
Comprehension # 3_ (10 to 12)
7. Sin x is concave downward in (0, t)
8. e
x
is concave upward
9. f(x) concave downward (f'' (x) < 0)
f(x) increasing ( f'(x) s 0)
Let g(x)= f
–1
(x) = x
f'(g(x)) = x
f'(g(x)). g'x = 1
g'(x) = > 0
g''(x) = – × f''(x).g'(x)
g''(x) > 0
g(x) = f
–1
(x) concave upward
15. f'(x) = (1 – !nx)
f'(x) s 0, when x > e
f(x) is decreasing function, when x > e
t > e ¬ f(t) < f(e)
t
1/t
< e
1/e
¬ e
t
> t
e
Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
17. f ’ (x) = 50x
49
– 20x
19
= 10x
19
(5x
30
– 2)
x = 0 is stationary point. Statement-2 is ture.
f(0) = 0
= – < 0
f(1) = 0
Global maximum is 0. Statement-1 is true.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 115
19. y = is even funciton.
Even function is nonmonotonic.
27. From figure z
2
= x
2
+ y
2
z = x
If z = 500 then x = 400
¬ 500 = 400(5)
¬ = 4
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1. In case of function given in (A), f is continuous on [0, 1] but not differentiable at x = 1/2 e (0, 1).
Note that Lf' (1/2) = – 1 and Rf' (1/2) = 0
Thus, the Lagrange's mean value theorem is not applicable. The function in (B) is continuous on [0, 1] and
differentiable on ]0, 1[ and hence the Lagrange's mean value theorem is applicable.
The function in (C) is f(x) = x|x| = x . x = x
2
and in (D) is f(x) = |x| = x on [0, 1]. As both are polynomial function,
the Lagrange's mean value theorem is applicable.
2. Given that
2(1 – cosx) < x
2
, x = 0
To prove sin(tanx) > x, ¬ x e
Let f(x) = sin(tanx) – x
f'(x) = cos(tanx) sec
2
x – 1
f'(x) = ...........(i) 2(1 – cosx) < x
2
, x = 0
cosx > 1 – Similarly cos(tanx) > 1 – ..........(ii)
By equation (i) & (ii)
f'(x) >
f'(x) >
f'(x) >
f'(x) > 0 ¬ x e f(x) is an increasing function.
For x e
x > 0
f(x) > f(0)
sin(tanx) – x > 0
sin(tanx) > x Hence proved
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 116
3. f is differentiable function on [0, 4]
f is continuous on [0, 4] also.
By using LMVT, there exists a e (0, 4) such that
f'(a) = ........ (i)
Now [(f(4))
2
– (f(0))
2
] =
[(f(4))
2
– (f(0))
2
] = 4 f'(a) [f(4) + f(0)] ....... (ii)
f is a continuous function on [0, 4], so
By intermediate mean value theorem, there exists b e (0, 4) such that
f(b) = ..... (iii)
now by equation (ii) & (iii)
[(f(4))
2
– (f(0))
2
] = 8f'(a) f(b)
hence proved
4. In AOSP
tan u = = ¬ sin u =
and cos u =
Area of A PSM = SM × PN
¬ A = . 2SN × PN = SN × PN ¬ A = SP sin u × SP cos u ¬ A = × sin u cos u
¬ A = (100 – r
2
)
¬ A = ¬ = . (100 – r
2
)
1/2
(–2r) r + = 0
(100 – r
2
)
1/2
(– 3r
2
+ 100 – r
2
) = 0, r =10 as P is outside the circle
4r
2
= 100 ¬ r
2
= 25 ¬ r = 5. Also = 0, = 0
Thus for r = 5, area would be maximum.
5. . Put x = 0 and we get form. Also because ‘f’ is strictly increasing and differentiable.
Apply L-Hospital rule, weget
= – 1. Since ‘f’ is strictly increasing f'(x) = 0 in an internal
6. f(x) =
For Rolles theorem to be applicable in [0, 1], f(x) should be continuous in [0, 1], differentiable in (0, 1) and
f(0) = f(1).
Last two conditions hold and x
o
!n x = 0
Put x = e
–t
, then as x ÷ 0, t ÷ ·
= 0 which is true for all o > 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 117
7. = – 23 x
101
– 45 + 1035x + c.
Now consider a function
f(x) = (x
100
– 45) – 23x (x
100
– 45) = (x – 46) (x
100
– 45)
It satisfies all conditions of Rolle’s theorem in . Hence there exist at least one c e for
which f'(c) = 0
¬ P(c) = 0 which proves that there exist a root of P(x) = 0 in
8. f'(x) = 3x
2
+ 2bx + c whose discriminant is 4(b
2
– 3c) which is negative as 0 < b
2
< c.
Thus f'(x) is always positive and f(x) is strictly increasing.
9. f(x) = sinx + 2x –
f'(x) = cosx + 2 –
f''(x) = – sinx – < 0 ¬ x e ¬ f'(x) is decreasing function ... (i)
Also f'(0) = > 0 ... (ii)
f'( ) = 2 – = 2 – 3 – = – 1 – < 0 ... (iii)
Equation (1), (2) & (3) shows that - a certain
value of x e for which
f'(x) = 0 & this point must be a point of maxima for
f(x) since sign of f'(x) changes from + ve to – ve
10. As |f(x
1
) – f(x
2
)| s (x
1
– x
2
)
2
x
1
, x
2
e R
|f(x
1
) – f(x
2
)| s (x
1
– x
2
)
2
{As x
2
= |x|
2
} = s |x
1
– x
2
|
Taking limit both sides as x
1
÷ x
2
s |x
1
– x
2
|
|f'(x
2
)| s 0, x
1
e R ¬ |f(x)| s 0 x e R
So |f'(x)| = 0
f'(x) = 0 or f(x) is constant function
Equation of tangent at (1, 2) is
y – 2 = f'(1)(x – 1)
or y = 2 is required equation of tangent.
11. Let g(x) = f(x) – x
2
g(x) has atleast 3 real roots which are x = 1,2,3
By langrange mean value theorem (LMVT)
g'(x) has atleast 2 real roots in x e (1, 3) g''(x) has atleast 1 real roots in x e (1, 3)
f''(x) – 2 = 0 for atleast 1 real roots in x e (1, 3) f''(x) = 2 for atleast one x e (1, 3)
12. Let P(x) = ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d
P'(x) = 3ax
2
+ 2bx + c
P''(x) = 6ax + 2b
given that P(–1) = –a + b – c + d = 10,
P(1) = a + b + c + d = –6
P'(–1) = 3a –2b + c = 0
P''(1) = 6a + 2b = 0
a = 1, b = –3, c = –9, d = 5
P(x) = x
3
– 3x
2
– 9x + 5 P'(x) = 3x
2
– 6x – 9 = 3(x + 1)(x –3)
x = – 1 is point of maxima & x = 3 is point of minima
Hence distances between (–1, 10) and (3, –22) is 4 units.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 118
13. g(x) = (f(x). f'(x))
to get the zero of g(x) we take function
h(x) = f(x). f'(x)
between any two roots of h(x) there lies at least one root of h'(x) = 0 i.e. g(x) = 0
Now h(x) = 0 f(x) = 0 or f'(x) = 0
As f(x) = 0 has 4 minimum solutions.
and f'(x) = 0 minimum 3 solutions.
h(x) = 0 minimum 7 solutions.
h'(x) = g(x) = 0 has minimum 6 solutions.
14*. Since f(x) has local maxima at x = –1 and f'(x) has local minima at x = 0.
f''(x) = ìx
f'(x) = {f'(–1) = 0}
+ c = 0 ì = –2c ...........(i)
again, Integrating both sides we get
f(x) = + cx + d .............(ii)
f(2) = + 2c + d = 18
and f(1) = + c + d = – 1 ..............(iii)
using (i),(ii) and (iii) we get ¬ f(x) = (19x
3
– 57x + 34) f'(x) = (57x
2
–57)
= (x –1)(x + 1), using number line rule f(x) is increasing for [1, 2 ]
and f(x) has local maximum at x = –1 and f(x) has local minimum at x = 1
also, f(0) =
15. Slope of the line joining the points (c – 1, e
c–1
)
and (c + 1, e
c+1
) is equal to
tangent to the curve y = e
x
will intersect line to the left of the line x = c.
Comprehension # 1 (16, 17, 18)
16.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 119
17.
Consider y = ke
x
and y = x
Let (o, ke
o
) be a point on y = ke
x
if it lies on y = x also then o = ke
o

= ke
x
= ke
o
= o = 1 {" y = x is tangent to y = ke
x
at one point}
1 = ke i.e. k = 1/e
18.
Consider y = ke
x
and y = x
from above question e
x
= if we decrease the value of k from , then
slope of y = increases
y = e
x
and y = intersect at two distinct points k e
19. f(x) = 2 + cos x
f'(x) = – sin x
f'(x) = 0
¬ x = nt , n e I
Now, we can easily see that, the interval [t, t + t] for all values of t, contain atleast one integral multiple of t
¬ Statement - 1 is true
f(t) = 2 + cos t
f(t + 2t) = 2 + cos (t + 2t) = 2 + cos t = f(t)
¬ Statement - 2 is true
but we can see that Statement - 2 is not a correct explanation of Statement - 1
20. g(u) = 2 tan
–1
(e
u
) –
g(u) = tan
–1
(e
u
) – cot
–1
(e
u
)
g(u) = tan
–1
(e
u
) – tan
–1
(e
–u
) odd function.
g'(u) = + > 0 Strictly increasing function
21. f(x) =
one point of local maxima at x = – 1
one point of local minima at x = 0
(C) is the correct option
22*. f(x) = x cos , x > 1
¬ f'(x) = sin + cos
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 120
¬ f''(x) = – cos
Now f'(x) = 0 + 1 = 1 ¬ option ‘B’ is correct
x e [1, ·) ¬ e (0, 1]
¬ f''(x) < 0 ¬ option ‘D’ is correct
As f'(1) = sin 1 + cos 1 > 1
f'(x) is strictly decreasing and f'(x) = 1
so graph of f'(x) is as below
Now in [x, x + 2], x e [1, ·), f(x) is continuous and differentiable
so by LMVT, f'(x) =
as f'(x) > 1 for all x e [1, ·)
¬ > 1 ¬ f(x + 2) – f(x) > 2
for all x e [1, ·)
23. p(x) = ax
4
+ bx
3
+ cx
2
+ dx + e
p' (x) = 4ax
3

+ 3bx
2
+ 2cx + d
p' (1) = 4a + 3b + 2c + d = 0 .....(i)
p' (2) = 32 a + 12 b + 4c + d = 0 .....(ii)
= 2
= 2
c + 1 = 2, d = 0, e = 0
c = 1
Now equation (i) and (ii) are
4a + 3b = – 2 and 32 a + 12 b = – 4
¬ a = and b = – 1
24. f'(x) = 2010 (x – 2009) (x – 2010)
2
(x – 2011)
3
(x – 2012)
4
f(x) = !n (g(x))
¬ g(x) = e
f(x)
¬ g'(x) = e
f(x)
. f'(x)
only point of maxima [Applying first derivative test]
25. Clearly f(x) = +
f'(x) = 2x ( – ) > 0 increasing ¬ f
max
= f(1) = e +
g(x) = x + ¬ g'(x) = + 2x
2
– 2x > 0 increasing
¬ g
max
= g(1) = e +
h(x) = x
2
+ ¬ h'(x) = 2x + 2x
3
– 2x = 2x > 0
¬ h
max
= h(1) = e + , so a = b = c
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 121
26. (A) Re = Re = Re = Re (–1/y) =
= –1 s y s 1 = > 1 or s – 1
Alternate
Re = Re
= Re = Re = Re
= Re
as –1 s sinu s 1
(–· , 0 ) (0, ·)
(B) –1 s s 1 ¬ –1 s s 1
¬ –1 s s 1 ¬ 0 s · – 1 s 0
¬ 0 s · s 0 ¬ 0 s · > 0
¬ t e (–· , –9] [–1 , 1] [9, ·) ¬ x e (–· , 0) [2 , ·)
(C) f(u) = 2 sec
2
u ¬ f(u) > 2 ¬ f(u) e [2,· )
(D) f(x) = x
3/2
(3x – 10)
¬ f ’(x) = x
3/2
3 + x
1/2
(3x –10)
as f ’(x) > 0
¬ > 0 ¬ 3x + – 15 > 0
¬ – 15 > 0 ¬ x > 2 ¬ x e [2,· )
27. f(x) = x
4
– 4x
3
+ 12x
2
+ x – 1
f'(x) = 4x
3
– 12x
2
+ 24x + 1
f''(x) = 12x
2
– 24x + 24
= 12 (x
2
– 2x + 2) > 0 x e R
f' (x) is S.I. function
Let o is a real root of the eqution f'(x) = 0
f(x) is MD for x e (– · , o) and M.I. for x e (o , ·)
where o < 0
f(0) = – 1 and o < 0
¬ f(o) is also negative
f(x) = 0 has two real & distinct roots.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 122
28. p' = ì(x – 1) (x – 3) = ì(x
2
– 4x + 3)
p(x) = ì(x
3
/3 –2x
2
+ 3x) + µ
p(1) = 6
6 = ì(1/3 – 2 + 3) + µ
6 = ì(1/3 + 1) + µ
18 = 4ì + 3µ ...(i)
p(3) = 2
2 = ì(27/3 – 2 × 9 + 9) + µ
2 = µ
µ = 2 ¬ ì = 3
p'(x) = 3(x – 1) (x – 3)
p'(0) = 3(–1)(–3)
= 9
29. f(x) = |x| + |x
2
– 1|
f(x) =
f(x) =
PART - II
1. Let f(x) = x +
f'(x) =
Minimum occures at x = 1.
2. f'(x) = 6x
2
– 18ax + 12a
2
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = a, 2a
f'' (x) = 12 x – 18a
f'' (a) = – 6a < 0 and f'' (2a) = 6a > 0
¬ p = a, q = 2a ¬ p
2
= q ¬ a
2
– 2a = 0 ¬ a = 0, 2
a = 2 (" a > 0)
3. Let f' (x) = ax
2
+ bx + c
¬ f(x) =
f(0) = d = f(1) (" 2a + 3b + 6c = 0)
By Rolle's theorem, at least one root of f'(x) = 0 lies in (0, 1)
4. y
2
= 18x ...... (1)
Differentiating w.r.t. t
¬ 2y.2 = 18 y =
From equation (1), x = Required point is
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 123
5. x = a (1 + cos u), y = a sin u ¬
Equation of normal at point (a(1+ cos u), a sin u) is
y – a sin u = (x – a (1 + cos u))
y cos u = (x – a)sinu
It is clear that normal passes through fixed point (a, 0)
6. y = x
2
– 5x + 6
= 2x – 5 = – 1, = 1
product of slopes = –1 ¬ angle between
tangents is
7. Let f
1
(x) = x
3
+ 6x
2
+ 6 ¬ f
1
'(x) = 3x (x + 4)
Increasing in (–·, – 4]
Let f
2
(x) = 3x
2
– 2x + 1 ¬ f
2
'(x) = 6x – 2
Not increasing in
Let f
3
(x) = 2x
3
– 3x
2
– 12x + 6 ¬ f
3
'(x) = 6x
2
– 6x – 12
= 6(x +1) (x – 1)
Increasing in [2, ·)
Let f
4
(x) = x
3
– 3x
2
+ 3x + 3 ¬ f'(x) = 3(x –1)
2
> 0
Increasing in (–·, ·)
8. V = , 0 s r s 15
" = – 50.
4t (10 + r)
2
= – 50 ¬ = (where r = 5)
9. Any point on ellipse
is P(x, y) = (a cos u, b sin u)
Area of rectangle = 4ab cos u sin u
= 2ab sin 2 u
Maximum area = 2ab.
10. By LMVT = f'(x), x e(1, 6)
and f'(x) > 2 ¬ > 2 ¬ > 2 ¬ f(6) > 8.
11*. ¬
Equation of normal is
y – a(sin u – u cos u) = (x – a (cos u + u sin u))
¬ x cos u + y sin u = a.
Distance from origin = |a| (constant)
Slope of normal = – = tan ¬ angle made with x-axis is + u.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 124
12. f' (x) =
f' (x) changes sign as x crosses 2.
f(x) has minima at x = 2.
13. = f' (c) ¬ 1 < c < 3 ¬ ¬ c = = 2 log
3
e
14. f' (x) = (cos x – sin x)
15. Graph of y = x
3
– px + q cuts x-axis at three distinct pints
= 0 ¬ x = ± Maxima at x = – , minima at x =
16. Condition for shortest distance is slope of tangent to x = y
2
must be same as slope of line y = x +1.
¬ = 1 ¬ y = , x =
, x – y + 1 = 0
Shortest distance =
17. P' (x) = 4x
3
+ 3ax
2
+ 2bx + c and P'(0) = 0
¬ c = 0 ¬ P' (x) = x(4x
2
+ 3ax + 2b)
D = 9a
2
– 32b < 0 ¬ b > > 0 (" P' (x) = 0 has only one root x = 0)
P (– 1) < P (1) ¬ a > 0
P' (x) has only one change of sign. ¬ x = 0 is a point of minima.
P(–1) = 1 – a + b + d, P(0) = d
P(1) = 1 + a + b + d
¬ P(–1) < P(1), P (0) < P(1), P (–1) > P(0) ¬ P(–1) is not minimum but P(1) is maximum.
18. y = x +
y' = 1 – = 0 ¬ x
3
= 8 ¬ x = 2
y = 2 + = 3
(2, 3) is point of contact
Thus y = 3 is tangent
Hence correct option is (3)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 125
19. f(x) = 1
f(–1) = k + 2
f(x) = k + 2
" f has a local minimum at x = – 1 f(–1
+
) > f(–1) s f(–1

)
1 > k + 2 s k + 2 ¬ k s – 1
possible value of k is – 1
Hence correct option is (3)
20. e
x
+ 2e
–x
> 2 (AM > GM)
s
> f(x) > 0 so statement- 2 is correct
As f(x) is continuous and belongs to range of f(x),
¬ f(c) = for some C. Hence correction option is (4).
21. y – x = 1
y
2
= x
2y = 1
¬ = = 1
¬ y = , x =
tangent at
¬ y =
¬ y = x + ¬ y – x =
distance = = =
22. f(x) =
In right neighbourhood of ‘0’
tan x > x
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 126
In left neighbourhood of ‘0’
tan x < x
as(x < 0)
at x = 0 , f(x) = 1
¬ x = 0 is point of minima
so statement 1 is true.
statement 2 obvious
23. V = tr
3
4500 t =
= 4tr
2
45 × 25 × 3 = r
3
r = 15 m
after 49 min
= (4500 – 49.72)t =972 t m
3
972 t = tr
3
r
3
= 3×243 = 3× 3
5
r = 9
72 t = 4t × 9 × 9
=
24. f '(x) = + 2bx + a
at x = – 1 –1 – 2b + a = 0
a – 2b = 1 ...(i)
at x = 2 + 4b + a = 0
a + 4b = ...(ii)
On solving (i) and (ii) a = , b =
f '(x) = = =
So maxima at x = – 1, 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 127
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLE
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-1. (i) L.H.S. = a sin (B – C) + b sin (C – A) + c sin (A – B)
= k sin A sin (B – C) + k sin B sin (C – A) + k sin C sin (A – B)
= k (sin
2
B – sin
2
C) + k (sin
2
C – sin
2
A) + k (sin
2
A – sin
2
B)
= 0 = R.H.S.
(ii) L.H.S. =
first term = =
= k
2
sin (B + C) sin (B – C)
= k
2
(sin
2
B – sin
2
C)
Similarly = k
2
(sin
2
C – sin
2
A)
and = k
2
(sin
2
A – sin
2
B)
L.H.S. = k
2
(sin
2
B – sin
2
C + sin
2
C – sin
2
A + sin
2
A – sin
2
B)
= 0 = R.H.S.
(iii) L.H.S. = 2bc cos A + 2ca cos B + 2ab cos C
= b
2
+ c
2
– a
2
+ a
2
+ c
2
– b
2
+ a
2
+ b
2
– c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= R.H.S
(iv) L.H.S. = a
2
– 2ab
= a
2
+ b
2
– 2ab cos C
= a
2
+ b
2
– (a
2
+ b
2
– c
2
)
= c
2
= R.H.S.
(v) " L.H.S. = b
2
sin 2C + c
2
sin 2B
= 2b
2
sin C cos C + 2c
2
sin B cos B
= 2k
2
sin
2
B cos C sin C + 2k
2
sin
2
C sin B cos B (" b = ksin B, c = ksin C)
= 2k
2
sin B sin C [sin B cos C + cos B sin C]
= 2(k sin B) (k sin C) sin (B + C)
= 2bc sin A
(vi) " R.H.S = " c = a cos B + b cos A,
b = c cos A + a cos C
= =
= = L.H.S.
A–4. " =
¬ sin(B + C) sin(B – C) = sin(A + B) sin(A – B)
¬ sin
2
B – sin
2
C = sin
2
A – sin
2
B
¬ 2 sin
2
B = sin
2
A + sin
2
C
¬ 2b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
¬ a
2
, b
2
, c
2
are in A.P.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 128
A–7. " x
3
– Px
2
+ Qx – R = 0
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= P
a
2
b
2
+ b
2
c
2
+ c
2
a
2
= Q
a
2
b
2
c
2
= R ¬ abc = " + + = [a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
] =
Section (B) :
B–1. (i) L.H.S. = 2a sin
2
+ 2 c sin
2

= a(1 – cos c) + c(1 – cos A)
= a + c – (a cos C + c cos A)
= a + c – b
= R.H.S.
(ii) " L.H.S. = + +
= . + . + .
= = .
(iii) L.H.S. = 2bc(1 + cos A) + 2ca(1 + cos B) + 2ab(1 + cos C)
= 2bc + 2ca + 2ab + 2bc cos A + 2ca cos B + 2 ab cos C
= 2 + a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= (a + b + c)
2
= R.H.S.
(iv) " L.H.S. = (b – c) + (c – a) + (a – b)
" (b – c) cot = k(sin B – sin C)
= 2k cos sin
= 2k sin sin
= k [cos C – cos B]
similarly (c – a) cot = k[cos A – cos C]
and (a – b) cot = k[cos B – cos A]
L.H.S. = k[cos C – cos B + cos A – cos C + cos B – cos A]
= 0
= R.H.S.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 129
(v) L.H.S. = 4A (cot A + cot B + cot C)
= 4A
= 2bc cos A + 2 ca cos B + 2ab cos C
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= R.H.S.
(vi) L.H.S. = cos . cos . cos
=
= = A = R.H.S.
B–3.
we have to prove that tanu =
if we aply m – n rule, then
(1 + 1) cotu = 1.cot C – 1.cotA.
= – = –
=
= [2(a
2
– c
2
)]
2cotu = tanu =
Section (C) :
C–2. (i) r. r
1
.r
2
.r
3
= = A
2
(ii) r
1
+ r
2
– r
3
+ r = 4R cosC
" L.H.S. =
=
=
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 130
= = =
= c = " cos C =
L.H.S. = = = = 4RcosC
(iii) " L.H.S. =
= [s
2
+ (s – a)
2
+ (s – b)
2
+ (s – c)
2
] = [4s
2
– 2s(a + b + c) + Ea
2
] = = R.H.S.
(iv) " L.H.S. =
= (s + s – a + s – b + s – c)
2
= 4 =
" R.H.S. =
= · (s – a + s – b + s – c) = =
(v) " = =
= = = = = = = r
similarly we can show that = = r
C–4. " A = 24 sq. cm .... (i)
2s = 24 ¬ s = 12 .... (ii)
" r
1
, r
2
, r
3
are in H.P.
are in A.P..
, , are in A.P..
a, b, c are in A.P. ¬ 2b = a + c
" 2s = 24
a + b + c = 24
3b = 24
b = 8 ¬ a + c = 16
But A = ¬ A =
¬ 24 × 24 = 12 × (12 – a) × 4 × (12 – c) ¬ 2 × 6 = 144 – 12 (a + c) + ac
¬ 12 = 144 – 192 + ac
ac = 60 and a + c = 16
a = 10, c = 6 or a = 6, c = 10 and b = 8
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 131
Section (D) :
D–1. (i) " o = , | = , ¸ = ¬ =
R.H.S. =
=
= L.H.S. = R.H.S.
(ii) = = =
R.H.S. = =
=
L.H.S.= R.H.S.
PART - II
Section (A) :
A–4. " (a + b + c) (b + c – a) = kbc ¬ (b + c)
2
– a
2
= kbc
b
2
+ c
2
– a
2
= (k – 2) bc ¬ = = cos AA
" In a AABC –1 < cos A < 1 –1 < < 1
0 < k < 4.
Section (B) :
B–2. " b cos
2
+ a cos
2
= c. ¬ b + a = c.
¬ [ s – a + s – b] = c ¬ × c = c
¬ = ¬ a + b = 2c
¬ a, c, b are in A.P.
B–5. A = (a + b – c) (a – b + c)
A = 4(s – c) (s – b) ¬ =
tan = " tan A = ¬ tan A =
B–6*. (A) " tan = cot .........(i)
" tan
2
= = =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 132
tan = " a = 5 and b = 4
from equation (i), we get
= cot ¬ = cot ¬ cot =
" cos C = = = =
" cos C = ¬ c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
– 2ab cos C ¬ c = 6
(B), (C) " Area = ab sinC " cosC = ¬ sinC = =
Area = × 5 × 4 ×
Area = sq. unit. " From Sine rule
= = ¬ sinA = =
sinA =
Section (C) :
C–3. =
=
= 4
= .
C–5*. (A) " + +
= + +
=
(B) " + + = + + =
(C) = = ¬ cot A = cot B = cot C ¬ A = B = C
true for equilateral triangle only
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 133
(D) = =
¬ = = ¬ cot A = cot B = cot C ¬ A = B = C
¬ true for equilateral triangle only
Section (D) :
D–1. = 2 A
D–4*. " |
a
= cos
(A) correct (B) incorrect
(C) = = = cos
(D) " cosec = . = . = cos
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
3.
If we apply Sine-Rule in A ABD , we get
= ¬ AB = = ...(i)
sin | = and cos | =
from equation (i), we get
AB = AB =
7.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 134
required distance = inradius of A ABC
" 2s = a + b + b + c + c + a
= 2 (a + b + c)
s = a + b + c
A =
=
\$ required distance
= = =
=
8. (i) L.H.S. = (r
3
+ r
1
) (r
3
+ r
2
) sin C
= sin C
= sin C
= sin C
=
= = 2 sr
3
R.H.S. = 2r
3

= 2r
3
=

2sr
3
L.H.S. = R.H.S.
(ii) L.H.S. = –
= – = = R.H.S.
(iii) First term = (r + r
1
) tan
= cot
= . .
= b – c
similarly second term = c – a & third term = a – b
L.H.S. = b – c + c – a + a – b = 0 = R.H.S.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 135
(iv) " r
1
+ r
2
+ r
3
– r = 4R
(r
1
+ r
2
+ r
3
– r)
2
= r
1
2
+ r
2
2
+ r
3
2
+ r
2
– 2r (r
1
+ r
2
+ r
3
) + 2(r
1
r
2
+ r
2
r
3
+ r
3
r
1
) ........(i)
" r(r
1
+ r
2
+ r
3
) = ab + bc + ca – s
2
and r
1
r
2
+ r
2
r
3
+ r
3
r
1
= s
2
from equation (i)
16R
2
= r
2
+ r
1
2
+ r
2
2
+ r
3
2

– 2 (ab + bc + ca – s
2
) + 2s
2
r
2
+ r
1
2
+ r
2
2
+ r
3
2

= 16 R
2
– 4 s
2
+ 2 (ab + bc + ca)
= 16R
2

– (a + b + c)
2
+ 2 (ab + bc + ca)
= 16R
2
– a
2
– b
2
– c
2
11.

(i) EIFA is a cyclic quadrilateral
= A I
" AI = r cosec A/2
EF = r cosec A/2.sin A
= 2 r cos A/2
similarly DF = 2 r cos B/2
and DE = 2r cos C/2.
(ii) IECD is a cyclic quadrilateral
Z ICE = Z IDE =
similarly Z IDF = Z IBF = Z FDE = = = –
(iii) area of ADEF = FD . DE sin ZFDE
=
= 2r
2
= 2r
2

= = =
= = = =
PART - II
3. " ED = – c cos B
= – c
= –
=
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 136
5. f = RcosA , g = R cos B, h = R cosC.
+ + = + +
= 2
= 8 + + = ì
¬ = ì.8 ¬ ì =
9. MINA is a cyclic quadrilatral
= AAI ¬ MN = r cosec sin A = 2r cos
IM = IN = r
x = = , =
similarly y = and z =
xyz = = = r
2
R
12. " r
1
+ r
2
=
H (r
1
+ r
2
) = = = = = 4Rs
2
= 4
14. " A, C
1
, G and B
1
are cyclic
BC
1
. BA = BG . BB
1
. c =
= (2c
2
+ 2a
2
– b
2
)
¬ c
2
+ b
2
= 2a
2
16. a = 1 " 2s = 6
2s = 2 R = 1 " = 2R ¬ sin A = A =
18. " sin C = s 1 ¬ cos (A – B) > 1
¬ cos (A – B) = 1 ¬ A – B = 0 ¬ A = B
sin C = = 1 ¬ C = 90º
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 137
20. if we apply m-n Rule in A ABE, we get
(1+1) cot u = 1.cot B – 1.cot u
2 cotu = cot B – cotu
3 cotu = cot B
tan u = 3 tan B ..........(1)
Similarly, if we apply m-n Rule in A ACD, we get
(1+1) cot (t – u) = 1.cotu – 1.cotC.
cotC = 3 cotu ¬ tan u = 3 tanC .......(2)
form (1) and (2) we can say that
tan B = tan C ¬ B=C
A + B + C = t
A = t – (B + C)
=
t
– 2B B = C
tan A = – tan2B
= – = –
¬ tan A =
22. r
1
– r = – = = a tan
H (r
1
– r) = abc tan tan tan
= abc H tan
= abc = = = = = 4Rr
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 138
EXERCISE # 3
2. Match the column
(A) AA
1
and BB
1
are perpendicular
\$ a
2
+ b
2
= 5c
2
\$ c
2
= = 5 ¬ c = (
cos C = = =
sin C = \$ A = ab sin C =
\$ A
2
= 11
(B) " G.M. > H.M.
(r
1
r
2
r
3
)
1/3
> ¬ (r
1
r
2
r
3
)
1/3
> 3r ¬ > 27
(C) tan
2
= a = 5, b = 4 2s = 9 + c
= = ¬ = ¬ c
2
= 36 ¬ c = 6
(D) 2a
2
+ 4b
2
+ c
2
= 4ab + 2ac. ¬ (a – 2b)
2
+ (a – c)
2
= 0 ¬a = 2b = c
cos B = =
\$ 8 cos B = 7
COMPREHENSION # 2 (Q. No. 7 to 10)
7. Clearly
8. Let Z I
3
I
1
I
2
= u
Then angle of pedal trinagle = t – 2u = A
u =
9. Side of pedal triangle = I
2
I
3
cosu = BC
I
2
I
3
=
I
2
I
3
= 4Rcos
10. I I
1
= 4

R sin
I
2
I
3
= 4

R cos II
1
2
+ I
2
I
3
2
= 16R
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 139
12. I
1
I
2
= 4R cos if we apply Sine-Rule in A I
1
I
2
I
3
, then
2 R
ex
= =
=
2R
ex
= 4R R
ex
= 2R
\$ A ABC is pedal triangle of A I
1
I
2
I
3
\$ statement - 1 and statement - 2 both are correct and statement -2 also explains Statement - 1
14. " sin = =
similarly sin =
3 sin – 4 sin
3
=
¬ – = ¬ r
2
= ¬ r = a. cm.
19. ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 ...(1)
x
2
+ x + 1 = 0 ...(2)
" roots of (2) are imaginary and a, b, c are real

1
a
=
2
b
=
1
c
= k cos C =
ab 2
c a b
2 2 2
÷ +
=
2 1 2
1 1 2
× ×
÷ +
=
2
1
¬ C =
4
t
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1. We have a
2
> a
2
– (b – c)
2
= (a + b – c) (a – b + c)
¬ a
2
> (2s – 2c) (2s – 2b) = 4(s – b) (s – c)
similarly b
2
> 4 (s – c) (s – a)
and c
2
> 4 (s – a) (s – b).
Multiplying the above inequalities, we get
a
2
b
2
c
2
> 64 (s – a)
2
(s – b)
2
(s – c)
2
¬ (a + b + c) abc > 16 s (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) = 16A
2
¬ A s
4
1
abc ) c b a ( + +
Equality occurs if and only if
(b – c)
2
= 0
(c – a)
2
= 0
and (a – b)
2
= 0
i.e if and only if a = b = c.
2. (A) a, sin A, sin B are given one can determine
b =
B sin
A sin
a
c =
C sin
A sin
a
So the three sides are unique. So option (a) is incorrect option
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 140
(B) The three sides can uniquely determine a triangle.
So option (b) is incorrect option.
(C) a , sin B, R are given one can determine b = 2R sin B,
sin A = . So sin C can be determined. Hence side c can also be uniquely determined
(D) for a, sin A, R
= 2R
But this could not determine the exact values of b and c
3. I
n
= 2n × area of A OA
1
I
1
¬ I
n
= 2n × × AA
1
I
1
× OI
1
¬ I
n
= n × sin × cos
¬ I
n
= sin . .........(1)
O
n
= 2n × area of A OB
1
O
1
¬ O
n
= 2n × × B
1
O
1
× O
1
O = n × tan × 1 = n tan
¬ O
n
= n tan ......(2)
Now R.H.S. = =
= × 2 cos
2
= O
n
. cos
2
= n tan .cos
2
= sin = I
n
= L.H.S
4. Let angle of the triangle be 4x, x and x .
Then 4x + x + x = 180° ¬ x = 30°
Longest side is opposite to the largest angle.
Using the law of sines
= 2R
a = R, b = R, c = 2S = =
5. Clearly the triangle is right angled.
Hence angles are 30º, 60º and 90º are in ratio 1 : 2 : 3
6. Consider =
= = =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 141
7. Clearly P is the incentre of triangle ABC.
r = =
Here 2s = 7 + 8 + 9 ¬ s = 12
Here r = =
8. A = . b . b . sin 120º = b
2
.........(1)
Also a = .........(2)
and A = and s = (a + 2b)
A = (a + 2b) ..........(3)
From (1), (2) and (3), we get A =
9.* We have AABC = AABD + AACD
¬ bc sin A = c AD sin + b × AD sin
= AE is HM of b and c.
EF = ED + DF = 2DE = 2 × AD tan = × cos × tan an
= sin
As and DE = DF and AD is bisector A AEF is isosceles.
Hence A, B, C and D are correct answers.
10. In A ABC , by sine rule
= = ¬ C = 45º, C' = 135º
When C = 45º ¬ A = 180º – (45º + 30º) = 105º
When C' = 135º ¬ A = 180º – (135º + 30º) = 15º
Area of A ABC' = AB . AC'.sin Z BAC' = × 4 × sin (15º) = × = 2
Area of A ABC = AB . AC .sinA = × 4 × sin (105º) = 2
Absolute difference of areas of triangles = | 2 – 2 | = 4
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 142
Aliter
AD = 2 , DC = 2
Difference of Areas of triangle ABC and ABC' = Area of triangle ACC'
= AD × CC' = × 2 × 4 = 4
12. cos B + cos C = 4 sin
2
¬ 2 cos cos = 4 sin
2

¬ 2 sin = 0
¬ cos – 2 cos = 0 as sin = 0
¬ – cos cos + 3 sin sin = 0
¬ tan tan =
¬ =
¬ = ¬ 2s = 3a ¬ b + c = 2a
Locus of A is an ellipse
11. sin 2C + sin 2A = (a cos C + c cos A) = = 2 sin B = 2 sin 60º =
12. cos =
=
=
¬ = ¬ (x
2
+ x + 1) = 2x
2
+ 2x – 1
¬ ( – 2) x
2
+ ( – 2) x + ( + 1) = 0
on solving
x
2
+ x – = 0 we get
x = + 1, – " At x = – , Side c becomes negative. x =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 143
13. Area of triangle = ab sin C = 15
¬ . 6 . 10 sin C = 15 ¬ sin C =
¬ C = (C is obtuse angle )
Now cos C =
¬ – = ¬ c = 14
r = = = ¬ r
2
= 3
14. a = 2 = QR
b = = PR
c = = PQ
s = = = 4
= = = = tan
2
= = = =
PART - II
1. Let a = 3x + 4y, b = 4x + 3y and c = 5x + 5y
as x, y > 0, c = 5x + 5y is the largest side
Z C is the largest angle. Now
cos C =
= < 0
Z C is obtuse angle ¬ AABC is obtuse angled.
2. r
1
> r
2
> r
3
¬ > >
¬ s – a < s – b < s – c ¬ –a < –b < –c; ¬ a > b > c
3. tan = ; sin =
r + R = ¬ r + R = .cot
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 144
4. a =
¬ = ¬ a + b + c = 3b.
¬ a + c = 2b ¬ a, b, c are in A.P.
" AG = × 4 =
Area of A ABG = × AB × AG sin 30º
" = × × × = " Sin 60º = ¬ AB = =
Area of A ABC = 3(Area of A ABG) =
6. cos| = = – ¬ | = 120º
7. ZC = t/2
r = (s – c) tan C = 90º
r = s – 2R
" 2r + 2R = 2 (s – 2R) + 2R.
= 2s – 2R
= (a + b + c) – " C = 90º
= a + b + c – c
= a + b
8. are in H.P.
are in A.P. ¬ a,b,c are in A.P.
9. = cos
Let cos = for some n > 3, n e N
As < < ¬ cos < cos < cos ¬ > >
¬ 3 < n < 4, which is not possible
so option (2) is the false statement
so it will be the right choice
Hence correct option is (2)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 145
PART - I
1. From figure, AD = c sin B
Hence number of triangle is 0 if b < c sin B
one triangle for b = c sin B
two triangles for b > c sin B
2. C = 60°
Hence c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
– ab ¬ = = 2 cos
3. Using properties of pedal triangle,
we have Z MLN = 180° – 2A
Z LMN = 180° – 2B
Z MNL = 180° – 2C
Hence the required sum = sin2A + sin2B + sin2C
= 4sinA sinB sinC
4. From figure, we can observe that AOGD is directly similar to APGA
5. BD = s – b, CE = s – c and AF = s – a
Hence BD + CE + AF = s
6. ¬
¬ , as cos = cos
¬ A = B, in either case
7. ,
Using cosine rule in AABO, we get
h =
8. In AABD,
¬
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 146
Comprehension # 1
9. + + = b sin B + c sin C + a sin A =
k = 2R
10. " cot A + cot B + cot C = (b
2
+ c
2
– a
2
+ c
2
+ a
2
– b
2
+ a
2
+ b
2
– c
2
)
= (b
2
+ c
2
+ a
2
) =
=
= . A = A k = A
11. = = 6
Comprehension # 2 (12 to 14)
=
= .ab sin C or
= b sin C (" A = ac sin B)
PG = ac sin B
= c sin B
13. " Area of AGPL = (PL) (PG)
= = =
14. " Area of APQR = Area of APGQ + Area of AQGR + Area of ARGP ...(1)
" Area of APGQ = PG.GQ.sin(Z PGQ)
= × AD × BE sin (t – C)
= × × sin C
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 147
= × bc sin A × ac sin B × sin C
= sin A.sin B.sin C
Similarly Area of AQGR = sin A.sin B .sin C and Area of ARGP = sin A.sin B.sin C
From equation (1), we get
Area of APQR = (a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
) sin A.sin B.sin C
15. In ACDB , =
¬
Also from same triangle = ¬ BD =
16. cosAcosB + sinAsinBsinC = 1
¬ (cosA – cosB)
2
+ (sinA – sinB)
2
+ 2sinAsinB(1 – sinC) = 0 ¬ A = B & C = 90°
a : b : c = 1 : 1 :
17. We have
¬ a : b : c = 5 : 4 : 3
18. from figure, OO' = ON – O'N = R –
ZO' = ZM +
= RcosA +
from AOZO', using Pythagorous theorem,
we get (R – )
2
= (RcosA + )
2
+

¬
=
PART - II
1. from AAB'C , =
¬ AB' = 2Rsin(A + u)
from AAC'B, =
¬ AC’ = 2Rsin(u – A) B'C' = 2R(sin (A + u) – sin(u – A))
= 4RcosusinA = 2acosu
similarly C'A' = 2bcosu area AA'B'C' =
= = 4cos
2
u.A
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 148
2. c
2
– 2bc cosA + (b
2
– a
2
) = 0
c
1
& c
2
are roots of this quadratic equation
Hence (c
1
– c
2
)
2
+ (c
1
+ c
2
)
2
tan
2
A = 4a
2
3. Area =
=
=
= 2Rs
=
4. We know that OA = R, HA = 2RcosA and
applying Appoloneous theorem to AAOH, we get
2.(AQ)
2
+ 2(OQ)
2
= OA
2
+ (HA)
2
¬ 2.(AQ)
2
= R
2
+ 4R
2
cos
2
A –
¬
5. " = +
using sine rule, diameter of required circle
= = = 20
6. L.H.S. = (a
2
(b + c – a) + b
2
(c + a – b) + c
2
(a + b – c))
=
=
= abc
= 4RA
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 149
7. from the parellelogram ABA'C, AA' = 2!
1
,
from AAA'C, AA' < b + c
¬ 2!
1
< b + c ...(1)
similarly 2!
2
< c + a ...(2)
and 2!
3
< a + b...(3)
(1) + (2) + (3) gives !
1
+ !
2
+ !
3
< 2s
8. % ZXY =
and
" Area of
=
" Area of
¬ Area of AXYZ = 2R
2
cos cos cos = A
9. Drop a perpendicular from the apex P to the base AABC.
The foot of perpendicular is at circum centre O of AABC
Using given data, we get
from, right angle APOB, we get
=
= 8.83 m
10. from cyclic quadrileteral CQFP, we get
from cyclic quadriletral AQMF, we get
Z FQM = Z FAM = 90
º
– B
¬ Z AQM = 90
º
+ 90
º
– B = 180
º
– B

¬ P, Q, M are collinear
similarly P, Q, N are collinear
hence, P, Q, M, N are collinear