You are on page 1of 150

Preface Page No.

1. Functions
Exercise 01 - 28
2. Limits
Exercise 29 - 53
3. Continuity and derivability
Exercise 54 - 78
4. Method of differentiation
Exercise 79 - 100
5. Application of derivatives
Exercise 101 - 126
6. Solution of triangle
Exercise 127 - 149
© Copyright reserved 2012-13.
All rights reserved. Any photocopying, publishing or reproduction of full or any part of this study material is strictly prohibited. This material belongs to only the enrolled
student of RESONANCE. Any sale/resale of this material is punishable under law. Subject to Kota Jurisdiction only.
MATHEMATICS
CLASS : XII
CONTENT
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 1
FUNCTIONS
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A–3. (i) f(x) =
1 x
3 x 5 x
2
3
÷
+ ÷
f(x) =
) 1 x )( 1 x (
3 x 5 x
3
+ ÷
+ ÷
Division by zero is undefined x = ± 1
Domain x e R – {1, –1} ¬ x e (–·, –1) (–1, 1) (1, ·)
(ii) f(x) =
x
x sin
1 ÷
For sin
–1
x, x e [–1, 1]
and division by zero is undefined x = 0 Domain x e [–1, 0) (0, 1]
(iii) f(x) =
| x | x
1
+
for function to be defined x + |x| > 0 for x > 0, x + |x| = 2x > 0
for x s 0, x + |x| = 0 Domain is x e (0, ·)
(iv) f(x) = e
x + sin x
Domain x e R as there is no restriction for exponent of e.
(v) f(x) =
) x 1 ( log
1
10
÷
+
2 x +
1 – x > 0 and x + 2 > 0 and 1 – x = 1
¬ x e (– ·, 1) – {0} and x > – 2 ¬ x e [–2, 0) (0, 1)
(vi) f(x) =
x 2 1÷
+ 3 sin
–1

|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
1 x 3
1 – 2x > 0 and – 1 s
2
1 x 3 ÷
s 1 ¬ x s
2
1
and –
3
1
s x s 1
Taking intersection
1 1/2 –1/3
x
Domain x e (
¸
(

¸

÷
2
1
,
3
1
(vii) f(x) =
x sin
1
2
÷

2 x
1
÷
– 1 s x s 1 and x > 2 ¬ x e |
(viii) f(x) = log
x

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ 2 / 1 x
1
log
2
In case of composite function in log.
We start with outer log.
x > 0, x = 1 and
2
1
x
1
÷
> 1 ¬ x e (0, 1) (1, ·) and 0 < x –
2
1
< 1
¬ x e (0, ·) – {1} and
2
1
< x <
2
3
1 3/2 1/2
x
0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 2
Taking intersection
x e
|
.
|

\
|
1 ,
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
2
3
, 1
A–6. (i) f(x) = 3 sin x + 4 cos x + 5

2 2
4 3 +
s 3 sin x + 4 cos x s
2 2
4 3 +
¬ – 5 s 3 sin x + 4 cos x s 5 ¬ 0 s 3 sin x + 4 cos x + 5 s 10
¬ Range y e [0, 10]
(ii) f(x) =
x 1
1
+
· >
x
> 0 ¬ · > 1 + x > 1
¬ 0 <
x 1
1
+
s 1 Range y e (0, 1]
(iii) f(x) = !n (sin
–1
x)
Domain sin
–1
x > 0 ¬ x e (0, 1]
Range 0 < sin
–1
x s
2
t
– · < !n (sin
–1
x) s !n
|
.
|

\
| t
2
Inequality doesn't change as !n is increasing function
(iv) f(x) = 2 – 3x – 5x
2
Domain x e R
Method 1
y = – 5x
2
– 3x + 2
opening downward parabola
– D/4a
2
0
Range y e
(
¸
(

\
| ÷
· ÷
a 4
D
,
¬ y e
(
¸
(

\
|
· ÷
20
49
,
Method 2
5x
2
+ 3x + (y – 2) = 0
D > 0 ¬ 9 – 20 (y – 2) > 0 ¬ 20y – 49 s 0 ¬ y s
20
49
(v) f(x) = 3 |sin x| – 4|cos x|
f(x) is a periodic function with period t. So analysis is limited in [0, t]
f
max
= 3.1 – 4.0 = + 3 at x =
2
t
, |sin x| = 1, |cos x| = 0
f
min
= 3.0 – 4.1 = – 1 at x = 0, |sin x| = 0, |cos x| = 1 Range y e [–4, 3]
(vi) f(x) =
x tan 1
x sin
2
+
+
x cot 1
x cos
2
+
f(x) = sin x |cos x| + cos x |sin x|
periodic period = 2t
f(x) =
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
e
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
e ÷
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
e
|
.
|

\
| t
e
2 ,
2
3
x , 0
,
2
x , x 2 sin
,
2
x , 0
2
, 0 x , x 2 sin
Range y e [–1, 1]
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 3
Section (B) :
B–1. (i) f(x) =
2
x
and g(x) =
2
) x (
Domain x e R, Domain x e [0, ·)
non-identical functions
(ii) f(x) = sec(sec
–1
x) and g(x) = cosec (cosec
–1
x)
Domain x e (–·, –1] [1, ·), Domain x e (–·, –1] [1, ·)
f(x) = x g(x) = x
Identical functions
(iii) f(x) =
2
x cos 1+
and g(x) = cos x
f(x) = |cos x|
non-identical function
(iv) f(x) = x and g(x) = e
!nx
, Domain x e R
+
Domain x e R
non-identical function
B–5. (i) f(x) = e
x
and g(x) = !n x
fog(x) = e
!n x
= x, x > 0
gof(x) = !n e
x
= x, x e R
(ii) f(x) = |x| and g(x) = sin x
fog(x) = f(sin x) = |sin x|
gof (x) = g(|x|) = sin |x|
(iii) f(x) = sin
–1
x and g(x) = x
2
fog(x) = sin
–1
(g(x)) = sin
–1
x
2
gof(x) = (f
2
(x)) = (sin
–1
x)
2
(iv) f(x) = x
2
+ 2, g(x) =
1 x
x
÷
fog(x) = g
2
(x) + 2 =
2
2
) 1 x (
x
÷
+ 2 =
2
2
) 1 x (
2 x 4 x 3
÷
+ ÷
gof(x) =
1 ) x ( f
) x ( f
÷
=
1 x
2 x
2
2
+
+
B–6. f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s < +
s +
2 x 1 , x 1
1 x , x 1
2
g(x) = 1 – x, – 2 s x s 1
fog(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
e ¬ s < +
e ¬ s +
) 0 , 1 [– x 2 ) x ( g 1 , ) x ( g 1
] 1 , 0 [ x 1 ) x ( g , g 1
2
¬ fog (x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
e +
e +
) 0 , 1 [– x , ) x – 1 ( 1
] 1 , 0 [ x , ) x – 1 ( 1
2
¬ fog (x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
e
e +
) 0 , 1 [– x , x – 2
] 1 , 0 [ x , x x 2 – 2
2
Section (C) :
C–1. (i) y = |(x + 2) (x + 3)|
many - one function
(ii) y = |!nx|
many - one function
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 4
(iii) f(x) =sin 4x, x e
|
.
|

\
| t t
8
,
8

period =
2
t
one-one function
(iv) f(x) = x +
x
1
, x
x
1
e (0, ·)
many one function
(v) f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
1 –
x
1
e – 1
f' =
0
e – 1 2
x
1
. e
1 –
x
1
2
1 –
x
1
>
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
increasing function
Hence one - one
(vi) f(x) = ) x cos( –
4
x 3
2
t
t
even function
Hence many - one
(vii) f(x) = sin
–1
x – cos
–1
x = 2 sin
–1
x –
2
t
monotonically increasing.
C–5. (i) f(x) = sin (x
2
+1) ¬ f(– x) = f (x) = even function
(ii) f(x) = x + x
2
¬ f(– x) = x
2
– x

= f (x) or – f(x) Neither even nor odd function
(iii) f(x) = x – x
3
¬ f(–x) = – x + x
3
= – f(x) odd function
(iv) f(x) = x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 a
1 – a
x
x
¬ f(–x) = – x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 a
1 – a
x –
x
¬ f(–x) = x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 a
1 – a
x
x
= f(x) even function
(v) f(x) = log (x +
1 x
2
+
) ¬ f(–x) = log (–x +
1 x
2
+
)
f(x) + f(– x) = log
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + + ) 1 x x )(– 1 x x (
2 2
= log [(x
2
+ 1) – x
2
] = 0 hence odd function
(vi) f(x) = sin x + cos x ¬ f(– x) = – sin x + cos x = f(x) or – f(x)
Neither even nor odd.
(vii) f(x) = (x
2
– 1) |x| ¬ f(–x) = f(x) even function.
(viii) f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
1 >
< < ÷ ÷ + | + |
÷1 s
÷
÷
x ) x sec(sec
1 x 1 ] x 2 [ x 2
x | ) x tan(tan |
1
1
f(x) =
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
1 >
< <
= 4
0 < < 1 ÷ 3
÷1 s
x x
1 x 0 3
0 x
x
x | x |
¬ f(x) =
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
1 >
< <
= 4
0 < < 1 ÷ 3
÷1 s ÷
x x
1 x 0 3
0 x
x
x x
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 5
C–6. (i) even extension of f(x) = f(–x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s +
s <
1 – x , e x –
0 x 1 – , x sin – x
x
2
(ii) odd extension of f(x) = – f(– x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s
s < +
1 – x , e – x
0 x 1 – , x sin x –
x
2
Section (D) :
D–2. (i) f(x) = 2 + 3 cos (x – 2) ¬ fundamental period = 2t
(ii) f(x) = sin 3x + cos
2
x + |tan x| ¬ period ÷
3
2t
, t, t
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
|
t t
t
, ,
3
2
= 2t ¬ for fundamental period
f(x + t) = – sin x + cos
2
x + |tan x| = f(x) fundament period = 2t
(iii) f(x) = sin
4
x t
+ sin
3
x t
period ÷ 8, 6
period of f(x) = L.C.M. (8, 6) = 24
fundamental period = 24
(iv) f(x) = cos
5
x 3

7
x 2 sin
period ÷
3
10t
, 7 t
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
7 ,
3
10
= 70 t Fundament period = 70t
(v) f(x) = [sin 3x] – |cos 6x| period ¬
3
2t
3
t
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
| t t
3
,
3
2
=
3
2t
Fundamental period =
3
2t
(vi) f(x)=
x cos 1
1
÷
fundamental period = 2t
(vii) f(x) =
x 6 cos 1
x 12 sin
2
+
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
| t t
3
,
6
=
3
t
for fundamental period
f
|
.
|

\
| t
+
6
x
=
|
.
|

\
| t
+ +
|
.
|

\
| t
+
6
x 6 cos 1
6
x 12 sin
2
= f(x) Fundament period =
6
t
(viii) f(x) = sec
3
x + cosec
3
x ¬ period ÷ 2t 2t
Fundamental period = L.C.M. (2t, 2t) = 2t
Section (E) :
E–1. (i) f : D ÷ R
f(x) = 1 – 2
–x
¬ f '(x) = 2
– x
!n2 > 0 increasing function ¬ one one function
D : [x e R), Range : (–·, 1) = codomain
function is not bijective f
–1
does not exist
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 6
(ii) f(x) = (4 – (x – 7)
3
)
1/5
f '(x) =
5
1
(4 – (x – 7)
3
)
– 4/5
. (– 3 (x – 7)
2
) s 0 decreasing function ¬ one one function
· =
· ÷
– ) x ( f Lim
x
· =
· ÷
) x ( f Lim
– x
D : R Range : R = codomain ¬ onto function
function is bijective (invertible)
y = (4 – (x – 7)
3
)
1/5
4 – y
5
= (x – 7)
3
x = 7 + (4 – y
5
)
1/3
or f
–1
(x) = 7 + (4 – x
5
)
1/3
(iii) f(x) = !n
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
x 1 x
D : x e R, Range : R
y = !n
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
x 1 x or x =
2
e e
y y ÷
÷
f
–1
(x) =
2
e e
x x ÷
÷
E–5. f(x) . f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
= f(x) + f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
¬ f(x) = 1 ± x
n
f(3) = – 26 ¬ f(x) = 1 – x
3
f'(x) = – 3x
2
or f'(1) = – 3
E–6. f(x + y) = f(x) . f(y) and f(1) = 2
¿
=
10
1 n
) n ( f
= f(1) + f(2) + ........... + f(10)
= 2
1
+ 2
2
+ 2
3
+ ....... + 2
10
= 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
1 2
1 2
10
= 2046
PART - II
Section (A) :
A–2. For domain – log
0.3
(x – 1) > 0 and x
2
+ 2x + 8 > 0
¬ log
0.3
(x – 1) s 0 and ¬ (x + 1)
2
+ 7 > 0
¬ (x – 1) > 1 and ¬ x e R
¬ x > 2
Taking intersection x e [2, ·)
A–3. f(x) = cot
–1
) 3 x ( x + + cos
–1

1 x 3 x
2
+ +
for domain
x(x + 3) > 0 and 0 s x
2
+ 3x + 1 s 1
¬ x e (–·, –3] [0, ·) and x
2
+ 3x + 1 > 0 and x
2
+ 3x s 0 ¬ x e [–3, 0]
Taking intersection
x e {–3, 0}
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 7
A–5. f(x) = 4
x
+ 2
x
+ 1
Let 2
x
= t > 0, ¬ x e R f(x) = g(t) = t
2
+ t + 1, t > 0
g(t) =
2
2
1
t |
.
|

\
|
+
+
4
3
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
1
t
>
2
1
¬
2
2
1
t |
.
|

\
|
+
>
4
1
¬
2
2
1
t |
.
|

\
|
+
+
4
3
> 1 Range is (1, ·)
Section (B) :
B–2.* (A) f(x) =
) x (sec n
1 –
e
!
= sec
–1
x, x e (–·, – 1] (1, ·)
g(x) = sec
–1
x, x e (–·, – 1] [1, ·)
non-identical functions
(B) f(x) = tan (tan
–1
x) = x, x e R g(x) = cot (cot
–1
x) = x, x e R
identical functions
(C) f(x) = sgn (x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
<
=
>
0 x 1 –
0 x 0
0 x 1
g(x) = sgn(sgn x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
<
=
>
0 x 1 –
0 x 0
0 x 1
Identical functions
(D) f(x) = cot
2
x . cos
2
x, x e R – {n t}, n e I
g(x) = cot
2
x – cos
2
x
= cot
2
x (1 – sin
2
x) = cot
2
x. cos
2
x x e R – {n t}, n e I
Identical functions
B–4. Domain of f(g(x))
Range of g(x) ÷ Domain of f(x)
¬ – 5 s |2x + 5| s 7 ¬ 0 s |2x + 5| s 7 ¬ –7 s 2x + 5 s 7
¬ – 12 s 2x s 2 ¬ – 6 s x s 1
B–6.* f(x) =
x 1
x – 1
+
, 0 s x s 1 ¬ g(x) = 4x (1 – x),0 s x s 1
fog(x) =
) x ( g 1
) x ( g – 1
+
=
) x – 1 ( x 4 1
) x – 1 ( x 4 – 1
+
=
2
2
x 4 – x 4 1
x 4 x 4 – 1
+
+
gof(x) = 4f(x) . (1 – f(x)) = 4 |
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ x 1
x – 1
– 1
x 1
x – 1
=
2
) x 1 (
) x – 1 ( x 8
+
Section (C) :
C–2. One One / Many One
f(x) =
10 x 2 x 7
5 x x 2
2
2
+ +
+ ÷
, Domain x e R
f'(x) =
2 2
2 2
) 10 x 2 x 7 (
) 5 x x 2 )( 2 x 14 ( ) 10 x 2 x 7 )( 1 x 4 (
+ +
+ ÷ + ÷ + + ÷
f'(x) =
2 2
2
) 10 x 2 x 7 (
20 x 30 x 11
+ +
÷ ÷
> 0 ¬ x e (– ·, 0)
|
.
|

\
|
· ,
11
30
f' (x) < 0 ¬ x e
|
.
|

\
|
11
30
, 0
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = 0,
11
30
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 8
Function is increasing and decreasing in different intervals, so non monotonic
Many one function.
Onto / Into
f(x) =
10 x 2 x 7
5 x x 2
2
2
+ +
+ ÷
2x
2
– x + 5 > 0, ¬ x e R and 7x
2
+ 2x + 10 > 0 ¬ x e R
" a = 2 > 0 and " a = 7 and D = 4 – 280 < 0
D = 1 – 40 = – 39 < 0
f(x) > 0 ¬ x e R
Also f(x) never tends to ±· as 7x
2
+ 2x + 10 has no real roots, Range = Codomain so into function.
C–3. f(x) = x
3
+ x
2
+ 3x + sin x, x e R
f'(x) = 3x
2
+ 2x + 3 + cos x
" 3x
2
+ 2x + 3 >
12
32
as a = 3 > 0 and D < 0
–1 s cos x s 1 so f'(x) > 0 ¬ x e R
· ÷ x
lim
f(x) = + ·
÷· ÷ x
lim
f(x) = – ·
Hence f(x) is one-one and onto function (as f(x) is continuous function)
C–6. f(g(x
1
)) = f(g(x
2
)) ¬ g(x
1
) = g(x
2
)
as f is one - one function ¬ x
1
= x
2
as g is one - one function
hence f(g(x
1
)) = f(g(x
2
))
¬ x
1
= x
2
¬ f(g(x)) is one - one function
Section (D) :
D–2. f(x) = sin ( ) x ] a [ . Period =
] a [
2t
= t
[a] = 4 ¬ a e [4, 5)
D–3. f(x) = x + a – [x + b] + sin tx + cos 2tx + sin (3tx) + cos (4tx) + ........ + sin (2n – 1)t + cos (2px)
f(x) = {x + b} + a – b + sin (tx) + cos (2tx) + sin (3tx) + cos (4tx) + .... + sin (2n – 1) + cos (2ntx)
Period of f(x) = L.C.M (1, 2,
3
2
,
4
2
, .........,
1 n 2
2
÷
,
n 2
2
) = 2
period of f(x) = 2
since f(1 + x) = f(x) , hence fundamental period is 2
D–7.* (A) f(x) = cos (cos
–1
x)
= x, x e [–1, 1] odd function
(B) f (x + t) = cos (sin (x + t)) + cos (cos (x + t))
f (x + t) = cos (sin x) + cos (cos x) = f(x)
f |
.
|

\
| t
+
2
x
= cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| t
+
2
x sin
+ cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| t
+
2
x cos
= cos (cos x) + cos (sin x) = f(x)
fundamental period =
2
t
(C) f(x) = cos (3 sin x), x e [–1, 1]
– 3 sin1 s 3 sin x s 3 sin 1
¬ cos (3 sin 1) s cos (3 sin x) s 1 Range is [cos (3 sin1), 1]
Section (E) :
E–1.
1
y
=
x x
x x
e e
e e
÷
÷
+
÷
By compnendo and dividendo
y 1
y 1
÷
+
=
2
e 2
x
¬ x = !n |
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
y 1
y 1
f
–1
(x) = !n
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
x 1
x 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 9
E–7. f(1) = 1 = 2 – 1
f(n + 1) = 2f(n) + 1 f(2) = 2f(1) + 1 = 2. 1 + 1 = 3 = 2
2
– 1
f(3) = 7 = 2
3
– 1
f(4) = 15 = 2
4
– 1
Similarly f(n) = 2
n
– 1
E–8. Method 1 : (usual but lengthy)
x
2
f(x) + f(1 – x) = 2x – x
4
.....(1)
replace x by (1 – x) in equation (1)
(1 – x)
2
f(1 – x)+ f(x) = 2 (1– x) – (1 – x)
4
.....(2)
eliminate f(1 – x) by equation (1) and (2)
we get
f(x) = 1 – x
2
Method 2 :
Since R.H.S. is polynomial of 4
th
degree and also by options consider f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c
x
2
f(x) + f(1 – x) = 2x – x
4
¬ x
2
(ax
2
+ bx + c) + a (1 – x)
2
+ b (1 – x) + c = 2x – x
4
by comparing coefficients
a = – 1
b = 0
c = 1
f(x) = – x
2
+ 1
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
1. (i) f(x) =
x x
2 . 2 2 3
÷
÷ ÷
3 – 2
x
– 2 .2
–x
> 0 or (2
x
)
2
– 3.2
x
+ 2 s 0
or (2
x
– 1) (2
x
– 2) s 0 ¬ 2
x
e [1, 2]
¬ x e [0, 1]
(ii) f(x) =
2
x 1 1 ÷ ÷
1 –
2
x 1÷ > 0 ¬
2
x 1÷
s 1 ¬ 0 s 1 – x
2
s 1 ¬ x e [– 1, 1]
(iii) f(x) = (x
2
+ x + 1)
–3/2
D : x e R
(iv) f(x) =
2 x
2 x
+
÷
+
x 1
x 1
+
÷
2 x
2 x
+
÷
> 0 and
x 1
x 1
+
÷
> 0
x e (– ·, –2) [2, ·) and x e (–1, 1]
D : |
(v) f(x) =
x tan x tan
2
÷
tan x – tan
2
x > 0 or 0 s tan x s 1 or x e
$
I e n
(
¸
(

¸
t
+ t t
4
n , n
(vi) f(x) =
2
x
sin 2
1
sin
2
x
= 0 or x = 2nt
(vii) f(x) =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
4
x x 5
log
2
4 / 1
4
x x 5
2
÷
s 1 and 5x – x
2
> 0 or x e (0, 1] [4, 5)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 10
(viii) f(x) = log
10
(1 – log
10
(x
2
– 5x + 16))
1 – log
10
(x
2
– 5x + 16) > 0 or x
2
– 5x + 6 < 0
or x e (2, 3)
2. (i) f(x) = 1 – |x – 2|
|x – 2| e [0, ·) f(x) e (– ·, 1]
(ii) f(x) =
5 x
1
÷
D : x e (5, ·)
R : f(x) e (0, ·)
(iii) f(x) =
x 3 cos 2
1
÷
range of cos 3x is [–1, 1] cos 3x [–1, 1] f(x) e (
¸
(

¸

1 ,
3
1
(iv) f(x) =
4 x 8 x
2 x
2
÷ ÷
+
= y
x + 2 = yx
2
– 8yx – 4y or yx
2
– x (8y + 1) – (4y + 2) = 0
for x to be real D > 0
(8y + 1)
2
+ 4y (4y + 2) > 0
64y
2
+ 16y + 1 + 16y
2
+ 8y > 0
80y
2
+ 24y + 1 > 0 or y e (
¸
(

\
|
÷ · ÷
4
1
,

|
.
|

¸

· ÷ ,
20
1
(v) f(x) =
4 x 2 x
4 x 2 x
2
2
+ +
+ ÷
= y
x
2
– 2x + 4 = yx
2
+ 2xy + 4y
x
2
(1 – y) – 2x(1 + y) + 4(1 – y) = 0
D > 0
4(1 + y)
2
– 16(1 – y)
2
> 0 or y e (
¸
(

¸

3 ,
3
1
(vi) f(x) = 3 sin
2
2
x
16
÷
t
D : x e (
¸
(

¸
t t
÷
4
,
4
2
2
x
16
÷
t
e (
¸
(

¸
t
4
, 0
f(x) e
(
¸
(

¸

2
3
, 0
(vii) f(x) = x
3
– 2x
2
+ 5 = (x
2
– 1)
2
+ 4
R : [4, ·)
(viii) f(x) = x
3
– 12x , x e [–3, 1] = x (x
2
– 12)
f'(x) = 3x
2
– 12 = 0 or x = ± 2 R : [–11, 16]
(ix) f(x) = sin
2
x + cos
4
x
= sin
2
x + 1 + sin
4
x – 2 sin
2
x
= sin
4
x – sin
2
x + 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
1
x sin
2
+
4
3
R : (
¸
(

¸

1 ,
4
3
.
7. (i) f(–x) =
6 x
7 x
) 2 (
) 1 2 ( +
neither even non add
(ii) f(–x) =
x sin x
9 x x sec
2
÷ +
= f(x) even
(iii) f(–x) = – f(x) odd
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 11
(iv) f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> ÷
< < ÷ ÷ + +
÷ s ÷
1 x x
1 x 1 ] x [ ] x [ 2
1 x x
2
2
, even by graph of function
(v) f(x) =
1
x
2
) x tan x (sin x 2
+
(
¸
(

¸

t
+
if x = nt, f(nt) = 0
if x = nt
(
¸
(

¸

t
÷ x
= –
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

t
+
x
1
f(–x) = – f(x)
odd function
8. (i) f(x) = 1 –
x tan 1
x cos

x cot 1
x sin
2 2
+ +
period of f(x) = L.C.M. (t, t) = t
For fundamental period
f
|
.
|

\
| t
+
2
x
= 1 –
x cot – 1
x sin

x tan – 1
x cos
2 2
= f(x)
fundamental period = t
(ii) f(x) = tan
|
.
|

\
| t
] x [
2
: [x] = 2n + 1
f (x) = 0
By graph fundamental period = 2
(iii) f(x) = log (2 + cos 3x)
fundamental period of f(x) = fundamental period of (2 + cos 3x)
(as log is a monotonic function)
(iv) f(x) = e
!n sin x
+ tan
3
x – cos (3x – 5)
f(x) = sin x + tan
3
x – cos (3x – 5), sin x > 0
period ÷ 2t ; t ,
3
2t
Period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
| t
t t
3
2
, , 2
= 2t
(v) f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + |
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
n 5 3 1 – n 4 2
2
x
tan ...
2
x
tan
2
x
tan
2
x
tan
2
x
sin ....
2
x
sin
2
x
sin x sin
Period of f(x) = L.C.M. of ( ) t t t t t t t
n 3 n 5 3
2 ..... 2 , 2 , 2 ,...... 2 , 2 , 2
= 2
n
t
(vi) f(x) =
x 3 cos x cos
x 3 sin x sin
+
+
period of f(x) = L.C.M.
|
.
|

\
| t
t
t
t
3
2
, 2 ,
3
2
. 2
= 2t
For fundamental period
f(x + t) =
) 3 x 3 cos( ) x cos(
) 3 x 3 sin( ) x ( sin
t + + t +
t + + t +
=
x 3 cos – x cos –
x 3 sin – x sin –
Fundamental period = t
11. f(x) =
2
x 1
x 1
+
÷
¬ f'(x) = 0 at x = 1 ± 2
for x e | | 2 1 , 1 2 + + ÷ f is bijective function hence f is invertible.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 12
2
x 1
x 1
+
÷
= y
or x
2
y + x + (y – 1) = 0
or x =
y 2
) 1 y ( y 4 1 1 ÷ ÷ ± ÷
=
y 2
1 y 4 y 4 1
2
+ ÷ ± ÷
f
–1
(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= =
=
+ ÷ + ÷
0 ) 1 ( f as 0 x , 1
0 x ,
x 2
1 x 4 x 4 1
2
13. ¿
=
+
n
1 k
) k a ( f
= 16 (2
n
– 1)
or f(a + 1) + f(a + 2) + ......... + f(a + n) = 16 (2
n
– 1)
f(x + y) = f(x) . f(y)
f(0) = 1, f(1) = 2
or f(x) = 2
x
Now f(a + 1) + f(a + 2) + ........ + f(a + n)
= 2
a
[2 + 4 + ......... + 2
n
] = 2
a
. 2(2
n
– 1)
or 16 = 2
a + 1
or a = 3
15. (i) f(x) = Ax
2
+ Bx + C
x e I and f(x) e I
at x = 0, f(0) = C ¬ C is integer
at x = 1, f(1) = A + B + C
" C is integer A + B is also integer
at x = –1, f(–1) = A – B + C
f(1) + f(–1) = 2A + 2C " C is integer
2A is also integer
(ii) f(x) = A x(x – 1) + (A + B) x + C
f(x) = 2A
2
) 1 x ( x ÷
+ (A + B)x + C
If x is an integer then
2
) 1 x ( x ÷
is also an integer and 2A, (A+ B), C e I
¬ f(x) is also an integer.
PART - II
2. f(x) =
( ) x 3 tan ) 1 x 2 ( cos 1 x
1
1
+ ÷
÷
here – 1 s 2x + 1 < 1 ¬ – 2 s 2x < 0 ¬ – 1 s x < 0
¬ x e [–1, 0)
But x = – 1 as |x| – 1 = 0
x e (–1, 0)
for x e (–1, 0), (|x| – 1) is –ve
tan 3x < 0
0 > 3x > –
2
t
or x e |
.
|

\
| t
÷ 0 ,
6
Domain :
|
.
|

\
| t
÷ 0 ,
6
· (–1, 0) ÷ |
.
|

\
| t
÷ 0 ,
6
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 13
3. f(x) = sin
–1

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2 / 3
3
x 2
x 1
+ ) x sin(sin + log
(3{x} + 1)
(x
2
+ 1)
Domain : 3{x} + 1 = 1 or 0 ¬ x e I
and – 1 s
2 / 3
3
x 2
x 1+
s 1
– 2x
3/2
s 1 + x
3
s 2x
3/2
1 + x
3
+ 2x
3/2
> 0
(1 + x
3/2
)
2
> 0 ¬ x e R
1 + x
3
– 2x
3/2
s 0 or (1 – x
3/2
)
2
s 0
or 1 – x
3/2
= 0 or x = 1
Hence domain x e |
6. f(x) = (sin
–1
x + cos
–1
x)
3
– 3 sin
–1
x cos
–1
x (sin
–1
x + cos
–1
x)
=
8
3
t
– 3 sin
–1
x
|
.
|

\
|
÷
t
÷
x cos
2
1

2
t
=
8
3
t

4
3
2
t
sin
–1
x + 3
2
t
(sin
–1
x)
2
=
8
3
t
+
2
3t

(
(
¸
(

¸

t
+
t
÷
÷ ÷
16
x sin
2
) x (sin
2
1 2 1

32
3
3
t
=
32
3
t
+
2
3t

2
1
4
x sin |
.
|

\
| t
÷
÷
maximum value of f(x) at x = – 1 ¬ f
maximum
=
32
3
t
+
2
3t
×
16
9
3
t
=
8
7
3
t
8. Here (2 – log
2
(16 sin
2
x + 1) > 0
¬ 0 < 16 sin
2
x + 1 < 4 ¬ 0 s sin
2
x <
16
3
¬ 1 s 16 sin
2
x + 1 s 4 ¬ 0 s log
2
(16 sin
2
x + 1) < 2
¬ 2 > 2 – log
2
(16 sin
2
x + 1) > 0 ¬ 2 log
2
>
2
log (2 – log
2
(16 sin
2
x + 1)) > – ·
¬ 2 > y > – ·
Hence range is y e (– ·, 2]
11. (A) f(x) = e
1/2 !n x
=
x
, D : x > 0
g(x) = x , D : x > 0
(B) tan
–1
(tan x) = x D : x = ± (2n +1)
2
t
cot
–1
(cot x) = x D : x = ± nt
(C) f(x) = cos
2
x + sin
4
x = cos
2
x + (1 – cos
2
x)
2
= 1 – cos
2
x + cos
4
x = sin
2
x + cos
4
x
g(x) = sin
2
x + cos
4
x
(D) f(x) =
x
| x |
, D : x = 0
g(x) = sgn (x), D : x e R
12. f(6{x}
2
– 5{x} + 1) ¬ f((3{x} – 1) (2 {x} – 1))
(3{x} – 1) (2{x} – 1) s 0 or {x} e (
¸
(

¸

2
1
,
3
1
x e
$
I e n
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
2
1
n ,
3
1
n
13. f(x) = cot
–1
x R
+
÷
|
.
|

\
| t
2
, 0
g(x) = 2x – x
2
R ÷ R
f(g(x)) = cot
–1
(2x – x
2
), where x e (0, 1]
hence f(g(x)) e
|
.
|

¸
t t
2
,
4
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 14
20. f
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
1
x
= (
¸
(

¸

+
3
1
x
+ (
¸
(

¸

+
3
2
x
+ [x + 1] – 3
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
1
x
+ 15
= (
¸
(

¸

+
3
1
x
+ (
¸
(

¸

+
3
2
x
+ [x] – 3x + 15 = f(x) fundamental period is 1/3
21. f(x) = |x – 1| f : R
+
÷ R
g(x) = e
x
, g : [–1, ·) ÷ R
fog(x) = f[g(x)] = |e
x
– 1|
D : [–1, ·)
R : [0, ·)
25. f(x) =
} x {
]) x [ sin(t
= 0 , x e I
(A) By graph fundamental period is one
(B) f(–x) = 0 = f(x) even function
(C) Range y e {0}
(D) y = sgn
|
|
.
|

\
|
} x {
} x {
sgn – 1, x e I
y = sgn (1) – 1 ¬ y = 1 – 1
y = 0, x e I Identical to f(x)
28. f(x) = sin x + tan x + sgn (x
2
– 6x + 10)
f(x) = sinx + tan x + sgn ((x – 3)
2
+1)
f(x) = sin x + tan x + 1
period = L.C.M. (2t, t) = 2t
fundamental period = 2t
29. f : N ÷ I
f(n) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
÷
even n ,
2
n

odd n ,
2
1 – n
For n ÷ odd numbers
f(n) ÷ 0, 1, 2, 3, ......
For n ÷ even numbers
f(n) ÷ –1, –2, –3, ...... f(n) is one -one
range e I onto function.
EXERCISE # 3
2. (A) sin
–1
x
+ cos
–1

x
=
2
t
¬ x e [0, 1]
(B) sin
–1
x + cos
–1
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
x 1
= 0
¬ cos
–1 2
x 1÷ = – sin
–1
(x) ¬ x e [–1, 0]
(C) g
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
x 1
x – 1
= 2h(x)
¬ cos
–1

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
x 1
x – 1
= 2 tan
–1
x ¬ x e [0, ·)
(D) h(x) + h (1) = h
|
.
|

\
| +
x – 1
x 1
¬ tan
–1
x + tan
–1
= tan
–1

|
.
|

\
| +
x – 1
x 1
¬ x e (–·, 1)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 15
Comprehension # 2 (6, 7, 8)
Period of
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
4
x
tan
e is 4
cost
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
]) x [ 2 1 (
= 0 ¬ x e R
Period of sin
|
.
|

\
|t
2
] x [
is 4 Period of f(x) is 4
p = 4 then y =
2
] x [ ] x [ 2 8 ÷ + – [x]
2
+ 2 [x] + 8
>
0
[x]
2
– 2[x] – 8
s
0 i.e., ([x] – 4) ([x] + 2)
s
0
– 2
s
[x]
s
4 – 2
s
x < 5
q = – 2 , r = 5
r – q – 1 = 5 + 2 – 1 = 6
f
2
(x) =
¹
´
¦
< ÷
> +
0 x , x 2
0 x , 2 x
f
2
(f
2
(x)) =
¹
´
¦
< ÷
> +
0 (x) f ), x ( f 2
0 (x) f , (x) f 2
2 2
2 2
=
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
< < ÷ ÷ ÷
< > ÷ ÷ +
> < + + ÷
> > + + +
0 x , 0 x 2 , x) (2 2
0 x , 0 x 2 , x 2 2
0 x , 0 2 x , ) 2 x ( 2
0 x , 0 2 x , 2 x 2
=
¹
´
¦
< ÷
> +
0 x , x 4
0 x , x 4
Range of f
2
(f
2
(x)) is [4, · ) (4 , · ) = [4 , · ) = [p , · )
11. f : [0, 3] ÷ [0, 13]
y = f(x) = x
2
+ x + 1
¬ x =
2
) y – 1 ( 4 – 1 1 – ±
¬ x =
2
3 – y 4 1 – ±
f
–1
(x) =
2
3 – x 4 1 – +
as f
–1
[1, 13] ÷ [0, 3]
Hence option ‘B’ is correct
14. f(x + 4) = sin |
.
|

\
|
+
t
] 4 x [
2
= sin
|
.
|

\
|
t +
t
2 ] x [
2
= sin
|
.
|

\
| t
] x [
2
= f(x)
17. f(x) =
) 4 x 4 x 7 (
1 x x 2
2
2
+ ÷
+ ÷
f'(x) =
2 2
2
) 4 x 4 x 7 (
x 2 x
+ ÷
+ ÷
¬ f(x) is not monotonic
f(x) is many one.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 16
22. 1 < 2 < 3
¬ f(1) s f(2) s f(3)
1 5 5 5
1
2
5
5 , 4
5
4 4
1
2
3
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5
4
3
3
1
2
3
4
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5 , 4 , 3 , 2
5
4
3
2 2
1
2
3
4
5
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5 , 4 , 3 , 2
5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
5
4
3
2
1 1
maps of . No ) 3 ( f ) 2 ( f ) 1 ( f
1 5 5 5
1
2
5
5 , 4
5
4 4
1
2
3
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5
4
3
3
1
2
3
4
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5 , 4 , 3 , 2
5
4
3
2 2
1
2
3
4
5
5
5 , 4
5 , 4 , 3
5 , 4 , 3 , 2
5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
5
4
3
2
1 1
) 3 ( f ) 2 ( f ) 1 ( f dh la[;k Qyuksa
24. f(x) =
) x cos( } x { x cos
4
e
t + + t
Since e
x
is a monotonic function fundamental period = L.C.M. (1, 1, 2) = 2
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1. f : [0, ·) ÷ [0, ·)
f(x) =
x 1
x
+
1
1
x 1
x
+
=
2
2
x 1
x
+
¬ x
1
= x
2
only
for given domain
f(x) < 1 function is into
2. y =
1 x x
2 x x
2
2
+ +
+ +
, x e R ¬ x
2
(y – 1) + x(y – 1) + (y – 2) = 0
D > 0 ¬ (y – 1)
2
– 4(y – 1) (y – 2) > 0
¬ (y – 1) (3y – 7) s 0 ¬ 1 s y s
3
7
but for y = 1 quadratic vanishes so
put y = 1 1 =
1 x x
2 x x
2
2
+ +
+ +
¬ 1 = 2 not possible
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 17
¬ No real values of x. y = 1 is not in the range
3. y =
6
x 2 sin
1
t
+
÷
For domain sin
–1
2x +
6
t
> 0 ¬ –
6
t
s sin
–1
2x s
2
t
¬ –
2
1
s 2x s 1 ¬ –
4
1
s x s
2
1
4. g(f(x)) = (sin x + cos x)
2
– 1
= 1 + sin 2x – 1 = sin 2x ¬
2
t
s 2x s
2
t
gof(x) is invertible in (
¸
(

¸
t t
÷
4
,
4
5. y = (f – g) (x) =
¹
´
¦
e
e ÷
Q x , x
Q x , x
Which is one-one and onto function
6. For option A
f
–1
(f(A)) = A A' = A Hence A is wrong
For option B
f(X) = Y " f is onto but it will not effect on mapping of function
Hence B is wrong
For option A & B other explaination can be given else if Y is a singleton set then the function f is constant
function and hence is trivially onto (unless X = |). But in such a case, even if A consists of just one point,
f(A) is entire set Y and so f
–1
(f(A)) is the entire set X, which could be much bigger than A. So A and B are
wrong even if f(X) = Y
For option C
f(X) c Y (range = co-domain)
f(X) is a proper subset of Y (so that f is not onto), then for B = Y option C is wrong because f
–1
(Y) = X but
f(f
–1
(Y)) = f(X) = Y.
For option D
If B = Y, then f(f
–1
(Y)) is the range of the function f. If this is equal to Y, then function must be onto, thus f(X)
= Y is necessary condition
Hence D is correct
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 18
7. A = {x |x
2
+ 20 s 9x} = {x |x e [4, 5]}
Now, f'(x) = 6(x
2
– 5x + 6)
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = 2, 3
f(2) = –20, f(3) = –21, f(4) = –16, f(5) = 7
from graph, maximum of f(x) on set A is f(5) = 7
8. g(f(x)) = x
¬ g'(f(x)) f'(x) = 1 ........(i)
if f(x) = 1 ¬ x = 0, f(0) = 1
substitute x = 0 in (i), we get
g'(1) =
) 0 ( f
1
'
¬ g'(1) = 2 (f'(x) = 3x
2
+
2
1
e
x/2
¬ f'(0) =
2
1
)
9. f(x) = x
2
; g (x) = sin x
gof (x) = sin x
2
¬ gogof (x) = sin (sin x
2
)
¬ (fogogof) (x) = (sin (sin x
2
))
2
= sin
2
(sin x
2
)
Now sin
2
(sin x
2
) = sin (sin x
2
) ¬ sin (sin x
2
) = 0, 1
¬ sin x
2
= nt, (4n+1)
2
t
; I e q ¬ sin x
2
= 0

¬ x
2
= nt

¬ x = t ± n ; n e W
10. F : [0, 3] ÷ [1, 29]
f(x) = 2x
3
– 15x
2
+ 36 x + 1
f'(x) = 6x
2
– 30 x + 36
= 6(x
2
– 5x + 6)
= 6(x – 2) (x – 3)
in given domain function has local maxima, it is many-one
Now at x = 0 f(0) = 1
x = 2 f(2) = 16 – 60 + 72 + 1 = 29
x = 3 f(3) = 54 – 135 + 108 + 1
= 163 – 135 = 28
Has range = [1, 29]
Hence given function is onto
11. cos4u =
3
1
¬ 2cos
2
2u – 1 =
3
1
¬ cos
2
2u =
3
2
¬ cos2u =
3
2
±
Now f(cos4u) =
u
2
sec – 2
2
=
u
u +
2 cos
2 cos 1
= 1 +
u 2 cos
1
¬ f
|
.
|

\
|
3
1
= 1 ±
2
3
NOTE : Since a functional mapping can't have two images for pre-image 1/3, so this is ambiguity in this
question perhaps the answer can be A or B or AB or marks to all.
PART - II
1. We have f : N ÷ I
If x and y are two even natural numbers then
f(x) = f(y) ¬
2
x
÷ =
2
y
÷ ¬ x = y
Again if x and y are two odd natural numbers then
f(x) = f(y) ¬
2
1 x ÷
=
2
1 y ÷
¬ x = y f is one-one
Also each –ve integer is an image of even natural number and each +ve integer is an image of odd natural
number. f is onto.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 19
2. f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)
function should be y = mx
f(1) = 7 m = 7 ¬ f(x) = 7x
¿
=
n
1 r
) r ( f
= ¿
=
n
1 r
r 7
=
2
) 1 n ( n 7 +
.
3. 4 – x
2
= 0 , x
3
– x > 0
x = ±2 and –1 < x < 0 or 1 < x < ·
D = (–1, 0) (1, ·) – {2}
or D = (–1, 0) (1, 2) (2, ·).
4. f(x) = log |
.
|

\
|
+ + 1 x x
2
f(–x) = log |
.
|

\
|
+ + ÷ 1 x x
2
= log
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ + ÷
1 x x
1 x x
2
2 2
= –log |
.
|

\
|
+ + 1 x x
2
= –f(x) ¬ f(x) is an odd function.
5. We know that –
2 2
b a +
s a sin u + b cos u s
2 2
b a +
–2 s sin x –
3
cosx s 2 ¬ –1 s sin x –
3
cosx + 1 s 3
f(x) e [–1, 3].
6. Let us consider a graph symmetric w.r.t. line x = 2 as shown in figure
from figure f(x
1
) = f(x
2
)
where x
1
= 2 – x & x
2
= 2 + x
f(2 – x) = f(2 + x)
7. f(x) =
2
1
x 9
) 3 x ( sin
÷
÷
÷
is defined if
–1 s x – 3 s 1 ¬ 2 s x s 4 ...(1)
& 9 – x
2
> 0 ¬ –3 < x < 3 ...(2)
Hence from (1) & (2)
we get 2 s x < 3
Domain = [2, 3).
8.
3 x
x 7
P
÷
÷
is defined if
7 – x > 0, x – 3 > 0 and 7 – x > x – 3
¬ 3 s x s 5 and x e I x = 3, 4, 5
f(3) =
3 3
3 7
P
÷
÷
=
0
4
P = 1
f(4) =
3 4
4 7
P
÷
÷
=
1
3
P = 3
f(5) =
3 5
5 7
P
÷
÷
=
2
2
P = 2
Hence range = {1, 2, 3}.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 20
9. f(x) = tan
–1

|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
x 1
x 2
= 2 tan
–1
x for x e (–1, 1)
If x e (–1, 1) ¬ tan
–1
x e
|
.
|

\
| t t
÷
4
,
4
¬ 2 tan
–1
x e
|
.
|

\
| t t
÷
2
,
2
Clearly, range of f(x) =
|
.
|

\
| t t
÷
2
,
2
for f to be onto, co-domain = range Codomain of function = B =
|
.
|

\
| t t
÷
2
,
2
.
10. f(2a – x) = f(a – (x – a)) = f(1) f(x – a) – f(a – a) f(a + x – a)
= f(1) f(x – a) – f(0) f(x)
= – f(x) [" x = 0, y = 0, f(0) = f
2
(0) – f
2
(1) ¬ f
2
(1) = 0 ¬ f(1) = 0]
¬ f(2a – x) = –f(x).
11. f(x) is defined if –1 s
2
x
–1 s 1 and cos x > 0
or 0 s
2
x
s 2 and –
2
t
< x <
2
t
or 0 s x s 4 and –
2
t
< x <
2
t
x e
|
.
|

¸
t
2
, 0
.
12. y = 4x + 3 ¬ x =
4
3 y ÷
¬ f
–1
(y) = g(y) =
4
3 y ÷
.
13. f(x) =
x | x |
1
÷
| x | – x > 0
| x | > x ¬ x < 0 x e (–· , 0) Ans.
14. f(x) = (x – 1)
2
+ 1, x > 1
f : [1, ·) ÷ [1, ·) is a bijective function ¬ y = (x – 1)
2
+ 1 ¬ (x – 1)
2
= y – 1
¬ x = 1 ± 1 – y ¬ f
–1
(y) = 1 ± 1 – y
¬ f
–1
(x) = 1 +
1 – x
{ x > 1}
so statement-2 is correct
Now f(x) = f
–1
(x) ¬ f(x) = x ¬ (x – 1)
2
+ 1 = x
¬ x
2
– 3x + 2 = 0 ¬ x = 1, 2
so statement-1 is correct
ADVANCE LEVEL PROBLEM
PART-I
1. f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
÷
+
x 3
1 x 2
log log
2
2
4 x
For domain :
2
4 x
log
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
x 3
1 x 2
log
2 s 0
Case-I
0 <
2
4 x +
< 1 ¬ – 4 < x < – 2 ..........A
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 21
then
2
4 x
log
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
x 3
1 x 2
log
2
s
0
¬ log
2

x 3
1 x 2
+
÷

>
1 ¬
x 3
1 x 2
+
÷

>
2 ¬ x < –3 ..........B
¬ on A · B x e (–4, –3) ..........(i)
Case-II
2
4 x +
> 1 or x > –2 ..........A
2
4 x
log
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
x 3
1 x 2
log
2
s
0 ¬ 0 < log
2

x 3
1 x 2
+
÷

s
1 ¬ 1 <
x 3
1 x 2
+
÷

s
2
¬ x e (4, · ) ..........(ii) (i) (ii) Domain x e (– 4, – 3) (4, ·)
2. f(x) = (x
12
– x
9
+ x
4
– x + 1)
–1/2
Dr : x
12
– x
9
+ x
4
– x + 1 > 0
For x s 0 it is obvious that for f(x) to be defined Dr > 0.
For x > 1, (x
12
– x
9
) + (x
4
– x) + 1 is positive
Since x
12
> x
9
, x
4
> x.
For 0 < x < 1, Dr = x
12
+ (x
4
– x
9
) + (1 – x) > 0
Since x
4
> x
9
, x < 1.
Hence Dr > 0 for all x e R
Domain is x e R
3. f(x) =
| x | x
| x | x
e e
e e
+
÷
÷
if x
>
0, f(x) =
x
x x
e 2
e e
÷
÷
=
2
1

2 x
) e ( 2
1
=
2
1

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2 x
) e (
1
1
; f(x) e
|
.
|

¸

2
1
, 0
........(i)
f(x) e
|
.
|

¸

2
1
, 0
if x < 0, f(x) =
x x
x x
e e
e e
÷
+
÷
= 0 .........(ii) range of f(x) is (i) (ii) =
|
.
|

¸

2
1
, 0
4. f(a) =
a a 2
2
÷
for domain of f(x)
2a
2
– a > 0 ¬ a(2a – 1) > 0 a e (–·, 0]
|
.
|

¸

· ,
2
1
Let g(x) ÷ x
2
+ (a + 1)x + (a – 1) = 0
(i) D > 0
(a + 1)
2
– 4(a – 1) > 0 ¬ a e R ...(i)
(ii) –2 < –
A 2
B
< 1 ¬ – 2 < –
2
) 1 a ( +
< 1 ¬ a e ( ) 3 , 3 ÷ ....(ii)
(iii) g(– 2) > 0 ¬ 4 – 2(a + 1) + (a – 1) > 0 ¬ a < 1
(iv) g(1) > 0 ¬ 1 + a + 1 + a – 1 > 0 ¬ a > –1/2
Now (i) · (ii) · (iii) · (iv) we get
5. f(x) = sin
–1
(
¸
(

¸

+
2
1
x
2
+ cos
–1
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2
1
x
2
Domain : –1
s
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2
1
x
2
s
1 ¬ x e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
5
,
2
5
and – 1
s (
¸
(

¸

+
2
1
x
2
s
1 ¬ x e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
3
,
2
3
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 22
¬ domain is x e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
3
,
2
3
or x
2
e
|
.
|

¸

2
3
, 0
if (i) x
2
e
|
.
|

¸

2
1
, 0
, then f(x) = t
if (ii) x
2
e
|
.
|

¸

1 ,
2
1
, then f(x) = t
if (iii) x
2
e
|
.
|

¸

2
3
, 1
, then f(x) = t ¬ range = {t}
6. |
.
|

\
|
2
1
f
= (
¸
(

¸

2
1
+ (
¸
(

¸

+
2000
1
2
1
+ (
¸
(

¸

+
2000
2
2
1
+....... (
¸
(

¸

+
2000
1999
2
1
= 1000
7. f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c
f(0) = c ¬ c e I
f(1) = a + b + c ¬ (a + b + c) e I ¬ (a + b) e I
8. f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
s +
÷
0 x , 6 . 2
0 x , 6 6
x
x x
9. f(x) =
8 x sin 8 x sin 2
5 x sin 4 x sin
2
2
+ +
+ +
= y
sin
2
x (1 – 2y) + 4sinx (1 – 2y) + (5 – 8y) = 0
vertex (–2, 1)
Let sin x = t, where t e [–1,1]
g (–1) · g (1) s 0 or 2(1 – y) . 2(5 – 9y) s 0 or y e (
¸
(

¸

1 ,
9
5
10.
y
x
–2 2 0 4
y = f(x + 2) is drawn by shifting the graph by 2 units horizontally.
11. f(–x) =
( ) { }
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> ÷
÷ ÷ e ÷
=
t
| | x | x x
0 ) 1 , 1 ( x sin x
0 x 0
x
2
= – f(x)
odd function
PART - II
1. (i) ) 5 ] x ([ log log
2
4 3 / 1
÷
Domain
(i) log
1/3
log
4
([x]
2
– 5)
>
0 or log
4
([x]
2
– 5)
s
1
or [x]
2


s

9 or x e [–3, 4) .........(i)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 23
(ii) log
4
([x]
2
– 5) > 0
or [x]
2
– 5 > 1
or x e (–· , –2) [ 3, · ) .........(ii)
(iii) [x]
2
– 5 > 0
x e (–· , –2) [ 3, · ) .........(iii)
Now (i) · (ii) · (iii)
¬ x e [–3, 2) [ 3, 4)
(ii) f(x) =
11 ] | x 12 | [ ] | 1 x | [
1
÷ ÷ + ÷
Case-# x > 12
f(x) =
11 12 ] x [ 1 ] x [
1
÷ ÷ + ÷
¬ f(x) =
) 12 ] x ([ 2
1
÷
Now for f(x) to be defined [x] = 12 ¬ x e [12, 13) but x > 12
x e (12, 13)
Case-## 1 s x s 12
f(x) =
11 ] x [ 12 1 ] x [
1
÷ ÷ + + ÷
=
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
e
e
÷ ÷ +
I
I
x if defined not
x if
]) x [ 1 ( ] x [
1
¬ x e {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
Case-###
x < 1
f(x) =
11 12 ] x [ ] x [ 1
1
÷ + ÷ + ÷ +
f(x) =

¸

e
÷
e
÷
I
I
x if
] x [ 2
1
x if
]) x [ 1 ( 2
1
¬ x e (0, 1) " x < 1
(iii) f(x) = ( ) 3 x 4
2
x 4
3 x 2
2
x
) x 5 . 0 (
log
5 . 0 x ÷ ÷
÷ +
+
+
x + 0.5 > 0, x + 0.5
=
1 ¬ x e (–0.5, · ) & x
=
0.5 .....(A)
&
3 x 4 x 4
3 x 2 x
2
2
÷ ÷
÷ +
> 0 or
) 1 x 2 )( 3 x 2 (
) 1 x )( 3 x (
+ ÷
÷ +
> 0
or x e (– · , –3)
|
.
|

\
|
÷ 1 ,
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
· ,
2
3
.....(B)
(A) · (B) Domain of f(x) : x e
|
.
|

\
|
÷ 1 ,
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
· ,
2
3

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
(iv) f(x) =
2
x 6 x 35 6
2
1
x cos
÷ +
÷
cos x –
2
1

>
0 or x e (
¸
(

¸
t
+ t
t
÷ t
3
n 2 ,
3
n 2
, n e I
and 6 + 35x – 6x
2
> 0 or x e
|
.
|

\
|
÷ 6 ,
6
1
¬ Domain
|
.
|

¸
t

(
¸
(

\
| t
÷ 6 ,
3
5
3
,
6
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 24
(v) f(x) =
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2
1 x
5
÷
2 1
x sin
3
÷
+

1 x
! ) 1 x 7 (
+
+
(
¸
(

¸
÷
2
1 x
= 0 ¬ x e [1, 3) & x e [–1, 1]
& x + 1 > 0 ¬ x e (–1, · ) & 7x + 1 e w
Domain
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
7
6
,
7
5
,
7
4
,
7
3
,
7
2
,
7
1
, 0 ,
7
1
2. (i) f(x) =
1 x ÷
+ 2
x 3 ÷
D : x – 1 > 0 & 3 – x > 0 ¬ x e [1, 3]
Range : f'(x) =
1 x 2
1
÷

x 3
1
÷
= 0 or f'(x) = 0 at x =
5
7
f'
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
5
7
> 0 & f'
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
5
7
< 0 ¬ maxima at x =
5
7
Range : | | 10 , 2
(ii) For domain (i) [x] > 0 and [x] = 1 so [x] > 2, so x e [2, ·)
for range if x e [2, ·), then
x
| x |
= 1 so f(x) = cos
–1
0 =
2
t
Range of f(x) =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
2
(iii) f(x) = ] 5 x 4 x [ log log
2
2 2 / 1
+ +
D : 0 < log
2
[x
2
+ 4x + 5] s 1 or 1 < [x
2
+ 4x + 5] s 2
¬ [x
2
+ 4x + 5] = 2 or 2 s x
2
+ 4x + 5 < 3
D : x e (–2 –
2
, – 3] [–1, –2 +
2
)
R : {0}
(iv) f(x) = sin
–1

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
2
x
log
2
2
¬ –1 s log
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
2
x
2
< 2
¬
2
1
s
2
x
2
< 4 ¬ x e (–
8
, –1] [1,
8
)
and R :
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t t
÷
2
, 0 ,
2
(v) f(x) = log
[x – 1]
sinx
sin x > 0 ¬ x e (2nt,(2n+1)t)
here [x – 1] > 0 & [x – 1] = 1 ¬ x e [3, · ]
Domain x e [3, t) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

t + t
·
=
) 1 n 2 ( , n 2
1 n
$ .
For range sin x e (0, 1] and [x – 1] e [2, ·) so range e (–·, 0]
(vi) f(x) = tan
–1
| x | 2 ] x [ ] x [ ÷ + ÷ + +
2
x
1
Domain : (i) [x] + [–x] > 0 ¬ x e I
(ii) 2 – | x | > 0 ¬ |x| s 2 ¬ x e [–2, 2]
(iii) x = 0
For domain (i) · (ii) · (iii) Domain : {–2, –1, 1, 2}
Range :
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2 ,
4
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 25
3. f(x) =
5
x
sin
2
x
sin
5 3
+
T
1
= 2t, T
2
= 5t T = 10t
4. (i) y = cos (sin x)
sin x e [–1, 1]
–t
2
3t
÷
2
t
÷
2
t
2
3t
2
5t
O
t
1
cos 1
(ii) y = | !n | x
2
– x | |
(rough sketch)
(iii) y = min (x – [x], – x – [–x])
=
¹
´
¦
e ÷
e
I
I
x , }) x { }, x ({ min
x , 0
–1
0
1 2 3
½
(iv) y = (sin 2x)
x tan 1
2
+
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 26
(v) y = sin x + | sin x |
Ans. y = 2 sin x if sin x
>
0
= 0 if sin x < 0
(vi) y = In x –
| x In |
) x In (
2
=
¹
´
¦
< < <
> >
1 x 0 , 0 x ln , x ln 2
1 x , 0 x ln , 0
5. [x] [y] = x + y
(i) if x, y e I then xy = x + y
or y =
1 x
x
÷
¬ (x, y) is (0, 0), (2, 2)
(ii) if x, y e I Let x = I
1
+ f
1
and y = I
2
+ f
2
then I
1
+ I
2
+ f
1
+ f
2
= I
1
I
2
¬ f
1
+ f
2
e I
0 < f
1
+ f
2
< 2 ¬ f
1
+ f
2
= 1.
I
1
+ I
2
+ 1 = I
1
I
2
I
1
=
1
2
1
1
1
2 2
2
÷
+ =
÷
+
I I
I
.
I
2
– 1 = ± 1, ± 2, I
2
= 2, 0, 3, – 1
\ I
1
= 3, –1, 2, 0
I
1
I
2
= 6, 0
x + y = I
1
I
2
¬ x + y = 0 or x + y = 6
6. (i) | [x] – 2x | = 4
or [x] – 2x = ± 4
let x = I + f
then (a) I – 2I – 2f = – 4 or f =
2
I ÷ 4
¬ 0 s
2
I ÷ 4
< 1 ¬ I = 3, 4
I = 3, f = 1/2, I = 4, f = 0 ¬ x = 4, 7/2
(b) I – 2I – 2f = 4
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 27
f = –
2
I) + 4 (
¬ 0 s –
2
I) + 4 (
< 1
I = – 4, f = 0 ¬ x = –4
I = –5, f =
2
1
¬ x = –
2
9
x =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
2
7
, 4 ,
2
9
, 4
(ii) [x – 1] + [1 – x] + x – {x} > 0
[x] + [–x] + [x] > 0
If x e I, x > 0
¬ x : {1, 2, 3, 4, .......... } .......(A)
If x e I
[x] – 1 > 0
¬ [x] > 1 ¬ x e [2, ·) .......(B)
A B
x e {1} [2, ·)
7. Case # y = x x < 1
x = y y < 1
f
–1
(x) = x x < 1
Case ## y = x
2
1 s x s 4
x
2
= y 1 s y s 16
x =
y
1 s y s 16
f
–1
(x) =
x
1 s x s 16
Case ### y = x 8 x > 4
x =
64
y
2
y > 16
f
–1
(x) =
64
x
2
x > 16
8. Let x = y = 1
f(x) + f(y) + f(xy) = 2 + f(x) . f(y)
3f (1) = 2 + (f(1))
2
¬ f(1) = 1, 2. But given that
f(1) = 1 so f(1) = 2
Now put y =
x
1
f(x) + f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
+ f(1) = 2 + f(x) . f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
¬ f(x) + f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
= f(x) . f |
.
|

\
|
x
1
so f(x) = ± x
n
+ 1
Now f(4) = 17 ¬ ± (4)
n
+ 1 = 17 ¬ n = 2
f(x) = +(x)
2
+ 1. f(5) = 5
2
+ 1 = 26
9. Put x = 1, y = 1
(f(1))
2
= f(1) + 6 ¬ f(1) = 3, – 2
f(1) = 3 [Since f(x) > 0]
Put y = 1 in given relation
f(x) f(1) = f(x) + 2(x + 2)
2f(x) = 2x + 4
f(x) = x + 2
10. | f(2
k
) – f(2
i
)| = | f(2
k
) – f(2
k –1
) + f(2
k–1
) – f(2
k–2
)......... f(2
i+1
) – f(2
i
)|
s | f(2
k
) – f(2
k–1
)| + | f(2
k–1
) – f(2
k–2
)| + ...........| f(2
i+1
) – f(2
i
)|
Consider | f(2
k–1
+ 2
k–1
)| – f(2
k–1
)

| s 1
So | f(2
k
) – f(2
i
)| s 1 + 1 + ........(k – i) term
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 28
¿
| ) 2 ( f – ) 2 ( f |
i k
s
¿
=
k
1 i
) i – k (
s
2
) 1 – k ( k
Hence proved.
11. (x + 1)
2
f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
1
= f(x + 1)
f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
1
=
2
) 1 x (
) x ( f 1
+
+
...........(i)
Also f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
1
= f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
x
– 1
= 1+ f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
x

= 1 – f
|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
x
= 1 – f
|
.
|

\
| +
x
1 x
2
1 x
x
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2
) 1 x (
x
– 1
+
f
|
.
|

\
|
+
x
1
1
=
2
2
) 1 x (
x
– 1
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
x
) x ( f
1
.........(ii)
from equation (i) and (ii), we can say that
(i) = (ii) ¬
2
) 1 x (
) x ( f 1
+
+
=
2
2
) 1 x (
) x ( f x
– 1
+
+
¬ 1+ f(x) = 1 + 2x – f(x) f(x) = x
12. (i) Put x = y = 1 in given relation, we get f(f(1)) = f(1)
(ii) Now put x = 1, y = f(1) in given relation, we get f(f(1)) =
) 1 ( f
) 1 ( f
= 1
from (i) and (ii)
f(f(1)) = 1 f(1) = 1
Put x = 1, f(f(y)) =
y
) 1 ( f
¬ f(f(y)) =
y
1
now substitute y = f(x)
f(f(f(x))) =
) x ( f
1
¬
|
.
|

\
|
x
1
f
=
) x ( f
1
13. " f(x, y) = f(2x + 2y, 2y – 2x) .......(i)
= f(2(2x + 2y) + 2 (2y – 2x), 2(2y – 2x) – 2(2x + 2y)) from (i)
¬ f(x, y) = f(8y, –8x) .......(ii)
= f(8(–8x), –8(8y)) (using (ii))
¬ f(x, y) = f(–64x, –64y) .......(iii)
= f((–64) (–64 x), (–64) (–64y)) (using (iii))
¬ f(x, y) = f(2
12
x, 2
12
y)
¬ f(x, 0) = f(2
12
x, 0)
Replace x by 2
y
f(2
y
, 0) = f(2
12
. 2
y
, 0)
¬ f(2
y
, 0) = f(2
12+y
, 0)
¬ f(2
x
, 0) = f(2
12+x
, 0)
¬ g(x) = g(12 + x) [" given g(x) = f(2
x
, 0)]
Hence g(x) is periodic function with period 12.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 29
LIMITS
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-6. (i)
+
÷0 x
im !

x
] x [
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ value ve
0
÷ Not an indeterminate form
(ii)
÷· ÷ x
im !

1 x
2
+
– x = · + · = · ÷ Not an indeterminate form
(iii)
2
x
im
t
÷
!
(tan x)
tan2x
= (·)º form ÷ Yes
(iv)
+
÷1 x
im !
{ } ( )
nx
1
x
!
) h 1 ( n
1
0 h
} h 1 { im
+
÷
+
!
!
) h 1 ( n
1
0 h
} h { im
+
÷
!
! = (0
·
form) = 0 ÷ Not an indeterminate form
SECTION (B) :
B-2. (i)
0 x
im
÷
!
x 5 cos 1
x 4 cos 1
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x 5
sin 2
x 2 sin 2
2
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
2
2
2
2
x 5
2
x 5
sin
2
5
x 2
x 2 sin
2
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
25
16
(ii)
6
x
im
t
÷
!

6
x
x cos x sin 3
t
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
using L' Hospital rule
=
6
x
im
t
÷
!

1
x sin x cos 3 +
=
2
1
2
3
+ =2
(iii)
0 x
im
÷
!

x sin x 3
x 2 x 3 tan
2
÷
÷
0 x
im
÷
!
x
x sin
. x sin – 3
2 –
x 3
x 3 tan . 3
=
1 . 0 – 3
2 – ) 1 ( 3
=
3
2 – 3
=
3
1
(iv)
0 x
im
÷
!

x
a sin a ) x a sin( ) x a (
2 2
÷ + +
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
using L' Hospital rule
=
0 x
im
÷
!
1
) x a cos( ) x a ( ) x a sin( ) x a ( 2
2
+ + + + +
= 2a sina + a
2
cos a
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 30
B-4.
a x
im
÷
!
a x
) 2 a ( ) 2 x (
2
5
2
5
÷
+ ÷ +
R.H.L. =
a – x
) 2 a ( – ) 2 x (
im
2
5
2
5
a x
+ +
+
÷
!
=
a – h a
) 2 a ( – ) h 2 a (
im
2
5
2
5
0 h +
+ + +
÷
!
=
h
1 –
2 a
h
1 ) 2 a (
im
2
5
2
5
0 h
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
÷
!
=
h
1 – .....
) 2 a (
h
.
! 2
2
3
2
5
2 a
h
.
2
5
1 ) 2 a (
im
2
2
2
5
0 h
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+ +
÷
!
=
2
5
2
3
) 2 a ( +
L.H.L. =
h –
) 2 a ( – ) h – 2 a (
im
2
5
2
5
0 h
+ +
÷
!
=
( )
h –
1 – ....
2 a
h
! 2
2
3
2
5
2 a
h
2
5
– 1 2 a
im
2
2
5
0 h
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ |
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+
÷
! =
2
3
) 2 a (
2
5
+
L.H. L. = R.H.L.
So
) a – x (
) 2 a ( – ) 2 x (
im
2
5
2
5
a x
+ +
÷
! =
2
5
2
3
) 2 a ( +
SECTION (C) :
C-1. (i)
· ÷ x
im !

|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
2 2 2
x
x
....
x
2
x
1
=
· ÷ x
im !

( )
2
x
x ..... 2 1 + + +
=
· ÷ x
im !
2
x 2
) 1 x ( x +
=
· ÷ x
im !
2
1
(
¸
(

¸

+
x
1
1
=
2
1
(ii)
· ÷ x
im !
( ) ( ) { } x cos 1 x cos ÷ +
=
· ÷ x
im !
2sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
1 x x
. sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
1 x – x
=
· ÷ x
im !
2 sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
1 x x
. sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ) 1 x x ( . 2
1 – x – x
=2
· ÷ x
im !
sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
1 x x
.
· ÷ x
im !
sin
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + ) 1 x x ( . 2
1 –
= 2x (oscillating –1 to 1) × 0
= 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 31
(iii)
· ÷ x
im !
( ) x x 8 x
2
+ ÷
= (· + ·) = ·
(iv)
5 3 7 4 5 6
3 4 2 3
n
1 n 3 n 2 n 6 n
1 n 1 n 2 n
im
+ + ÷ + +
+ + + ÷
· ÷
!
=
7 4
5
7
6
2
3
4
3
4
3
2
3
n
n
1
n
3
1 n –
n
2
n
6
1 n
n
1
1 n
n
1
n
2
– 1 n
im
+ + + +
+ + +
· ÷
!
=
7 4
10
1

6
4
6
1

3
n
n
1
n
3
1 n –
n
2
n
6
1
n
1
1 n
n
1
n
2
– 1
im
+ + + +
+ + +
· ÷
!
=
0 – 1
0 1+
= 1
(v)
· ÷ x
im !

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
2
3
2
) 1 – x ( – 1 x
=
· ÷ x
im !
( ) ( )
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + +
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + +
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
3
2
3
2
) 1 – x ( ) 1 – x ( 1 x ) 1 x (
) 1 – x ( ) 1 – x ( 1 x ) 1 x ( 1 – x – ) 1 x (
=
· ÷ x
im !
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + +
+
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
2 2
) 1 – x ( ) 1 – x ( 1 x ) 1 x (
) 1 – x ( – ) 1 x (
=
· ÷ x
im !
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
3
4
3
2
3
4
1 x
1 – x
1 x
1 – x
1 ) 1 x (
x 4
=
· ÷ x
im !
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +
3
4
3
2
3
1
1 x
1 – x
1 x
1 – x
1 ) 1 x )( 1 x (
x 4
=
] 1 1 1 [ ) ( ) 0 1 (
4
+ + × · × +
= 0
SECTION (D) :
D-1. (i)
2 x
im
÷
!

x ) 2 x 7 (
) 2 x 15 ( ) 2 x (
4
1
5
1
2
1
÷ +
+ ÷ +
Let x = 2 + h
=
0 h
im
÷
!

) h 2 ( – ) h 7 16 (
) h 15 32 ( – ) h 4 (
4
1
5
1
2
1
+ +
+ +
=
0 h
im
÷
!
) h 2 ( –
16
h 7
1 2
32
h 15
1 2 –
4
h
1 2
4
1
5
1
2
1
+
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
0 h
im
÷
!
) h 2 ( – ......
64
h 7
1 2
....
32
h 15
2
5
4

5
1
32
h 3
1 2 – ....
16
h
2
2
1

2
1
8
h
1 2
2
2
+
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
0 h
im
÷
!

..... 1 –
32
7
h
...
256
9

64
1
– h
16
3

4
1
h
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
1 –
32
7
16
3

4
1
= –
25
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 32
(ii)
0 x
im
÷
!

3
2
x
x
2
x tan
x sin 1 e ÷ ÷ ÷

3
2
3 5 3 4 3 2
0 h
x
...
3
x
x
2
1
– ...
! 5
x
! 3
x
– x – ...
! 4
x
! 3
x
! 2
x
x
im
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
÷
!
=
3
4 3 2
0 h
x
....
3
1

! 4
1
x
6
1

6
1
x
2
1

2
1
x
im
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷
!
=
6
1
+
6
1
=
3
1
SECTION (E) :
E-2. (i)
4
x
im
t
÷
!
(tan x)
tan2x
=
x 2 tan ) 1 – x (tan
4
x
im
e
t
÷
!
=
x tan 1
x tan 2 –
4
x
im
e
+ t
÷
!
= e
–1
=
e
1
(ii)
· ÷ x
im !

x
x 3 1
x 2 1
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
· ÷ x
im !
x
3
x
1
2
x
1
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
·
|
.
|

\
|
3
2
= 0
(iii)
1 x
im
÷
!
( )
2
x
sec
nx 1
t
+ ! =
2
x
sec ). nx (
1 x
im
e
t
÷
! !
=
2
x
cos
nx
1 x
im
e
t
÷
!
!
(
0
0
form) =
2
x
sin
2

x
1
1 x
lim
e
t t
÷
=
|
.
|

\
|
t
2 –
e
(iv)
+
÷0 x
im !
( )
2
x
x ((0)
0
form)
Let y =
+
÷0 x
im !
( )
2
x
x
¬ y = +
÷0 x
im
e
!
x
2
(!nx) ¬ y =
2
x
1
nx
0 x
im
e
!
!
+
÷
¬ y =
3
x
2

x
1
0 x
im
e
+
÷
!
= e
0
= 1
(v)

2
x
im
t
÷
!
(tan x)
cosx

0
form) ¬ y =
) x tan n .( x cos

2
x
im
e
! !
t
÷
¬ y =
x sec
x tan n

2
x
im
e
!
!
t
÷
¬ y =
x tan x sec
x
2
sec
x tan
1

2
x
im
e
×
t
÷
!
¬ y =
x
2
sin
x cos

2
x
im
e
t
÷
!
¬ y = e
0
= 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 33
(vi)
÷
÷1 x
im !
([x])
1–x
0 h
im
÷
!
[1 – h]
1 – (1 – h)
0 h
im
÷
!

(0)
h
= 0
E-3.
· ÷ n
im !

3
n
] x ) 1 n ( . n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [ + + + +
(1.2)x – 1 < [1.2x] s (1. 2)x
(2.3)x – 1 < [2.3x] s (2.3)x

%

%

%
n(n + 1) x – 1 < [n (n + 1)x] s n(n + 1)x
so (1.2)x + (2.3)x + ... n (n + 1)x – n
< [1.2 x] + [2. 3 x] + .... [n(n +1)x]
s (1. 2) x + (2. 3) x + .... n(n +1)x
x . (En
2
+ En) – n s [1. 2x] +

[2. 3x] +......[n(n+1)x] s x (En
2
+ En)
¬
· ÷ n
im !

3
n
n –
2
) 1 n ( n
6
) 1 n 2 ( ) 1 n ( n
. x
(
¸
(

¸
+
+
+ +
<
3
n
n
] x ) 1 n ( n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [
im
+ + + +
· ÷
!
s
· ÷ n
im !

3
n
2
) 1 n ( n
6
) 1 n 2 ( ) 1 n ( n
x
(
¸
(

¸
+
+
+ +
· ÷ n
im !
x
2
2
n
1

2
n
1
n
1
6
n
1
2
n
1
1 . 1
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
3
n
n
] x ) 1 n ( n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [
im
+ + + +
<
· ÷
!
s
· ÷ n
im !
x
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
2
n
1
n
1
6
n
1
2
n
1
1 . 1
2
3
x
n
] x ) 1 n ( n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [
im
3
x
3
n
s
+ + + +
<
· ÷
!
so
· ÷ n
im !

3
n
] x ) 1 n ( n [ ..... ] x 3 . 2 [ ] x 2 . 1 [ + + + +
=
3
x
E-5. f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !
1 x
1 x
n 2
n 2
+
÷
case (i) when x = 1 f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !
1 1
1 – 1
+
= 0
case (ii) when x > 1 f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !
n 2
n 2
x
1
1
x
1
– 1
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 1
0 – 1
+
= 1
case(iii) when x < 1 f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !

1 x
1 x
n 2
n 2
+
÷
=
1 0
1 – 0
+
= – 1
range of f(x) is {–1, 0, 1}
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 34
PART - II
Section (A) :
A-3*. f(x) =
] x [ x
20 x 9 x
2
÷
+ ÷
÷
÷5 x
im !

] x [ x
20 x 9 x
2
÷
+ ÷
=
1
20 45 – 25 +
= 0
+
÷5 x
im !

] x [ x
20 x 9 x
2
÷
+ ÷
=
] h 5 [ – h 5
20 ) h 5 ( 9 – ) h 5 (
im
2
0 h + +
+ + +
÷
!
=
h
20 h 9 – 45 – h h 10 25
im
2
0 h
+ + +
÷
!
=
h
h h
im
2
0 h
+
÷
! =
h
) 1 h ( h
im
0 h
+
÷
! = 1
" –
5 x
im
÷
!
f(x) = +
÷5 x
im !
f(x) so
5 x
im
÷
!
f(x) does not exist
SECTION (B) :
B-2.
0 x
im
÷
!
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
3
x
1 n
p
x
sin
) 1 4 (
2
3 x
!
=
0 x
im
÷
!
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
x
1 n .
p
x
p
x
sin
p
x
x
1 – 4
x
2
3
x
3
!
= 3p .
0 x
im
÷
!

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
p
x
p
x
sin
x
1 – 4
3
x
.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
x
1 n
3
x
2
2
!
= 3 p (!n 4)
3
B-6.
2
x
im
t
÷
!
tan
2
x |
.
|

\
|
+ + ÷ + + 2 x sin 6 x sin 4 x sin 3 x sin 2
2 2
=
2
x
im
t
÷
!
tan
2
x
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + +
+ + ÷ + +
2 x sin 6 x sin 4 x sin 3 x sin 2
) 2 x sin 6 x (sin 4 x sin 3 x sin 2
2 2
2 2
=
2
x
im
t
÷
!
tan
2
x .
2 6 1 4 3 2
) 2 x sin 3 – x (sin
2
+ + + + +
+
=
2
x
im
t
÷
!
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
x cos
2 x sin 3 – x sin
6
1
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
(use L'Hospital rule)
=
6
1

2
x
im
t
÷
!

) x sin (– x cos 2
x cos 3 – x cos x sin 2
=
6
1
2
x
im
t
÷
!
x sin 2 –
3 – x sin 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
6
1
=
12
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 35
B-7*. Let f(x) =
| x | x
x 2 cos 2 cos
2
÷
÷
(A)
) x ( f im
1 x ÷ ÷
!
for x = – 1 |x| = – x f(x) =
x x
x 2 cos 2 cos
2
+
÷
Now
x x
x 2 cos 2 cos
im
2
1 x
+
÷
÷ ÷
!
(
0
0
form) =
1 x 2
x 2 sin 2
im
1 x
+
÷ ÷
! = 2sin2
(B)
x x
x 2 cos 2 cos
im
2
1 x
÷
÷
÷
!
(
0
0
form) =
1 x 2
x 2 sin 2
im
1 x
÷
÷
! = 2sin2
SECTION (C) :
C-1. sinh < h < tanh , h e
|
.
|

\
| t
2
, 0
1
sinh
h
>
¬ 1 –
h sin
h –
<
LHL =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷
t
t
÷ ÷
t
÷
h
2
cos
2
h
2
im
0 h
!
= (
¸
(

¸
÷
÷
sinh
h
im
0 h
!
= –2
RHL =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
t
t
÷ +
t
÷
h
2
cos
2
h
2
im
0 h
!
= (
¸
(

¸
÷
÷
sinh
h
im
0 h
!
= –2 LHL = RHL = –2
C-3.
· ÷ n
im !

n
n
) 1 ( n 4
) 1 ( n 3
÷ ÷
÷ + ÷
=
· ÷ n
im !

n
1
. ) 1 ( 4
n
1
) 1 ( 3
n
n
÷ ÷
÷ + ÷
=
0 – 4
0 3 – +
= –
4
3
C-6*. (A)
· ÷– x
im !
6 x 3
2 x
2
÷
+
=
· ÷ x
im !
6 x 3 –
2 x
2
÷
+
=
· ÷ x
im !
x
6
– 3 –
x
2
1
2
+
= –
3
1
(B)
· ÷ x
im !
6 – x 3
2 x
2
+
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
6
– 3
x
2
1
2
+
=
3
1
SECTION (D) :
D-4.
0 x
im
÷
!
x sin x
x cos – e
3
2
2
x

=
0 x
im
÷
!
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
2 2
.......
! 3
x
– x x
...... –
! 4
x
! 2
x
– 1 – ...... –
! 2 . 4
x
2
x
– 1
3
3
4 4
=
0 x
im
÷
!
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

.......
! 3
x
– 1 x
.....
! 6
1

! 3 . 8
1
x –
! 4
1

8
1
x
2
4
6 4
= (
¸
(

¸

24
1

8
1
=
12
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 36
D-5*. For
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
x cos a 1+
for |
|
.
|

\
|
0
0
form
1 + a = 0 ¬ a = – 1
for
0 x
im
÷
!
3
x
x sin b
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
b
so b = 0
Now ! =
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
x cos a 1+

0 x
im
÷
!

3
x
x sin b
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
x cos – 1
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
x
2
x
2
sin 2
=
0 x
im
÷
!
4
2
2
2
x
2
x
sin
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
. (1)
2
=
2
1
(a, b) = (–1, 0) and ! =
2
1
SECTION (E) :
E-3.
) x (tan n
1
4
x
]) x [ 1 ( im
!
! +
t
÷
=
) x (tan n
1
4
x
) 1 exact ( im
!
!
t
÷
= 1
E-7.
· ÷ n
im !
1
4
n
( ) ] x n [ ... ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [
3 3 3
+ + +
1
3
x –1 < [1
3
x]
s
1
3
x
2
3
x –1 < [2
3
x]
s
2
3
x
. . .
. . .
. . .
n
3
x –1 < [n
3
x]
s
n
3
x
Adding all these inequilities
(1
3
+ 2
3
+ 3
3
...........+ n
3
) x – n < [1
3
x] + [2
3
x] + ...........[n
3
x]
s
(1
3
+ 2
3
+ ..........n
3
) x
4
2 2
n
n x
4
) 1 n ( n
÷
+
<
4
3 3 3
n
] x n [ .... ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [ + + +
s

4
2
n
x
2
) 1 n ( n
|
.
|

\
| +
3
2
n
n
1
4
x
n
1
1 im ÷ |
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!
<
4
3 3 3
n
n
] x n [ ......... ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [
im
+ + +
· ÷
!
s

4
x
n
1
1 im
2
n
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!
4
3 3 3
x
n
] x n ........[ ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [
im
4
x + +
<
· ÷
!

s

4
x

4
x
n
] x n [ ........ ] x 2 [ ] x 1 [
im
4
3 3 3
x
=
+ + +
· ÷
!
E-9*. ÷
÷0 x
im !
f(x)=
0 h
im
÷
!
| 0 – h|
sin(0 –h)
=
0 h
im
÷
!
h
sin(–h)
=
) nh ( ) h sin (–
0 h
im
e
! !
÷ = e
0
= 1
+
÷0 x
im !
f(x) =
) h 0 ( sin
h
| h 0 | im
+
· ÷
+ !
=
· ÷ h
im !
h
sin h
=
) nh ( ) h (sin im
h
e
! !
· ÷
= e
0
= 1
" ÷
÷0 x
im !
f(x) = +
÷0 x
im !
f(x) = 1
0 x
im
÷
!
f(x) = 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 37
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
1. (i) P
n
=
1 2
1 2
3
3
+
÷
.
1 3
1 3
3
3
+
÷
.
1 4
1 4
3
3
+
÷
..........
1 n
1 n
3
3
+
÷
¬ P
n
=
) 1 2 2 )( 1 2 (
) 1 2 2 )( 1 2 (
2
2
+ ÷ +
+ + ÷
.
) 1 3 3 )( 1 3 (
) 1 3 3 )( 1 3 (
2
2
+ ÷ +
+ + ÷
...........
) 1 n n )( 1 n (
) 1 n n )( 1 n (
2
2
+ ÷ +
+ + ÷
¬ P
n
=
3 . 3
7 . 1
.
7 . 4
13 . 2
.
13 . 5
21 . 3
........
) 1 n n )( 1 n (
) 1 n n )( 1 n (
2
2
+ ÷ +
+ + ÷
¬ P
n
=
) 1 n ( .......... 5 . 4 . 3
) 1 n .( .......... 3 . 2 . 1
+
÷
.
) 1 n n ( .......... 13 . 7 . 3
) 1 n n .( .......... 21 . 13 . 7
2
2
+ ÷
+ +
¬ P
n
=
) 1 n ( n
2 . 1
+
.
3
1 n n
2
+ +
¬ P
n
=
3
2
) 1 n ( n
) 1 n n (
2
+
+ +

· ÷ n
im !
P
n
=
3
2
) 1 n ( n
) 1 n n (
3
2
im
2
n
=
+
+ +
· ÷
!
(ii)
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
¿ ¿ ¿
÷
=
÷
= =
· ÷
1 . ) 1 n 2 ( ...... k 5 k 3 k 1
n
1
im
2 n
1 k
1 n
1 k
n
1 k
4
n
!
=
4
n
1 k
1 k n
1 r
n
n
r ) 1 k 2 (
im
¿ ¿
=
+ ÷
=
· ÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
!
= ¿
=
· ÷
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
n
1 k
4
n
n 2
) 2 k n )( 1 k n )( 1 k 2 (
im !
= ¿
=
· ÷
÷ + ÷ + ÷
n
1 k
4
n
n 2
) k 2 n )( k 1 n )( 1 k 2 (
im !
=
| |
¿
=
· ÷
+ + ÷ + + ÷
n
1 k
4
2
n
n 2
k ) 3 n 2 ( k ) 2 n )( 1 n ( ) 1 k 2 (
im !
= ¿
=
· ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
÷ +
÷
+ + ÷
n
1 k
4
2 3
4
2
4
n
n 2
k k 2
n 2
) k k 2 ( ) 3 n 2 (
n 2
) 2 n )( 1 n ( ) 1 k 2 (
im !
= ¿
=
· ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ +
+
÷
+ + ÷
n
1 k
4 4
3
4
2
4
n
n 2
k ) 3 n 2 (
n 2
k 2
n 2
k ) 7 n 4 (
n 2
) 2 n )( 1 n ( ) 1 k 2 (
im !
=
12
1
2. (i)
1 x
im
÷
!

) 1 – x sin( ] ) x 3 1 ( – ) x 7 [(
) x 3 – 4 . 3 ( ) 2 n – ) x 1 ( n (
2 / 1 3 / 1
1 – x
+ +
+ ! !
=
0 h
im
÷
!

h sin ] ) h 3 4 ( – ) h 8 [(
] h 3 – 3 – 4 . 3 [ ] 2 n – ) h 2 ( n [
2 / 1 3 / 1
h
+ +
+ ! !
=
0 h
im
÷
!

| |
h sin
4
h 3
1 –
8
h
1 2
h 3 – ) 1 – 4 ( 3
2
h
1 n
2 / 1 3 / 1
h
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ !
=
0 h
im
÷
!
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
h
8
h 3
1 –
24
h
1
h
h sin
4
3 –
h
) 1 – 4 ( 3
·
) 2 / h (
2
h
1 n
h
!
=
4
9

3
1
– 4
) 3 – 4 n 3 .( 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
!
(!n 4 – 1) =
|
.
|

\
|
e
4
n
4
9
– !
(ii) "
x
1
) x 1 ( + = e (
¸
(

¸

÷ + ..... x
24
11
2
x
– 1
2
Now ! =
0 x
im
÷
!

x tan
) x 1 ( e
x
1
+ ÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!

.....
15
x 2
3
x
x
..... – x
24
11
2
x
– 1 e – e
5 3
2
+ + +
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
2
e
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 38
8. tan o =
AQ
AT
sin 2o =
r 2
AT
r 2
AP
=
r 2
AT
tan 1
tan 2
2
=
o +
o
r 2
tan AQ
tan 1
tan 2
2
o
=
o +
o
AQ =
o +
2
tan 1
r 4
A P
im
÷
!
AQ =
0
im
÷ o
!

o +
2
tan 1
r 4
= 4r = 2 (Diameter)
11. L
1
=
· ÷ x
im !
(f'(x) – ìf(x))
¬ L
1
=
· ÷ x
im !

{ }
x –
x –
e
) x ( f – ) x ( f e
ì
ì
ì '
¬ L
1
=
· ÷ x
im !

x –
x – x –
e
e ) x ( f – ) x ( f e
ì
ì ì
ì '
¬ L = L
1
=
· ÷ x
im !
{ }
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
1
. e –
dx
d
e ) x ( f
dx
d
x –
x –
¬ L =
· ÷ x
im !
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
x –
x –
e

e ) x ( f
¬ L =
· ÷ x
im !
– ì f(x) ¬ L = – ì
· ÷ x
im !
f(x)
¬ L = – ì L
2
¬ L
2
=
ì
L

12. 1 < 2 < n
1 < 3 < n
1 < 4 < n
1 < 5 < n
. . .
. . .
. . .
1 < n – 1 < n
multiply all these inequilities
1 < 2 . 3. 4 . 5 ... (n– 1) < n
n–2
1 < (n – 1)! < n
n–2
n < n! < n
n – 1
n
n
n
<
n
n
! n
<
n
1
¬
· ÷ n
im !

1 – n
n
1
<
· ÷ n
im !

n
n
! n
<
· ÷ n
im !
n
1
0 <
· ÷ n
im !

n
n
! n
< 0
· ÷ n
im !
n
n
! n
= 0
14.
CN
AN
= tanu
CN = AN cotu
Area of AABC =
2
1
(AB) (CN) = AN.CN = AN. AN
u
u
sin
cos
= r cosu.
(
(
¸
(

¸

u
u
sin
cos r
2
=
u
u
sin
cos r
3 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 39
Area of ADEC =
2
1
(DE) (CM) = (DM) (CM) = (CM)
2
tanu = (OC – r)
2
tanu
=
2
r –
sin
r
|
.
|

\
|
u
tanu =
u u
u ÷
cos sin
) sin 1 ( r
2 2
now
0 AB
im
÷
!

DEC
ABC
A
A
=
2
im
t
÷ u
!

2 2
3 2
) sin – 1 ( r . sin
sin . cos . cos r
u u
u u u
=
2
im
t
÷ u
!
2
4
) sin – 1 (
cos
u
u
=
2
im
t
÷ u
!

2
2 2
) sin – 1 (
) sin – 1 (
u
u
=
2
im
t
÷ u
!
(1 + sinu)
2
= (2)
2
= 4
PART - II
1.
· ÷ x
im !
x
n
e
x
= 0 (n e integer)
case(i) when n = 0
then
· ÷ x
im !

x
e
n
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
e
1
= 0
case(ii) when n is +ve integer
· ÷ x
im !
x
e
n
x
|
.
|

\
|
·
·
form
=
· ÷ x
im !
x
e
! n
= 0
case(iii) when n is – ve n = –m where m e z
+
· ÷ x
im !

x
e
n
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
e
m –
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
e .
m
x
1
= 0
so
· ÷ x
im !
x
n
e
x
= 0
3.
0 x
im
÷
!
f(g (h (x)))
L.H.L. x ÷ 0


0 x
im
÷
!
h (x) = 0
+
+
÷0 x
im !
f(g(x))
then
+
÷0 x
im !
g(x) = 1
+
+
÷1 x
im !
f(x) = 1 – 1 = 0
R.H.L. x ÷ 0
+
+
÷0 x
im !
h (x) = 0
+
so
+
÷0 x
im ! f(g(x)) = 0 L.H.L. = R.H.L. = 0
5.
· ÷ x
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
x
1
sin
x
1
sin x
· ÷ x
im !
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
x
1
sin
x
1
x
1
sin
= 1 + 0 = 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 40
6.
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

÷
3
a
x

a
3
| x |

a x
im !
(a > 0) x = a – h
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
3
a
h – a

a
3
| h – a |
0 h
im !
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
3
a
h
– 1 –
a
3
| a |
0 h
im !
= a
2
– 0 = a
2
12.
· ÷ x
im !
sec
–1

|
.
|

\
|
+1 x
x
replace x ÷
y
1
¬
· ÷ x
im !
÷
0 y
im
÷
!
=
0 y
im
÷
!
sec
–1

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ 1
y
1
y
1
=
0 y
im
÷
!
sec
–1

|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 y
1
when y ÷ 0
+
;
1 y
1
+
< 1
so
0 y
im
÷
!
sec
–1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+1 y
1
does not exist.
14. (i) ! =
( ) x sin 1 x sin im
x
÷ +
· ÷
!
¬ ! =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
· ÷ 2
x 1 x
sin .
2
x 1 x
cos 2 im
x
!
¬ ! =
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
· ÷
x 1 x 2
x 1 x
sin .
2
x 1 x
cos 2 im
x
!
¬ ! =
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
· ÷
1 x x 2
1
sin
2
1 x x
cos 2 im
x
!
¬ ! = (oscillating value –1 to 1) × 0 = 0
(ii) m =
| | x sin 1 x sin im
x
÷ +
÷· ÷
!
when x ÷ ÷·
then
x
undefined
m is undefined
16. To find
0 x
im
÷
!
f(x)
L.H.L. =

0 x
im
÷
!
f(x)
=

0 x
im
÷
!
} x { cot } x { =
0 h
im
÷
!
) h – 1 ( cot ) h – 1 ( =
1 cot
R.H.L. =
+
÷0 x
im !
f(x) =
+
÷0 x
im !
2 2
2
] x [ – x
] x [ tan
=
0 h
im
÷
!
2 2
2
] h 0 [ – ) h 0 (
] h 0 [ tan
+ +
+
=
0 h
im
÷
!

2
2
h
0 tan
= 0
" L.H.L. = R.H.L. so
0 x
im
÷
!
f(x) does not exist. f(x) is not continuous at x = 0.
Now cot
–1

2

0 x
) x ( f im |
.
|

\
|
÷
!
= cot
–1

2
) 1 cot ( = cot
–1
(cot 1) =1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 41
18. sinu < u < tanu , u e
|
.
|

\
| t
2
, 0
u
u
< <
u
u tan
1
sin
u
u
< <
u
u tan n
n
sin n
0
im
÷ u
!

|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

u
u
+
(
¸
(

¸

u
u tan n sin n
; n e N
L.H.L. = ÷
÷ u 0
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

u
u
+
(
¸
(

¸

u
u tan n sin n
= n – 1 + n = 2n – 1
R.H.L. =
+
÷ u 0
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

u
u
+
(
¸
(

¸

u
u tan n sin n
= n – 1 + n = 2n – 1 L.H.L. = R.H.L = 2n – 1
20.
· ÷ n
im !
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
n 2 n
1
... ..........
2 n
1
1 n
1
n
1
2 2 2 2
using sandwitch theorem
2
n
1
s
n
1
1 n
1
2
+
s
n
1

%

%
n 2 n
1
2
+
s
n
1
adding all these inequilities
n 2 n
1
... ..........
2 n
1
1 n
1
n
1
2 2 2 2
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
s
n
n 2
Taking both side
· ÷ n
im !
· ÷ n
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
n 2 n
1
... ..........
2 n
1
1 n
1
n
1
2 2 2 2
= 2
21. f(x) =
0 t
im
÷
!

|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
2
1
t
x
cot
x 2
Case-I : when x = 0
f(x) = 0
Case-II : when x > 0
f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
÷
2
1
0 t
t
x
cot
x 2
im !
=
) ( cot
x 2
1
· ×
t
÷
=
t
x 2
. 0 = 0
Case-III when x < 0
f(x) =
|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
÷
2
1
0 t
t
x
cot
x 2
im !
=
t
x 2
× cot
–1
(– ·) =
t
x 2
. t = 2x
¬ f(x) = 2x
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 42
25.
0 y
im
÷
!
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷ y
1 n x exp 1 n x exp
im
x
y b
x
y a
x
! !
!
=
0 y
im
÷
!
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ |
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷ y
1 1
im
x
x
x
x
y b
x
y a
!
by expansion =
0 y
im
÷
!

|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
· ÷ y
.... .
! 2
) 1 – x ( x
by 1 ..... .
! 2
) 1 – x ( x
ay 1
im
2
2 2
2
2 2
x
x
y b
x
y a
!
=
0 y
im
÷
!
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
y
..... ) b – a (
2
y
) b – a ( y
2 2
2
= a – b
29.
A x
) 1 ax (
im
n
n
x
+
+
· ÷
!
(A) If n e N
· ÷ x
im !
n
n
x
A
1
x
1
a
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
0 1
) 0 a (
n
+
+
= a
n
(B) If n e Z

& a = A = 0
then
· ÷ x
im !

A x
) 1 ax (
n
n
+
+
=
· ÷ x
im !

n
x
1
= · n e Z

(C) If n = 0
then
· ÷ x
im !
A x
) 1 ax (
n
n
+
+
=
· ÷ x
im !

A 1
1
+
=
A 1
1
+
(D) If n e Z

, A = 0 & a = 0
then
· ÷ x
im !

A x
) 1 ax (
n
n
+
+
=
· ÷ x
im !
n
n
x
) 1 ax ( +
=
· ÷ x
im !

n
x
1
a |
.
|

\
|
+
= (a + 0)
n
= a
n
EXERCISE # 3
1. (A)
0 x
im
÷
!
x sin
x ] e tan[ x ] e tan[
2
2 2 2 2
÷ ÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
x
x sin
x
x ] e [
x ] e tan[
x ] e [–
x ] e [
x ] e tan[
x ] e [
÷
÷
÷
= [e
2
] – [– e
2
] = 15
(B)
0 x
im
÷
!
( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
x
x sin
) 6 t 4 t min(
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!
(
¸
(

¸

x
x sin 2
" sin x < x ¬
x
x sin 2
< 2 ¬ (
¸
(

¸

x
x sin 2
= 1 So
0 x
im
÷
!
(
¸
(

¸

x
x sin 2
= 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 43
(C)
0 x
im
÷
!
2
4
1
3 / 1 2
x x
) x 2 – 1 ( – ) x 1 (
+
+
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
2
2
x x
.... x 4
! 2
1 –
4
1
4
1
2
x
– 1 – ....
3
x
1
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
2
1
(D)
0 x
im
÷
!
=
x sin
x cos 1 2
2
+ ÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!
x sin
4
x
sin 2 2
2
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2
2 2
2
x
x sin
.
16
x
. 16
4
x
sin 2 2
=
8
2
Comprehension # 1
(For Q.No. 3 to 5)
f(x) =
· ÷ n
im !

n
n
x
cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n . 1
n
x
cos im
n
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
· ÷
!
Substituting, n =
2
t
1
¬ f(x) =
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
2
0 t
t
1 tx cos
im
e
!
=
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
÷
2 2
2
0 t
x t
tx cos 1
x im
e
!
=
2
x
2
1
e
÷
g(x) = –
b 4
x ¬ b =
· ÷ x
im !
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ + + 1 x 1 x x
2 2
=
· ÷ x
im !
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
÷ ÷ + +
1 x 1 x x
1 x 1 x x
2 2
2 2
=
2
1
g(x) = –
2
1
. 4
x = – x
2
By observation, graphs of f(x) and – g(x) intersect each other at two points
Number of solutions is 2.
9. Statement -1 is true as
(
¸
(

¸

÷ x
x sin
im
0 x
!
= 0 and (
¸
(

¸

÷ x
x sin
im
0 x
!
= 1
Statement - 2 is true as
)) x ( g ( h im
a x÷
!
= h
)) x ( g ( im (
a x÷
!
if h(x) is continuous at x = g(a).
10. Statement -1
0 x
im
÷
!

x
2
x 2 cos – 1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

x
| x sin |
¬ L.H.L. = – 1 & R.H.L. = 1
Statement -2 is true
14. True indeterminate form of type · – ·
18.
1 x
im
÷
!
1 ) x 2 (
2 ) x 5 (
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
1 x
im
÷
!
2 ) x – 5 (
1 ) x – 2 (
1 – ) x – 2 (
4 – ) x – 5 (
+
+
×
=
1 x
im
÷
!
4
2
x – 1
x – 1
× =
2
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 44
21.
· ÷ x
im !
( ) x ) b x ( ) a x ( ÷ + +
=
· ÷ x
im !
x ) b x ( ) a x (
x – ) b x ( ) a x (
2
+ + +
+ +
=
· ÷ x
im !

(
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+
+
+ +
1
x
ab
x
) b a (
1 x
ab x ) b a (
2
=
1 1
b a
+
+
=
2
b a +
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1.
0 x
im
÷
!
2
) x 2 cos 1 (
x tan x 2 x 2 tan x
÷
÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!
2 2
) x sin 2 (
x
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
x tan 2
x tan 1
x tan 2
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!
x sin . 4
x tan . x tan x . 2
4
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!

4
3
x
x sin
x
x tan
.
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
1
.
2
1
=
2. for x e R ,
x
x 2 x
3 x
im |
.
|

\
|
+
÷
· ÷
!
=
x · 1 –
2 x
3 – x
im
x
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ · ÷
!
=
x ·
2 x
5 –
im
x
e
|
.
|

\
|
+ · ÷
!
= e
–5
3.
2
2
0 x
x
) x cos sin(
im
t
÷
!
=
2
2
0 x
x
) x sin 1 ( sin(
im
÷ t
÷
!
=
2
2
2
2
0 x
x
x sin
x sin
) x sin sin(
im
t
×
t
t
÷
!
= 1.t.1 = t
4.
0 x
im
÷
!

n
x
x
) e x (cos ) 1 x (cos ÷ ÷
0 x
im
÷
!

n
3 2 4 2 4 2
x
.........
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1 ......... –
! 4
x
! 2
x
1 1 ......... –
! 4
x
! 2
x
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
0 x
im
÷
!

n
2
3
x
......... –
! 2
1
! 2
1
x 1 ......... –
! 4
x
! 2
1
x
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
=
0 x
im
÷
!
3 – n
2
x
......... –
! 2
1
! 2
1
x 1 ......... –
! 4
x
! 2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
is finite and non-zero if n = 3
5.
0 x
im
÷
!

2
x
nx sin ) x tan nx ) n a (( ÷ ÷
= 0
¬
0
x
x tan
n ) n a ( ) n (
nx
nx sin
im
0 x
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷
!
¬ (1) (n) [(a – n) (n) – 1] = 0
¬ n(a – n) –1 = 0 [" n = 0]
¬ a – n =
n
1
¬ a = n +
n
1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 45
6. for x > 0
0 x
im
÷
!
( )
x sin
x
1
x
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|
+
x sin
0 x
x
1
0 x
x
1
im ) x (sin im |
.
|

\
|
+
÷ ÷
! ! = 0 +
x sin
0 x x
1
im |
.
|

\
|
÷
!
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
x
1
n ). x (sin
im
0 x
e
!
!
=
x ec cos –
) x ( n
im
0 x
e
!
!
÷
|
.
|

\
|
·
·
form
=
) x cot ecx (cos
x
1
0 x
im
e
÷
!
=
x cos x
x sin
im
2
0 x
e
÷
!
= eº = 1
7*. L =
4
2
2 2
0 x
x
4
x
x a a
im
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
! =
0 x
im
÷
!

4
2
4
4
2
2
x
4
x
....
a
x
.
2
1
2
1
2
1
a
x
.
2
1
1 . a a ÷
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ ÷ ÷
(" a > 0)
=
0 x
im
÷
!

4
2
3
4 2
x
4
x
......
a
x
.
8
1
a 2
x
÷ + +
Since L is finite ¬ 2a = 4 ¬ a = 2 L =
0 x
im
÷
!

3
a . 8
1
=
64
1
8.
x
)
2
b 1 ( n x
0 x
e lim
+
÷
!
= 1 + b
2
= 2b sin
2
u ¬ sin
2
u =
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
+
b
1
b
We know b +
b
1
> 2 ¬ sin
2
u > 1 but sin
2
u s 1
¬ sin
2
u =1 ¬ u = ±
2
t
9.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
· ÷
b – ax –
1 x
1 x x
im
2
x
!
= 4
· ÷ x
im !
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
1 x
) b – 1 ( ) b – a – 1 ( x ) a – 1 ( x
2
= 4
Limit is finite it exists when 1 – a = 0 ¬ a = 1
then
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
· ÷
x
1
1
x
b – 1
b – a – 1
im
x
!
= 4 1 – a – b = 4 ¬ b = – 4
10. ((1 + a)
1/3
– 1)x
2
+ ((a+1)
1/2
– 1)x + ((a+1)
1/6
– 1) = 0
let a + 1 = t
6
(t
2
– 1)x
2
+ (t
3
– 1)x + (t – 1) = 0
(t + 1)x
2
+ (t
2
+ t + 1)x +1 = 0
As a ÷ 0 , t ÷ 1 2x
2
+ 3x + 1 = 0 ¬ x = – 1 and x = –
2
1
PART - II
1.
0 x
im
÷
!
x 2
x 2 cos – 1
0 x
im
÷
!

x 2
x sin 2
2
=
0 x
im
÷
!

x
| x sin |
LHL =
0 h
im
÷
!
1 –
h –
h sin
= , RHL =
0 h
im
÷
!
1
h
h sin
=
LHL = RHL
So limit does not exist
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 46
2.
· ÷ x
im !

x
2 x
3 – x
|
.
|

\
|
+
(1
·
form)
=
x 1 –
2 x
3 – x
im
x
e
|
.
|

\
|
+ · ÷
!
=
2 x
x 5
– im
x
e
+ · ÷
!
=
x
2
1
5 –
im
x
e
+
· ÷
!
= e
– 5
3. f(2) = 4, f'(2) = 4
2 x
im
÷
!
2 – x
) x ( f 2 – ) 2 ( f x
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
2 x
im
÷
!

1
) x ( f 2 – ) 2 ( f '
= f(2) – 2f'(2) = 4 – 8 = – 4
4. f(1) = 1, f'(1) = 2
1 x
im
÷
!

1 x
1 ) x ( f
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
1 x
im
÷
!

) x ( f 2
x 2 ) x ( f'
=
2
1
2
) 1 ( f
) 1 ( f
= =
'
5.
· ÷ x
im !

] x [
] x [ – x n
n
!
=
· ÷ x
im !

] x [
nx
n
!

· ÷ x
im !

] x [
] x [
=
· ÷ x
im !

] x [
nx
n
!

· ÷ x
im !
1 = 0 – 1 = – 1
6.
· ÷ x
im !
x
2
2
3 x x
3 x 5 x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
=
· ÷ x
im !

x
2
3 x x
1 x 4
1 |
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
+
(1
·
form) =
3 x x
) 1 x 4 ( x
im
2
x
e
+ +
+
· ÷
!
= e
4
7.
2
x
im
t
÷
!
3
) x 2 – (
2
x
tan 1
) x sin – 1 (
2
x
tan – 1
t |
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
x
im
t
÷
!
3
) x 2 – (
) x sin – 1 (
2
x

4
tan
t
|
.
|

\
| t
put x = y
2
+
t
y ÷ 0
+
=
0 y
im
÷
!

3
) y 2 (–
) y cos – 1 (
2
y
– tan |
.
|

\
|
=
0 y
im
÷
!
3
y 8
) y cos – 1 (
2
y
tan |
.
|

\
|
=
0 y
im
÷
!

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
y
2
y
tan

64
2
·
4
y
2
y
sin
2
2
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= (1) (1) ·
32
1
32
1
=
8.
0 x
im
÷
!
k
x
) x – 3 ( n – ) x 3 ( n
=
+ ! !
¬
0 x
im
÷
!

k
x
3
x
– 1 n –
3
x
1 n
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ! !
¬
0 x
im
÷
!
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
1

3
x

3
x
– 1 n

3
1
·
3
x
3
x
1 n ! !
= k
¬ k
3
1
3
1
= + ¬ k =
3
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 47
Alt.
0 x
im
÷
!
k
x
) x – 3 ( n – ) x 3 ( n
=
+ ! !
Apply L' Hospital rule
¬
0 x
im
÷
!

k
x – 3
1
x 3
1
= |
.
|

\
|
+
+
¬ k
3
1
3
1
= +
¬ k =
3
2
9.
a x
im
÷
!

4
) x ( f – ) x ( g
) a ( g ) x ( f ) a ( g – ) a ( f – ) x ( g ) a ( f
=
+
Apply L' Hospital rule
¬
a x
im
÷
!
|
|
.
|

\
|
' '
' '
) x ( f – ) x ( g
) x ( f ) a ( g – ) x ( g ) a ( f
= 4
¬
a x
im
÷
!
4
) x ( f – ) x ( g
) x ( f – ) x ( g
k =
|
|
.
|

\
|
' '
' '
¬ k = 4
10.
· ÷ x
im !

2
x 2
2
e
x
b
x
a
1 = |
.
|

\
|
+ +
¬
2
x 2
x
b
x
a
im
e e
2
x
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!
¬
· ÷ x
im !
2
x
2 ) b ax (
=
+
¬
· ÷ x
im !
2
x
b 2
a 2 = +
b e R, a = 1
11. ax
2
+ bx + c = 0
a(x – o) (x – |) = 0
2
2
x
) x (
) c bx ax cos( 1
im
o ÷
+ + ÷
o ÷
!
=
2
2
2
x
) x (
2
c bx ax
sin 2
im
o ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
o ÷
!
=
o ÷ x
im !

2
2
) – x (
) – x ( ) – x (
2
a
sin 2
o
|
.
|

\
|
| o
=
o ÷ x
im !

4
) – x ( a 2
·
2
) – x ( ) – x ( a
2
) – x ( ) – x ( a
sin
2 2
2
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
| o
|
.
|

\
| | o
= (1)
2
) – ( a
4
) – ( a 2
2 2 2 2
| o
=
| o
12.
0 x
lim
÷

) x ( f
) x 3 ( f
= 1
f(x) < f(2x) < f(3x) Divide by f(x)
) x ( f
) x 3 ( f
) x ( f
) x 2 ( f
1 < <
using sandwitch theorem
¬
· ÷ x
lim

) x ( f
) x 2 ( f
= 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 48
13.
2 lim
2 x÷

) 2 x (
) 2 x ( sin
÷
÷
does not exist
14.
0
| 5 – x |
9 – ) ) x ( f (
im
2
5 x
=
÷
!
0 ] 9 – )) x ( f [( im
2
5 x
=
÷
!
5 x
im
÷
!
f(x) = 3
ADVANCE LEVEL PROBLEM
1.
0 x
im
÷
!

x
1
x
2
x
1
x
2
x
1
b b
a a
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
x
1
1
b b
a a
im
x
2
x
1
x
2
x
1
0 x
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
+
÷
!
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
x
2
x
1
x
2
x
1
x
2
x
1
0 x
b b
1
x
) 1 b (
x
) 1 b (
x
1 a
x
1 a
im
e
!
=
) b log b log a log a (log
2
1
2 e 1 e 2 e 1 e
e
÷ ÷ +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
2 1
2 1
e
b b
a a
log
2
1
e =
2 1
2 1
b b
a a
2.
1 x
im
÷
!

q p q p
q p
x x x 1
px qx q p
+
+ ÷ ÷
÷ + ÷
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
1 x
im
÷
!

1 q p 1 q 1 p
1 q 1 p
x ) q p ( qx px
pqx pqx
÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+ + ÷ ÷
÷

|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
1 x
im
÷
!

2 q p 2 q 2 p
2 q 2 p
x ) 1 q p )( q p ( x ) 1 q ( q x ) 1 p ( p
x ) 1 q ( pq x ) 1 p ( pq
÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ + + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
2
q p ÷
3.
0 t
im
÷
!

t
1
1 t 1 t
a b
a b
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
+ +
=
0 t
im
÷
!

t
1
1
a b
a b
1 t 1 t
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷
+ +
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷
÷ a b
1
t
) 1 a ( a
t
) 1 b ( b
im
t t
0 t
e
!
=
a b
na a nb b
e
÷
÷ ! !
=
a b
1
a
b
a
b
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
4. LHL = +
÷0 h
im !
f(0 – h) = +
÷0 h
im !
f(– h) = +
÷0 h
im !
( )
| |
2
h
1 –
=1
RHL = +
÷0 h
im !
f(0 + h) = +
÷0 h
im !
f(h) = +
÷0 h
im !

|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
n
n
h 1
1
im !
= 1
5.
0 x
im
÷
!

) x tan x (sin
x k
2
x n
cos 2 e e
2 x n x n
÷
÷ ÷ +
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷ ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
÷
....... x
15
2
3
x
x ........
! 3
x
x
x k ........
! 4 . 16
x n
! 2 . 4
x n
1 2 .....
! 4
x n
! 2
x n
1 2
im
5
3 3
2
4 4 2 2 4 4 2 2
0 x
!
=
..........
3
1
! 3
1
x
! 4 . 16
n 2
! 4
n 2
x k
4
n
n x
im
3
4 4
4
2
2 2
0 x
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
÷
!
limit exists, if coff. of x
2
is zero.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 49
¬ n
2
+
4
n
2
– k = 0 ¬ 4k = 5n
2
so the possible value match that is n = 2, k = 5
6. L =
2
1
x
) x 4 x 3 ( cos
im
3 1
2
1
x
÷
÷
÷
÷
!
=
2
1
x
) x 3 x 4 ( cos
im
3 1
2
1
x
÷
÷ ÷ t
÷
÷
!
Let u = cos
–1
x " As x ÷
2
1
u ÷
3
t
¬ L =
2
1
cos
) 3 (cos cos
im
1
3
÷ u
u ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
!
Now LHL =
2
1
cos
) 3 (cos cos
im
1
3 ÷ u
u ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
÷
!
=
2
1
cos
3
im
3 ÷ u
u ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
!
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
u ÷
÷
÷
t
÷ u
sin
3 im
3
!
= 3 2
Also, RHL =
2
1
cos
) 3 (cos cos
im
1
3 ÷ u
u ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
+
!
=
2
1
cos
)) 3 2 (cos( cos
im
1
3 ÷ u
u ÷ t ÷ t
÷
t
÷ u
+
!
=
2
1
cos
) 3 2 (
im
3
÷ u
u ÷ t ÷ t
+
t
÷ u
!
=
2
1
cos
3
im
3 ÷ u
t ÷ u
+
t
÷ u
!

|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
u ÷
+
t
÷ u sin
3
im
3
!
= – 3 2
¬ LHL = RHL Limit does not exist
7.
¿
¿
=
=
· ÷
+ ÷
n
1 r
3
n
1 r
2
n
r
) 1 r n ( r
im !
=
¿
¿ ¿
=
= =
· ÷
÷ +
n
1 r
3
n
1 r
3
n
1 r
2
n
r
r r ) 1 n (
im !
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
+ +
+
· ÷
1
4
) 1 n ( n
6
) 1 n 2 ( ) 1 n ( ) n (
) 1 n (
im
2 2
n
!
=
4 / 1
3 / 1
– 1 =
3
1
1
3
4
= ÷
8.
· ÷ n
im !

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ÷
÷
...
n 6
C
n 2
C
C n
n
2
3
x
2
x
1
x 1 x
1999
=
2000
1
the limit obviously exists if 2000 – x = 0 ¬ x = 2000
9. Let u = sin
–1
x " as
2
1
x ÷
4
t
÷ u
2
1
sin
) cos sin 2 ( cos
im
1
4
÷ u
u u
÷
t
÷ u
!
=
2
1
sin
) 2 (sin cos
im
1
4
÷ u
u
÷
t
÷ u
!
=
2
1
sin
2
2
cos cos
im
1
4
÷ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
u ÷
t
÷
t
÷ u
!
Left hand limit =
2
1
sin
2
2
cos cos
im
1
4 ÷ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
u ÷
t
÷
t
÷ u
÷
!
=
2
1
sin
2
2
im
4
÷ u
u ÷
t
÷
t
÷ u
!
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 50
=
u
÷
t
÷ u
cos
2
im

4
!
= 2 2 ÷
Right hand limit =
+
t
÷ u
4
im !
2
1
sin
2
2
cos cos
1
÷ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
u ÷
t
÷
=
+
t
÷ u
4
im !

2
1
sin
2
2 cos cos
÷ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| t
÷ u
=
+
t
÷ u
4
im !

2
1
sin
2
2
÷ u
t
÷ u
=
+
t
÷ u
4
im !

u cos
2
= 2 2 ¬ LHL = RHL Limit does not exist
10.
0 x
im
÷
!

x
k
x
f ...
3
x
f
2
x
f ) x ( f |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
0 x
im
÷
!

(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
' + + |
.
|

\
|
' + |
.
|

\
|
' + '
k
x
f
k
1
...
3
x
f
3
1
2
x
f
2
1
) x ( f
= 1 +
2
1
+
3
1
+ .... +
n
1
=
}
÷
+ + + +
1
0
1 n 2
dx ) x ... x x 1 ( =
}
÷
÷
1
0
n
dx
x 1
x 1
=
}
÷ ÷
1
0
n
dx
x
) x 1 ( 1
=
n
C
1

2
C
2
n
+
3
C
3
n
– ........ + (–1)
n–1
.
n
C
n
n
PART - II
1. Let L
n+1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
1 n 3 2 1
x
) x a cos( )....... x a ( cos ). x a ( cos . ) x a cos( – 1
+
¬ L
n+1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
1 n 2 1 1 n 1 n
x
) x a ( cos ..... ) x a ( cos . ) x a ( cos – ) x a ( cos ) x a ( cos – 1
+ + +
+
¬ L
n+1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
n 2 1 1 n 1 n
x
)} x a ( cos )..... x a cos( ). x a cos( – 1 { ) x a ( cos ) x a cos( – 1
+ +
+
¬ L
n+1
=
0 x
im
÷
!

2
1 n
x
) x a cos( – 1
+
+
0 x
im
÷
!
cos (a
n+1
x) . L
n
¬ L
n+1
=
( )
2
a
2
1 n+
+ L
n
L
1
=
2
a
2
1
, L
2
=
2
a
2
2
+ L
1
=
2
a
2
2
+
2
a
2
1
, L
3
=
2
a
2
3
+ L
2
=
2
a
2
3
+
2
a
2
2
+
2
a
2
1
, L
n
=
2
1
¿
=
n
1 i
2
i
a
2.
· ÷ ÷ x
im !
x x a x b
2
1 ÷ + + ÷
|
\

|
.
| = 0
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ + +
· ÷
b ax 1 x x im
2
x
!
= 0
Let x =
h
1
0
h
bh a h h 1
im
2
0 h
=
÷ ÷ + +
+
÷
! " limit exists
So 1 – a = 0 ¬ a = 1
0
h
bh 1 h h 1
im
2
0 h
=
÷ ÷ + +
+
÷
!
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 51
¬
2 0 h
h h 1 2
) 1 h 2 (
im
+ +
+
+
÷
!
– b = 0 ¬
2
1
– b = 0 ¬ b =
2
1
So a = 1, b =
2
1
3. "
· ÷ x
im !
x
n
f(x) = p
¬
· ÷ x
im !

x
) x ( f x
1 n+
= p
using L- Hospital rule, we get
· ÷ x
im !

1
) x ( f x ) x ( f x ) 1 n (
1 n n
' + +
+
= p ¬ (n + 1) p +
· ÷ x
im !
x
n+1
.f'(x) = p ¬
· ÷ x
im !
x
n+1
f'(x) = –np.
4. Let f(x) =
3
2 x
x
x 1 – x – e +
Since limit exists ¬ +
÷0 h
im !
f(0 + h) = +
÷0 h
im !
f(0 – h) = L (say)
L = +
÷0 h
im !

3
2 h
h
h 1 – h – e +
Also, L = +
÷0 h
im !

3
2 h –
h –
h 1 – h e + +
¬ 2L = +
÷0 h
im !

3
h – h
h
h 2 – e – e
Put h = 3t
¬ 2L = +
÷0 t
im !

3
t 3 – t 3
t 27
t 6 – e – e
¬ 54 L = +
÷0 t
im !

3
t – t t 2 – t 2 3 t – 3 t
t
t 6 – ) e – e ( 3 – ) e – e ( 3 ) 1 – e ( – ) 1 – e ( +
¬ 54 L = +
÷0 t
im !

(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
t – t
3
t 2 – t 2
3
t –
3
t
t
) t 2 – e – e (
3 –
t
) t 4 – e – e (
3
t –
1 – e
t
1 – e
¬ 54 L = +
÷0 t
im !

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
t – t
3
t 2 – t 2
3
t –
3
t
t
t 2 – e – e
3 –
) t 2 (
t 4 – e – e
24
t –
1 – e
t
1 – e
¬ 54 L = 1 + 1 + 48 L – 6L ¬ 12 L = 2 ¬ L =
6
1
5.
· ÷ n
im !
n
n ÷
2
( ) ....... n n n n
n
n
+ +
|
\

|
.
|
+
|
\

|
.
|
+
|
\

|
.
|
¦
´
¹
¹
`
)
÷
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
=
· ÷ n
im !
n
n
1 – n
n
2
1
n .......
2
1
n ) 1 n (
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
· ÷ n
im !

n
1 – n
n . 2
1
1 .......
n 2
1
1
n
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
(1
·
form )
=
· ÷ n
im !
n
n
1
1 |
.
|

\
|
+

2
n 2
n 2
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ........
1 – n
1 – n
2
n . 2
1 – n
n . 2
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= e
1
. e
1/2
. e
1/4
.......
term ......
2
1
1 – n
e
·
{ using
· ÷ n
im !

p
pn
e
n
1
1 = |
.
|

\
|
+
} {
· ÷ n
im !

p
pn
e
n
1
1 = |
.
|

\
|
+
}
= e
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 52
6. Let x
2
=
1 1+
=
2
; x
3
=
1 2 +
=
3
; x
4
=
4
; x
5= 5 ;......;
x
n = n
n
n
1 n
n x
x
im
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!

=

n
n n
1 n
im
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷
!

=
n 1
n
1 n
n
im
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
· ÷
!

=
( ) n n 1 n
n
im
e
÷ +
· ÷
!

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + · ÷ n 1 n
n
n
im
e
!
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷·
1
n
1
1
1
n
im
e
!

=
2
1
e

=

e
7. Now,
n n
1
2
+
<
k n
1
2
+
<
1 n
1
2
+
¬
n n
k
2
+
<
k n
k
2
+
<
1 n
k
2
+
¬
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
n n
k
<
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
k n
k
<
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
1 n
k
¬
( )
2
1 n n
.
n n
1
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
<
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
k n
k
<
( )
( ) 1 n 2
1 n n
2
+
+
¬
· ÷ n
im !

( )
2
1 n n
.
n n
1
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
<
· ÷ n
im !
¿
=
+
n
1 k
2
k n
k
<
· ÷ n
im !

( )
( ) 1 n 2
1 n n
2
+
+
¬ ¿
=
· ÷
+
n
1 k
2
n
k n
k
im !
=
2
1
(By Sandwich theorem)
8.
( ) ( ) 1 x sin sin
x log
im
e
1 x ÷
÷
÷
!
let y = x –1 ¬ x = 1 + y
Given limit =
( )
( ) y sin sin
y 1 log
im
e
0 y
+
÷
÷
!
=
( )
y
y 1 log
im
e
0 y
+ ÷
÷
!
×
( )
y sin
y sin sin
1
×
y sin
y
= –1 × 1 × 1 = –1
9.
· ÷ x
im !
x
3
x x x
2 4
1 2 + + ÷
¦
´
¹
¹
`
)
=
· ÷ x
im !
x
3

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
÷ + +
2 x x 1 x
x 2 x 1 x
4 2
2 4 2
=
· ÷ x
im !

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
2 4
4 4
4 2
3
x x 1
) x x 1 (
2 x x 1 x
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
2 4 4 2
3
x x 1 2 x x 1 x
x
=
· ÷ x
im !

2 4
1
2
1
.
2 2
1
1
x
1
1 2 1
x
1
1 x
x
4 4
3
3
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
10. Let y = x–
2
t
y cot
0 y
e im
÷
÷
+
!
=
y cot
0 y
e
1
im
+
÷
!
= 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 53
11. Let L =
( )
x
e e
x
e
x log log
im
· ÷
!
¬ L =
( )
x log
x log log 2
im
e
e e
x · ÷
!
.
x
x log
e
.
x
e
x
= 2×0×0×0 = 0
Since
x
x log
im
e
x · ÷
! = 0 and
0
e
x
im
x
x
=
· ÷
!
(using L.H. Rule)
12.
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) x 1 n 4 sin log
x 1 m 4 sin log
im
e
e
2
x
+
+
t
÷
!
|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) 1 n 4 . x 1 n 4 cos .
x 1 n 4 sin
1
1 m 4 . x 1 m 4 cos .
x 1 m 4 sin
1
im
2
x
+ +
+
+ +
+
t
÷
!
=
( )
( )
( )
1 n 4
1 m 4
.
x 1 m 4 tan
. x 1 n 4 tan
im
2
x
+
+
+
+
t
÷
!
Put x–
2
t
= y ¬ x =
2
t
+ y (4m+1)x = (4m+1)
2
t
+(4m+1)y
¬ tan (4m+1)x = – cot(4m+1)y
similarly tan (4n+1)x = – cot(4n+1)y
Given limit =
0 y
im
÷
! ( )
( )y 1 m 4 cot
y 1 n 4 cot
+
+
.
( )
) 1 n 4 (
1 m 4
+
+
=
( )
( )
( )
) 1 n 4 (
1 m 4
.
y 1 n 4 tan
y 1 m 4 tan
im
0 y +
+
+
+
÷
!
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
0 y
1 n 4
1 m 4
.
y ) 1 n 4 (
y 1 n 4 tan
1
.
y ) 1 m 4 (
y 1 m 4 tan
im
+
+
+
+ +
+
÷
!
=
( )
( )
2
2
1 n 4
1 m 4
+
+
13. Let x–1 = y ¬ x = 1 + y
given limit =
y cot
y
2
cot y log
im
e
0 y t
t
÷
+
÷
!
=
( )
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
t
|
.
|

\
| t
÷ t
+
÷ y cot
y
2
cot
y tan y log im
e
0 y
!
=
( )
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| t
t
t
t
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| t
+
÷
y
2
tan
y
2
.
y
y tan
. 2
y
y tan
y log y im
e
0 y
!
= 0.t – 2.1.1 = – 2
14.
( )
1
x
nx 1 n
) e ( x
e x
e
im
1
÷
+
÷
÷
+ ÷
! !
!
=
( )
( )
1
nx 1 n
e x e x
e
im
x / 1
1
÷
+
÷ ÷
+
÷
! !
!
=
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
1
x
x 1
e x
1
x / 1
e x e x
nx 1 . nx 1
im
e x
nx 1
im
1 – 1 –
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
+ +
=
÷
+
+ +
! !
!
!
!
=
( )
( ) x
x 1
e x
nx 1 .
1 ex
ex n e
im
1 –
÷
÷
+
÷
+
!
!
!
= e.1. (0)
e–1 |
.
|

\
|
=
÷
÷
1
1 x
nx
im
1 x
!
!
"
= 0
15. (i) Since x
2
>0 and limit equals 2, f(x) must be a positive quantity. Also since
( )
2
0 x
x
x f
im
÷
!
= 2, the
denominator ÷ zero and limit is finite therefore f(x) must be heading towards zero. If f(x) tends
to some non-zero number then limit will cease to be a finite quantity.
f(x) > 0 in small neighbourhood of x = 0
thus
( ) | | x f im
0 x÷
!
= 0
(ii)
( ) ( )
2
x
x xf
x
x f
=
¬
( )
x
x f
im
0 x÷
! =
( )
2
0 x
x
x f
. x im
÷
!
=
( )
2
0 x 0 x
x
x f
im . x im
÷ ÷
! !
= 0 ×2 = 0
if we find RHL of
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ x
x f
im
0 x
!
then it is zero but if we find LHL of
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ x
x f
im
0 x
!
=
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2
0 x
x
x f . x
im !
= –1
Hence limit does not exist.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 54
CONTINUITY AND DERIVABILITY
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-3. (i) h(x) = {x} [x]
at x = 1 h(1) = 0 LHL = 0 RHL = 0
at x = 2 h(2) = 0 LHL = 1 RHL = 0
(ii) h(x) = {x} + [x] = x at x = 1 continuous
(iii) h(x) = {x} – [x] = x – 2[x] discontinuous at x = 1
(iv) h(x) = } x { + [x]
at x = 1 h(1) = 1 LHL = 1 RHL = 1
at x = 2 h(2) = 2 LHL = 2 RHL = 2
A-4. f (x) = (x + 2) (x – 2) (x – 3)
h (x) =
¹
´
¦
=
= ÷ +
3 x , k
3 x , ) 2 x ( ) 2 x (
for continuity k =
3 x
lim
÷
h(x) = 5
h(x) = (x + 2) (x – 2) = x
2
– 4 which is even ¬ x e R
Section (B) :
B-2. f(x) = x + {–x} + [x] Since {–x} =
¹
´
¦
I e
I e ÷
x
x
, 0
}, x { 1
=
¹
´
¦
I e
I e
+
+ ÷ +
x
x ,
, ] x [ x
] x [ } x { 1 x
=
¹
´
¦
I e
I e +
x
x
,
,
x 2
] x [ 2 1

Curve of y = f(x)
discontinuous at all integers in [–2, 2]
B-5._ u =
2 x
1
+
is discontinuous at x = – 2
f(u) =
3 – u 5 u 2
3
2
+
=
3 – u – u 6 u 2
3
2
+
=
) 3 u ( ) 1 – u 2 (
3
+
is
discontinuous at u =
2
1
& –3

2 x
1
+
=
2
1
and
2 x
1
+
= – 3
¬ x = 0 and x = –
3
7
Hence y = f(u) is discontinous at x = –
3
7
, – 2, 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 55
Section (C) :
C-5. f

(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
> |
.
|

\
|
0 x ; 0
0 x ; sin x
x
1 m
for continitity f(0) = 0 = RHL (x = 0)
0
n
1
sin h lim
m
0 h
= |
.
|

\
|
÷
m
0 h
h lim
÷
[a finite quantity between [–1, 1]] = 0
It hold only when m > 0
if m s 0 neither continuous ¬ nor derivable
for derivability
h
) 0 ( f ) h ( f
lim
0 h
÷
÷
= finite ¬
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ h
1
sin h lim
) 1 m (
0 h
it is finite and unique
and equal to zero if m > 1 ¬ when m >1 continuous and derivable
if 0 < m s 1 continuous but not derivable
Section (D) :
D-2. y = f(x)
Section (E) :
E-2. f : R ÷ R and f(x + y) = f(x) f(y) ¬ x, y e R
Put x = y = 0 f(0) = f
2
(0) since f(0) = 0
¬ f(0) = 1
f '(x) =
h
) x ( f ) h x ( f
lim
0 h
÷ +
÷
=
| |
h
1 ) h ( f
) x ( f lim
0 h
÷
÷
= f(x) f '(0)
Let f(x) = y ¬
dx
dy
= y.f '(0)
On solving !ny = x f '(0) + c
y = f(x) = e
c
. e
x f '(0)
" f(0) = 1 ¬ c = 0
Thus f(x) = e
x.f '(0)
¬ x e R
E-3._ f(x) is continuous and
3
7
e [f(–2), f(2)], by intermediate value theorem (IVT), there exists a point
c e (–2, 2) such that f(c) =
3
7
PART - II
Section (A) :
A-2.* (A) f(x) is continuous no where
(B) g(x) is continuous at x = 1/2
(C) h(x) is continuous at x = 0
(D) k(x) is continuous at x = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 56
Section (B) :
B-4. y =
2 t t
1
2
÷ +
, where t =
1 x
1
÷
, y = f(x) is discontinuous at x = 1, where t is discontinuous and y =
) 1 t )( 2 t (
1
÷ +
at t = – 2 and t = 1
¬
1 x
1
÷
¬ –2x + 2 = 1, x =
2
1
1 –
1 x
1
÷
¬ x = 2 f(g(x)) is discontinuous at x =
2
1
, 2,1
Section (C) :
C-9. ÷
÷2 x
Lim
f(x) =
5
3
= f(2) = +
÷2 x
Lim
f(x) = 1
f(x) is not continous at x = 2
÷
÷3 x
Lim
f(x) = +
÷3 x
Lim
f(x) = f(3) =
2
9
Now LHD (x =3) is
0 h
Lim
÷

h
2
9
) ) h 3 ( ) h 3 ((
4
1
2 3
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
0 h
Lim
÷

4
21
4
21 h 8 h
2
=
+ ÷
and RHD (x = 3) is
0 h
Lim
÷

0
h
2
9
|) h 1 | | 1 h (|
4
9
=
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
f(x) is not differentiable at x =2 and x = 3
Section (D) :
D-3.*
0 x
0 x
0
x / 1 cos ) x (sin
) x ( f y
2 1
=
=
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= =
÷
f(x) can be discontinuous only at x = 0 in [–1,1]
So we check only at x = 0
LHD (x = 0) =
h
0
n
1
cos ) h (sin
lim
2 1
0 h ÷
÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷
÷ n
1
cos h .
n
h sin
lim
2
1
0 h
= –1. 0. [finite quantity between [–1,1]] = 0
RHD (x = 0) is
( )
0
n
1
cos .
n
h sin
h lim
2
2
1
0 h
= |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
÷
Hence f(x) is differentiable as well as continuous in [–1,1]
D-4.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 57
D-6.
1 x
1 x 2 / 1
2 / 1 x 0
x sin
4 / 1
x x
) x ( g y
2
>
s <
s s
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
t
÷
= =
Section (E) :
E-1. f(x + 2y) = f(x) + f(2y) + 4xy R y , x e ¬
Replace 2y with y we have
f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) + 2xy R y , x e ¬
diff. w.r.t. x
f '(x+y) = f '(x) + 2y
Put x = 1 y = –1 f '(0) = f '(1) –2
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
2. f(0) = 0
f(0
+
) =
) 1 h 3 )( 1 h 2 (
h
) 1 h 2 )( 1 h (
h
1 h
h
lim
0 h + +
+
+ +
+
+ ÷
+ ...............·
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
· +
+
÷
+
+
+
÷
+
+
+
÷
÷
.. ..........
1 h 3
1
1 h 2
1
1 h 2
1
) 1 h (
1
1 h
1
1 lim
0 h
f(x) is not continous at x = 0 since f(0) = f(0
+
)
4. f(1) =
2
1 sin 3 log
1 1
1 sin 1 3 log
lim
n 2
n 2
n
÷
=
+
÷
· ÷
f(1
+
) =
0 h
lim
÷
1 sin
1 ) h 1 (
) h 1 sin( ) h 1 ( ) h 3 log(
lim
n 2
n 2
n
÷ =
+ +
+ ÷ + ÷ +
· ÷
f (1

) =
0 h
lim
÷
3 log
1 ) h 1 (
) h 1 sin( ) h 1 ( ) h 3 log(
lim
n 2
n 2
n
=
+ ÷
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
· ÷
discontinous at x = 1
6. y = f(x)

RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 58
y = |f(x)|
y = f(|x|)
9. y = f(x) = xsin 1/x. sin
x / 1 sin x
1
when x = 0,
t r
1
, r = 1,2,3
y = 0, x = 0,
t r
1
where r = 1,2,3,...............
Let t = x sin1/x as
+
÷0 x

, t 0 ÷
and as x ÷
t r
1
, t ÷ 0
y = t sin1/t 0 t sin t lim y lim
0 t 0 x
= =
÷ ÷
= f(0)
also 0 t sin t lim y lim
0 t
r
1
x
= =
÷
t
÷
= f
|
.
|

\
|
t r
1
¬ f(x) is continous at x = 0 and
t r
1
¬ f(x) is continous ] 1 , 0 [ x e ¬
We know that t = xsin1/x is not differentiable at x = 0
therefore y = tsin1/t = xsin1/x. sin
x
1
sin x
1
is not differentiable at x = 0
Section (D) :
10. y = |sinx|
y = sin|x|
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 59
y = f(x) = |sinx| + sin|x|
f(x) is continous every where
f(x) is not differentiable at x = nt
f(x) is not periodic
16. Differentiability at x = 1
f'(1

) =
0 h
Lim
÷

h
) b a ( b ) h 1 ( a
8 ) h 1 ( 3 ) h 1 (
] ) h 1 sin[(
3
2
2
÷
+ ÷ + ÷ +
+ ÷ ÷ ÷
t ÷
=
0 h
Lim
÷

h
a ) h 1 ( a
3
÷
÷ ÷

|
.
|

\
|
form
0
0
=
0 h
Lim
÷

1
) h 1 ( a 3
2
÷
f'(1

) = 3a
f'(1
+
) =
0 h
Lim
÷

h
b a ) h 1 ( tan ) h 1 cos( 2
1
÷ ÷ + + t +
÷
=
0 h
Lim
÷

h
) b a ) h 1 ( tan h cos 2 (
1
÷ ÷ + + t ÷
÷
Function is differentiable
– 2 +
4
t
= a + b .....(1)
=
0 h
Lim
÷

h
2 / 2 ) h 1 ( tan h cos 2
1
t + ÷ + + t ÷
÷
=
0 h
Lim
÷
2t sin th +
2
) h 1 ( 1
1
+ +
=
2
1
Now f'(1

) = f'(1
+
) 3a =
2
1
a =
6
1
....(2) by (1) and (2) b =
4
t

6
13
PART - II
3. f
|
.
|

\
| t
2
=
] h 4 1 [ n
(cosh) n
h 4
cosh 1
lim
2 2
0 h
+
÷
÷
!
!
=
) h 4 1 ( n
h 4
.
2 / h
2 / h sin
16 16
2
lim
2
2
2
2
0 h
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
× ÷
!
.
2 / h sin 2
) 2 / h sin 2 1 ( n
2
2
÷ !
.
2 / h
2 / h sin 2
2
2
=
64
1
. 1. 1.(–1) .1 =
64
1
÷
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 60
5. f(x) = [sin[x]] =
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
t < s ÷ =
< s ÷ =
< s ÷ =
< s =
< s =
< s =
< s =
2 x 6 1 ] 6 [sin
6 x 5 1 ] 5 [sin
5 x 4 1 ] 4 [sin
4 x 3 0 ] 3 [sin
3 x 2 0 ] 2 [sin
2 x 1 0 ] 1 [sin
1 x 0 0 ] 0 [sin
f(x) is discontinuous at (4, –1)
9. f(x) =
¹
´
¦
+ +
s
otherwise , c bx ax
1 x , x
2
f(x) should be continous at x =1
it gives a+b+c =1
f(x) should be differentiable at x= 1
it gives 2a+b=1
¬ b =1–2a c= 1–a–b= a
10.
1 e x lim ) x ( f lim
) 1 x ( 2 2
1 x 1 x
= =
÷
÷ ÷
÷
f(1) = 1
1 x 1 x
lim ) x ( f lim
÷ ÷
=
+
a sgn (x +1) cos2(x–1) + bx
2
= a.1.1+ b
for continuity a + b = 1
LHD (x = 1) is
h
1 e ) h 1 (
lim
h 2 2
0 h
÷ ÷
÷
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ +
÷
÷ ÷
÷ h
1 e
he e 2 lim
h 2
h 2 h 2
0 h
= 2 + 0 + 2 = 4
RHD (x = 1) is
h
1 ) h 1 ( b h 2 cos ) h 2 sgn( a
lim
2
0 h
÷ + + +
÷
=
h
) b a ( bh 2 bh b h 2 cos a
lim
2
0 h
+ ÷ + + +
÷
=
b 2 bh
h
1 h 2 cos
a lim
0 h
+ + |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
= 2b
f(x) is differentiable at x = 1 if 2b = 4
¬ b = 2 a = –1
11. f(x) = [x]

[sin tx], x e (–1, 1)
=
¹
´
¦
e
÷ e
) 1 , 0 [ x ,
) 0 , 1 ( x ,
0
1
f(x) is continuous in (–1, 0)
13. Given f''(0) = 4
0 x
lim
÷

2
x
) x 4 ( f ) x 2 ( f 3 ) x ( f 2 + ÷
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
form
using L' Hospital rule
0 x
lim
÷

x 2
) x 4 ( f 4 ) x 2 ( f 6 ) x ( f 2 ' + ' ÷ '
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
form
using L' Hospital rule
0 x
lim
÷

2
) x 4 ( f 16 ) x 2 ( f 12 ) x ( f 2 '' + '' ÷ ''
=
2
4 . 16 4 . 12 4 . 2 + ÷
= 12
17. f(x) = [n + psinx] , x e (0, t)
graph of y = n + p sinx
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 61
obviously
f(x) = [n +psinx] is discontinous at points mark in above curve
¬ number of such points ¬ (p –1) + 1 + p –1 = 2p –1
21. f(x) = [x] + } x {
Curve of y = f(x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< s ÷ +
< s
< s ÷ + + ÷
2 x 1 , 1 x 1
1 x 0 , x
0 x 1 , 1 x 1
Method : II y = f(x) can be discontinuous only at x e I
so we check continuity only at x = n e I
f(n) = [n] + n 0 n } n { = + =
LHL (x = n) is
0 h
Lim
÷
[n – h] + } h n { ÷ = (n–1) + 1 = n
RHL (x = n) is
0 h
Lim
÷
[n + h] + } h n { + = (n+0) = n
f(x) is continous for x e R
22. f(x) =
¿
=
n
0 k
k
k
| x | a
= a
0
+ a
1
|x| + a
2
|x|
2
+ a
3
|x|
3
+ ............+ a
n
|x|
n
f(0) = a
0
we know that
0 | x | lim
0 x
=
÷
0
0 x
a ) x ( f lim =
÷
f(x) is continous for x = 0
|x|
n
is differentiable if n = 1, n e N
f(x) is not differentiable at x = 0, due to presence of |x|
If all a
2k+1
= 0, f(x) does not contains |x|
¬ f(x) is differentiable at x = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 62
EXERCISE # 3
2. (A) f(x) = |x
3
| is continuous and differentiable
(B) f(x) = | x | is continuous
f '(x) =
| x | 2
1
.
| x |
x
{does not exist at x = 0}
(C) f(x) = |sin
–1
x| is continuous
f '(x) =
| x sin |
x sin
1
1
÷
÷
.
2
x 1
1
÷
{does not exist at x = 0}
(D) f(x) = cos
–1
|x| is continuous
f '(x) =
2
x 1
1
÷
÷
.
| x |
x
{does not exist at x = 0}
Comprehension # 1_
3. (A) f (x) =
| x | n
1
!
LHL = 0 = RHL
(B) f (x) =
x
sin x
t
LHL = 0 = RHL
(C) f (x) =
x cot
2 1
1
+
f (0) = not define
LHL = 1
RHL = 0 ¬ LHL = RHL
(D) f (x) =
|
.
|

\
|
x
| x sin |
cos
LHL (at x = 0) = cos (– 1) = cos 1
RHL (at x = 0) = cos 1
LHL = RHL
4. (A) ÷
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = 1 +
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = 0
(B) ÷
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = –
2
t
+
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) =
2
t
(C) ÷
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = –1 +
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = 1
(D) ÷
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = +
÷0 x
Lim
f(x) = 0
5. f(x)

¸

4
t
> +
4
t
s
÷
x 1 ] x [ n
x x tan tan
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
4
f
= 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
4
f
= x =
4
t
Jump P - 1 –
4
t
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 63
Comprehension # 3 (9 to 11)
Given function f(x) can be rewritten as, f(x) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s < ÷
s s ÷ +
÷ <
1 x , 0
1 x 0 , x 1
0 x 1 , x 1
1 x , 0
¬ f(x – 1) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
> ÷
s ÷ < ÷ ÷
s ÷ s ÷ ÷ +
÷ < ÷
1 1 x , 0
1 1 x 0 , ) 1 x ( 1
0 1 x 1 , ) 1 x ( 1
1 1 x , 0
or f(x – 1) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s < ÷
s s
<
2 x , 0
2 x 1 , x 2
1 x 0 , x
0 x , 0
also, f(x + 1) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
> +
s + < + ÷
s + s ÷ + +
÷ < +
1 1 x , 0
1 1 x 0 , ) 1 x ( 1
0 1 x 1 , ) 1 x ( 1
1 1 x , 0
or f(x + 1) =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s < ÷ ÷
÷ s s ÷ +
÷ <
0 x , 0
0 x 1 , x
1 x 2 , x 2
2 x , 0
Now, g(x) = f(x – 1) + f(x + 1) =
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s < ÷
s <
s < ÷ ÷
÷ s < ÷ +
÷ <
2 x , 0
2 x 1 , x 2
1 x 0 , x
0 x 1 , x
1 x 2 , x 2
2 x , 0
It is easy to check that g(x) is continuous for all x e R and non-differentiable at x = – 2, –1, 0, 1, 2.
13. Statement - 1
f (x) = {tanx} – [tan x]
f(x) = tanx – 2 [tan x] =

¸

< s
t
÷
t
< s
÷
2 tan x
4
, 2 x tan
4
x 0 , x tan
1
obviously at x =
3
t
f(x) is continuous. (True)
Statement-2
y = f (x) & y = g(x) both are continuous at x = a
then y = f(x) ± (g(x) will also be continuous at x = a (True)
Statement-1 can be explained with the help of statement-2.
21. f(x) = |x sgn (1 – x
2
)| =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
· e
÷ =
· ÷ ÷ ÷· e ÷
) , 1 ( ) 1 , 0 ( x
1 , 0 , 1 x
) , 1 ( ) 1 , ( x
x
0
x
function is discontinous at x = –1, 1
and non differentiable at x = –1, 0,1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 64
24. f(x) = (x
2
|x|)
1/3
=

¸

< ÷ = ÷ = ÷
> =
0 x , x x ) 1 ( ) x (
0 x , x ) x (
3
1
3
1
5
3
1
3
= – x
f(x) is differentiable every where except at x = 0
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1.
0 h
lim
÷

4
6
=
0 h
lim
÷
) 1 ( ) 1 h h (
) 2 ( ) h 2 h 2 (
) 1 ( f ) 1 h h ( f
) 1 ( ) 1 h h (
) 2 ( ) h 2 h 2 (
) 2 ( f ) h 2 h 2 ( f
2
2
2
2
2
2
÷ + ÷
÷ + +
÷ + ÷
÷ + ÷
÷ + +
÷ + +
=
0 h
lim
÷

) h 1 ( h
) h 2 ( h
.
) 1 ( f
) 2 ( f
÷
+
'
'
= 3
2. We have given
L.H.D. at x = a is zero
¬ f'(a

) = 0
¬
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h ÷
÷ ÷
+
÷
= 0 ...........(1)
Now, L.H.D. at x = – a
¬ f'(–a

) =
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+
÷
=
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h ÷
+ + ÷
+
÷
[" f is an odd function]
=
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h
÷ +
+
÷
=
h
) a ( f )] h – a ( a 2 [ f
lim
0 h
÷ ÷
+
÷
=
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim
0 h
÷ ÷
+
÷
[" f(2a – x) = f(x) ]] a 2 , a [ x e ¬
=
h
) a ( f ) h a ( f
lim –
0 h ÷
÷ ÷
+
÷
= – f'(a
_
)
= – (0) = 0 [using (1)]
Thus, f'(–a

) = 0
3. Since f(x) is differentiable at x = 0 ¬ continuous at x = 0
i.e.,
) 0 ( f ) x ( f lim ) x ( f lim

0 x 0 x
= =
÷ ÷
+
2
a
2
a
·
2
h
a
1 – e
lim
h
1 – e
lim ) x ( f lim
2 / ah
0 h
2 / ah
0 h 0 x
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
+
also,

0 x
lim
÷
f(x) =
0 h
lim
÷
b sin
–1
|
.
|

\
|
2
h – c

= b sin
–1

2
c
b sin
–1

2
1
2
a
2
c
= =
¬ a = 1 ... (i)
Also, f(x) is differentiable at x = 0
¬ f' (0
+
) = f'(0

)
f' (0
+
) =
0 h
lim
÷
h
2
1

h
1 – e
2 / h
=
0 h
lim
÷

2
2 / h
h 2
h – 2 – e 2
=
8
1
and f' (0

) =
0 h
lim
÷

h
2
1

2
h – c
sin b
1 –
÷
|
.
|

\
|
=
4
c
– 1
2 / b
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 65

8
1
c – 4
b
2
=
or 64b
2
= (4 – c
2
)
¬ a = 1 and 64b
2
= (4 – c
2
)
4.
0 x
lim
÷
) 0 ( f ) x ( f
) x ( f ) x ( f
2
÷
÷
. Put x = 0 and we get
0
0
form. Also because ‘f’ is strictly increasing and differentiable.
Apply L-Hospital rule, weget
0 x
lim
÷
) x ( f
) x ( f ) x ( f x 2
2
'
' ÷ '
= – 1. Since ‘f’ is strictly increasing f'(x) = 0 in an internal
5. Graph of f(x) is
From graph f(x) is not differentiable at x = 0, ± 1.
6. As f is continuous
f(0) =
) x ( f lim
0 x÷
=
) n / 1 ( f lim
n · ÷
=
0 0 lim
n
=
· ÷
Also f'(0) =
x
) 0 ( f ) x ( f
lim
0 x
÷
÷
=
x
) x ( f
lim
0 x÷
=
) n / 1 (
) n / 1 ( f
lim
n · ÷
=
) n / 1 (
) zero exact ( 0
lim
n · ÷
= 0 So f(0) = 0 = f'(0)
7. f(x – y) = f(x).g(y) – f(y) g(x) ...................(1)
put x = y in (1) we get f(0) = 0
put y = 0 in (1) we get g(0) = 1
given that f'(0
+
) =
h
) 0 ( f ) h 0 ( f
lim
0 h
÷ +
÷
=
h
) 0 ( f ) h ( f ) 0 ( g ) h ( g ). 0 ( f
lim
0 h
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
=
h
) h ( f
lim
0 h ÷
÷
÷
=
h
) 0 ( f ) h 0 ( f
lim
0 h ÷
÷ ÷
÷
= f'(0

)
Hence f(x) is differentiable at x = 0
Let g(x – y) = g(x) . g(y) + f(x). f(y) ..................(2)
Put y = x in (2) ¬ 1 = g
2
(x) + f
2
(x) ¬ g
2
(x) = 1 – f
2
(x) ¬ 2g(x). g'(x) = –2f(x). f'(x)
Put x = 0 ¬ g'(0) = 0
8*.
From graph broken at x = 2, 3 & does not have definite tangent at x = 2, 3
9*. Here, f(x) = min. {1, x
2
, x
3
} which could be graphically
shown as
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 66
f(x) =
¹
´
¦
<
>
1 x , x
1 x , 1
3
¬ f(x) is continuous for x e R and not differentiable at x = 1 due to sharp edge.
Hence (A) and (C) are the correct answer.
10. (A) y = x|x| (A) ÷ p, q, r
(B) y = | x | (B) ÷ p, s
(C) y = x + [x] (C) ÷ r, s
(D) y = |x – 1| + |x + 1| =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ < ÷
< s ÷
>
1 x ; x 2
1 x 1 ; 2
1 x ; x 2
(D) ÷ p, q
11. f'(x) = g(x) cos x + g'(x) sin x
f'(0) = g(0) = 0
f''(0) =
0 x
Lim
÷

x
) 0 ( f ) x ( f ' ÷ '
=
0 x
Lim
÷

x
) 0 ( g x sin ) x ( g x cos ) x ( g ÷ ' +
=
0 x
Lim
÷

x
) 0 ( g x cos ) x ( g ÷
+
0 x
Lim
÷

x
x sin ) x ( g'
=
0 x
Lim
÷

x
) 0 ( g x cos ) x ( g ÷
=
0 x
Lim
÷

x sin
) 0 ( g x cos ) x ( g ÷
=
0 x
Lim
÷
(g(x) cot x – g(0) cosec x)
12. Clearly ‘p’ =
+
÷0 h
Lim

h
) 1 ( f ) h 1 ( f
÷
÷ ÷
=
h
0 | h |
÷
÷
= – 1
Now
+
÷1 x
Lim

) 1 x ( cos log
) 1 x (
m
n
÷
÷
= – 1
+
÷1 x
Lim

] 1 ) 1 x [cos(
1 ) 1 x cos(
] 1 ) 1 x cos( 1 [ log
m
) 1 x (
n
÷ ÷ ×
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ +
÷
= – 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 67
or,
+
÷1 x
Lim

m
) 1 x (
n
÷

2
) 1 x (
sin 2
1
2
÷
÷
= – 1
Hence n = 2, m = 2. (C) is correct answer.
Aliter : LHD of |x – 1| at 1 is – 1 ÷ p
+
÷1 x
lim
g(x) =
+
÷0 t
lim

t cos log
t
m
n
=
m
1

+
÷0 t
lim
t
n–2
.
t cos log
1 t cos ÷
.
1 t cos
t
2
÷
= –
m
2

+
÷0 t
lim
t
n–2
("
0 t
lim
÷

2
t
t cos 1÷
=
2
1
)

m
2

+
÷0 t
lim
t
n–2
= – 1 ¬ n = 2, m = 2
13. f(x) = kx
Hence f(x) is continuous & differentiable at x e R & f ’(x) = k (constant)
14. (A) at x =
2

t
Lf
|
.
|

\
| t
2

= 0 = f
|
.
|

\
| t
2

Rf
|
.
|

\
| t
2

= 0
¬ continuous
(B) at x = 0 Rf'(0) = 1
Lf'(0) = 0 ¬ not differentiable
(C) at x = 1 Rf'(1) = 1
Lf'(1) = 1 ¬ differentiable at x = 1
(D) at x =
2
3
– >
2

t
¬ f(x) = – cos x ¬ differentiable at x =
2
3

15. f(x) =
1 bx
b x
÷
÷
=
b
1
+
) 1 bx (
b
b
1
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
f'(x) =
2
) 1 bx (
b
b
1
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
b, f'(x) < 0 ¬ x (0, 1)
Range of f(x) is (–1, b)
so range = co-domain
so f is not invertible
f
–1
doesnot exist
No comparison with f
–1
16. (I) for derivability at x = 0
L.H.D. = f '(0

) =
+
÷0 h
im !

h –
) 0 ( f – ) h – 0 ( f
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h –
0 –
h
– cos . h
2
|
.
|

\
| t
=
+
÷0 h
im !
– h .
h
cos
t
= 0
RHD f '(0
+
) =
+
÷0 h
im !

h
) 0 ( f – ) h 0 ( f +
= +
÷0 h
im !

h
0 –
h
cos . h
2
|
.
|

\
| t
= 0
So f(x) is derivable at x = 0
(ii) check for derivability at x = 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 68
RHD = f '(2
+
) =
+
÷0 h
im !
h
) 2 ( f – ) h 2 ( f +
=
+
÷0 h
im !
h
0 –
h 2
cos . ) h 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
+
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h
h 2
cos . ) h 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
+
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h
h 2

2
sin . ) h 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
t t
+
=
+
÷0 h
im !
) h 2 ( 2
.
h
) h 2 ( 2
) h 2 ( 2
h
sin . ) h 2 (
2
+
t
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
+
= (2)
2
.
) 2 ( 2
t
= t
LHD =
+
÷0 h
im !
h –
) 2 ( f – ) h – 2 ( f
=
+
÷0 h
im !
h –
0 –
h – 2
cos . ) h – 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
| t
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h –
0 –
h – 2
cos – . ) h – 2 (
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| t
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h
h – 2
cos ) h – 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
| t
=
+
÷0 h
im !

h
h – 2

2
sin . ) h – 2 (
2
|
.
|

\
| t t
=
+
÷0 h
im !
) h – 2 ( 2

.
) h – 2 ( 2
h

) h – 2 ( 2
h
– sin . ) h – 2 (
2
t
|
|
.
|

\
| t
|
|
.
|

\
| t
= – t
So f(x) is not derivable at x = 2
17.
correct is B So
1 b a
1 b a
1 b ) n 2 ( f
a ) n 2 ( f
a ) n 2 ( f
n n
n n
n
n
n
= ÷
+ =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
+ =
=
=
÷
+
1 b a
1 b a
1 b a
1 b ) ) 1 n 2 (( f
a ) ) 1 n 2 (( f
a ) 1 n 2 ( f
n 1 n
1 n n
1 n n
1 n
n
n
÷ = ÷
÷ = ÷
÷ =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
÷ = +
= +
= +
÷
+
+
+
+
÷
PART - II
1. Continuity at x = 0
LHL = ) x ( f lim

0 x÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
) h (–
1
| h – |
1

0 h
e ) h – 0 ( lim
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
h
1

h
1

0 h
e ) h (– lim
=
) h (– lim
0 h÷
= 0
RHL =
) x ( f lim
0 x
+
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
+
h
1
| h |
1

0 h
e ) h 0 ( lim
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
h
1
h
1

0 h
he lim
=
h
2
0 h
e
h
lim
÷
= 0
¬
) x ( f lim

0 x÷
=
) x ( f lim
0 x
+
÷
= f(0)
Therefore, f(x)is continuous for all x.
Differentiability at x = 0
Lf ' (0) =
0 – ) h (–
0 – e ) h (–
lim
h
1

h
1

0 h
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
0
0 h
e lim
÷
= 1
Rf ' (0) =
0 – h
0 – he
lim
h
1
h
1

0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=
h
2
0 h
e
1
lim
÷ = 0 ¬ Rf ' (0) = Lf' (0)
Therefore, f (x) is not differentiable at x = 0.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 69
2. Since, f(x) =
t – x 4
x tan – 1

|
.
|

\
|
t
=
t
÷
t
÷
– x 4
x tan – 1
lim ) x ( f lim
4
x
4
x
(Using L'Hospital's rule)
= |
|
.
|

\
|
t
÷
4
x sec –
lim
2
4
x
=
4
2

4
4
sec –
2
=
|
.
|

\
| t
¬
2
1
– ) x ( f lim
4
x
=
t
÷
Also, f(x) is continuous in (
¸
(

¸
t
2
, 0
, so f(x) will be continuous at
4
t
.
f |
.
|

\
| t
4
=
2
1
– ) x ( f lim
4
x
=
t
÷
3. Since |f(x) – f(y)| s (x – y)
2
| y – x | lim
| y – x |
| ) y ( f – ) x ( f |
lim
y x y x ÷ ÷
s
¬ | f '(y)| s 0 ¬ f '(y) = 0
¬ f (y) = constant ¬ f (y) = 0 [" f(0) = 0 given]
¬ f (1) = 0
4. f '(1) =
h
) 1 ( f – ) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h
+
÷
=
h
) 1 ( f
lim –
h
) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h 0 h ÷ ÷
+
Since,
h
) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h
+
÷
= 5, so
h
) 1 ( f
lim
0 h÷
must be
finite as f '(1) exist and
h
) 1 ( f
lim
0 h÷
can be finite
only, if f(1) = 0 and
h
) 1 ( f
lim
0 h÷
= 0 f '(1) =
h
) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h
+
÷
= 5.
5. Since, f(x) =
| x | 1
x
+
Let f(x) =
) x ( h
) x ( g
=
| x | 1
x
+
It is clear that g(x) = x and h(x) = 1 + |x| are differentiable on (–·, ·) and (–· , 0) (0, ·) respectively.
Thus, f(x) is differentiable on (–· , 0) (0, ·).
Now we have to check the differentiability at x = 0

0 – x
) 0 ( f – ) x ( f
lim
0 x÷
=
x
0 –
| x | 1
x
lim
0 x
+
÷
=
| x | 1
1
lim
0 x + ÷
= 1
Hence, f (x) is differentiable on (–·, ·).
6. Now,
|
.
|

\
|
÷
1 – e
2

x
1
lim
x 2
0 x
=
) 1 – e ( x
x 2 – 1 – e
lim
x 2
x 2
0 x÷
=
x 2 x 2
x 2
0 x
xe 2 ) 1 – e (
2 – e 2
lim
+
÷
(using L'Hospital's rule)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 70
=
x 2 x 2
x 2
0 x
xe 4 e 4
e 4
lim
+
÷
= 1 (using L'Hospital's rule)
f(x) is continuous at x = 0, then
0 x
lim
÷
f(x) = f(0)
¬ 1 = f(0)
7. f(x) = min {x + 1, |x| + 1}
f(x) = x + 1, ¬ x e R.
It is clear from the figure that
f (x) > 1, ¬ x e R.
8. Now, f' (1) =
h –
) 1 ( f – ) h – 1 ( f
lim
0 h÷
=
h –
0 –
1 – h – 1
1
sin ) 1 – h – 1 ( f
lim
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷ h
1
– sin lim
0 h
= –
h
1
sin lim
0 h÷
and f' (1
+
)=
h
) 1 ( f – ) h 1 ( f
lim
0 h
+
÷
=
h
0 –
1 – h 1
1
sin ) 1 – h 1 (
lim
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
÷
=
h
1
sin lim
0 h÷
f'(1

) = f'(1
+
)
f is not differentiable at x = 1.
Again, now
f' (0) =
h –
1 sin –
1 h 0
1
sin ) 1 h 0 (
lim
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
÷
=
1 –
1 h
1
sin
) 1 h (
1
1 h
1
cos ) 1 h ( –
lim
2
0 h
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
× |
.
|

\
|
+
+
÷
(using L' hospital's rule)
= cos 1 – sin 1
and f' (0
+
) =
h
1 sin –
1 – h 0
1
sin ) 1 – h 0 (
lim
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
÷
=
1
1 – h
1
sin
) 1 – h (
1 –
1 – h
1
cos ) 1 – h (
lim
2
0 h
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
× |
.
|

\
|
÷
(using L'Hospital's rule)
= cos 1 – sin 1
¬ f' (0

) = f' (0
+
)
f is differentiable at x = 0.
9. gof (x) = sin (x |x|)
gof (x) =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
= +
0 x , |) x | x cos( | x |
0 x , )
| x |
x
. x | x |)(| x | x cos(
gof is differentiable at x = 0 and the derivatives is continuous
statement-1 is true
Statement-2
+
÷0 h
lim

h
) 0 ( ) gof ( ) h 0 ( ) gof ( ' ÷ + '
=
+
÷0 h
lim
h
| h |
h
h | h | |) h | h cos(
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
h
) h h )( h cos(
2
+
= 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 71
÷
÷0 h
lim

h
) 0 ( ) gof ( ) h 0 ( ) gof ( ' ÷ ÷ '
=
÷
÷0 h
lim
h
| h |
h
| h | |) h | h cos(
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
÷
÷0 h
lim

h
) h h )( h cos(
2
÷ ÷ ÷
= – 2
not differentiable
statement-2 is false
10. f(0) = q
f(0
+
) =
x
1 – ) x 1 (
im
2 / 1
0 x
+
+
÷
!
=
x
1 – ..... x
2
1
1
im
0 x
+ +
+
÷
!
=
2
1
f(0

) =
x
x sin x ) 1 p ( sin
im

0 x
+ +
÷
!
¬ f(0

) =
1
) x (cos ) 1 p )( x ) 1 p (cos(
im

0 x
+ + +
÷
!
= (p + 1) + 1 = p + 2 p + 2 = q =
2
1
¬ p = –
2
3
, q =
2
1
11. f(x) =
¹
´
¦
=
=
0 x
0 x
,
,
0
) x / 1 sin( x
at x = 0
LHL =
+
÷0 h
lim
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
h
1
– sin h –
= 0 × a finite quantity between – 1 and 1
RHL =
+
÷0 h
lim
h sin
h
1
= 0 f(0) = 0
f(x) is continuous on R. f
2
(x) is not continuous at x = 0
12.
a – x
) x ( f a – ) a ( f x
im
2 2
a x÷
! =
1
) x ( f a – ) a ( xf 2
im
2
a x
'
÷
! = 2af(a) – a
2
f' (a)
Alter
a – x
) x ( f a – ) a ( f x
im
2 2
a x÷
! =
a – x
) x ( f a – ) a ( f a ) a ( f a – ) a ( f x
im
2 2 2 2
a x
+
÷
! =
a – x
)) a ( f – ) x ( f ( a – ) a ( f ) a – x (
im
2 2 2
a x÷
!
=
a x
im
÷
!
(x + a) f(a) – a
2

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
) a – x (
) a ( f – ) x ( f
= 2af(a) – a
2
f' (a)
13. Doubtful points are x = n, n e I
L.H.L =

n x
lim
÷
[x] cos
|
.
|

\
|
2
1 – x 2
t = (n – 1) cos
|
.
|

\
|
2
1 – n 2
t = 0
R.H.L. = [x] cos t = n cos t = 0
f(n) = 0
14. f(x) = 3 2 s x s 5
f'(x) = 0 2 < x < 5 f'(4) = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 72
ADVANCE LEVEL PROBLEMS
PART - I
1. ·
= – = = –
2. " R.H.L = =
" L.H.L = =
= = 1 × – 1 = – 1
L.H.L = R.H.L
3. " L.H.L. = f(x) = =
and R.H.L = f(x) =
= L.H.L = R.H.L
(D)
4. f(x) =
discontinuity may arise at the points where
, and = 0
x = ; x = , ; x = , five points
5. =
¬ = 1 similarly f(x) = 1
6. = = 2
now, L.H.D. = = = ÷ ·
L.H.D does not exist.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 73
7. As 0 < {e
x
} < 1
¬ f(x) = – 1 ¬ x e R
8. f(x) =
¬ (1 + 0) = 1
" f(x) ¬ (0 + 1) = 1
and f(1) = 1 ¬ f(x) = f(1)
continuous at x = 1
similarly we check for another integers
9. As f(x) is continuous for all x e R
Thus f(x) = f
since f(x) = , x =
f(x) = = = 2
Thus =
10. Let f(x) = ¬ f(t) = 2
= = f'(t)
Now f'(x) =
f'(t) = 0
11. Function
f(x) = (x
2
– 1) |x
2
– 3x + 2| + cos (|x|) ....... (i)
Imp Note : In differentiable of |f(x)| we have to
consider critical points for which f(x) = 0
|x| is not differentiablity at x = 0
but cos | x | =
¬ cos | x | =
Therefore it is differentiable at x = 0
Next, |x
2
– 3x + 2| = |(x – 1) (x – 2)| =
Therefore,
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 74
f(x) =
Now, x = 1, 2 are critical point for differentiability
Because f(x) is differentiable on other points in its domain
Differentiability at x = 1
L f' (1) =
= = 0 – sin 1 = – sin 1
($ = (cos x)
at x = 1 – 0 = – sin x at x = 1 – 0 = – sin x at x = 1 = – sin1
and R ]' (1) = =
= 0 – sin 1 = – sin 1 (same approach)
" Lf' (1) = Rf' (1).
Therefore, function is differentiable
at x = 1.
Again Lf' (2) =
= = – (4 – 1) (2 – 1) – sin 2 = – 3 – sin 2
and R f' (2) = = = (2
2
– 1) – sin 2 = 3 – sin 2
So L f' (2) = R f' (2), f is not differentiable at x = 2
Therefore, (d) is the answer.
12. f(x) = [x sin tx]
f(0) = 0
f(0

) = [–h sint(–h)] = 0 ; f(0
+
) = [h sin th] = 0
Here f(0

) = f(0
+
) = f(0) = 0
So continuous at x = 0
Since graph of f(x) is as shown in the figure
Now all options can be checked from graph.
PART - II
1. f(x) =
(i) for 0 < sin x < 1,
f(x) = = 1
(ii) for sin x = 0,
f(x) =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 75
(iii) for – 1 s sinx < 0,
f(x) = f(x) =
f(x) is discontinuous at integral multiples of t
2.
= =
= =
for g(x) to be continuous (!na)
2
= (!n2a)
2
¬ (!na + !n2a) = 0
¬ a = g(0) = (!n 2)
2
3. " f(x) =
by definition of g(x)
g(x) =
g'(x) =
clearly g(x) is discontinuous at x = 0 and not differentiable at x = 0, 2
4. f(x) =
graph of f(x) is as shown is figure
f(x) is continuous for all x but
non-differentiable for integral points.
5. " f(x) =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 76
" f(x) = = 0 and f(x) = = 0
and f (0) = 0 f(x) is continuous at x = 0
" f(x) = = and f(x) = ÷ ·
f(x) is discontinuous for x = 1
Similarly we can check that f(x) is discontinuous at x = – 1
" L.H.D. at (x = 0) is = = = 1
" R.H.D. at (x = 0) is = = = 1
¬ L.H.D. = R.H.D.
at x = 0, f(x) is derivable.
6. is 1 or 0 according to x is a rational number or an irrational number. As m!tx will
become integral multiple of t when x is rational, then cos (m!tx) = ± 1. And when m!tx is not an integral multiple
of t i.e. when x is irrational then –1 < cos (m!tx) < 1
f(x) =
f(x) is discontinuous and non-differentiable at every real number.
7. f(x) + f(y) =
f ’(x) = f ’
f ’(x) = f’
put x = 0
f ’(0) = f ’(y) (1+y
2
)
= f ’(y)
Integrating both sides
f ’(0) tan
–1
y = f(y) + c ..... (1)
Now put x = 0 & y = 0 in f(x) + f(y) = f
we get 2f(0) = f(0)
f(0) = 0 ............. (2) and " = 2
¬ = 2 ¬ f' (x) = 2 f'(0) = 2 ........... (3)
from (2) & (3) & (1)
2tan
-1
y = f(y) + c
now put y = 1, we get 2tan
-1
1 = f(1) + c
= + c ¬ c = 0
f(x) = 2tan
-1
x
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 77
8. " R.H.L. = f(0 + h) =
= .
(putting 1–h
2
= cos2u)
= = =
" L.H.L = f(0 – h) =
= = = =
since R.H.L. = L.H.L, therefore no value of f(0) can make f continuous at x = 0
9. As f is continuous on R, so f(0) = f(x)
Thus f(0) = f

=

= 0 + 1 = 1
10. " f(1) = 0
R.H.L. = f(1 + h) = cos
–1
= cos
–1
= 0
L.H.L. = f(1 – h) = cos
–1
= cos
–1
(0) =
" f(–1) = 0
f(x) is discontinuous hence non-derivable at x = 1
" f'(–1
+
) = = 0
and f'(–1

) = = 0
¬ f'(–1
+
) = f'(–1

) = 0
f(x) is derivable at x = – 1
11. " f'(x) = =
= f(x) = ¬ f'(x) =
so dx = =
12. we have
f(x) = (sin(–h) + cos(–h))
cosec(-h)
= (cosh – sinh)
–cosech
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 78
= = = e
Now we have
f(x) = = =
If ‘f’ is continuous at x = 0 , then
e = a = gives a = e and b = 1
13. Given that
f(xy) = e
xy–x–y
(e
y
f(x) + e
x
f(y)) x,y e R
+
putting x = y = 1 , we get
f(1) = e
–1
(ef(1) + ef(1))
¬ f(1) = 0
now " f'(x) = =
= = f(x) +
¬ f'(x) = f(x) + ¬ = ¬ =
Integrating both sides w.r.t. ‘x’ , we get
!n |x| + c =
or f(x) = e
x
(!n|x| + c)
since f(1) = 0 ¬ c = 0
f(x) = e
x
!n|x|
14. Given f(x + y
3
) = f(x) + [f(y)]
3
and f ’(0) > 0
putting x = y = 0, we get
f(0) = f(0) + (f(0))
3
¬ f(0) = 0
also f'(0) = =
Let L = f ’(0) = = = L
3
or L = L
3
or L = 0 , 1, –1 as f'(0) > 0 ¬ f'(0) = 0, 1
Thus f ’(x) =
= ¬ f ’(x) = ¬ f ’(x) = 0 , 1
Integrating both sides, we get
f(x) = 0 or f(x) = x + c
As f(0) = 0 , we have f(x) = 0 or f(x) = x
Now f(x) = 0 is imposible as f(x) is not identically zero
f(x) = x and f(10) = 10
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 79
METHOD OF DIFFERENTIATION
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-1. (i) f(x) = sinx
2
f(x) = =
= = . · cos
= · (2x + h) . cos ¬ (f(x)) = (1) . (2x) . cosx
2
f'(x) = 2x cosx
2
(ii) f(x) = e
2x + 3
f(x + h) = e
2(x + h) + 3
(f(x)) = = = e
2x + 3
. 2
= 2e
2x + 3
¬ f(x) = 2e
2x + 3
. 1 ¬ f'(x) = 2e
2x + 3
A–2. (i) y = x
2/3
+ 7e – + 7 tan x
= x
–1/3
+ + 7 sec
2
x
(ii) y = x
2
.!n x.e
x
= 2x.!n x .e
x
+ x.e
x
+ x
2
.!nx.e
x
(iii) y = !n
= . sec
2
= . = = sec x
(iv) y =
=
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 80
(v) y = tan
y =
y = tan ¬ = sec
2
Section (B) :
B–3. (i) ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
¬ = – ¬ = –
(ii) xy + xe
–y
+ y. e
x
– x
2
= 0
= – ¬ =
Section (C) :
C–3. (i) y = tan
–1
+ tan
–1

y = tan
–1
+ tan
–1

y = tan
–1
5x – tan
–1
x + tan
-1
+ tan
–1
x
=
(ii) y = sin
–1
, 0 < x < 1
y = – cos
–1

Let tan
–1
x = u, u e
y = – cos
–1
(cos 2u)
0 < 2u <
y = – 2 tan
–1
x
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 81
(iii) y = sin
–1
, – 1 < x < 1
y = – cos
–1
let 2u = cos
–1
x
y = – cos
–1
y = – cos
–1
(cosu)
y = – cos
–1
x = .
Section (D) :
D–1. (i) y = tan
–1
, z =
y = tan
–1
(1) + tan
–1
(2x)
=
= .8x ¬ = . =
(ii) y = tan
–1
, z = tan
–1
x, z e
¬ x = tanz ¬ y = tan
–1

y = tan
–1
(tan z/2)
y = "
=
Section (E) :
E–1. (i) e
y
(x + 1) = 1
x + 1 = e
–y
1 = –e
–y

= e
–y
...(1)
¬ = –e
y
¬ = –e
y
(–e
y
) =
(ii) y = sin (2sin
–1
x) ..... (i)
= .... (ii)
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 82
=
¬ (1 – x
2
) = – 4y + x ¬ (1 – x
2
) = x – 4y
E–5. (i) y = = = = e
1/3
(ii) (cosecx)
1/!nx
!n y =
!ny = · (– cosec x cotx) · By L.H.Rule
!ny = – · cosx ¬ y = e
–1
E–7. H'(1) = 1, g'(1) = 2, H(1) = 1, g(1) = 2

= By L.H. Rule
= = 0
PART - II
Section (A) :
A–2. f(x) = log
x
(!nx)
¬ f(x) = ¬ f'(x) = ¬ f'(e) = = 1/e
Section (B) :
B–1. y = x
3
– 8x + 7 and x = f(t)
" t = 0 , = 2 and x = 3
" = ¬ = ¬ =
t = 0, x = 3
t = 0, =
B–3. sin(xy) + cos (xy) = 0 ¬ cos(xy) – sin(xy) = 0
¬ = – ¬ = –
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 83
Section (C) :
C–3. f(x) = |x|
|sinx|
at x = t/4, |x| = x and |sinx| = sinx
f(x) = x
sinx
¬ !n(f(x)) = sinx . !nx ¬ f'(x) = cosx !nx +
¬ f'(t/4) =
C–4. y = sin
–1
+ cos
–1
, |x| > 1
¬ y = = 0
Section (D) :
D–2.* y = sin
–1
, z = cos
–1
" – 1 < < 1 and 0 < s 1 ¬ t e R
let sin
–1
= u ¬ u e (– t/2, t/2)
= sinu ¬ cosu =
(i) if u e , then
y = u, z = u
¬ = 1
(ii) if u e , then
y = u, z = – u ¬ = – 1
Section (E) :
E–2. = f'(e
x
).e
x
= e
x
f'(e
x
) + e
2x
f''(e
x
)
E–5.* u = e
x
sin x, v = e
x
cos x
v – u = v(e
x
cos x + e
x
sin x) – u(e
x
cos x – e
x
sin x)
= e
x
sin x(v + u) + e
x
cos x( v – u)
= u(v + u) + v(v – u) = v
2
+ u
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 84
again = e
x
sin x + e
x
cos x
= e
x
sin x + e
x
cos x + e
x
cos x – e
x
sin x
= 2v
similarly other options can be checked.
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
3. x = at
3
and y = bt
2
= 3at
2
, = 2bt
= .
= . = – . .
= – . . = =
4. y = 1+ + +
= + + = +
= = · ·
¬ !ny = !nx – !n(x – c
1
) + !nx – !n(x – c
2
) + !nx – !n(x – c
3
)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x , we get
¬ = = –
¬ =
10. y = x!n ¬ = !n –
¬ = – ...(1) ¬ = –
¬ = – ¬ (1 + x) = – from equation (1)
¬ (1 + x) = – + –
¬ (1 + x) = –x + y – 1 ¬ (1 + x) + x = y – 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 85
12. let g(x) = ¬ g’ (x) = + 0 + 0
" g(o) = g'(o) = 0
i.e. o is the repeated root of g(x) = 0 and h(x) is a polynomial of degree 3
" f(x) = 0 has repeated root o
hence g(x), is divisible by f(x)
PART - II : OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
3. x + y = 0
x
2
(1 + y) = y
2
(1 + x)
x
2
– y
2
+ x
2
y – y
2
x = 0
(x + y) (x – y) + xy (x – y) = 0
(x – y) (x + y + xy) = 0 " x = y ¬ y = –
¬ = = –
5. y = sin
–1
+ sin
–1
x
= + = + ¬ P =
6. f'(x) = , g(2) = a & g'(2) = ?
g is inverse of f
f(g(x)) = x
Differentiating w.r.t. x
f' (g(x)) . g'(x) = 1
g'(x) = ¬ g'(2) = = ¬ g' (2) =
10. u = ax + b
Let y = f(ax + b)
= a f'(ax + b)
=a
2
f''(ax + b)
= a
3
f'''(ax + b)

= a
n
f
n
(ax + b) ¬ f(ax + b) = a
n
f
n
(u) = a
n
f(u)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 86
12. y = f & f'(x) = sin x
¬ = f' . = sin .
14. y
2
= P(x)
¬ 2y = P' (x) ¬ =
¬ 2 = ¬ 2y
3
= y
2
P''(x) – P'(x) . y
¬ 2y
3
= P(x) P''(x) – " y
2
= P(x) & y =
¬ 2 = P'(x) . P''(x) + P(x) . P'''(x) – 2
2 = P(x) . P'''(x)
17. f''(x) = – f(x) .... (i)
f'(x) = g(x) .... (ii)
h'(x) = (f(x))
2
+ (g(x))
2
.... (iii)
h(0) = 2, h(1) = 4
Differentiating equation (ii) w.r.t. x
f''(x) = g'(x) = – f(x)
Differentiating equation (iii) w.r.t. x
h''(x) = 2f(x) . f'(x) + 2 g(x) . g'(x)
= 2f(x) . f'(x) – 2f'(x) . f(x) = 0 {" g'(x) = – f(x)}
¬ h'(x) is constant
¬ h(x) is linear function
" h(0) = 2 ¬ h(x) not passing through (0, 0)
Let y = h(x) = ax + b
at x = 0
y = 2 = b ¬ y = ax + 2
at x = 1
a + 2 = 4
a = 2 ¬ curve is y = 2x + 2
20. y = cos
–1

= · ·
¬ = · ¬ = ·
¬ = when x < 0 ¬ =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 87
when x > 0 ¬ =
Alternate :
put x = tanu
tan
–1
x = u e ¬ y = cos
–1
= cos
–1

y = cos
–1
(cosu/2) ¬ y = ¬ =
EXERCISE # 3
2. (A) y = f(x
3
)
= f'(x
3
) . 3x
2
= f' (1) . 3 = 9
(B) f(xy) = f(x) + f(y)
f(1) = f(1) + f(1)
f(1) = 0 " f(1) = f(e) + f f(e) + f = 0
(C) f

ª(x) = – f(x), f'(x) = g (x)
g'(x) = f

''

(x) = – f

(x)
h (x) = (f

(x))
2
+ (g

(x))
2
h' (x) = 2

f

(x) . f

'(x) + 2g(x) . g'

(x)
= 2

f

(x) . g (x) + 2g(x) (– f (x)) = 0
h (x) = c, x e R h (10) = h (5) = 9
(D) y = tan
–1
(cot x) + cot
–1
(tan x), < x < t
= + . sec
2
x
= – 1 – 1 = – 2
Comprehension # 2 (6, 7, 8)
= – = – = at (1, 1)
¬ = = ¬ =
For question 8
Slope of normal at (1, 1) = – =
Equation of normal
y – 1 = (x – 1) ¬ 5y – 5 = 8x – 8 ¬ 8x – 5y – 3 = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 88
11_. y = x
2
= 2x
= 2
again 2x = 1
2 + 2x = 0 ¬ x = – ¬ = – ¬ = 1
Statement-2 :
" = ¬ = – = –
15. " x = 1/2 0 < x < 1
then tan
–1
x = , 0 < <
u = sin
–1
= sin
– 1
(sin y) = y
= 1 Statement is true.
19. =
=
¬ = =
¬ = 4y ¬ a = ±
21. F(x) = f(x).g(x).h(x)
F'(x
0
) = 21F(x
0
), f'(x
0
) = 4f(x
0
), g(x
0
) = –7g(x
0
)
h'(x
0
) = kh(x
0
)
F'(x) = f'(x).g(x).h(x) + f(x).g'(x).h(x) + f(x).h'(x).g(x)
at x = x
0
21F(x
0
) = 4f(x
0
)g(x
0
)h(x
0
) – 7f(x
0
).g(x
0
).h(x
0
) + kf(x
0
)g(x
0
).h(x
0
)
21(f(x
0
).g(x
0
).h(x
0
)) = (4 – 7 + k) f(x
0
).g(x
0
).h(x
0
)
¬ k = 24
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1. We have x
2
+ y
2
= 1
Differentiating w.r.t. x.
2x + 2yy' = 0
Again diff. w.r.t. x.
1 + y'y' + yy'' = 0
yy'' + (y')
2
+ 1 = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 89
2. p(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ ........ + a
n
x
n
¬ p'(x) = a
1
+ 2a
2
x + ......... + na
n
x
n – 1
¬ p'(1) = a
1
+ 2a
2
+ ........ + na
n
.......(i)
Now | p(x) | s |e
x – 1
– 1| ¬ x > 0 (given)
¬ |p(1)| s |e
0
– 1| = |1 – 1| = 0
But |

p(1)

| > 0 ¬ p(1) = 0
Now for – 1 < h < · , h = 0, 1 + h > 0
and |p(x)| s |e
x – 1
– 1| ¬ x > 0
¬ |p(1 + h)| s |e
h
– 1| ¬ h > –1, h = 0
¬ |p(1 + h) – p(1)| s |e
h
– 1| " p(1) = 0
¬ s
Taking limit as h ÷ 0, we get
s ¬ |

p'(1)| s 1
¬ |a
1
+ 2a
2
+ 3a
3
+ ........ na
n
| s 1 {from (i)}
Hence proved
3. f : R ÷ R, f(1) = 3, f'(1) = 6
y =
¬ !ny = !n ¬ !ny = × By L.H. Rule
¬ !ny = = = 2 ¬ y = e
2
4. At x = 0, !ny = 0 ¬ y = 1
Also on differentiating w.r.t x on both sides, we get (1 + y') = 2y + 2xy'
Putting x = 0, we get, = 2y..
¬ y' = 2y
2
– 1 = 1.
5. Let P(x) = bx
2
+ ax + c b = 0
P(0) = 0 c = 0
P(1) = 1 a + b = 1
P(x) = (1 – a) x
2
+ ax
P'(x) = 2(1 – a)x + a
Now P'(x) > 0 for x e [0, 1]
P'(0) > 0 & P'(1) > 0
a > 0 & 2(1 – a) + a > 0
0 < a < 2
S = {(1 – a) x
2
+ ax; 0 < a < 2}
6. x sin y + y cos x = t
x = 0, y = t
x cos y + sin y + y (– sin x) + cosx = 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 90
= y'(0) = 0
=
= t
7. " g(x) = f'(x) ..... (i)
¬ g'(x) = f''(x) = – f(x) ..... (ii)
F(x) = +
¬ F'(x) = 2f(x/2) . f'(x/2) . + 2 g(x/2) . g'(x/2) . ¬ F'(x) = + g g'
¬ F'(x) = f . f' – f' f {Using (i) & (ii)}
¬ F'(x) = 0 ¬ F(x) = constant ¬ F(5) = F(10) = 5
8. =
= – . = –
9. g(x + 1) = log [f(x + 1)] = log [xf(x)] = log x + log [f(x)] = log x + g(x)
¬ g(x + 1) – g(x) = log x
¬ g''(x + 1) – g''(x) = – ¬ g'' – g'' = – 4
¬ g'' – g'' = – ¬ g'' – g'' = –
Adding all, g'' – g'' = – 4
PART - I
1. = n . =
=
=
¬ (1 + x
2
) = n
2
y – x ¬ (1 + x
2
) + x = n
2
y
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 91
2. x =
= ¬ =
3. x
y
= e
x–y
x – y = y !n x
1 – = !n x . +
¬ (1 + !n y) = ¬ = ¬ =
4. Let f(a) = a
1
x
2
+ a
2
x + a
3
" f(1) = f(–1)
¬ a
1
+ a
2
+ a
3
= a
1
– a
2
+ a
3
¬ a
2
= 0
¬ f(x) = a
1
x
2
+ a
3
f'(x) = 2a
1
x
f'(a) = 2a
1
a
f'(b) = 2a
1
b
f'(c) = 2a
1
c
" a, b, c are in AP ¬ f'(a), f'(b), f'(c) are also in AP
5. f'(x) = nx
n–1
f''(x) = n(n – 1) x
n–2
f'''(x) = n(n – 1) (n – 2) x
n–3
f
n
(x) = n(n – 1) ..... 3 . 2 . 1
Now f(1) – + – + ....... + = 1 –
n
C
1
+
n
C
2

n
C
3
+ ..... + (–1)
n

n
C
n
= 0
6. x = e
y+x
x + y = !n x
1 + =
=
7. x
m
y
n
= (x + y)
m+n
taking log both sides
m !n x + n !n y = (m + n) . !n (x + y)
+ =
¬ = – ¬ =
8. x
2x–1
. 2x + 2x
2x
!n x – 2 (x
x
!n x + x . x
x–1
) cot y + 2x
x
cosec
2
y . y' = 0
" at x = 1, y = t/2
¬ 2 + 0 – 0 + 2y' = 0 y' = – 1
9. g'(x) = 2f(2f(x) + 2) . f' (2f(x) + 2) . 2f'(x)
g'(0) = 2f (2f(0) + 2) f' (2f(0) + 2) . 2f'(0) = 2f(0) f'(0) 2f'(0) = (2) (–1) (1) (2) (1) = – 4
Hence correct option is (1)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 92
10.
= = – =
ADVANCE LEVEL PROBLEM
PART - I
1. y = ... (i)
taking log
e
both sides, we get
!ny = (!n x)
!n (!n x)
. !nx
Again taking log
e
, we get
!n (!n y) = !n (!n x) . !n (!n x) + !n (!n x)
= {!n (!n x)} [!n (!n x) + 1]
Diff. w.r.t. x,
= [!n (!n x) + 1] + {!n (!n x)}
¬ = y !ny
¬ = y !ny
2. At x = – ,
cos(4x) = cos = – cos
¬ |cos 4x| = – cos 4x
and sin x = sin = – sin ¬ |sin x| = – sin x.
y = log
u
| cos 4x| + |sin x| ¬ y = ... (1)
¬ (y + sinx) !n sec (2x) = !n (– cos 4x)
Diff. w.r.t. x,
(y
1
+ cosx) !n sec(2x) + (y + sin x) =
¬ (y
1
+ cosx) !n sec(2x) + (y + sin x) 2 tan (2x) = – 4 tan 4x ... (2)
Put x = – in (1), y =
Put this in (2) and x = – , we get !n 2 +
¬ y
1
= =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 93
3. Here =
¬ .....(i)
but y = .....(ii)
From (i) and (ii) ¬ = 0
4. x = cosecu – sinu
¬ x
2
+ 4 = (cosecu + sinu)
2
and y
2
+ 4 = (cosec
n
u + sin
n
u)
2
Now = = =
Squaring both sides, we get =
or (x
2
+ 4) = n
2
(y
2
+ 4)
5. (y
1/5
+ y
–1/5
)
2
= (y
1/5
– y
–1/5
)
2
+ 4
Then y
1/5
– y
–1/5
= ... (1)
Given y
1/5
+ y
–1/5
= 2x ... (2)
From (1) & (2)
y =
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
or (x
2
– 1) = 25y
2
Again differentiating w.r.t. x, 2x

+ 2(x
2
– 1) · = 50 y
Dividing by 2 on both sides
x + (x
2
– 1) = 25y
6. " 1 < < 2
If x = ¬ [x] = 1
so, f(x) = sin x
3
¬ f'(x) = 3x
2
cos x
3
f'
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 94
7. y = (tan
–1
(x + 1) – tan
–1
x) + (tan
–1
(x + 2) – tan
–1
(x + 1)) + .........+ (tan
–1
(x + n) – tan
–1
(x + (n – 1)))
¬ y = tan
–1
(x + n) – tan
–1
(x)
Hence, = –
8. Given that g
–1
(x) = f(x)
¬ x = g(f(x)) or g'(f(x)) f'(x) = 1
¬ g'(f(x)) = ¬ g''(f(x)) · f'(x) = ¬ g''(f(x)) = –
9. y = sin(m sin
–1
x) ¬ = cos(m sin
–1
x) .
Squaring and cross multiplying,
(1 – x
2
) y
1
2
= m
2
(1 – y
2
), Again differentiating w.r.t.x
(1 – x
2
) 2y
1
y
2
+ (– 2x) y
1
2
= m
2
(– 2yy
1
)
Dividing by 2y
1
,
(1 – x
2
) y
2
– xy
1
= – m
2
y
10. Take u = tan
–1
x, so u e (–t/2, t/2)
then y = cos
–1
so |secu| = secu
or y = ¬ y = tan
–1
x ¬ =
11. x
y
. y
x
= 1 ¬ y !nx + x !ny = 0
Diff. w.r.t. x, we get
. !nx + + !ny +
¬ = –
12. y = x(!nx – !n (a + bx)) ... (1)
¬ = !nx – !n (a + bx) + ... (2)
¬
¬ x
3
... (3)
By (1) and (2),
x – y =
¬ x
3
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 95
PART - II
1. x = a(t – sint), y = a(1 – cost)
= a(1 – cost) ... (1)
= a sint
¬ = = =
¬ = cot t/2
¬ =
= – from (1) ;
= –
2. " y = + k !n
Differentiating both sides w. r. t. x, we get
= 2 · +
= !n
¬ = 2 !n – 2 !n a + k
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
+ · =
or + =
or (x
2
– a
2
) + x = 2
hence value of
(x
2
– a
2
) is 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 96
3. Let f(x) = x
x
From definition
f'(x) = = =
= =
=
= = x
x
(1 + !n x)
4. (a + bx) e
y/x
= x
or e
y/x
= ... (1)
Taking log
e
both sides, we have = !nx – !n (a + bx)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we have = =
or (xy' – y) = = ae
y/x
from (1)
Again taking log
e
on both sides, we have
!n(xy' – y) = !n a +
Again differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we have
(xy'' +y' – y') = 0 +
¬ x
3
y'' = (xy' – y)
2
5. " = a tan
–1
(a !n y)
¬ a !n y = tan .... (1)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we get
= sec
2

¬ = sec
2

= 1 + tan
2

¬ = 1 + a
2
(!n y)
2
(from (1))
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 97
Again differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we get = 2a
2
(!ny) . y'
y y''

– (y')
2
= yy' (!ny)
¬ y y'' – yy' (!ny) = (y')
2
6. Let y
1
= tan
–1

and y
2
= tan
–1

Let a = 2 !n x,
then y
1
= tan
–1
= tan
–1
= tan
–1
= – o, where a = tan o
Similarly y
2
= tan
–1
= | + o, where tan | = 3
¬ y = + (| + o) = + tan
–1
3 = constant
¬ = 0 ¬ = 0
7. y = tan
–1
¬ =
¬ =
=
8. x
y
= e
x – y
¬ y !nx = x – y ... (1)
Diff. w.r.t. x, we get
!nx = 1 – y' ¬ y + y' . x!nx = x – xy' ¬ y' =
From (1),
y =
¬ x – y = ¬ y' =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 98
9. y
3
– y = 2x ... (1)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we get (3y
2
– 1) = 2
or ... (2)
Again differentiating w.r.t.x,
= ......... from (2)
= ... (3)
Now L.H.S. =
= +
=
=
Let 3y
2
– 1 = o
= = = = R.H.S.
10. " y = 1 + + + ..... (n + 1) terms
= + ....... (n + 1) terms.
= + ...... (n + 1) terms,
finally we get
y =
Taking log
e
of both sides, we have
!ny = n !nx – !n (x – a
1
) – !n (x – a
2
) – !n (x – a
3
) – .......– !n (x – a
n
)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
=
¬
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 99
=
=

=
11. Let z = cos x + i sinx ¬ z
–1
= cos x – i sin x
2 i sin x =
(2 i sinx)
9
=
¬ 2
9
i sin
9
x = ¬ y = .... (1)
Binomial coefficients of (with sign) are
1, – 9, 36, – 84, 126, – 126, 84, – 36, 9, – 1
= z
9
– 9z
7
+ 36z
5
– 84z
3
+ 126z – + – +
= – 9 + 36 – 84 + 126
= 2 i sin 9x – 9.2 i sin 7x + 36.2 i sin 5x – 84.2 i sin 3x + 126. 2 i sinx ..... (2)
From (1) & (2), we get
y = (sin 9x – 9 sin 7x + 36 sin 5x – 84 sin 3x + 126 sinx)
y
n
= – 9.7
n
sin + 36.5
n
sin – 84.3
n
sin
+ 126 sin , where n e w..
12. Given y =
or (x
2
+ c)y = ax + b
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
(x
2
+ c)y' + y . 2x = a
Again differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
(x
2
+ c) y'' + y' . 2x + 2 (xy' + y.1) = 0
or (x
2
+ c) y'' = – 4xy' – 2y or – x
2
– c =
Now differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 100
– 2x =
or – x(y'')
2
= 2x(y'')
2
+ 3y' y'' – (2xy' + y) y'''
or (2xy' + y) y''' = 3 (xy'' + y') y''.
13. We have
sec
–1
(2x) + 2
x
tan (!n (x + 2)) = 0 .... (1)
¬ sec
–1
(2x) + 2
x
tan (!n (x + 2)) = 0
¬ e
sin(tx/2)!n sin y
+

sec
–1
(2x) + 2
x
tan (!n (x + 2)) = 0
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
. . 2
+ 2
x
. sec
2
(!n (x + 2)) . + tan (!n (x + 2)) . 2
x
!n 2 = 0 ... (2)
Putting x = – 1 in (1), we get
(sin y)
–1
= – sin y = – .... (3)
and putting x = – 1 in (2), we get
e
–!n sin y
. 2 + = 0
¬
¬
Hence {from (3)}
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 101
APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-3. Let AC be pole, DE be man and B be farther end of shadow as shown in figure
From triangles ABC and DBE
3y = 1.5 x
= 2, (x + y) =
= 4 + 2 = 6
A-4_. Let r be the radius of the sphere and Ar be the error in measuring the radius. Then r = 8 cm, and
Ar = 0.03 cm, Now the voume V of the sphere is given by
Let r be the radius of the sphere and Ar be the error in measuring the radius. Then r = 8 cm, and
Ar = 0.03 cm, Now the voume V of the sphere is given by
V = tr
3
= 4tr
2
AV = Ar = (4tr
2
) Ar = 4t(8)
2
× 0.03 = 7.68 tcm
3
Section (B) :
B-3. Here x
2/3
+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
Differentiating w.r.t. to x.
Equation (y – k) = – (x – h)
P(0, k
1/3
(h
2/3
+ k
2/3
)) or P(0, a
2/3
k
1/3
)
And, Q (h
1/3
a
2/3
, 0)
PQ = = |a| = constant.
B-7. f(x
1
) = g(x
1
) = 0
m
1
m
2
= – 1 and |m
1
| = |m
2
|
¬ m
1
= 1 ; m
2
= – 1 or m
1
= – 1 ; m
2
= 1
[(0 + h) (0 – h)] = [0 – h
2
] = – 1
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 102
B-9. Minimum distance = 10
Section (C) :
C-3. (i) f'(x) = 3x
2
– 3
= 3(x – 1) (x + 1)
at x = 1point of minima Neither increasing nor decreasing
at x = 2increasing
(ii) at x = – 2 decreasing
at x = 0 decreasing
at x = 3 neither increasing nor decreasing
at x = 5 increasing
C-6. g(x) is monotonically increasing
¬ g'(x) > 0 & f(x) is M.D. ¬ f'(x) s 0
(fog) (x) = =
as f'(x) s 0 & g'(x) > 0
¬ (fog) (x) is monotonically decreasing
Also x + 1 > x – 1
¬ f(x + 1) < f(x – 1) as f(x) is M.D.
¬ g(f(x + 1) < g(f(x – 1)) as g(x) is M.I.
C-7. Let f(x) = , x e
f'(x) = .
Let g(x) = x sec
2
x – tan x
g'(x) = 2x sec
2
x tanx > 0
x > 0
¬ g(x) > g(0), g(x) > 0 ¬ f'(x) > 0 ¬ f(x) is M.I.
x
1
< x
2
f(x
1
) < f(x
2
)
< ¬ <
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 103
Section (D) :
D-2. (i) f'(x) = 3x
3
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = 0
x = – 2, f(–2) = – 8
x = 0, f(0) = 0
x = 2, f(2) = 8
Minimum = – 8, maximum = 8
(ii) f'(x) = cos x – sin x
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x =
x = 0, f(0) = 1
x = , f =
x = t, f(t) = – 1
Minimum = –1, Maximum =
(iii) f'(x) = 4 – x
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = 4
x = – 2,f(–2) = – 10
x = 4, f(4) = 8
x = , f =
Minimum = –10, Maximum = 8
(iv) f'(x) = cos x – sin 2x
f'(x) = 0 ¬ cos x = 0, sin x =
¬ x = , x =
x = 0, f(0) = ¬ x = , f = ¬ x = , f =
Minimum = , Maximum =
D-6_. Let No. of children of john & anglina = y
x + (x + 1) + y = 24 ¬ y = 23 – 2x
Number of fights
F = x(x + 1) + x(23 – 2x) + (x + 1) (23 – 2x)
F = – 3x2 + 45x + 23 ¬ = 0 ¬ – 6x + 45 = 0 ¬ x = 7.5
But 'x' wil be integral. check x = 6 or x = 7, F = 191
D-8. R
2
+ r
2
= h
2
R
2
= h
2
– r
2
volume of cylinder ,
V = tR
2
(2h) = t (2h) ( )
2
= 2t (r
2
– h
2
) + 2th(–2h) = 0
¬ r
2
= 3h
2
¬ h =
< 0 at h = ¬ V
max
= 2t =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 104
D-10. 2! + 2tr = 440
A = ! 2r = – 2tr
2
+ 440r
= – 4tr + 440 = 0
at r =
D-12. Let x, y be dimensions of rectangle.
¬ 2x + 2y = 36.
Let V be volume sweeped
V = tx
2
y
V = tx
2
(18 – x)
= tx.3.(12 – x)
At x = 12, V has maximum value ¬ y = 6
Section (E) :
E-2. Let (h, k) be point of inflection h sin h = k ...(1)
y' = sin x + x cos x
y'' = cos x + cos x – x sin x
y'' = 0 ¬ 2 cos h – h sin h = 0 ¬ 2 cos h = k ...(2)
sin
2
h + cos
2
h = 1
+ = 1 ¬ 4k
2
+ h
2
k
2
= 4h
2
locus y
2
(4 + x
2
) = 4x
2
Section (F) :
F-2. Let f'(x) = 3x
2
+ px –1
¬ f(x) = x
3
+ – x + c ¬ f(–1) = + c = f(1)
¬ f(x) satisfies conditions in Rolle's theorem ¬ f'(c) = 0 for atleast one c e (–1,1)
¬ 3x
2
+ px –1 = 0 has atleast one root in (–1,1).
F-4. Let h(x) = f(x) g'(x)
h(a) = 0 = h(b)
By Rolle’s theorem on [a, b] h'(x) = 0, for at least one c e (a, b).
¬ f '(c) g'(c) + f(c) gª(c) = 0
PART - II
Section (A) :
A-1. V =
V = =
77 × 10
3
= × 70 × 70 × (" 1 litre = 10
3
c.c.)
= 20 cm/min.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 105
A-3_. =
Let x = 25 and Ax = 0.2 such that f(x) =
f '(x) = f(x + Ax) = f(x) + f'(x). Ax
= + . Ax
= + × 0.2 = = 5 + = 5 + 0.02 = 5.02
A-4_. V = x
3
AV = Ax = (3x
2
) Ax = (3x
2
) (0.04x) = 0.12x
3
m
3
Section (B) :
B-5*. 2y
3
= ax
2
+ x
3
6y
2
= 2ax + 3x
2
= =
Tangent at (a, a) is 5x – 6y = – a
o = , | =
o
2
+ |
2
= 61 ¬ = 61
a
2
= 25.36
a = ± 30
B-8. P
1
: y
2
= 8x
C
1
: x
2
+ (y + 6)
2
= 1
Equation of normal of parabola
y = mx – 2am – am
3
if passes through (0,–6)
–6 = – 2am – am
3
" a = 2
¬ 3 = 2m + m
3
m
3
+ 2m – 3 = 0 m = 1.
Point on parabola (am
2
, – 2am) ÷ (2, –4).
Section (C) :
C-2. f'(x) = 5x
4
– 3
It is sufficient to solve for p, the condition f'(x) s 0 ¬ x e R
5x
4
– 3 s 0 ¬ x e R
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 106
Case - # 1 – p < 0 p > 1
Inequality holds true.
Case - ## 1 – p > 0 p < 1
Inequality holds if – 1 s 0
¬ p > – 4, p + 4 s (1 – p)
2
¬ p > – 4, p
2
– 3p – 3 > 0
¬ – 4 s p s
Hence p e (1, ·)
C-5*. g(x) = and
g'(x) = f'(x/2) – f'(1 – x)
Now g(x) is increasing if g'(x) > 0
f' > f'(1 – x)
[" f''(x) < 0 i.e. f'(x) is decreasing]
¬ s 1 – x ¬ x s 2 – 2x
¬ 3x s 2 ¬ x s 2/3 ¬ 0 s x s
¬ g(x) increases in 0 s x s 2/3
and g'(x) s 0 for decreasing
¬ s f'(1 – x) ¬ > 1 – x
¬ x > 2/3
¬ 2/3 s x s 1
Section (D) :
D-3. f(x) = 2 – |x + 1|
From figure it is clear that greatest, least values are respectively 2, 0
D-6*. f'(x) =
The only factor in f'(x) which changes sign is cosx – x.
Let us consider graph of y = cos x and y = x
It is clear from figure that for x e (0, x
0
), cos x – x > 0 and for x e
cos x – x < 0, ¬ f' (x) has maxima at x
0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 107
D-8*. f'(x) = , x > 0
= x > 0.
f(x) is decreasing x > 0.
On , greatest value is f = !n and least value is
f( ) = – !n .
D-10.
S = 2trh
= 2tH
= 2tH
Maximum at r =
D-13. Let d be distance between (k, 0)
and any point (x, y) on curve.
d =
d = (" y
2
= 2x – 2x
2
).
Maximum d = Maximum d =
Section (E) :
E-3. x = 1 ¬ 3 = a + b
= 0 ¬ 3a + b = 0
a = – , b =
E-4. f(x) = !n(x – 2) –
f'(x) = = = = .
As !n(x – 2) is defined when x > 2
¬ f(x) is M.I. for x e (2, ·) ¬ f
–1
(x) is M.I. wherever defined
Also f''(x) = < 0 ¬ f(x) is always concave downward
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 108
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
1. y = 50 – 16t
2
So,
tanu = ¬ y = . x
=
=
¬ = – 16
= – 1500 ft/sec.
2. at t = 0 ; x = 0, y = 1
= 2cm/sec
A =
(At, t = 7/2 sec, change in y -co-ordinate = 7 hence, pt. C has
y-co-ordinate = 8 and x- co-ordinate = 6 at t = 7/2 sec.)
= (4 + 7) × ×2 = cm
2
/sec
7. f'(x) =
=
= > 0 x e [0, ·)
¬ f(x) is increasing ¬ f(x) is injective.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 109
12. Let |(x) = x +
|'(x) = 1 +
If x < 0 , –|x| = x
|'(x) =
= > 0
If x > 0, |'(x) > 0
Hence |(x) is increasing
As we know e
x
> x + 1 ¬ |(e
x
) > |(x + 1)
e
x
+ > x + 1 +
13. Let x > –1
Consider f(x) = (1 + x)!n(1 + x) – tan
–1
x
f'(x) = !n(1 + x) + 1 –
f''(x) = > 0
¬ f'(x) is increasing For x < 0, f'(x) < f'(0)
¬ f'(x) < 0 ¬ f(x) decreasing ¬ f(x) > f(0) ¬ f(x) > 0
¬ (1 + x)!n(1 + x) – tan
–1
x > 0 !n(1 + x) >
For x > 0, f'(x) > f'(0)
¬ f'(x) > 0 ¬ f(x) is increasing ¬ f(x) > f(0) ¬ f(x) > 0
¬ !n(1 + x) >
Hence larger of these is !n(1 + x).
15. f(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ a
3
x
3
+ a
4
x
4
+ a
5
x
5
+ a
6
x
6
a
0
= a
1
= a
2
= a
3
= 0
= e
2
a
4
= 2
f(x) = 2x
4
+ a
5
x
5
+ a
6
x
6
f'(x) = x
3
( 8 + 5a
5
x + 6a
6
x
2
)
f'(1) = 0, f'(2) = 0
, ¬ f(x) = 2x
4

17. xy = 18
Area of printed space =
=
Maximum when
x = y =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 110
21. f(x) = 0 ¬ sin = 0 ¬ = nt
¬ x = , n e N
x = ......., , , ....... , , 1.
Consider interval ¬ = 0 =
By Rolle’s theorem f'(x) vanishes at least once in
Infinite number of such intervals are there. Hence f'(x) vanishes at infinite number of points in (0, 1)
24. Let g(x) = , x e [a, b]
By Rolle’s theorem, g’(x
0
) = 0
¬ = 0 ¬ f'(x
0
) =
25. Let f'(x) = |'(x + a) – |'(x)
¬ f(x) = |(x + a) – |(x) + k
f(0) = |(a) – |(0) + k
f(2a) = |(3a) – |(2a) + k ¬ f(0) = f(2a)
By Rolle's theorem on [0, 2a], f'(c) = 0 for at least one c e (0, 2a)
¬ |'(x + a) = |'(x) has at least one root in (0, 2a)
PART - II
3. f'(x) = > 0
f(x) increasing
hence g(x) is also increasing function
7. Let ì be quantity
y = y
2
= y ì
ì = =
ì = a = ì = a
9. f(x) = ; g(x) =
for a > 1, a = 1 and x e R
!n a h(x) = !n f(x) + !ng(x)
¬ (!n a) h(x) = !na + !n a
¬ h(x) = +
¬ h(x) = a
|x|
sgn x
Now h(–x) = a
|–x|
sgn (–x) = –h(x)
¬ h(x) is an odd function
Also graph of h(x) is
It is clear from the graph that h(x) is an increasing
function
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 111
12. f(x) =
f'(x) =
For 0 < x < 1, tan ¬ f' (x) > 0 ¬ f(x) is increasing.
13. f(1

) s f(1) and f(1
+
) s f(1)
– 2 + log
2
(b
2
– 2) s 5 ¬ 0 < b
2
– 2 s 128 ¬ 2 < b
2
s 130
16. !
2
= h
2
+ x
2
Area of base (triangle) is
3x = a
Volume V = h a
2
= h . 4 . 3.x
2
= 3 h (!
2
– h
2
)
= 3 (!
2
– 3h
2
) ¬ V is maximum when h = .
18. Maximum of f(x) is
Given expression is f(x
1
) + f(x
2
) ¬ f(x
1
) s ¬ f(x
2
) s ¬ f(x
1
) + f(x
2
) s
20. f' (x) =
> 1
+ 1 – > 2 – > 0
At x = 0, f(x) is least.
Least value = f(0) = 1
23. f'(x) =
m – n is odd.
f' (x) < 0 x e (–·, 0) ¬ f' (x) > 0 x e (0, ·)
25. |' (x) = (3(f(x))
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x) + 5 + 3 cos x – 4 sin x
5 – s 5 + 3 cosx – 4 sin x s 5 +
adding (3(f(x))
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x)
(3(f(x))
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x) s |' (x) s (3(f(x))
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x) + 10
" 3(f(x))
2
– 6f(x) + 4 = 3 (f(x) – 1)
2
+ 1 > 0
(3(f(x))
2
– 6(f(x)) + 4)f'(x) > 0 when ever f(x) is increasing.
¬ |' (x) > 0 ¬ | (x) is increasing, when ever f(x) is increasing.
If f' (x) = – 11 then
(3(f(x))
2
– 6f(x) + 4) f'(x) + 10 = – 33 (f(x) – 1)
2
– 1 < 0
¬ |' (x) < 0 ¬ | (x) is decreasing.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 112
28. f'(x) =
f'(x) = 0
at x = 0, x = – 3, x = 1
so at x = 0, f(x) has local minima.
and at x = –3, x = 1 ; f(x) has local maxima
f(1) = , f(– 3) = . f(–3) < 0, f(1) > 0 and f(x) = 0
¬ f(x) is undefined at point(s) in (–3, 1). Hence f(x) has no absolute maxima.
EXERCISE # 3
PART - I
2. (A) f(x) is continuous and differentiable f(0) = f(t)
Hence condition in Rolle’s theorem and LMVT are satisfied.
(B) f(1

) = –1, f(1) = 0, f(1
+
) = 1
f(x) is not continuous at x = 1, belonging to
Hence, atleast one condition in LMVT and Rolle’s theorem is not satisfied
(C) f’(x) = (x – 1)
–3/5
, x = 1
At x = 1, f(x) is not differentiable.
Hence at least one condition in LMVT and Rolle’s theorem is not satisfied.
(D) At x = 0
L.H.D. = = = –1
R.H.D. = 1
At x = 0, f(x) is not differentiable
Hence at least one condition in LMVT and Rolle’s theorem is not satisfied.
3. (A) Let PQ = x
Then BP =
PS = tan60º =
area A of rectangle = (4 – x) x
= (4 – 2x) = 0 ¬ x = 2
= – < 0
A is maximum, when x = 2.
Maximum area = 2.2 = .
Square of maximum area = 12
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 113
(B) Dimensions be x, 2x, h
72 = x . 2x . h
36 = x
2
h ....(1)
S = 4x
2
+ 6xh
S = 4x
2
+ 6
= 8x – =
For least S, x = 3 and least S is 108.
(C) Let y =
x
2
+ y
2
– 4x + 3 = 0
(x – 2)
2
+ y
2
= 1, center C = (2, 0)
Consider point P(5, – 4)
CP = = 5
Maximum value of is (5 + 1)
2
= 36.
(D)
x
2
+ y
2
= 5
= cosu, b = sinu
Let f(u) be perimeter
f(u) = 2a + 2b
= 2 (2cosu + sinu)
f' (u)= 2 (– 2sinu + cosu)
fª(u)= 2 (–2cosu – sinu)
f'(u) = 0 ¬ tanu = and fª (u) < 0
¬ f(u) is greatest
a = 4, b = 1
a
3
+ b
3
= 65
Comprehension # 2 (7 to 9)
Let g(x) = , x e [0,t ]. g(x) is increasing function of x.
range of g(x) is
f(x) = , x e [0, t]
Now let t s t s 2t, then
f(t) + f(2t – t) = t
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 114
i.e f(t) + = t
i.e f(t) + t – – = t
i.e f(t) =
f(x) = for t s x s 2t
Thus f(x) = for 0 s x s 2t
Also f(x) = f(4t – x) for all x e [2t, 4t]
¬ f(x) is symmetric about x = 2t
from graph of f(x)
o = 2t – 0 = 2t
| = o
Maximum value is f(2t) = t =
Comprehension # 3_ (10 to 12)
7. Sin x is concave downward in (0, t)
8. e
x
is concave upward
9. f(x) concave downward (f'' (x) < 0)
f(x) increasing ( f'(x) s 0)
Let g(x)= f
–1
(x) = x
f'(g(x)) = x
f'(g(x)). g'x = 1
g'(x) = > 0
g''(x) = – × f''(x).g'(x)
g''(x) > 0
g(x) = f
–1
(x) concave upward
15. f'(x) = (1 – !nx)
f'(x) s 0, when x > e
f(x) is decreasing function, when x > e
t > e ¬ f(t) < f(e)
t
1/t
< e
1/e
¬ e
t
> t
e
Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
17. f ’ (x) = 50x
49
– 20x
19
= 10x
19
(5x
30
– 2)
x = 0 is stationary point. Statement-2 is ture.
f(0) = 0
= – < 0
f(1) = 0
Global maximum is 0. Statement-1 is true.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 115
19. y = is even funciton.
Even function is nonmonotonic.
27. From figure z
2
= x
2
+ y
2
z = x
If z = 500 then x = 400
¬ 500 = 400(5)
¬ = 4
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1. In case of function given in (A), f is continuous on [0, 1] but not differentiable at x = 1/2 e (0, 1).
Note that Lf' (1/2) = – 1 and Rf' (1/2) = 0
Thus, the Lagrange's mean value theorem is not applicable. The function in (B) is continuous on [0, 1] and
differentiable on ]0, 1[ and hence the Lagrange's mean value theorem is applicable.
The function in (C) is f(x) = x|x| = x . x = x
2
and in (D) is f(x) = |x| = x on [0, 1]. As both are polynomial function,
the Lagrange's mean value theorem is applicable.
2. Given that
2(1 – cosx) < x
2
, x = 0
To prove sin(tanx) > x, ¬ x e
Let f(x) = sin(tanx) – x
f'(x) = cos(tanx) sec
2
x – 1
f'(x) = ...........(i) 2(1 – cosx) < x
2
, x = 0
cosx > 1 – Similarly cos(tanx) > 1 – ..........(ii)
By equation (i) & (ii)
f'(x) >
f'(x) >
f'(x) >
f'(x) > 0 ¬ x e f(x) is an increasing function.
For x e
x > 0
f(x) > f(0)
sin(tanx) – x > 0
sin(tanx) > x Hence proved
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 116
3. f is differentiable function on [0, 4]
f is continuous on [0, 4] also.
By using LMVT, there exists a e (0, 4) such that
f'(a) = ........ (i)
Now [(f(4))
2
– (f(0))
2
] =
[(f(4))
2
– (f(0))
2
] = 4 f'(a) [f(4) + f(0)] ....... (ii)
f is a continuous function on [0, 4], so
By intermediate mean value theorem, there exists b e (0, 4) such that
f(b) = ..... (iii)
now by equation (ii) & (iii)
[(f(4))
2
– (f(0))
2
] = 8f'(a) f(b)
hence proved
4. In AOSP
tan u = = ¬ sin u =
and cos u =
Area of A PSM = SM × PN
¬ A = . 2SN × PN = SN × PN ¬ A = SP sin u × SP cos u ¬ A = × sin u cos u
¬ A = (100 – r
2
)
¬ A = ¬ = . (100 – r
2
)
1/2
(–2r) r + = 0
(100 – r
2
)
1/2
(– 3r
2
+ 100 – r
2
) = 0, r =10 as P is outside the circle
4r
2
= 100 ¬ r
2
= 25 ¬ r = 5. Also = 0, = 0
Thus for r = 5, area would be maximum.
5. . Put x = 0 and we get form. Also because ‘f’ is strictly increasing and differentiable.
Apply L-Hospital rule, weget
= – 1. Since ‘f’ is strictly increasing f'(x) = 0 in an internal
6. f(x) =
For Rolles theorem to be applicable in [0, 1], f(x) should be continuous in [0, 1], differentiable in (0, 1) and
f(0) = f(1).
Last two conditions hold and x
o
!n x = 0
Put x = e
–t
, then as x ÷ 0, t ÷ ·
= 0 which is true for all o > 0
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 117
7. = – 23 x
101
– 45 + 1035x + c.
Now consider a function
f(x) = (x
100
– 45) – 23x (x
100
– 45) = (x – 46) (x
100
– 45)
It satisfies all conditions of Rolle’s theorem in . Hence there exist at least one c e for
which f'(c) = 0
¬ P(c) = 0 which proves that there exist a root of P(x) = 0 in
8. f'(x) = 3x
2
+ 2bx + c whose discriminant is 4(b
2
– 3c) which is negative as 0 < b
2
< c.
Thus f'(x) is always positive and f(x) is strictly increasing.
9. f(x) = sinx + 2x –
f'(x) = cosx + 2 –
f''(x) = – sinx – < 0 ¬ x e ¬ f'(x) is decreasing function ... (i)
Also f'(0) = > 0 ... (ii)
f'( ) = 2 – = 2 – 3 – = – 1 – < 0 ... (iii)
Equation (1), (2) & (3) shows that - a certain
value of x e for which
f'(x) = 0 & this point must be a point of maxima for
f(x) since sign of f'(x) changes from + ve to – ve
10. As |f(x
1
) – f(x
2
)| s (x
1
– x
2
)
2
x
1
, x
2
e R
|f(x
1
) – f(x
2
)| s (x
1
– x
2
)
2
{As x
2
= |x|
2
} = s |x
1
– x
2
|
Taking limit both sides as x
1
÷ x
2
s |x
1
– x
2
|
|f'(x
2
)| s 0, x
1
e R ¬ |f(x)| s 0 x e R
So |f'(x)| = 0
f'(x) = 0 or f(x) is constant function
Equation of tangent at (1, 2) is
y – 2 = f'(1)(x – 1)
or y = 2 is required equation of tangent.
11. Let g(x) = f(x) – x
2
g(x) has atleast 3 real roots which are x = 1,2,3
By langrange mean value theorem (LMVT)
g'(x) has atleast 2 real roots in x e (1, 3) g''(x) has atleast 1 real roots in x e (1, 3)
f''(x) – 2 = 0 for atleast 1 real roots in x e (1, 3) f''(x) = 2 for atleast one x e (1, 3)
12. Let P(x) = ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d
P'(x) = 3ax
2
+ 2bx + c
P''(x) = 6ax + 2b
given that P(–1) = –a + b – c + d = 10,
P(1) = a + b + c + d = –6
P'(–1) = 3a –2b + c = 0
P''(1) = 6a + 2b = 0
a = 1, b = –3, c = –9, d = 5
P(x) = x
3
– 3x
2
– 9x + 5 P'(x) = 3x
2
– 6x – 9 = 3(x + 1)(x –3)
x = – 1 is point of maxima & x = 3 is point of minima
Hence distances between (–1, 10) and (3, –22) is 4 units.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 118
13. g(x) = (f(x). f'(x))
to get the zero of g(x) we take function
h(x) = f(x). f'(x)
between any two roots of h(x) there lies at least one root of h'(x) = 0 i.e. g(x) = 0
Now h(x) = 0 f(x) = 0 or f'(x) = 0
As f(x) = 0 has 4 minimum solutions.
and f'(x) = 0 minimum 3 solutions.
h(x) = 0 minimum 7 solutions.
h'(x) = g(x) = 0 has minimum 6 solutions.
14*. Since f(x) has local maxima at x = –1 and f'(x) has local minima at x = 0.
f''(x) = ìx
f'(x) = {f'(–1) = 0}
+ c = 0 ì = –2c ...........(i)
again, Integrating both sides we get
f(x) = + cx + d .............(ii)
f(2) = + 2c + d = 18
and f(1) = + c + d = – 1 ..............(iii)
using (i),(ii) and (iii) we get ¬ f(x) = (19x
3
– 57x + 34) f'(x) = (57x
2
–57)
= (x –1)(x + 1), using number line rule f(x) is increasing for [1, 2 ]
and f(x) has local maximum at x = –1 and f(x) has local minimum at x = 1
also, f(0) =
15. Slope of the line joining the points (c – 1, e
c–1
)
and (c + 1, e
c+1
) is equal to
tangent to the curve y = e
x
will intersect line to the left of the line x = c.
Comprehension # 1 (16, 17, 18)
16.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 119
17.
Consider y = ke
x
and y = x
Let (o, ke
o
) be a point on y = ke
x
if it lies on y = x also then o = ke
o

= ke
x
= ke
o
= o = 1 {" y = x is tangent to y = ke
x
at one point}
1 = ke i.e. k = 1/e
18.
Consider y = ke
x
and y = x
from above question e
x
= if we decrease the value of k from , then
slope of y = increases
y = e
x
and y = intersect at two distinct points k e
19. f(x) = 2 + cos x
f'(x) = – sin x
f'(x) = 0
¬ x = nt , n e I
Now, we can easily see that, the interval [t, t + t] for all values of t, contain atleast one integral multiple of t
¬ Statement - 1 is true
f(t) = 2 + cos t
f(t + 2t) = 2 + cos (t + 2t) = 2 + cos t = f(t)
¬ Statement - 2 is true
but we can see that Statement - 2 is not a correct explanation of Statement - 1
20. g(u) = 2 tan
–1
(e
u
) –
g(u) = tan
–1
(e
u
) – cot
–1
(e
u
)
g(u) = tan
–1
(e
u
) – tan
–1
(e
–u
) odd function.
g'(u) = + > 0 Strictly increasing function
21. f(x) =
one point of local maxima at x = – 1
one point of local minima at x = 0
(C) is the correct option
22*. f(x) = x cos , x > 1
¬ f'(x) = sin + cos
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 120
¬ f''(x) = – cos
Now f'(x) = 0 + 1 = 1 ¬ option ‘B’ is correct
x e [1, ·) ¬ e (0, 1]
¬ f''(x) < 0 ¬ option ‘D’ is correct
As f'(1) = sin 1 + cos 1 > 1
f'(x) is strictly decreasing and f'(x) = 1
so graph of f'(x) is as below
Now in [x, x + 2], x e [1, ·), f(x) is continuous and differentiable
so by LMVT, f'(x) =
as f'(x) > 1 for all x e [1, ·)
¬ > 1 ¬ f(x + 2) – f(x) > 2
for all x e [1, ·)
23. p(x) = ax
4
+ bx
3
+ cx
2
+ dx + e
p' (x) = 4ax
3

+ 3bx
2
+ 2cx + d
p' (1) = 4a + 3b + 2c + d = 0 .....(i)
p' (2) = 32 a + 12 b + 4c + d = 0 .....(ii)
= 2
= 2
c + 1 = 2, d = 0, e = 0
c = 1
Now equation (i) and (ii) are
4a + 3b = – 2 and 32 a + 12 b = – 4
¬ a = and b = – 1
24. f'(x) = 2010 (x – 2009) (x – 2010)
2
(x – 2011)
3
(x – 2012)
4
f(x) = !n (g(x))
¬ g(x) = e
f(x)
¬ g'(x) = e
f(x)
. f'(x)
only point of maxima [Applying first derivative test]
25. Clearly f(x) = +
f'(x) = 2x ( – ) > 0 increasing ¬ f
max
= f(1) = e +
g(x) = x + ¬ g'(x) = + 2x
2
– 2x > 0 increasing
¬ g
max
= g(1) = e +
h(x) = x
2
+ ¬ h'(x) = 2x + 2x
3
– 2x = 2x > 0
¬ h
max
= h(1) = e + , so a = b = c
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 121
26. (A) Re = Re = Re = Re (–1/y) =
= –1 s y s 1 = > 1 or s – 1
Alternate
Re = Re
= Re = Re = Re
= Re
as –1 s sinu s 1
(–· , 0 ) (0, ·)
(B) –1 s s 1 ¬ –1 s s 1
¬ –1 s s 1 ¬ 0 s · – 1 s 0
¬ 0 s · s 0 ¬ 0 s · > 0
¬ t e (–· , –9] [–1 , 1] [9, ·) ¬ x e (–· , 0) [2 , ·)
(C) f(u) = 2 sec
2
u ¬ f(u) > 2 ¬ f(u) e [2,· )
(D) f(x) = x
3/2
(3x – 10)
¬ f ’(x) = x
3/2
3 + x
1/2
(3x –10)
as f ’(x) > 0
¬ > 0 ¬ 3x + – 15 > 0
¬ – 15 > 0 ¬ x > 2 ¬ x e [2,· )
27. f(x) = x
4
– 4x
3
+ 12x
2
+ x – 1
f'(x) = 4x
3
– 12x
2
+ 24x + 1
f''(x) = 12x
2
– 24x + 24
= 12 (x
2
– 2x + 2) > 0 x e R
f' (x) is S.I. function
Let o is a real root of the eqution f'(x) = 0
f(x) is MD for x e (– · , o) and M.I. for x e (o , ·)
where o < 0
f(0) = – 1 and o < 0
¬ f(o) is also negative
f(x) = 0 has two real & distinct roots.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 122
28. p' = ì(x – 1) (x – 3) = ì(x
2
– 4x + 3)
p(x) = ì(x
3
/3 –2x
2
+ 3x) + µ
p(1) = 6
6 = ì(1/3 – 2 + 3) + µ
6 = ì(1/3 + 1) + µ
18 = 4ì + 3µ ...(i)
p(3) = 2
2 = ì(27/3 – 2 × 9 + 9) + µ
2 = µ
µ = 2 ¬ ì = 3
p'(x) = 3(x – 1) (x – 3)
p'(0) = 3(–1)(–3)
= 9
29. f(x) = |x| + |x
2
– 1|
f(x) =
f(x) =
PART - II
1. Let f(x) = x +
f'(x) =
Minimum occures at x = 1.
2. f'(x) = 6x
2
– 18ax + 12a
2
f'(x) = 0 ¬ x = a, 2a
f'' (x) = 12 x – 18a
f'' (a) = – 6a < 0 and f'' (2a) = 6a > 0
¬ p = a, q = 2a ¬ p
2
= q ¬ a
2
– 2a = 0 ¬ a = 0, 2
a = 2 (" a > 0)
3. Let f' (x) = ax
2
+ bx + c
¬ f(x) =
f(0) = d = f(1) (" 2a + 3b + 6c = 0)
By Rolle's theorem, at least one root of f'(x) = 0 lies in (0, 1)
4. y
2
= 18x ...... (1)
Differentiating w.r.t. t
¬ 2y.2 = 18 y =
From equation (1), x = Required point is
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 123
5. x = a (1 + cos u), y = a sin u ¬
Equation of normal at point (a(1+ cos u), a sin u) is
y – a sin u = (x – a (1 + cos u))
y cos u = (x – a)sinu
It is clear that normal passes through fixed point (a, 0)
6. y = x
2
– 5x + 6
= 2x – 5 = – 1, = 1
product of slopes = –1 ¬ angle between
tangents is
7. Let f
1
(x) = x
3
+ 6x
2
+ 6 ¬ f
1
'(x) = 3x (x + 4)
Increasing in (–·, – 4]
Let f
2
(x) = 3x
2
– 2x + 1 ¬ f
2
'(x) = 6x – 2
Not increasing in
Let f
3
(x) = 2x
3
– 3x
2
– 12x + 6 ¬ f
3
'(x) = 6x
2
– 6x – 12
= 6(x +1) (x – 1)
Increasing in [2, ·)
Let f
4
(x) = x
3
– 3x
2
+ 3x + 3 ¬ f'(x) = 3(x –1)
2
> 0
Increasing in (–·, ·)
8. V = , 0 s r s 15
" = – 50.
4t (10 + r)
2
= – 50 ¬ = (where r = 5)
9. Any point on ellipse
is P(x, y) = (a cos u, b sin u)
Area of rectangle = 4ab cos u sin u
= 2ab sin 2 u
Maximum area = 2ab.
10. By LMVT = f'(x), x e(1, 6)
and f'(x) > 2 ¬ > 2 ¬ > 2 ¬ f(6) > 8.
11*. ¬
Equation of normal is
y – a(sin u – u cos u) = (x – a (cos u + u sin u))
¬ x cos u + y sin u = a.
Distance from origin = |a| (constant)
Slope of normal = – = tan ¬ angle made with x-axis is + u.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 124
12. f' (x) =
f' (x) changes sign as x crosses 2.
f(x) has minima at x = 2.
13. = f' (c) ¬ 1 < c < 3 ¬ ¬ c = = 2 log
3
e
14. f' (x) = (cos x – sin x)
15. Graph of y = x
3
– px + q cuts x-axis at three distinct pints
= 0 ¬ x = ± Maxima at x = – , minima at x =
16. Condition for shortest distance is slope of tangent to x = y
2
must be same as slope of line y = x +1.
¬ = 1 ¬ y = , x =
, x – y + 1 = 0
Shortest distance =
17. P' (x) = 4x
3
+ 3ax
2
+ 2bx + c and P'(0) = 0
¬ c = 0 ¬ P' (x) = x(4x
2
+ 3ax + 2b)
D = 9a
2
– 32b < 0 ¬ b > > 0 (" P' (x) = 0 has only one root x = 0)
P (– 1) < P (1) ¬ a > 0
P' (x) has only one change of sign. ¬ x = 0 is a point of minima.
P(–1) = 1 – a + b + d, P(0) = d
P(1) = 1 + a + b + d
¬ P(–1) < P(1), P (0) < P(1), P (–1) > P(0) ¬ P(–1) is not minimum but P(1) is maximum.
18. y = x +
y' = 1 – = 0 ¬ x
3
= 8 ¬ x = 2
y = 2 + = 3
(2, 3) is point of contact
Thus y = 3 is tangent
Hence correct option is (3)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 125
19. f(x) = 1
f(–1) = k + 2
f(x) = k + 2
" f has a local minimum at x = – 1 f(–1
+
) > f(–1) s f(–1

)
1 > k + 2 s k + 2 ¬ k s – 1
possible value of k is – 1
Hence correct option is (3)
20. e
x
+ 2e
–x
> 2 (AM > GM)
s
> f(x) > 0 so statement- 2 is correct
As f(x) is continuous and belongs to range of f(x),
¬ f(c) = for some C. Hence correction option is (4).
21. y – x = 1
y
2
= x
2y = 1
¬ = = 1
¬ y = , x =
tangent at
¬ y =
¬ y = x + ¬ y – x =
distance = = =
22. f(x) =
In right neighbourhood of ‘0’
tan x > x
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 126
In left neighbourhood of ‘0’
tan x < x
as(x < 0)
at x = 0 , f(x) = 1
¬ x = 0 is point of minima
so statement 1 is true.
statement 2 obvious
23. V = tr
3
4500 t =
= 4tr
2
45 × 25 × 3 = r
3
r = 15 m
after 49 min
= (4500 – 49.72)t =972 t m
3
972 t = tr
3
r
3
= 3×243 = 3× 3
5
r = 9
72 t = 4t × 9 × 9
=
24. f '(x) = + 2bx + a
at x = – 1 –1 – 2b + a = 0
a – 2b = 1 ...(i)
at x = 2 + 4b + a = 0
a + 4b = ...(ii)
On solving (i) and (ii) a = , b =
f '(x) = = =
So maxima at x = – 1, 2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 127
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLE
EXERCISE # 1
PART - I
Section (A) :
A-1. (i) L.H.S. = a sin (B – C) + b sin (C – A) + c sin (A – B)
= k sin A sin (B – C) + k sin B sin (C – A) + k sin C sin (A – B)
= k (sin
2
B – sin
2
C) + k (sin
2
C – sin
2
A) + k (sin
2
A – sin
2
B)
= 0 = R.H.S.
(ii) L.H.S. =
first term = =
= k
2
sin (B + C) sin (B – C)
= k
2
(sin
2
B – sin
2
C)
Similarly = k
2
(sin
2
C – sin
2
A)
and = k
2
(sin
2
A – sin
2
B)
L.H.S. = k
2
(sin
2
B – sin
2
C + sin
2
C – sin
2
A + sin
2
A – sin
2
B)
= 0 = R.H.S.
(iii) L.H.S. = 2bc cos A + 2ca cos B + 2ab cos C
= b
2
+ c
2
– a
2
+ a
2
+ c
2
– b
2
+ a
2
+ b
2
– c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= R.H.S
(iv) L.H.S. = a
2
– 2ab
= a
2
+ b
2
– 2ab cos C
= a
2
+ b
2
– (a
2
+ b
2
– c
2
)
= c
2
= R.H.S.
(v) " L.H.S. = b
2
sin 2C + c
2
sin 2B
= 2b
2
sin C cos C + 2c
2
sin B cos B
= 2k
2
sin
2
B cos C sin C + 2k
2
sin
2
C sin B cos B (" b = ksin B, c = ksin C)
= 2k
2
sin B sin C [sin B cos C + cos B sin C]
= 2(k sin B) (k sin C) sin (B + C)
= 2bc sin A
(vi) " R.H.S = " c = a cos B + b cos A,
b = c cos A + a cos C
= =
= = L.H.S.
A–4. " =
¬ sin(B + C) sin(B – C) = sin(A + B) sin(A – B)
¬ sin
2
B – sin
2
C = sin
2
A – sin
2
B
¬ 2 sin
2
B = sin
2
A + sin
2
C
¬ 2b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
¬ a
2
, b
2
, c
2
are in A.P.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 128
A–7. " x
3
– Px
2
+ Qx – R = 0
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= P
a
2
b
2
+ b
2
c
2
+ c
2
a
2
= Q
a
2
b
2
c
2
= R ¬ abc = " + + = [a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
] =
Section (B) :
B–1. (i) L.H.S. = 2a sin
2
+ 2 c sin
2

= a(1 – cos c) + c(1 – cos A)
= a + c – (a cos C + c cos A)
= a + c – b
= R.H.S.
(ii) " L.H.S. = + +
= . + . + .
= = .
(iii) L.H.S. = 2bc(1 + cos A) + 2ca(1 + cos B) + 2ab(1 + cos C)
= 2bc + 2ca + 2ab + 2bc cos A + 2ca cos B + 2 ab cos C
= 2 + a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= (a + b + c)
2
= R.H.S.
(iv) " L.H.S. = (b – c) + (c – a) + (a – b)
" (b – c) cot = k(sin B – sin C)
= 2k cos sin
= 2k sin sin
= k [cos C – cos B]
similarly (c – a) cot = k[cos A – cos C]
and (a – b) cot = k[cos B – cos A]
L.H.S. = k[cos C – cos B + cos A – cos C + cos B – cos A]
= 0
= R.H.S.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 129
(v) L.H.S. = 4A (cot A + cot B + cot C)
= 4A
= 2bc cos A + 2 ca cos B + 2ab cos C
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= R.H.S.
(vi) L.H.S. = cos . cos . cos
=
= = A = R.H.S.
B–3.
Let Z ADB = u
we have to prove that tanu =
if we aply m – n rule, then
(1 + 1) cotu = 1.cot C – 1.cotA.
= – = –
=
= [2(a
2
– c
2
)]
2cotu = tanu =
Section (C) :
C–2. (i) r. r
1
.r
2
.r
3
= = A
2
(ii) r
1
+ r
2
– r
3
+ r = 4R cosC
" L.H.S. =
=
=
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 130
= = =
= c = " cos C =
L.H.S. = = = = 4RcosC
(iii) " L.H.S. =
= [s
2
+ (s – a)
2
+ (s – b)
2
+ (s – c)
2
] = [4s
2
– 2s(a + b + c) + Ea
2
] = = R.H.S.
(iv) " L.H.S. =
= (s + s – a + s – b + s – c)
2
= 4 =
" R.H.S. =
= · (s – a + s – b + s – c) = =
(v) " = =
= = = = = = = r
similarly we can show that = = r
C–4. " A = 24 sq. cm .... (i)
2s = 24 ¬ s = 12 .... (ii)
" r
1
, r
2
, r
3
are in H.P.
are in A.P..
, , are in A.P..
a, b, c are in A.P. ¬ 2b = a + c
" 2s = 24
a + b + c = 24
3b = 24
b = 8 ¬ a + c = 16
But A = ¬ A =
¬ 24 × 24 = 12 × (12 – a) × 4 × (12 – c) ¬ 2 × 6 = 144 – 12 (a + c) + ac
¬ 12 = 144 – 192 + ac
ac = 60 and a + c = 16
a = 10, c = 6 or a = 6, c = 10 and b = 8
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 131
Section (D) :
D–1. (i) " o = , | = , ¸ = ¬ =
R.H.S. =
=
= L.H.S. = R.H.S.
(ii) = = =
R.H.S. = =
=
L.H.S.= R.H.S.
PART - II
Section (A) :
A–4. " (a + b + c) (b + c – a) = kbc ¬ (b + c)
2
– a
2
= kbc
b
2
+ c
2
– a
2
= (k – 2) bc ¬ = = cos AA
" In a AABC –1 < cos A < 1 –1 < < 1
0 < k < 4.
Section (B) :
B–2. " b cos
2
+ a cos
2
= c. ¬ b + a = c.
¬ [ s – a + s – b] = c ¬ × c = c
¬ = ¬ a + b = 2c
¬ a, c, b are in A.P.
B–5. A = (a + b – c) (a – b + c)
A = 4(s – c) (s – b) ¬ =
tan = " tan A = ¬ tan A =
B–6*. (A) " tan = cot .........(i)
" tan
2
= = =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 132
tan = " a = 5 and b = 4
from equation (i), we get
= cot ¬ = cot ¬ cot =
" cos C = = = =
" cos C = ¬ c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
– 2ab cos C ¬ c = 6
(B), (C) " Area = ab sinC " cosC = ¬ sinC = =
Area = × 5 × 4 ×
Area = sq. unit. " From Sine rule
= = ¬ sinA = =
sinA =
Section (C) :
C–3. =
=
= 4
= .
C–5*. (A) " + +
= + +
=
(B) " + + = + + =
(C) = = ¬ cot A = cot B = cot C ¬ A = B = C
true for equilateral triangle only
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 133
(D) = =
¬ = = ¬ cot A = cot B = cot C ¬ A = B = C
¬ true for equilateral triangle only
Section (D) :
D–1. = 2 A
D–4*. " |
a
= cos
(A) correct (B) incorrect
(C) = = = cos
(D) " cosec = . = . = cos
EXERCISE # 2
PART - I
3.
If we apply Sine-Rule in A ABD , we get
= ¬ AB = = ...(i)
sin | = and cos | =
from equation (i), we get
AB = AB =
7.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 134
required distance = inradius of A ABC
" 2s = a + b + b + c + c + a
= 2 (a + b + c)
s = a + b + c
A =
=
$ required distance
= = =
=
8. (i) L.H.S. = (r
3
+ r
1
) (r
3
+ r
2
) sin C
= sin C
= sin C
= sin C
=
= = 2 sr
3
R.H.S. = 2r
3

= 2r
3
=

2sr
3
L.H.S. = R.H.S.
(ii) L.H.S. = –
= – = = R.H.S.
(iii) First term = (r + r
1
) tan
= cot
= . .
= b – c
similarly second term = c – a & third term = a – b
L.H.S. = b – c + c – a + a – b = 0 = R.H.S.
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 135
(iv) " r
1
+ r
2
+ r
3
– r = 4R
(r
1
+ r
2
+ r
3
– r)
2
= r
1
2
+ r
2
2
+ r
3
2
+ r
2
– 2r (r
1
+ r
2
+ r
3
) + 2(r
1
r
2
+ r
2
r
3
+ r
3
r
1
) ........(i)
" r(r
1
+ r
2
+ r
3
) = ab + bc + ca – s
2
and r
1
r
2
+ r
2
r
3
+ r
3
r
1
= s
2
from equation (i)
16R
2
= r
2
+ r
1
2
+ r
2
2
+ r
3
2


– 2 (ab + bc + ca – s
2
) + 2s
2
r
2
+ r
1
2
+ r
2
2
+ r
3
2


= 16 R
2
– 4 s
2
+ 2 (ab + bc + ca)
= 16R
2

– (a + b + c)
2
+ 2 (ab + bc + ca)
= 16R
2
– a
2
– b
2
– c
2
11.

(i) EIFA is a cyclic quadrilateral
= A I
" AI = r cosec A/2
EF = r cosec A/2.sin A
= 2 r cos A/2
similarly DF = 2 r cos B/2
and DE = 2r cos C/2.
(ii) IECD is a cyclic quadrilateral
Z ICE = Z IDE =
similarly Z IDF = Z IBF = Z FDE = = = –
(iii) area of ADEF = FD . DE sin ZFDE
=
= 2r
2
= 2r
2

= = =
= = = =
PART - II
3. " ED = – c cos B
= – c
= –
=
=
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 136
5. f = RcosA , g = R cos B, h = R cosC.
+ + = + +
= 2
= 8 + + = ì
¬ = ì.8 ¬ ì =
9. MINA is a cyclic quadrilatral
= AAI ¬ MN = r cosec sin A = 2r cos
IM = IN = r
x = = , =
similarly y = and z =
xyz = = = r
2
R
12. " r
1
+ r
2
=
H (r
1
+ r
2
) = = = = = 4Rs
2
= 4
14. " A, C
1
, G and B
1
are cyclic
BC
1
. BA = BG . BB
1
. c =
= (2c
2
+ 2a
2
– b
2
)
¬ c
2
+ b
2
= 2a
2
16. a = 1 " 2s = 6
2s = 2 R = 1 " = 2R ¬ sin A = A =
18. " sin C = s 1 ¬ cos (A – B) > 1
¬ cos (A – B) = 1 ¬ A – B = 0 ¬ A = B
sin C = = 1 ¬ C = 90º
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 137
20. if we apply m-n Rule in A ABE, we get
(1+1) cot u = 1.cot B – 1.cot u
2 cotu = cot B – cotu
3 cotu = cot B
tan u = 3 tan B ..........(1)
Similarly, if we apply m-n Rule in A ACD, we get
(1+1) cot (t – u) = 1.cotu – 1.cotC.
cotC = 3 cotu ¬ tan u = 3 tanC .......(2)
form (1) and (2) we can say that
tan B = tan C ¬ B=C
A + B + C = t
A = t – (B + C)
=
t
– 2B B = C
tan A = – tan2B
= – = –
¬ tan A =
22. r
1
– r = – = = a tan
H (r
1
– r) = abc tan tan tan
= abc H tan
= abc = = = = = 4Rr
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 138
EXERCISE # 3
2. Match the column
(A) AA
1
and BB
1
are perpendicular
$ a
2
+ b
2
= 5c
2
$ c
2
= = 5 ¬ c = (
cos C = = =
sin C = $ A = ab sin C =
$ A
2
= 11
(B) " G.M. > H.M.
(r
1
r
2
r
3
)
1/3
> ¬ (r
1
r
2
r
3
)
1/3
> 3r ¬ > 27
(C) tan
2
= a = 5, b = 4 2s = 9 + c
= = ¬ = ¬ c
2
= 36 ¬ c = 6
(D) 2a
2
+ 4b
2
+ c
2
= 4ab + 2ac. ¬ (a – 2b)
2
+ (a – c)
2
= 0 ¬a = 2b = c
cos B = =
$ 8 cos B = 7
COMPREHENSION # 2 (Q. No. 7 to 10)
7. Clearly
8. Let Z I
3
I
1
I
2
= u
Then angle of pedal trinagle = t – 2u = A
u =
9. Side of pedal triangle = I
2
I
3
cosu = BC
I
2
I
3
=
I
2
I
3
= 4Rcos
10. I I
1
= 4

R sin
I
2
I
3
= 4

R cos II
1
2
+ I
2
I
3
2
= 16R
2
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 139
12. I
1
I
2
= 4R cos if we apply Sine-Rule in A I
1
I
2
I
3
, then
2 R
ex
= =
=
2R
ex
= 4R R
ex
= 2R
$ A ABC is pedal triangle of A I
1
I
2
I
3
$ statement - 1 and statement - 2 both are correct and statement -2 also explains Statement - 1
14. " sin = =
similarly sin =
3 sin – 4 sin
3
=
¬ – = ¬ r
2
= ¬ r = a. cm.
19. ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 ...(1)
x
2
+ x + 1 = 0 ...(2)
" roots of (2) are imaginary and a, b, c are real

1
a
=
2
b
=
1
c
= k cos C =
ab 2
c a b
2 2 2
÷ +
=
2 1 2
1 1 2
× ×
÷ +
=
2
1
¬ C =
4
t
EXERCISE # 4
PART - I
1. We have a
2
> a
2
– (b – c)
2
= (a + b – c) (a – b + c)
¬ a
2
> (2s – 2c) (2s – 2b) = 4(s – b) (s – c)
similarly b
2
> 4 (s – c) (s – a)
and c
2
> 4 (s – a) (s – b).
Multiplying the above inequalities, we get
a
2
b
2
c
2
> 64 (s – a)
2
(s – b)
2
(s – c)
2
¬ (a + b + c) abc > 16 s (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) = 16A
2
¬ A s
4
1
abc ) c b a ( + +
Equality occurs if and only if
(b – c)
2
= 0
(c – a)
2
= 0
and (a – b)
2
= 0
i.e if and only if a = b = c.
2. (A) a, sin A, sin B are given one can determine
b =
B sin
A sin
a
c =
C sin
A sin
a
So the three sides are unique. So option (a) is incorrect option
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 140
(B) The three sides can uniquely determine a triangle.
So option (b) is incorrect option.
(C) a , sin B, R are given one can determine b = 2R sin B,
sin A = . So sin C can be determined. Hence side c can also be uniquely determined
(D) for a, sin A, R
= 2R
But this could not determine the exact values of b and c
3. I
n
= 2n × area of A OA
1
I
1
¬ I
n
= 2n × × AA
1
I
1
× OI
1
¬ I
n
= n × sin × cos
¬ I
n
= sin . .........(1)
O
n
= 2n × area of A OB
1
O
1
¬ O
n
= 2n × × B
1
O
1
× O
1
O = n × tan × 1 = n tan
¬ O
n
= n tan ......(2)
Now R.H.S. = =
= × 2 cos
2
= O
n
. cos
2
= n tan .cos
2
= sin = I
n
= L.H.S
4. Let angle of the triangle be 4x, x and x .
Then 4x + x + x = 180° ¬ x = 30°
Longest side is opposite to the largest angle.
Using the law of sines
= 2R
a = R, b = R, c = 2S = =
5. Clearly the triangle is right angled.
Hence angles are 30º, 60º and 90º are in ratio 1 : 2 : 3
6. Consider =
= = =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 141
7. Clearly P is the incentre of triangle ABC.
r = =
Here 2s = 7 + 8 + 9 ¬ s = 12
Here r = =
8. A = . b . b . sin 120º = b
2
.........(1)
Also a = .........(2)
and A = and s = (a + 2b)
A = (a + 2b) ..........(3)
From (1), (2) and (3), we get A =
9.* We have AABC = AABD + AACD
¬ bc sin A = c AD sin + b × AD sin
¬ AD =
Again AE = AD sec
= AE is HM of b and c.
EF = ED + DF = 2DE = 2 × AD tan = × cos × tan an
= sin
As and DE = DF and AD is bisector A AEF is isosceles.
Hence A, B, C and D are correct answers.
10. In A ABC , by sine rule
= = ¬ C = 45º, C' = 135º
When C = 45º ¬ A = 180º – (45º + 30º) = 105º
When C' = 135º ¬ A = 180º – (135º + 30º) = 15º
Area of A ABC' = AB . AC'.sin Z BAC' = × 4 × sin (15º) = × = 2
Area of A ABC = AB . AC .sinA = × 4 × sin (105º) = 2
Absolute difference of areas of triangles = | 2 – 2 | = 4
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 142
Aliter
AD = 2 , DC = 2
Difference of Areas of triangle ABC and ABC' = Area of triangle ACC'
= AD × CC' = × 2 × 4 = 4
12. cos B + cos C = 4 sin
2
¬ 2 cos cos = 4 sin
2

¬ 2 sin = 0
¬ cos – 2 cos = 0 as sin = 0
¬ – cos cos + 3 sin sin = 0
¬ tan tan =
¬ =
¬ = ¬ 2s = 3a ¬ b + c = 2a
Locus of A is an ellipse
11. sin 2C + sin 2A = (a cos C + c cos A) = = 2 sin B = 2 sin 60º =
12. cos =
=
=
¬ = ¬ (x
2
+ x + 1) = 2x
2
+ 2x – 1
¬ ( – 2) x
2
+ ( – 2) x + ( + 1) = 0
on solving
x
2
+ x – = 0 we get
x = + 1, – " At x = – , Side c becomes negative. x =
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 143
13. Area of triangle = ab sin C = 15
¬ . 6 . 10 sin C = 15 ¬ sin C =
¬ C = (C is obtuse angle )
Now cos C =
¬ – = ¬ c = 14
r = = = ¬ r
2
= 3
14. a = 2 = QR
b = = PR
c = = PQ
s = = = 4
= = = = tan
2
= = = =
PART - II
1. Let a = 3x + 4y, b = 4x + 3y and c = 5x + 5y
as x, y > 0, c = 5x + 5y is the largest side
Z C is the largest angle. Now
cos C =
= < 0
Z C is obtuse angle ¬ AABC is obtuse angled.
2. r
1
> r
2
> r
3
¬ > >
¬ s – a < s – b < s – c ¬ –a < –b < –c; ¬ a > b > c
3. tan = ; sin =
r + R = ¬ r + R = .cot
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 144
4. a =
¬ = ¬ a + b + c = 3b.
¬ a + c = 2b ¬ a, b, c are in A.P.
5. AD = 4
" AG = × 4 =
Area of A ABG = × AB × AG sin 30º
" = × × × = " Sin 60º = ¬ AB = =
Area of A ABC = 3(Area of A ABG) =
6. cos| = = – ¬ | = 120º
7. ZC = t/2
r = (s – c) tan C = 90º
r = s – 2R
" 2r + 2R = 2 (s – 2R) + 2R.
= 2s – 2R
= (a + b + c) – " C = 90º
= a + b + c – c
= a + b
8. are in H.P.
are in A.P. ¬ a,b,c are in A.P.
9. = cos
Let cos = for some n > 3, n e N
As < < ¬ cos < cos < cos ¬ > >
¬ 3 < n < 4, which is not possible
so option (2) is the false statement
so it will be the right choice
Hence correct option is (2)
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 145
ADVANCE LEVEL PROBLEMS
PART - I
1. From figure, AD = c sin B
Hence number of triangle is 0 if b < c sin B
one triangle for b = c sin B
two triangles for b > c sin B
2. C = 60°
Hence c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
– ab ¬ = = 2 cos
3. Using properties of pedal triangle,
we have Z MLN = 180° – 2A
Z LMN = 180° – 2B
Z MNL = 180° – 2C
Hence the required sum = sin2A + sin2B + sin2C
= 4sinA sinB sinC
4. From figure, we can observe that AOGD is directly similar to APGA
5. BD = s – b, CE = s – c and AF = s – a
Hence BD + CE + AF = s
6. ¬
¬ , as cos = cos
¬ A = B, in either case
7. ,
Using cosine rule in AABO, we get
h =
8. In AABD,
¬
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 146
Comprehension # 1
9. + + = b sin B + c sin C + a sin A =
k = 2R
10. " cot A + cot B + cot C = (b
2
+ c
2
– a
2
+ c
2
+ a
2
– b
2
+ a
2
+ b
2
– c
2
)
= (b
2
+ c
2
+ a
2
) =
=
= . A = A k = A
11. = = 6
Comprehension # 2 (12 to 14)
12. " PG = AD
=
= .ab sin C or
= b sin C (" A = ac sin B)
PG = ac sin B
= c sin B
13. " Area of AGPL = (PL) (PG)
and Area of AALD = (DL) (AD) " PL = DL and PG = AD AD
= = =
14. " Area of APQR = Area of APGQ + Area of AQGR + Area of ARGP ...(1)
" Area of APGQ = PG.GQ.sin(Z PGQ)
= × AD × BE sin (t – C)
= × × sin C
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 147
= × bc sin A × ac sin B × sin C
= sin A.sin B.sin C
Similarly Area of AQGR = sin A.sin B .sin C and Area of ARGP = sin A.sin B.sin C
From equation (1), we get
Area of APQR = (a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
) sin A.sin B.sin C
15. In ACDB , =
¬
Also from same triangle = ¬ BD =
16. cosAcosB + sinAsinBsinC = 1
¬ (cosA – cosB)
2
+ (sinA – sinB)
2
+ 2sinAsinB(1 – sinC) = 0 ¬ A = B & C = 90°
a : b : c = 1 : 1 :
17. We have
¬ a : b : c = 5 : 4 : 3
18. from figure, OO' = ON – O'N = R –
ZO' = ZM +
= RcosA +
from AOZO', using Pythagorous theorem,
we get (R – )
2
= (RcosA + )
2
+

¬
=
PART - II
1. from AAB'C , =
¬ AB' = 2Rsin(A + u)
from AAC'B, =
¬ AC’ = 2Rsin(u – A) B'C' = 2R(sin (A + u) – sin(u – A))
= 4RcosusinA = 2acosu
similarly C'A' = 2bcosu area AA'B'C' =
= = 4cos
2
u.A
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 148
2. c
2
– 2bc cosA + (b
2
– a
2
) = 0
c
1
& c
2
are roots of this quadratic equation
Hence (c
1
– c
2
)
2
+ (c
1
+ c
2
)
2
tan
2
A = 4a
2
3. Area =
=
=
= 2Rs
=
4. We know that OA = R, HA = 2RcosA and
applying Appoloneous theorem to AAOH, we get
2.(AQ)
2
+ 2(OQ)
2
= OA
2
+ (HA)
2
¬ 2.(AQ)
2
= R
2
+ 4R
2
cos
2
A –
¬
5. " = +
using sine rule, diameter of required circle
= = = 20
¬ radius = 10
6. L.H.S. = (a
2
(b + c – a) + b
2
(c + a – b) + c
2
(a + b – c))
=
=
= abc
= 4RA
RESONANCE SOLUTIONS (XII) # 149
7. from the parellelogram ABA'C, AA' = 2!
1
,
from AAA'C, AA' < b + c
¬ 2!
1
< b + c ...(1)
similarly 2!
2
< c + a ...(2)
and 2!
3
< a + b...(3)
(1) + (2) + (3) gives !
1
+ !
2
+ !
3
< 2s
8. % ZXY =
and
" Area of
=
" Area of
¬ Area of AXYZ = 2R
2
cos cos cos = A
9. Drop a perpendicular from the apex P to the base AABC.
The foot of perpendicular is at circum centre O of AABC
Using given data, we get
from, right angle APOB, we get
=
= 8.83 m
10. from cyclic quadrileteral CQFP, we get
from cyclic quadriletral AQMF, we get
Z FQM = Z FAM = 90
º
– B
¬ Z AQM = 90
º
+ 90
º
– B = 180
º
– B

¬ P, Q, M are collinear
similarly P, Q, N are collinear
hence, P, Q, M, N are collinear