UNDERSTANDING ANIMAL BEHAVIOR Behavior acting or functioning in a specified usual way. response of an organism to a stimulus.
property of all living things. Ethology is the zoological study of animal behavior. Ethology differs from the study of Animal Behavior. Animal behaviorists – interest on learned behaviors, trained in psychology. Ethologists concentrate on innate behaviors, trained as zoologists. COMMUNICATION Communication is transmission, exchange of information between two or more organisms. Transmission and exchange of information between organisms. Mutually advantageous information exchange. Sharing of information between individuals. Intended information transmission. Behavior involving signals. ses of communication in animals Courtship and breeding !arning, group spacing and coordination "nteraction – distress, emotion, maintain social contact, identification #urvey and location $unting for food %iving and soliciting care and play Components of communication #ignal – information carrier &e.g. bird's song and waving of a claw( #ignaler &sender, generator, actor( – animal producing a signal &e.g. singing bird and waving crab( )eceiver &detector, reactor( – animal pic*ing up a signal &e.g. another bird or crab( +odes of communication #ignal,+ode -isual Acoustic -ibrational Chemical Examples Courtship dances, firefly light patterns, facial expression, gesture, posturing. or-ibrational cues including sound &bird and cric*et song(, throat, wings, legs, chest. .heromones &group cohesion, pheromones, etc.( territoriality, identification, sex
can be changed rapidly.g. 0isadvantage1 cannot be transmitted through air. Advantages1 effective in both terrestrial and a2uatic environments./actile or +echanical /ouching of antennae. ineffective in dar*ness. nudging. 0isadvantages1 sub3ect to environmental interference.g.g. colors(. 0isadvantages1 follow irregular routes and travel at reduced speeds. ris* of predation. fireflies(. cuddling. sound dampening and vegetation structure. Advantages1 longer4lasting. Electrical +ultimodal Electric eels and electric fish communicate through charged pulses. Advantage1 effective in mur*y shallow water where neither light nor sound is effective. range up to a meter. chemicals. provides unambiguous message. /ransitory signals &e. /actile. 0isadvantage1 effective only at extremely short range. Combination of bright colors. beetles touching antennae(. etc. sounds. changing levels of bac*ground noise. Advantages1 high locatability and high rate of signal change. 0isadvantages1 cannot travel round corners. Advantages1 easily locatable. +ovement( or permanent signals &e. pawing. Chemical signal Can be broadcast by diffusion or by movement or air and water currents or deposited in the ground. Echolocation – using sound to find ob3ects in environment
. through dense vegetation. Electrical signal sed by fresh water fish &African mormyrid and #outh American gymnotid( that can generate electrical signal.mechanical signal )ely on contact between the signaler and receiver &e. restricted to a2uatic environment. etc.g. 0irected at several senses. +ultimodal signal +ultimodal signal – directed at several senses. Acoustic signal Acoustic signal and vibrational or seismic signals are always transitory.
-isual signal use reflected light or generated light &e. rapid signal transmission and change.
ersonal or individual space refers to the space occupied by an animal. 5light distance is the distance an animal attempts to maintain between itself and other individuals such as those that threaten well4being or may offer something the animal assumed to be undesirable. %roup distance is the distance a group of animals attempts to maintain between it and other groups. $ome range refers to an area selected and used routinely by a group of animals.SPACING BEHAVIOR "ndividual distance is the distance an animal attempts to maintain between itself and other animals. alpha4beta4gamma males males alone and females alone with their young solitary random no social structure
. #ocial distance refers to the maximum distance animals will allow in terms of separation from a group or another individual. . /erritorial refers to a behavioral characteristic in which animals define and in some cases mar* an area and defend it from use by other animals. SOCIAL STRUCTURE Advantages of grouping together . $ead space refers to the area that an animal attempts to maintain around its head in crowded conditions.redation and foraging "nformation exchange Access to mate and helpers for rearing animals /hermoregulation #urvival andprotection 6abor distribution 0isadvantages of grouping together Competition for food Competition for mate 0isease transmission 0ifferent social structures male dominant female dominant.
B. #ows and young pigs bite. space and annoyance related frustration4boredom related maternal defense of offspring sex4related Examples of aggressive behaviors in farm animals Boars slash with their tus*s and bite front legs. guard fanner plasterer underta*er
DEFENSIVE ANIMAL BEHAVIOR 7ffenses that trigger animal defensive behavior /erritorial – when one animal occupies another's space or food. e2ual subordinates 6inear – A dominates B. 5atal – when the animal faces individual extinction. A #pecies coalition /ypes of aggression fear4related pain. as it is sub3ected to predation /ypes of defensive behavior
. *ic* with foreleg and butt. $orses chase the aggressor. C. #heep stamp. Bulls paw with the front hooves and dig the ground with horns. B dominates C /riangular – A dom./ypes of dominance 7ne leader. +ortal . %oats rear up before actual butting. C dom. B dom. another could consider this trespass a threat to itself or its family. Classification of wor*er bees in the social structure forager water collector scout.
team4up or living in group – antipredator cooperation &5loc*ing( . "t can be deep or 2uiet. muscles may 3er* and rapid eye movements are noticeable. bro*en wing display. Counter4shading – dar*ly colored on dorsal surface but pale underneath.assive behavior or freezing 4 +ost often seen in young animals. shells. #trategies of animal defense Camouflage – avoiding detection through disguise as inanimate ob3ect.artnering. .hases of sleep 0eep. Batesian mimicry – another species ta*ing advantage of a poisonous species model. . +imicry – mimic*ing dangerous nonfood animals through bright and contrasting patterns of red. 5light 4 is simply getting away by running and tric*ery. claws. this behavior re2uires the animal to simply remain motionless in hopes that the threat will go away or fail to see it. hiding in the crowd by resembling nonprey species.!ithdrawal – when an animal does not run away. )educes the silhouette presented by the animal by reducing the effect of any shadows cast by the curve of the body surface due to light from above. enzymes. #ome animals are capable of unihemispheric sleep &half4mind sleep(. team4up or living in group – antipredator cooperation &$erding( . . 8inds of sleep $ibernation or winter sleep during cold weather for warm blooded animals. when animals are cornered. se of physical attributes – include armors. altering appearance. or 2uiet. Aestivation or summer sleep during hot weather for cold4blooded animals. Altering one's appearance – altering color pattern to match their bac*ground.artnering.g.g. yellow and blac*. Bluffing – this behavior ma*es the attac*ed confront its adversary and. they have no choice but to fight bac*. 5ighting bac* – usually.artnering. E. disappearing against the bac*ground of environment. team4up or living in group – antipredator cooperation &#tampede(
BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP #leep is a period of immobility. Active sleep – &when dreams occur( the heartbeat fluctuates. but moves to a safe place. tail shedding or automoty +obbing – when a predator is detected. +ullerian mimicry – group of species honestly advertise that they are poisonous to eat. such as a rabbit to its hole or a clownfish to a sea anemone. death4feigning behavior. Benefits of sleep conserves energy
. it is often made to seem too great a threat so the attac*er 2uits the battle. use of surrounding materials. the local prey population will mob it. E. $ow – coloration. .redator distraction displays – advertising presence to distract predator. through displays and posturing. teeth. +isdirecting the attac* – behaviors that direct the attac*ing predator away from vital body parts and towards expendable but conspicuous parts of the body. even if it is not actively hunting. such as duc*s and dolphins. sleep – an animal's breathing slows and its urine flow stops.
=4day rhythm synchronized to the lunar month. 9B hrs baboon. tuc*ed in. horse. .osture during sleep – upside down. hrs hamster.4hr rhythm synchronized to the semidiurnal tidal rhythm. hrs elephant. gerbil rat 9@ hrs owl mon*ey 9< hrs opossum :B hrs bat
Bigger animals sleep relatively shorter hours than smaller animals. cow @ hrs dolphin A hrs humans. rhesus mon*ey. raccoon.. chipmun*. guinea pig < hrs mole. lying Average amount of sleep per day : hrs giraffe > hrs don*ey. #pectrum of biological rhythms Circatidal – approximately 9:.
. 9: hrs gorilla 9> hrs chinchilla. Circannual – approximately >?=4day rhythm synchronized to the solar year. caves. wolf. roe deer . rat. open areas #leep patterns diurnal &active during the day( nocturnal &active during the night( crepuscular &active during dawn and dus*( . underground.4hr rhythm synchronized to the solar day. gorillas 9= hrs cat. dog chimpanzee. water. rabbit. goat. avoids harsh temperature. sheep. s2uirrel mon*ey. s2uirrel.laces of sleep /rees. mouse 9. standing. /his is due to their slow metabolism. hedgehog 99 hrs beaver. 3aguar. Circadian – approximately :. fox. pig. Circalunar – approximately :<.
piscivores. . • Aggressive mimicry Animal uses some biological characteristic to lure prey. seed.rimary consumers $erbivores and 7mnivores • #econdary consumers #mall carnivores • /ertiary consumers Eats secondary consumers • #cavengers 0ecomposers Eats CleftoversD /ypes of feeding based on food1 Carnivores – flesh eaters. Bats 6ions 8ingfishers SEXUAL BEHAVIOR #exual cycle1 proestrus. insectivores. Bears • /raps A type of sit and wait predation #piders use their web to catch other insects. 6et's the animal practice their s*ills in catching their prey. estrus. monthly breeders. parasites $erbivores – large plant. browsers.arasitism 7ne species of animal feeds on a part of another animal. small plants. • #pecialist strategy #pends more time on pursuing food than searching for it.
.INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR 5ood chain • . • .arasite is usually smaller than its prey. metestrus. • . diestrus
#easonal breeders.ursuit strategy 6oo*s for a prey then chases it. plant 3uice suc*ers 7mnivores – =BE plant and =BE animal 5oraging strategies • %eneralist strategy #pends more time on loo*ing for food than pursuing it. .fruit eaters.redatory strategies • #it and wait predation sed by predators whose prey is continuously moving.
sperm removal Engaging in sperm competition – e3aculating greater 2uantities of sperm. 5emales loo* for 2uality. Courtship – ritualized behavior leading to mating +ating – placement of sperm in vicinity of eggs. strategic allocation of e3aculate +ales loo* for 2uantity.laying of eggs even without male animals. reducing or inhibiting female receptivity &chemicals from semen(. +ales opposing female copulation attempts 5emales opposing male copulation attempts PARENTAL BEHAVIOR
. multiple males Benefits of polyandry1 fertility assurance more paternal care nutrients derived from courtship protection from male harassment genetic diversity attractive genes +ale adaptations to counter polyandry1 . #ome animals *ill their mates after mating. multiple females polyandry – single female. repeated mating. #exual conflict #exual cannibalism – female *ills and cannibalizes a courting or mating male. creating physical barriers to insemination &mating plug(. sexual interference &stac*s of spermatophores(. sounds .7vulation. +ating in animals Animals mate only during estrus or heat period.reventing sperm competition – mate guarding. #ome animals mate only with one partner. %enital damage – genital wounding of females. "dentifying mates – visual cues.heromones – chemical substances secreted by an animal that are used in communication with other members of same species. +ating systems monogamy – single partner polygamy – multiple partners polygyny – single male. chemical signals.
Anthropocentrism – tendency to observe animals from human perspective.roblems of studying animal cognition Anthropomorphism – tendency to view animals as people. )egurgitation – vomiting of ingested food for feed to the young. #ome animals are left to fend for their own while other animals are fed by their parents for days.g. punishment. mouth. /ypes of learning $abituation – progressive decrease in the strength of a behavioral response to a continuing stimulus. 7perant learning or conditioning – learning related to dimensions of self4control of some aspect of the animal's environment. wolf. Aversion – learning through negative reinforcement. food( such that a reflexive response &e. sound( is paired with an unconditioned stimulus &e. Conditioning – learning or conditioning that occurs when a conditioned stimulus &e. coc*roach.g.g. rhea
LEARNING Animal cognition – scientific study of the mental lives of animals and encompasses learning. &e. Animal daddies Catfish. !eaning – period when the young's food change from mil* to solid food and when the young is separated from its parents.g. &e. while some animals can stand up immediately.Basic needs of young ones 5ood and drin* . sand grouse. noise or violent threat(. training a dog to roll over(. etc. e. penguin.g. wee*s or months. salivation( is initiated. escape and avoidance.rotection #helter and warmth +aternal care #ome animals are born helpless and need the utmost care of parents. response of stress to noise(. sea horse. frog. . 7bservational learning – learning behaviors from other animals.
. "t involves the ability to thin* about how another individual might thin*.g. memory and thought.g. #ensitization – the general increase in response &e. escape response( to a continuing noxious stimulus &e. #ome animals are carried by their parents in pouches. rewards.g. #haping is a form of learning that may involve waiting until an animal performs a specific behavior. bac*.
that includes pic*ing at. different from usual. #eparation anxiety #eparation anxiety in dogs is the fear or disli*e of isolation. stress and boredom Abnormal stimuli or environmental surroundings Examples of abnormal behavior 5oal re3ection )e3ection of a foal by its dam &mother(. 5eather4pic*ing and self4mutilation in birds 5eather pic*ing is excessive self grooming. #ocial learning – learning through exposure. mouth. or chewing on feathers. . disorderly. udder area or navel of another calf.renatal and neonatal learning. diseases. uncertainty. 6earning during early development of animals. stimulant enhancement. pluc*ing out. $eadsha*ing in horses $eadsha*ing occurs when a horse sha*es its head in the absence of obvious extraneous stimuli. undesirable. mineral( Conflict. inappropriate behavior. )einforcement – learning through positive conditional actions. Cannibalism Cannibalism is associated with large poultry floc*s where the birds *ept in close confinement pec* at other birds. Causes of abnormal behavior Extremes of natural behavior at the limits of natural variation +alfunction.hysical aggression manifests itself through biting or tail wiping &the whip4li*e tail of an "guana could seriously in3ure an eye and their 3aws are strong enough to sever a mouseFs head from itFs body in a single bite(. Coprophagy Coprophagy is the ingestion of fecal material. scrotum.g.hysical aggression in iguana . imitation and emulation
BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS Abnormal behavior – uncommon. Cross4suc*ing in calves Cross4suc*ing is defined as one calf suc*ing the ear. prepuce. .
. tail. deficiencies &e. aberrant.
or intimidated.acing 4 the animal moves repeatedly bac* and forth in a straight line or perhaps moves in a circular or figure eight pattern in its enclosure. rine mar*ing in female cats 5or female unspayed cats in a natural setting. aroused. #tereotypic movement in zoo animals "t can be a movement repeated regularly or an exaggerated form of a purposeful behavior. "n some cats. #tationary movements are repeated nonlocomotive acts such as roc*ing. :. . !ool suc*ing in cat "n wool suc*ing. but then progresses to other available materials such as cotton or even plastic.
. /railering problem in horses $orses ac2uire trailering problems primarily through improper training or bad experiences.roblem chewing Chewing in rabbits is an instinctive behaviour as they need to chew in order to wear down their incisors which grow continuously throughout their lives. . /his poses a serious threat to the health of the dog. the suc*ing begins with wool. refers to the eating of materials other than normal food. . leaves. a cat will suc* or chew on wool. head tossing or weaving. urine mar*ing is a normal behavior used to attract a mate.$erbivorous house cat !hile cats are generally considered to be carnivorous animals.ica behavior in dog A common problem in dogs is the ingestion of unnatural ob3ects such as candy wrappers. 5orms of stereotypic movements in zoos1 9. or soc*s. . sharp sounds. . /ypes1 osteophagia &chewing of bones(G coprophagia &eating of feces(G lignophagia &chewing and eating of wood(G and geophagia &eating of soil or sand(. or depraved appetite. whether it be grass. #ubmissive urination in dog #ubmissive urinator is a dog that urinates all over the floor as soon as it becomes excited. or house plants. .ica. toilet paper.roblem bar*ing Bar*ing is characterized by a series of short. all cats seem to have some predisposition to eat vegetable matter. that tend to vary little in tone or pitch.ica behavior in horses .lay aggression in cats 5eline play aggression is aggressive interaction between a cat and another cat or between a cat and people.