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PREPARED BY: Atit S Gaonkar XII-A SESSION: 2013-2014 KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NAVAL BASE ARGA, KARWAR

CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

OBJECTIVE
STUDY OF CONSTITUENTS OF ALLOY

CERTIFICATE
THIS IS HEREBY TO CERTIFY THAT THE ORIGINAL GENUINE INVESTIGATION WORK HAS BEEN CARRIED OUT TO INVESTIGATE ABOUT THE SUBJECT MATTER AND THE RELATED DATA COLLECTION AND INVESTIGATION HAS BEEN COMPLETED SLOWLY , SINCERELY AND SATISFACTORILY BY MASTER ATIT S GAONKAR OF CLASS: XII-A , K.V.KARWAR REGARDING HIS PROJECT TITLED : STUDY OF CONSTITUENTS OF ALLOY

_______________ Teachers Signature

________________ Principals Signature

________________ External Examiners Signature

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to Principal Mrs. BHANUMATHY H.D for her encouragement and facilities that she provided for this project. I shall remain indebted to her. It would be my utmost pleasure to express my sincere thanks to my chemistry teacher MRS. SHILPA RANA for providing a helping hand in this project. I cant forget to offer my sincere thanks to my classmates who helped me to carry out this project. My thanking will be incomplete without thanking my parents who where always with me and supported me in doing this project. It is their help which made the project to attain its present form.

CONTENTS
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) INTRODUCTION AIM MATERIALS REQUIRED THEORY PROCEDURE CONCLUSION PRECAUTION APPLICATION BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION
An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or a metal and non-metal. They are generally harder than their components with reduced malleability and ductility. Alloys are prepared to enhance certain characteristics of the constituent metals, as per requirement. In this project, we shall qualitatively analyze the chemical composition of two alloys: Brass and Bronze

AIM
General objective: This project is being carried out with a view to increase the appreciation of alloyanalysis as an important branch of chemistry. The hands-on laboratory experience gained is highly beneficial in understanding the general procedure of qualitative analysis of an unknown sample. Specific objective: In this project, we shall analyzing the constituents of Brass and Bronze. be

MATERIALS REQUIRED
Brass & Bronze Pieces China Dishes Filtration Apparatus Nitric Acid Hydrogen Sulphide Gas Ammonium Chloride Pottasium Ferrocyanide Ammonium Sulphide Dil. Hydrochloric Acid

THEORY
Brass contains Cu and Zn . Both dissolve in nitric acid. 4Zn+ 10 HNO3 3Cu + 8 HNO3 4Zn(NO)2 + N2O + 5H2O 3Cu(NO3)2 + 4H2O+2NO

Further analysis is carried out for respective ions. Cu dissolves in H2S to give black ppt. of CuS. It is filtered to get the solution of Zinc Sulphide. It precipitates out in the form of ZnCl2 in an ammonical solution of Ammonium chloride. The precipitate is dissolved in dilute HCl and then treated with Potassium Ferrocyanide to get a bluish-white ppt. of Zn2[Fe(CN)6]. Bronze contains Cu and Sn. Their nitrates are obtained by dissolving the sample in conc. Nitric acid. The nitrates are precipitated as Sulphides by passing H2S through their solution in dil. HCl. The CuS is insoluble in yellow ammonium sulphide, while SnS is soluble. The ppt. is separated by filtration.

The ppt. is dissolved in cone HNO3 and then Ammonium hydroxide solution is passed through it. Blue colouration confirms the presence of Cu. The filtrate is treated with conc. HCl followed by Zinc dust to obtain SnCl2 . Then HgCl2 solution is added. Formation of slate-coloured ppt. indicates the presence of Sn. SnS2 +HCl(conc) SnCl4 +3Fe SnCl2 + HgCl2 SnCl4 + H2S SnCl2 + 3FeCl2 Hg2Cl2 + SnCl4

PROCEDURE
Brass: A small piece of brass was placed in a china dish and dissolved in minimum quantity of 50%conc.HNO3 . The solution was heated to obtain a dry residue. The residue was dissolved in Dilute HCl. H2S gas was passed and a black ppt. was observed. The solution was filtered and the ppt. was dissolved in NH4OH solution. A blue coloration observed indicates the presence of Cu. The filtrate was tested for presence of Zn. Ammonium hydroxide and chloride solutions were added and then H2S gas was passed. A dull grey ppt. was separated and dissolved in dil. HCl followed by addition of Potassium Ferrocyanide. A bluish white ppt. confirms the presence of Zn.

Bronze: The sample was dissolved in 50% HNO3 and then heated to obtain nitrates. The nitrates were dissolved in dil. HCl and then precipitated as Sulphides by passing H2S gas. The precipitates were treated with yellow ammonium sulphide when a part of it dissolves. The soln. was filtered. The ppt. was tested for Cu as in the case of brass. The filtrate was treated with conc HCl followed by Fe dust. Then HgCl2 soln. was added. Formation of a slate - coloured ppt. confirmed the presence of Sn.

CONCLUSION
Brass contains Copper and Zinc Bronze contains Copper and Tin.

PRECAUTION
Nitric Acid is a powerful acid (the opposite to an base). Avoid contact with hands and clothes and wash thoroughly in case of contact. Hydrogen Sulphide is an unpleasant gas. So take proper precaution while handling it.

APPLICATIONS
Alloys are adding of certain metals with iron or steel in order to increase its individual properties.for example the knife which is commonly used in kitchens are in high danger of rusting due to the moisture content of air in kitchens, so certain mixture of zinc is plated on the knife to resist rust. This process is called galvanization. Alloys are used in bridges, office buildings, auto bodies, aircraft, dental fillings, loudspeaker magnets, door locks, musical instruments, jewelry, eyeglass frames, artificial joints and nuclear reactors--just to name a few. The uses of alloys are limitless and serve tens of thousands of purposes in industrial, commercial, consumer, construction, transportation, medical and military applications. Material scientists constantly design new alloys to meet new demands, and have enlisted computers to customize alloys to meet specific sets of requirements.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Topics for Projects http://www.google.com Class XII Chemistry Textbook Class XI Chemistry Textbook Details available on particular topic http://www.wikipedia.com

TEACHERS REMARKS

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