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Modern power system comprises of complex networks, where many generating stations and load centers are interconnected through long power transmission and distribution networks. Utility distribution networks, critical commercial operations and sensitive industrial loads all suffer from various types of outages and interruptions which can lead to significant financial loss, loss of production, idle work forces etc. Today due the changing trends and restructuring of power systems, the consumers are looking forward to the quality and reliability of power supply at the load centers.this is possible by upqc.

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UPQC-S: A Novel Concept of Simultaneous Voltage Sag/Swell and Load Reactive Power Compensations Utilizing Series Inverter of UPQC

Vinod Khadkikar, Member, IEEE, and Ambrish Chandra, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper introduces a new concept of optimal utilization of a unied power quality conditioner (UPQC). The series inverter of UPQC is controlled to perform simultaneous 1) voltage sag/swell compensation and 2) load reactive power sharing with the shunt inverter. The active power control approach is used to compensate voltage sag/swell and is integrated with theory of power angle control (PAC) of UPQC to coordinate the load reactive power between the two inverters. Since the series inverter simultaneously delivers active and reactive powers, this concept is named as UPQC-S (S for complex power). A detailed mathematical analysis, to extend the PAC approach for UPQC-S, is presented in this paper. MATLAB/SIMULINK-based simulation results are discussed to support the developed concept. Finally, the proposed concept is validated with a digital signal processor-based experimental study. Index TermsActive power lter (APF), power angle control (PAC), power quality, reactive power compensation, unied power quality conditioner (UPQC), voltage sag and swell compensation.

Fig. 1.

I. INTRODUCTION

HE MODERN power distribution system is becoming highly vulnerable to the different power quality problems [1], [2]. The extensive use of nonlinear loads is further contributing to increased current and voltage harmonics issues. Furthermore, the penetration level of small/large-scale renewable energy systems based on wind energy, solar energy, fuel cell, etc., installed at distribution as well as transmission levels is increasing signicantly. This integration of renewable energy sources in a power system is further imposing new challenges to the electrical power industry to accommodate these newly emerging distributed generation systems [3]. To maintain the controlled power quality regulations, some kind of compensation at all the power levels is becoming a common practice [5][9]. At the distribution level, UPQC is a most attractive solution to compensate several major power quality problems [7][9], [14][28]. The general block diagram repre-

Manuscript received July 16, 2010; revised November 18, 2010; accepted December 26, 2010. Date of current version September 16, 2011. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor J. H. R. Enslin. V. Khadkikar is with Electrical Power Engineering Program, Masdar Institute, Abu Dhabi 54224, United Arab Emirates (e-mail: vkhadkikar@masdar.ac.ae). A. Chandra is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada (e-mail: ambrish. chandra@etsmtl.ca). Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2106222

sentation of a UPQC-based system is shown in Fig. 1. It basically consists of two voltage source inverters connected back to back using a common dc bus capacitor. This paper deals with a novel concept of optimal utilization of a UPQC. The voltage sag/swell on the system is one of the most important power quality problems [1], [2]. The voltage sag/swell can be effectively compensated using a dynamic voltage restorer, series active lter, UPQC, etc. [7][28]. Among the available power quality enhancement devices, the UPQC has better sag/swell compensation capability. Three signicant control approaches for UPQC can be found to control the sag on the system: 1) active power control approach in which an in-phase voltage is injected through series inverter [16][22], popularly known as UPQC-P; 2) reactive power control approach in which a quadrature voltage is injected [23], [24], known as UPQC-Q; and 3) a minimum VA loading approach in which a series voltage is injected at a certain angle, [25][28], in this paper called as UPQC-VAm in . Among the aforementioned three approaches, the quadrature voltage injection requires a maximum series injection voltage, whereas the in-phase voltage injection requires the minimum voltage injection magnitude. In a minimum VA loading approach, the series inverter voltage is injected at an optimal angle with respect to the source current. Besides the series inverter injection, the current drawn by the shunt inverter, to maintain the dc link voltage and the overall power balance in the network, plays an important role in determining the overall UPQC VA loading. The reported paper on UPQC-VAm in is concentrated on the optimal VA load of the series inverter of UPQC especially during voltage sag condition [25][28]. Since an out of phase component is required to be injected for voltage swell compensation, the suggested VA loading in UPQC-VAm in determined on the

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basis of voltage sag, may not be at optimal value. A detailed investigation on VA loading in UPQC-VAm in considering both voltage sag and swell scenarios is essential. In the paper [15], the authors have proposed a concept of power angle control (PAC) of UPQC. The PAC concept suggests that with proper control of series inverter voltage the series inverter successfully supports part of the load reactive power demand, and thus reduces the required VA rating of the shunt inverter. Most importantly, this coordinated reactive power sharing feature is achieved during normal steady-state condition without affecting the resultant load voltage magnitude. The optimal angle of series voltage injection in UPQC-VAm in is computed using lookup table [26], [27] or particle swarm optimization technique [28]. These iterative methods mostly rely on the online load power factor angle estimation, and thus may result into tedious and slower estimation of optimal angle. On the other hand, the PAC of UPQC concept determines the series injection angle by estimating the power angle . The angle is computed in adaptive way by computing the instantaneous load active/reactive power and thus, ensures fast and accurate estimation. Similar to PAC of UPQC, the reactive power ow control utilizing shunt and series inverters is also done in a unied power ow controller (UPFC) [4], [5]. A UPFC is utilized in a power transmission system whereas a UPQC is employed in a power distribution system to perform the shunt and series compensation simultaneously. The power transmission systems are generally operated in balanced and distortion-free environment, contrary to power distribution systems that may contain dc component, distortion, and unbalance. The primary objective of a UPFC is to control the ow of power at fundamental frequency. Also, while performing this power ow control in UPFC the transmission network voltage may not be maintained at the rated value. However, in PAC of UPQC the load side voltage is strictly regulated at rated value while performing load reactive power sharing by shunt and series inverters. In this paper, the concept of PAC of UPQC is further expanded for voltage sag and swell conditions. This modied approach is utilized to compensate voltage sag/swell while sharing the load reactive power between two inverters. Since the series inverter of UPQC in this case delivers both active and reactive powers, it is given the name UPQCS (S for complex power). The key contributions of this paper are outlined as follows. 1) The series inverter of UPQC-S is utilized for simultaneous voltage sag/swell compensation and load reactive power compensation in coordination with shunt inverter. 2) In UPQC-S, the available VA loading is utilized to its maximum capacity during all the working conditions contrary to UPQC-VAm in where prime focus is to minimize the VA loading of UPQC during voltage sag condition. 3) The concept of UPQC-S covers voltage sag as well as swell scenario. In this paper, a detailed mathematical formulation of PAC for UPQC-S is carried out. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed UPQC-S approach are validated by simulation as well as experimental results.

Fig. 2.

II. FUNDAMENTALS OF PAC CONCEPT A UPQC is one of the most suitable devices to control the voltage sag/swell on the system. The rating of a UPQC is governed by the percentage of maximum amount of voltage sag/swell need to be compensated [19]. However, the voltage variation (sag/swell) is a short duration power quality issue. Therefore, under normal operating condition, the series inverter of UPQC is not utilized up to its true capacity. The concept of PAC of UPQC suggests that with proper control of the power angle between the source and load voltages, the load reactive power demand can be shared by both shunt and series inverters without affecting the overall UPQC rating [15]. The phasor representation of the PAC approach under a rated steady-state condition is shown in Fig. 2 [15]. According to this theory, a vector VSr with proper magnitude VSr and phase angle Sr when injected through series inverter gives a power angle boost between the source VS and resultant load VL voltages maintaining the same voltage magnitudes. This power angle shift causes a relative phase advancement between the supply voltage and resultant load current IL , denoted as angle . In other words, with PAC approach, the series inverter supports the load reactive power demand and thus, reducing the reactive power demand shared by the shunt inverter. For a rated steady-state condition

| = |VL | = k. |V S | = |V L | = |V L

(1)

Using Fig. 2, phasor VSr can be dened as [15] VSr = |VSr | Sr = k. 2. 1 cos = k where = sin1 QSr PL . (3) 2 180 tan1 90 + 2 sin 1 cos (2)

1 cos

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Fig. 4. Phasor representation of the proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage sag condition.

2) The available VA loading of UPQC is utilized to its maximum capacity and thus, compared to general UPQC operation for equal amount of sag compensation, the required rating of shunt inverter in UPQC-S will be smaller. IV. PAC APPROACH UNDER VOLTAGE SAG CONDITION Consider that the UPQC system is already working under PAC approach, i.e., both the inverters are compensating the load reactive power and the injected series voltage gives a power angle between resultant load and the actual source voltages. If a sag/swell condition occurs on the system, both the inverters should keep supplying the load reactive power, as they were before the sag. Additionally, the series inverter should also compensate the voltage sag/swell by injecting the appropriate voltage component. In other words, irrespective of the variation in the supply voltage the series inverter should maintain same power angle between both the voltages. However, if the load on the system changes during the voltage sag condition, the PAC approach will give a different angle. The increase or decrease in new angle would depend on the increase or decrease in load reactive power, respectively. Let us represent a vector VSr1 responsible to compensate the load reactive power utilizing PAC concept and vector VSr2 responsible to compensate the sag on the system using active power control approach. Thus, for simultaneous compensation, as noticed from Fig. 4, the series inverter should now supply a component which would be the vector sum of VSr1 and VSr2 . This resultant series inverter voltage VSr will maintain the load voltage magnitude at a desired level such that the drop in source voltage will not appear across the load terminal. Furthermore, the series inverter will keep sharing the load reactive power demand. For load reactive power compensation using PAC concept VSr1 = VL VS VSr1 Sr = VL VS 0 .

Fig. 3. Voltage sag and swell compensation using UPQC-P and UPQC-Q: phasor representation. (a) Voltage Sag (UPQC-P). (b) Voltage Sag (UPQC-Q). (c) Voltage Swell (UPQC-P). (d) Voltage Swell (UPQC-Q).

III. VOLTAGE SAG/SWELL COMPENSATION UTILIZING UPQC-P AND UPQC-Q The voltage sag on a system can be compensated through active power control [16][22] and reactive power control [23], [24] methods. Fig. 3 shows the phasor representations for voltage sag compensation using active power control as in UPQC-P [see Fig. 3(a)] and reactive power control as in UPQC-Q [see Fig. 3(b)]. Fig. 3(c) and (d) shows the compensation capability of UPQC-P and UPQC-Q to compensate a swell on the system. For a voltage swell compensation using UPQC-Q [see Fig. 3(d)], the quadrature component injected by series inverter does not intersect with the rated voltage locus. Thus, the UPQC-Q approach is limited to compensate the sag on the system. However, the UPQC-P approach can effectively compensate both voltage sag and swell on the system. Furthermore, to compensate an equal percentage of sag, the UPQC-Q requires lager magnitude Q P > VSr ). of series injection voltage than the UPQC-P (VSr Interestingly, UPQC-Q also gives a power angle shift between resultant load and source voltages, but this shift is a function of amount of sag on the system. Thus, the phase shift in UPQCQ cannot be controlled to vary the load reactive power support. Additionally, the phase shift in UPQC-Q is valid only during the voltage sag condition. Therefore, in this paper, PAC concept is integrated with active power control approach to achieve simultaneous voltage sag/swell compensation and the load reactive power support utilizing the series inverter of UPQC. This new approach in which the series inverter of UPQC performs dual functionality is named as UPQC-S. The signicant advantages of UPQC-S over other approaches are given as follows. 1) The series inverter of UPQC-S can support both active power (for voltage sag/swell compensation) and reactive power (for load reactive power compensation) simultaneously and hence the name UPQC-S (S for complex power).

(4) (5)

VSr2 = VL VS

(6)

VSr2 0 =

VL 0

VS 0 .

(7)

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Fig. 5. Detailed phasor diagram to estimate the series inverter parameters for the proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage sag condition.

For simultaneous load reactive power and sag compensation VSr = VSr1 + VSr2 VSr Sr = VSr1 Sr + VSr2 0. (8) (9)

Fig. 6. Current-based phasor representation of the proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage sag condition.

A. Series Inverter Parameter Estimation Under Voltage Sag In this section, the required series inverter parameters to achieve simultaneous load reactive power and voltage sag compensations are computed. Fig. 5 shows the detailed phasor diagram to determine the magnitude and phase of series injection voltage. The voltage uctuation factor kf which is dened as the ratio of the difference of instantaneous supply voltage and rated load voltage magnitude to the rated load voltage magnitude is represented as [19]

VS VL . kf = VL

Fig. 7. Detailed phasor diagram to estimate the shunt inverter parameters for the proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage sag condition.

(10)

achieve the voltage sag compensation while supporting the load reactive power under PAC approach.

Representing (10) for sag condition under PAC V VL V k . kf = S = S VL k Let us dene 1 + kf = nO . To compute the magnitude of VSr , from CHB in Fig. 5 w = l(CH ) = nO k y |VSr | = (k sin )2 + (nO k k cos )2 (13) (14) (15) (12) (11)

B. Shunt Inverter Parameter Estimation Under Voltage Sag The required current injected by the shunt inverter in order to operate the UPQC-S under voltage sag compensation mode is computed. The phasor diagram based on different currents is represented in Fig. 6. Prior to voltage sag on the system, the UPQC is assumed to be compensating for load reactive power using PAC approach, injecting the current ISh through shunt inverter. The current ISh represents the required current if the shunt inverter is used alone to compensate the total load reactive power demand. To achieve the voltage sag compensation through active power control approach the source should supply increased current IS [19]. Thus, to support the series inverter to inject the required voltage for load reactive power and sag compensations, the shunt inverter should now deliver the current ISh . This resultant shunt compensating current will maintain the dc link voltage at the constant level. Thus, it facilitates the required active power transfer between the source and shunt inverter, shunt inverter and series inverters (through dc link) and nally, from series inverter to the load. Fig. 7 represents the phasor diagram to compute the shunt inverter injected current magnitude and its phase angle. To support the active power required during voltage sag condition, the source delivers the extra source current.

|VSr | = k. 1 + n2 O 2 nO cos . To compute the phase of VSr CHB = = tan1 Therefore, Sr = 180 . x w = tan1 sin nO cos

. (16) (17)

Equations (15) and (17) give the required magnitude and phase of series inverter voltage of UPQC-S that should be injected to

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Fig. 8. Phasor representation of the proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage swell condition.

During voltage sag [19] IS = Let 1 = kO . 1 + kf Therefore, IS = kO IL cos L . In GF J (see Fig. 7) ISh = (IL sin )2 + [IL (cos kO cos L )]2 (21) ISh = IL 1+

2 kO

IL cos L . 1 + kf

(18)

Fig. 9. Current-based phasor representation of the proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage swell condition.

(19)

(27)

For simultaneous load reactive power and voltage swell compensations (20) VSr = VSr1 + VSr3 VSr Sr = VSr1 Sr + VSr3 180 . For series inverter (see Fig. 8) |VSr | = k 1 + n2 O 2 nO cos sin nO cos (30) (31) (32)

(28) (29)

= tan1 S h Sh

S L

= + 90 = ( + 90 ) .

Equations (22) and (25) give the required magnitude and phase angle of a shunt inverter compensating current to achieve the desired operation from the UPQC-S. V. PAC APPROACH UNDER VOLTAGE SWELL CONDITION The phasor representation for PAC of UPQC-S during a voltage swell on the system is shown in Fig. 8. Let us represent a vector VSr3 responsible to compensate the swell on the system using active power control approach. For simultaneous compensation, the series inverter should supply the VSr1 component to support the load reactive power and VSr3 to compensate the swell on the system. The resultant series injected voltage VSr would maintain the load voltage magnitude at a desired level while supporting the load reactive power. For voltage swell compensation using active power control approach

VSr3 = VL VS

Fig. 9 shows the phasor representation for different currents under PAC of UPQC-S under a voltage swell condition. Utilizing the active power control to compensate voltage swell, the source current magnitude reduces from its normal steady-state value [19]. This reduced shunt inverter current is represented as IS . The procedure to determine the series and shunt inverter parameters for PAC of UPQC-S during voltage swell is similar to the one illustrated for the voltage sag condition in Section IV. The important equations are given here. For shunt inverter (see Fig. 9) ISh = IL

2 cos2 2 k cos cos 1 + kO L O L

(33) = tan1 Sh

L

(34) (35)

= ( + 90 ) .

(26)

It can be noted that the equations for voltage sag and swell compensation utilizing the PAC of UPQC-S are identical. However, the value of factor kf will be negative for voltage sag and positive for voltage swell; hence, the value of factors kO and nO

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will be different for voltage sag and swell conditions, giving different magnitude and phase angles for series and shunt inverter parameters. VI. ACTIVEREACTIVE POWER FLOW THROUGH UPQC-S The per-phase active and reactive powers ow through the UPQC-S during the voltage sag/swell is determined in this section. As the performance equations for series and shunt inverters are identical for both sag and swell conditions, only sag condition is considered to determine the equations for active and reactive power. A. Series Inverter of UPQC-S For active power PSr = VSr IS cos Sr . From Fig. 5 PSr = VSr IS cos(180 ) PSr = VSr IS ( cos ) PSr = VSr IS w VSr (37) (38) (39) (40) (36) From Fig. 7 PSh = nO k ISh ( sin ) PSh = nO k ISh PSh , PAC = For reactive power QSh = VS ISh sin Sh S . From Fig. 7 QSh = nO k ISh cos() QSh , PAC = (42) (k IL ) (sin ) . kO (53) (54) (52) e ISh (49) (50) (51) For active power PSh = VS ISh cos Sh S . (48)

Fig. 10. Reference voltage signal generation for the series inverter of the proposed UPQC-S approach.

The increase IS or decrease IS in the source current magnitudes during the voltage sag or swell condition, respectively, is represented as IS = IS = kO IL cos L . Therefore, PSr , PAC = PSr = kO (nO cos ) (PL ) { PL = k IL cos L }. For reactive power QSr = VSr IS sin Sr . From Fig. 5 QSr = VSr IS sin(180 ) QSr = VSr IS sin QSr = VSr IS Therefore, QSr , PAC = QSr = kO (sin ) (PL ). (47) x VSr . (44) (45) (46) (43) (41)

Using (51) and (54), the active and reactive power ow through shunt inverter of UPQC-S during voltage sag/swell condition can be calculated and utilized to determine the overall UPQC-S VA loading. VII. UPQC-S CONTROLLER A detailed controller for UPQC based on PAC approach is described in [15]. In this paper, the generation of reference signals for series inverter is discussed. Note that, as the series inverter maintains the load voltage at desired level, the reactive power demanded by the load remains unchanged (assuming load on the system is constant) irrespective of changes in the source voltage magnitude. Furthermore, the power angle is maintained at constant value under different operating conditions. Therefore, the reactive power shared by the series inverter and hence by the shunt inverter changes as given by (47) and (54). The reactive power shared by the series and shunt inverters can be xed at constant values by allowing the power angle to vary under voltage sag/swell condition. The control block diagram for series inverter operation is shown in Fig. 10. The instantaneous power angle is determined using the procedure give in [15]. Based on the system rated specications, the value of the desired load voltage is set as

Using (42) and (47), the active and reactive power ow through series inverter of UPQC-S during voltage sag/swell condition can be calculated. B. Shunt Inverter of UPQC-S The active and reactive power handled by the shunt inverter as seen from the source side is determined as follows.

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Fig. 11. Simulation results: performance of the proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage sag and swell conditions. (a) Supply voltage. (b) Load voltage. (c) Series inverter injected voltage. (d) Self-supporting dc bus voltage. (e) Enlarged power angle relation between supply and load voltages during steady-state condition. (f) Supply current. (g) Load current. (h) Shunt inverter injected current. (i) Enlarged power angle during voltage sag condition.(j) Enlarged power angle during voltage swell condition.

reference load voltage k. The instantaneous value of factors kf and nO is computed by measuring the peak value of the supply voltage in real time. The magnitudes of series injected voltage VSr and its phase angle Sr are then determined using (15) and (17). A phase locked loop is used to synchronize and to generate instantaneous time variable reference signals vSr ,a , vSr ,b , vSr ,c . The reference signals thus generated give the necessary series injection voltages that will share the load reactive power and compensate for voltage sag/swell as formulated using the proposed approach. The error signal of actual and reference series voltage is utilized to perform the switching operation of series inverter of UPQC-S. The control diagram for the shunt inverter is as given in [15].

VIII. SIMULATION RESULTS The performance of the proposed concept of simultaneous load reactive power and voltage sag/swell compensation has been evaluated by simulation. To analyze the performance of UPQC-S, the source is assumed to be pure sinusoidal. Furthermore, for better visualization of results the load is considered as highly inductive. The supply voltage which is available at UPQC terminal is considered as three phase, 60 Hz, 600 V (line to line) with the maximum load power demand of 15 kW + j 15 kVAR (load power factor angle of 0.707 lagging). The simulation results for the proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage sag and swell conditions are given in Fig. 11. Before time t1 , the UPQC-S system is working under steady-

state condition, compensating the load reactive power using both the inverters. A power angle of 21 is maintained between the resultant load and actual source voltages. The series inverter shares 1.96 kVAR per phase (or 5.8 kVAR out of 15 kVAR) demanded by the load. Thus, the reactive power support from the shunt inverter is reduced from 15 to 9.2 kVAR by utilizing the concept of PAC. In other words, the shunt inverter rating is reduced by 25% of the total load kilovoltampere rating. At time t1 = 0.6 s, a sag of 20% is introduced on the system (sag last till time t = 0.7 s). Between the time period t = 0.7 s and t = 0.8 s, the system is again in the steady state. A swell of 20% is imposed on the system for a duration of t2 = 0.80.9 s. The active and reactive power ows through the source, load, and UPQC are given in Fig. 12. The distinct features of the proposed UPQC-S approach are outlined as follows. 1) From Fig. 11(a) and (b), the load voltage prole is maintained at a desired level irrespective of voltage sag (decrease) or swell (increase) in the source voltage magnitudes. During the sag/swell compensation, as viewed from Fig. 11(f), to maintain the appropriate active power balance in the network, the source current increases during the voltage sag and reduces during swell condition. 2) As illustrated by enlarged results, the power angle between the source and load voltages during the steady state [see Fig. 11(e)], voltage sag [see Fig. 11(i)], and voltage swell [see Fig. 11(j)] is maintained at 21 . 3) The UPQC-S controller maintains a self-supporting dc link voltage between two inverters [see Fig. 11(d)].

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Fig. 12. Simulation results: active and reactive power ow through source, load, shunt, and series inverter utilizing proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage sag and swell conditions. (a) Source P and Q. (b) Load P and Q. (c) Series inverter P and Q. (d) Shunt inverter P and Q. TABLE I LOSSES ASSOCIATED WITH UPQC UNDER DIFFERENT SCENARIOS

4) From Fig. 12(c) and (d), the reactive power supplied by the series inverter during the voltage sag condition increases due to the increased source current. As load reactive power demand is constant, the reactive power supplied by the shunt inverter reduces accordingly. On the other hand, during the voltage swell condition, the reactive power shared by the series inverter reduces and the shunt inverter increases. The reduction and increment in the shunt compensating current magnitude, as seen from Fig. 11(h), also conrm the aforementioned fact. Although the reactive power shared by the series and shunt inverters is varied, the sum of their reactive powers always equals the reactive power demanded by the load. Thus, the aforementioned simulation study illustrates that with PAC of UPQC-S, the series inverter can compensate the load reactive power and voltage sag/swell simultaneously. The shunt inverter helps the series inverter to achieve the desired performance by maintaining a constant self-supporting dc bus. The signicant advantage of UPQC-S over general UPQC applications is that the shunt inverter rating can be reduced due to reactive power sharing of both the inverters.

Table I gives the power losses associated with UPQC with and without PAC approach under different scenarios. The power loss is computed as the ratio of losses associated with UPQC to the total load power. The rms values of current owing through shunt and series inverters and series injection voltage are also given in Table I. Initially, it is considered that the shunt inverter alone supports the load reactive power and the series inverter is assumed to be in OFF condition. The series injection transformer is also short circuited. This operating condition gives the losses in the shunt part of UPQC, which are found as 0.74% of the rated load power. In the second condition, the series inverter is turned on as well. The percent power losses, when both the inverters of UPQC are in operation, are noticed as 1.7%. Under this condition when UPQC is controlled as UPQC-S to support the load reactive power using both shunt and series inverters, controlled by the PAC approach, losses are observed as 1.2%. The power loss in the UPQC system with PAC approach thus is lower than the normal UPQC control. This is an interesting outcome of the PAC approach even when the series inverter deals with both active and reactive powers due to shift between source and load voltages. One may expect to increase the power loss with the UPQC-S system. The reduction in the power loss is mainly due to the reduction in the shunt inverter rms current from 20.20 A (without PAC approach) to 13.18 A (with PAC approach). Second, the current through the series inverter (which is almost equal to the source current) remains unchanged. Similarly from the Table I, the power losses utilizing the PAC approach, during voltage sag and swell conditions, are observed lower than those without PAC approach. This study thus suggests that the PAC approach may also help to reduce the power loss associated with UPQC system in addition to the previously discussed advantages. IX. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION The performance of the proposed concept of UPQC-S is validated through experimental study. The pictorial view of the

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Fig. 13. Pictorial view of UPQC laboratory prototype. (1) Analog triangular carrier signal-based PWM controller for series inverter, (2) dSPACE, (3) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)-based series inverter, (4) voltage sensing circuitry, (5) source side, (6) series injection transformers, (7) current sensing circuitry, (8) IGBT driver circuitry, (9) load side, (10) IGBT- based shunt inverter, (11) dc bus, and (12) analog hysteresis current controller for shunt inverter.

Fig. 14. Experimental results: Performance of proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage sag condition (voltage sag = 17%, = 10 ). (a) Source and load vi proles. (b) Power angle shift between resultant load and source voltages. (c) UPQC-S injected vi and self-supporting dc bus proles.

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UPQC experimental setup is shown in Fig. 13 and prototype details are given in the Appendix. A. Performance of UPQC-S Under Voltage Sag Condition The experimental results during the voltage sag on the system are shown in Fig. 14. It is considered that the UPQC already working under PAC shares the load reactive power (load power factor 0.6 lagging) between both the inverters. The power angle between the load and source voltages is 10 . Under this condition, the voltage sag of 17% is introduced on the system. The reduced source voltage prole can be noticed from Fig. 14(a) (upper trace). The UPQC-S with the proposed approach maintains the load voltage at a set reference value while supporting the load reactive power using both the inverters. Furthermore, the UPQC-S effectively achieves a unity power factor operation at source side, which can be noticed from Fig. 14(a) (upper two traces). The resultant load and source voltage proles are compared in Fig. 14(b). The power angle of 10 between the two voltages is noticeable in the gure. The voltage injected by the series inverter and the shunt inverter current during the voltage sag compensation mode of operation are given in Fig. 14(c). The presence of in-phase voltage component (for voltage sag compensation) in addition to the load reactive power component can be observed from the series injected voltage prole (trace-3). The self-supporting dc bus of UPQC-S is also shown in Fig. 14(c) (trace-2). Fig. 15(a) and (b) gives experimental results showing the source, load, and series inverter injected voltages for the condition of 28% voltage sag with power angles = 10 and = 15 , respectively. Comparing Fig. 15(a) and (b), a slight increase in series injection voltage magnitude in Fig. 15(b) is due to the increased power angle from 10 to 15 . B. Performance of UPQC-S Under Voltage Swell Condition The experimental results during a voltage swell (22%) on the system are shown in Fig. 16. The increased source voltage due to swell can be noticed from Fig. 16(a) (upper trace). The UPQC-S during voltage swell condition too maintains the load voltage at the desired level while supporting the load reactive power using both the inverters [see Fig. 16(a), lower trace]. The power angle phase shift between resultant load voltage and source voltage is illustrated in Fig. 16(b). Note that the effect of the increased supply voltage does not appear across the load terminal. The voltage injected by the series inverter and the shunt current during the voltage swell compensation mode of operation are given in Fig. 16(c). The series injected voltage which is the sum of an out-phase voltage component and the load reactive power component can be viewed from Fig. 16(c) (trace-3). C. Dynamic Performance of UPQC-S During Voltage Sag/Swell Conditions The dynamic performance of UPQC-S with proposed PAC under sudden occurrence of the voltage sag and swell condition is given in Fig. 17(a) and (b), respectively. Note that the UPQCS maintains the load voltage at constant level irrespective of changes (decrease or increase) in the source voltage. The UPQCS is operating in load reactive power sharing mode before and during voltage sag/swell conditions. X. CONCLUSION In this paper, a new concept of controlling complex power (simultaneous active and reactive powers) through series inverter of UPQC is introduced and named as UPQC-S. The proposed concept of the UPQC-S approach is mathematically formulated and analyzed for voltage sag and swell conditions. The developed comprehensive equations for UPQC-S can be utilized to estimate the required series injection voltage and the shunt compensating current proles (magnitude and phase angle), and the overall VA loading both under voltage sag and swell conditions. The simulation and experimental studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed concept of simultaneous voltage sag/swell and load reactive power sharing feature of series part of UPQC-S. The signicant advantages of UPQC-S over general UPQC applications are: 1) the multifunction ability of series inverter to compensate voltage variation (sag, swell, etc.) while

Fig. 15 Experimental results: performance of proposed of UPQC-S approach under voltage sag condition with different power angles. (a) Voltage sag = 28%, = 10 . (b) Voltage sag = 28%, = 15 .

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Fig. 17. Experimental results: Dynamic performance of proposed UPQC-S approach during voltage sag and swell conditions. (a) Voltage sag condition. (b) Voltage swell condition.

Fig. 16. Experimental results: performance of proposed UPQC-S approach under voltage swell condition (voltage swell = 22%, = 10 ). (a) Source and load vi proles. (b) Power angle shift between resultant load and source voltages. (c) UPQC-S injected vi and self-supporting dc bus proles.

lagging power factor; DC bus: dc bus capacitor = 1100 F/220 V, reference dc bus voltage = 150 V; UPQC: shunt inverter coupling inductance = 5 mH, shunt inverter switching type = analog hysteresis current controller with average switching frequency between 5 and 7 kHz, series inverter coupling inductance = 2 mH, series inverter ripple lter capacitance = 40 F, series inverter switching type = analog triangular carrier pulse width modulation with a xed frequency of 5 kHz, series voltage injection transformer turn ratio = 1:3, DSP sampling time = 50 s. REFERENCES

supporting load reactive power; 2) better utilization of series inverter rating of UPQC; and 3) reduction in the shunt inverter rating due to the reactive power sharing by both the inverters. APPENDIX The important parameters used for laboratory prototype of UPQC-S are as follows. Source: Three-phase ac supply, 35 V (rms), f = 60 Hz; Load: 40- resistance in parallel with 50-mH inductance giving 0.6

[1] R. C. Dugan, M. F. McGranaghan, and H. W. Beaty, Electrical Power Systems Quality.. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, p. 265. [2] C. Sankaran, Power Quality. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002, p. 202. [3] R. A. Walling, R. Saint, R. C. Dugan, J. Burke, and L. A. Kojovic, Summary of distributed resources impact on power delivery systems, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 16361644, Jul. 2008. [4] L. Gyugyi, Unied power-ow control concept for exible AC transmission systems, IEE C Gene. Trans. Distr., vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 323331, Jul. 1992. [5] N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. New York: IEEE Press, 2000, p. 432.

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[6] V. K. Sood, HVDC and FACTS Controllers Applications of Static Converters in Power Systems. Boston, MA: Kluwer, 2004, p. 295. [7] A. Ghosh and G. Ledwich, Power Quality Enhancement Using Custom Power Devices. Boston, MA: Kluwer, 2002, p. 460. [8] B. Singh, K. Al-Haddad, and A. Chandra, A review of active power lters for power quality improvement, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 960971, Oct. 1999. [9] M. El-Habrouk, M. K. Darwish, and P. Mehta, Active power lters: A review, IEE Electr. Power Appl., vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 403413, Sep. 2000. [10] Doncker, C. Meyer, R. W. De, W. L. Yun, and F. Blaabjerg, Optimized control strategy for a medium-voltage DVRTheoretical investigations and experimental results, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 27462754, Nov. 2008. [11] C. N. Ho and H. S. Chung, Implementation and performance evaluation of a fast dynamic control scheme for capacitor-supported interline DVR, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 19751988, Aug. 2010. [12] Y. Chen, C. Lin, J. Chen, and P. Cheng, An inrush mitigation technique of load transformers for the series voltage sag compensator, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 22112221, Aug. 2010. [13] S. Subramanian and M. K. Mishra, Interphase ACAC topology for voltage sag supporter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 514518, Feb. 2010. [14] H. Fujita and H. Akagi IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 315322, Mar. 1998. [15] V. Khadkikar and A. Chandra, A new control philosophy for a unied power quality conditioner (UPQC) to coordinate load-reactive power demand between shunt and series inverters, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 25222534, Oct. 2008. [16] M. Vilathgamuwa, Z. H. Zhang, and S. S. Choi, Modeling, analysis and control of unied power quality conditioner, in Proc. IEEE Harmon. Quality Power, Oct. 1418, 1998, pp. 10351040. [17] M. Gon, H. Liu, H. Gu, and D. Xu, Active voltage regulator based on novel synchronization method for unbalance and uctuation compensation, in Proc. IEEE Ind. Electron. Soc (IECON), Nov. 58,, 2002, pp. 13741379. [18] M. S. Khoor and M. Machmoum, Simplied analogical control of a unied power quality conditioner, in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC), Jun., 2005, pp. 25652570. [19] V. Khadkikar, A. Chandra, A. O. Barry, and T. D. Nguyen, Analysis of power ow in UPQC during voltage sag and swell conditions for selection of device ratings, in Proc. IEEE Electr. Computer Eng. (CCECE), May 2006, pp. 867872. [20] B. Han, B. Bae, H. Kim, and S. Baek, Combined operation of unied power-quality conditioner with distributed generation, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 330338, Jan. 2006. [21] H. R. Mohammadi, A. Y. Varjani, and H. Mokhtari, Multiconverter unied power-quality conditioning system: MC-UPQC, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 16791686, Jul. 2009. [22] I. Axente, J. N. Ganesh, M. Basu, M. F. Conlon, and K. Gaughan, A 12-kVA DSP-controlled laboratory prototype UPQC capable of mitigating unbalance in source voltage and load current, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 14711479, Jun. 2010. [23] M. Basu, S. P. Das, and G. K. Dubey, Investigation on the performance of UPQC-Q for voltage sag mitigation and power quality improvement at a critical load point, IET Generat., Transmiss. Distrib., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 414423, May 2008. [24] V. Khadkikar and A. Chandra, A novel control approach for unied power quality conditioner Q without active power injection for voltage sag compensation, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Ind. Technol. (ICIT), Dec. 1517, 2006, pp. 779784.

[25] M. Yun, W. Lee, I. Suh, and D. Hyun, A new control scheme of unied power quality compensator-Q with minimum power injection, in Proc. IEEE Ind. Electron. Soc. (IECON), Nov. 26,, 2004, pp. 5156. [26] Y. Y. Kolhatkar and S. P. Das, Experimental investigation of a singlephase UPQC with minimum VA loading, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 373380, Jan. 2007. [27] D. O. Kisck, V. Navrapescu, and M. Kisck, Single-phase unied power quality conditioner with optimum voltage angle injection for minimum VA requirement, in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC), Jun. 1721, 2007, pp. 574579. [28] G. S. Kumar, P. H. Vardhana, B. K. Kumar, and M. K. Mishra, Minimization of VA loading of unied power quality conditioner (UPQC), in Proc. IEEE Powereng, Mar. 1820, 2009, pp. 552557.

Vinod Khadkikar (S06M09) received the B.E. degree from the Government College of Engineering, Dr. B.A.M.U. University, Aurangabad, India, in 2000, the M.Tech. degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India, in 2002, and the Ph.D. degree from the Ecole de Technologie Sup erieure, Montr eal, QC, Canada, in 2008, all in electrical engineering. From December 2008 to March 2010, he was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. Since April 2010, he has been an Assistant Professor at Masdar Institute, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. From April 2010 to December 2010, he was a Visiting Faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. His research interests include applications of power electronics in distribution systems and renewable energy resources, grid interconnection issues, power quality enhancement, and active power lters.

Ambrish Chandra (SM99) received the B.E. degree from the University of Roorkee (presently IIT), Roorkee, India, the M.Tech. degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Calgary, Exshaw, AB, Canada, in 1977, 1980, and 1987, respectively. He was a Lecturer and later as a Reader at the University of Roorkee. Since 1994, he has been a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineer ing, Ecole de Technologie Sup erieure, Universi e du Qu ebec, Montr eal, QC, Canada. His main research interests include power quality, active lters, static reactive power compensation, exible ac transmission systems, power quality issues related with autonomous and gird connected renewable energy resources. Dr. Chandra is a Professional Engineer in the province of Qu ebec, Canada.

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