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I.

The noun

Read and translate the following text: THE FIVE MAJOR MEDIA In order to influence buyers, advertising must reach them. This can be achieved through the media, whose main features, for the five major ones are the following: 1. The Press (or Print media) is the universal medium, which enables to address private persons as well as professionals or industrialists, which can reach broad targets but also very narrow ones since it can be highly selective. The naional dailies - mainly Bucharest-based newspapers in Romnia, and their foreign counterparts (The Washington Post, The Times, Die Welt, Corriere della Serra, Asahi Shimbun...) - can carry any advertising message. The regional dailies have but local readership, even if we take "local" in an extended sense. News Magazines are mainly for advertising aimed at the general public. The technical and professional press is a privileged vehicle to reach industrialists and professionals, whatever their field of activity. The so called "general" technical press is a channel for standard products supplied to very numerous firms in all sectors. The "specialized" technical press aims at much smaller targets, along the lines of sectorial specialization of professional branches (transport, the building trades), or along those of funcional or technical specificity (welding, cryogenics). Free handouts, such as local advertising sheets for the general public and classified ads, have grown spectacularly since their emergence in the 70's. The "TV press" probably justifies a separate mention: concen-trating on TV programmes, it has an enormous circulation (several million copies in some cases) and is an ideal channel for general advertising. 2. Television. The ideal medium for convenience goods. Unlike the press, which is highly selective, television speads its message wide, without fear of splashing or even flooding, since it reaches simultaneously several million people. This is why this medium has swallowed the bulk of advertising accounts from big advertisers who aim at the general public, men, women and kids all included, to the dismay of the other media and more particularly the printed press. 3. Poster-advertising does not meet the needs of industrial and professional goods any more than TV does. It is essentially geared to general public items, goods or services, durable or not, whether it be instant mashed potatoes, insurance or air-travel. 4. Radio-advertising. Although wide in coverage, it is more selective than TV. There are indeed many stations, with varied audiences, which besides, can change with the time of broadcasting. 5. The cinema, a poor relation, the more so as movei-theatre attendance gets lower and lower while more and more films may be seen on TV without extra-charge.

Advertisers and their agencies need the relevant information concerning those media to devise their communication policy and to generate media planning accordingly. Such data are supplied by a number of organizations. Mdiamtrie, a Big Brother of sorts, calls the tune in audiovisual media thanks to two monitoring systems: the radio panel, through 250 daily phone interviews, studies the audience per units of 15 minutes, the duration of listening periods, the profile of each station; the TV panel, based on 2,300 households, studies the exposure to advertising spots through the Mediamat system, which has superseded the Audimat: each member of the household presses a button on the recording machine placed on the TV set every time he or she is present in front of the screen. Key:

Cele cinci mari mijloace de comunicare n mas Pentru a influena cumprtorii poteniali, publicitatea trebuie s ajung la ei. Aceasta se poate realiza prin mass media. Iat principalele caracteristici ale celor cinci mari mijloace de comunicare n mas: 1. Presa (sau Presa scris) este mijlocul de comunicare universal care ne permite s ne adresm att persoanelor fizice, ct i profesionitilor i industriailor, i s atingem inte mari, dar i mici, datorit caracterului su foarte selectiv. Presa cotidian naional, compus n principal din titlurile bucuretene din Romnia i din omoloagele lor strine (The Washington Post, The Times, Die Welt, Corriere della Serra, Asahi Shimbun...), poate publica orice mesaj publicitar. Presa cotidian regional nu are dect audien local, chiar dac folosim termenul local" ntr -o accepiune foarte larg. Revistele servesc n principal publicitii destinate marelui public. Presa tehnic i profesional este un mijloc privilegiat de a ajunge la industriai i la profesioniti din toate domeniile de activitate. Aa-numita pres tehnic general este un canal de distribuie pentru produsele standard furnizate foarte multor firme din toate sectoarele. Presa tehnic specializat vizeaz inte mult mai mici, pe de-o parte prin specializare pe sectoare sau ramuri de activitate (transporturi, construcii), pe de alt parte, prin specializare funcional sau tehnic specific (sudare, criogenie). Presa gratuit, compus din ziare locale de anunuri pentru mica i marea publicitate, cunoate o foarte mare dezvoltare de la apariia ei n anii 70. Presa TV justific probabil o rubric separat: consacrat programelor de televiziune, ea are tiraje cu adevrat extraordinare (n unele cazuri, mai multe milioane de exemplare) i servete ca vehicul ideal pentru publicitatea destinat marelui public. 2. Televiziunea regina mass media pentru produsele de larg consum. Spre deosebire de pres, care este foarte selectiv, televiziunea i transmite mesajele fr a face o selecie, fr a se teme s abordeze sau chiar s debordeze publicul, de vreme ce ajunge n casele a ctorva milioane de persoane simultan. De aceea, acest mijloc de comunicare a acaparat ansamblul bugetelor tuturor marilor clieni care se adreseaz marelui public: brbai, femei, inclusiv copii spre disperarea restului mass-media i n special a presei scrise.

3. Afiajul, ca i televiziunea, nu este nici el mai indicat pentru produsele industriale i profesionale. Este destinat n principal produselor de larg consum, bunuri sau servicii, fie ele de folosin ndelungat sau nu, fie c e vorba de piure instant, asigurri sau transporturi aeriene. 4. Radioul. Dei are o arie mare de acoperire, este mai selectiv dect televiziunea. Exist, ntradevr, multe posturi care nu au aceeai audien i, de altfel, aceasta se poate modifica pe parcursul emisiei. 5. Cinematograful, ruda lor mai srac, i asta cu att mai mult cu ct frecventarea slilor de cinema scade din ce n ce mai mult, n timp ce tot mai multe filme pot fi vzute la televizor fr cheltuieli suplimentare. Cei care-i fac publicitate i ageniile lor au nevoie de informaii referitoare la aceste mijloace de comunicare i suporturi publicitare pentru a-i pune la punct att politica de comunicare, ct i planificarea mijloacelor de reclam corespunztoare. Aceste informaii sunt furnizate de un anumit numr de organizaii. Mdiamtrie, un fel de Big Brother mediatic, d tonul n audiovizual prin dou sisteme de monitorizare: panelul radio studiaz, cu ajutorul a 250 de interviuri telefonice cotidiene, audiena din sfert n sfert de or, durata ascultrii i profilul fiecrui post; panelul de televiziune, bazat pe relaia cu 2.300 de cmine, studiaz contractual cu spoturile publicitare cu ajutorul sistemului Mediamat, care a nlocuit Audimatul: fiecare membru al familiei apas pe un buton al aparatului de nregistrare plasat pe televizor, ori de cte ori se afl n faa ecranului.

Activity 1 Translate the following sentences into English: 1. tirile pe care le-am primit pn acum nu sunt demne de incredere-reliable, trustful. 2. Fiecare tire despre activitatea savanilor este asteptat cu emoie. 3. Bagajele au fost fcute i desfcute timp de trei ore fr ntrerupere. 4. Trebuie s publicm toate informatiile care sunt necesare candidailor. 5. Mi-am splat salopeta-overall, pe care am folosit-o in ultimele trei zile, dei nu era prea murdar. 6. Rtcisem-get lost drumul, asa ca aveam nevoie de un binoclu-binoculars si o busola-compass, dar nu am putut gsi. 7. Cunotinele lui de fonetic i lingvistic general sunt remarcabile. 8. Este indiscutabil-incotestable, beyond debate un om

de litere foarte apreciat in Orientul Mijlociu. 9. Fostul preedinte nu a mai dat nici un interviu in ultima vreme. 10. Nici mcar in gand nu suporta eecul, singurtatea, vduvia-widowhood, munca neinteresant, persecuia. 11. Cum profesorul intrase deja in clas, el pur si simplu rse drept scuz i se asez n banc. 12. Ar trebui sa-i aprm pe cei slabi si pe cei bolnavi. 13. O jumtate are trei patrimi. 14. Trebuie s declari totul la vam-you have to declare all your godos to the Custom House, altfel ai putea avea probleme serioase. 15. tii foarte bine ca e nevoie de motive solide-grounds for divorce pentru un divor. 16. Directorul dorete ca procesul verbal-minutes sa fie gata in jumatate de or. 17. Balana-scales pe care mi-ai cumprat-o acum cateva zile este pe biroul din sufragerie. 18. Promit ca nu ma voi atinge niciodat de bauturi alcoolice! 19. Sfaturile printilor ti sunt totdeauna foarte bune ; ar fi cazul sa ii cont de ele ! 20. V rog, a dori dou ciocolate, dou spunuribars of soap si trei pini ! 21. Avocatul meu mi-a oferit doua informaii foarte importante pentru caz. 22. Probele prezentate de procuror la procesul de sptmna trecut sunt incriminatoare. 23. n anii 50 s-au turnat unele din cele mai bune filme postbelice.

Here you have some Idioms. Try to match the two columns: 1. a workaholic-f 2. a night owl-e a) a strike-breaker b) a person who helps children cross the road

3. a night owl-i 4. a chatterbox-j 5. a day-dreamer-g 6. a blackleg-a 7. an old flame-d 8. a turncoat-c 9. a bobby-k 10. a lollipop man / lady -b

c) a disloyal person d) a former sweetheart e) a shy person without a partner f) a person who is too keen on his job g) a person who lives in his own wonderful world h) a person who always gets up early i) a person who enjoys staying up late j) a person who talks a lot k) a policeman

Activity 2 1. a workaholic 2. a night owl 3. a night owl 4. a chatterbox 5. a day-dreamer 6. a blackleg 7. an old flame 8. a turncoat a) a strike-breaker b) a person who helps children cross the road c) a disloyal person d) a former sweetheart e) a shy person without a partner f) a person who is too keen on his job g) a person who lives in his own wonderful world h) a person who always gets up early i) a person who enjoys staying up late j) a person who talks a lot k) a policeman

9. a bobby 10. a lollipop man / lady

Activity 3 1. She was sitting on the fence-e 2. She was playing it by ear-f 3. She was caught redhanded-c 4. She went back on her b) speaking and acting firmly c) discovered in the act of thieving d) living on little a) joking

word.-i 5. She was pulling his leg-a 6. She took someone for a ride-g 7. She lived on a shoestring-d 8. She played truant-h 9. She painted the town red-j 10. She put her foot down-b h) not going to school i) not keeping her promise j) drinking and making a lot of noise f) not making plans ahead g) deceiving people e) not taking sides

Self-evaluation tests 1. Fill in the following blanks:


BLACK BLUE GREEN RED SCARLET WHITE YELLOW

1. When Sarah s aw Sue's new boyfriend she was GREEN. with envy. 2. WHITE. meat is considered to be healthier than beef, lamb or other types of RED meat. 3. The YELLOW.. Pages has all the necessary information for you. 4. I spent three weeks in hospital when I had .SCARLET.. fever. 5. This sort of thing happens only once in a ..BLUE. moon. 6. Sarah and Graham had a traditional..GREEN. wedding in Wales. 7. After falling in the street he had a .RED.. eye for weeks. 8. Would you like your coffee BLACK... or with some milk and sugar? 9. I remember that my mother had ..GREEN. fingers to her last day. 10. We are seriously in the .RED.. . this month

2. Fill in the following blanks: BACK EYE FACE FINGER HAND STOMACH

MOUTH NERVE TONGUE TOOTH

1. Must you have a/n FINGER ....... in every pie? 2. Just shout if you need a / n HAND ........... ! 3. The answer is right on the tip of my TONGUE ....... 4. I feel I can't STOMACH listening to any more lies.

5. The countryside is truly romantic near the MOUTH ........... of the Danube. 6. Katie has a/n....................... for valuable paintings. TONGUE 7. Don't break your..................... working so hard all the time. 8. In our family everyone has a sweet TOOTH ........... 9. You can't read the numbers on the ............................... of the old clock, and the minute is also broken. 10.After his exam, that student had the NERVE.. to complain about his teacher. . 3. Fill in the following blanks:
BIRD BUTTERFLY CAMEL CAT DOG FISH LION PIG RAT

1. Before my driving test I had BUTTERFLIESin my stomach. 2. It's been raining CATS.......... and DOGS ... for days. 3. Peter got the share of the money they inherited. 4. When I travelled to the country last Monday I was killing two BIRDS.. with one stone, doing business and visiting an old friend. 5. Keep my secret, please. I don't want to let the out of the bag yet. 6. Even if the food is good, don't make a / n PIG ...................... ..of yourself at the wedding. 7. A lot of people are already fed up with the RAT.. race of modern life. 8. It's the last straw thaj broke the CAMELS .......back. 9. The riot broke out because prisoners were treated like ........ 10. Are you FISHING for compliments? 4. Fill in the following blanks: APPLE BREAD JUICE MILK

BUTTER SALT

CREAM SUGAR

EGG SPICE

1. Who is the BREAD..... -winner in your family? 2. These young physicists are the smartest people in Romania, the JUICE of their generation. 3. I can't tell you what caused what. It is a typical chicken and EGG situation. 4. When I met her for the first time, she gave me a sweet ........ smile that I found most unnatural. 5. Don't believe everything you have read. The reports have to be taken with a pinch of SALT. 6. Don't feel sorry for him. He always knows which side his .. is on.7. Variety is the SPICE of life.

8. I wish we could SUGAR. the pill for you, but this is the truth. 9. She had her last baby at 45. No wonder, he was the APPLE. of her eye. 10. I have just heard a / n story about the neighbours.

II.

The Adjective Activity 1

1. Complete the sentences with adjectives from the box: Strong, expensive, cheap, much, short, many, busy, expensive, practical, adequate, perfect, legal, further, latter. 1. The rooms at the Ritz are very.... 2. How... airports are in New York? 3. I think I need some... information if you want me to help you. 4. Of the two solutions he preferred the former to the... 5. Her action was.... 6. Let's eat here. I don't have much money and it's really 7. Her plan is very..., but his is just... 8. How... does a hotel room cost ? 9. The hotel is very... 10. I lent him a... sum of money. 11. We can walk from here. It's only a... distance. 12. His measures were... 13. Father comes home late because he is a very... man.

2. Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form: 1. These books are not... (expensive) as the other ones. 2. The (many)... people who have a problem with cash flow phone the bank and ask for an overdraft. 3. A personal loan is often a (good)... idea because the repayments are structured over a pre-arranged period. 4. Store cards are generally (expensive)... then other credit cards and can only be used in shops which offer them. 5. Your homework is (bad)... than hers. 6. This hotel manager was the (polite)... we had ever met. 7. Sir Winston Churchill was the (faimous)... Englishman in

the World War II. 8. "The more, the (merry).MERRIER.." says an English proverb. 9. Books are... and... (expensive) nowadays. 10. Levi's make the... (famous) trousers in the world. 11. Your... (old) sister is my... (old) friend. 12. Certain regions produce... (much) petroleum than they consume, and others consume... (much) than they produce. 13. Africa produces more than twice what it consumes, and the Middle East is the (big)... producer of all. 14. However, those two regions are tied for consuming the... (small) amount. 15. Europe consumes about 72% more than it produces. It is one of the... (large) producers but it is also the (large) consumer of all the regions.

3. Fill in the blanks with the right word. Choose between the following words: much/ many/ few/ a few/ little/ a little: 1. We have... friends here. 2. There aren't... jobs for middle-aged persons. 3. Mike would like... milk in his tea. 4. As we didn't have... time, we had to take a taxi. 5. Nowadays... people have servants in their houses. 6. She didn't spend... money on her holiday. 7. This text is rather difficult. She has had to look up... new words in the dictionary. 8. I don't read... books because I don't have... spare time. 9. He couldn't give me... information. 10. You must hurry. There is... time left. 11. Very... experiments have been done to find out the cause of that accident. 12. I have... friends that I can trust, but not.... 13. I had... time to spare, so I browsed round a bookshop. 14. It didn't cost... 15. Only... of the committee members went to the meeting.

16. Unfortunately, the solicitor has very... clients.

Read and translate the following text: Identity and solidarity Identity is one of the most important ingredients for the cohesion of the human society. Humans need to feel about themselves that they belong to the same group and that can be made only by discovering the same characteristics in their behavior, in the language, the knowledge and the culture, so that this identity creates the solidarity of the human group. We can not draw the existence of human race, the civilization and the transformation from autonomous individuals or hazardous and random couples to a structured group and to a well established society, with human civilized institutions without the solidarity component. Identity is the ingredient that makes humans recognize a responsibility towards the other individuals from their group, or the structured group as a whole, or the human society or, at the end, the solidarity with the entire humanity and mankind. Responsibility makes humans behave sympathetic with their neighbors. Identity and sovereignty The identity's role in bringing people together and creating responsibility, coagulating human societies was politically speculated by group of interests who wanted the power and the legitimacy to rule. First, it was the animal behavior making the human to draw o territory and a group of friends who recognized a certain authority, personalized by a specific individual. After this civil and laic power, the human society needed t o e x p r e s s the fears and to explain the things of life, so that a religious power appeared, organically connected to the human society. The historical fight between the two powers made the humanity establish the institution of sovereignty, with its divine origin. The soveieignty legitimated a political power with a divine force, including the infallibility of the leaders. Step by step, the evolution of human society and institutions, the evolution of the state, led to many changcs in the composition ol the sovereignty institution, which became what it is today. This rule regarding the state sovereignty still represents a primary principle of the United Nations and of the current organization of the world. Identity and nationalism But these religious and divine characteristics of sovereignty contain a great power, having the capacity of legitimating political requests. There have always been leaders or interest groups who wanted to take over the power. Thus, this makes them speculate the identity and the attributes of sovereignty for political reasons. Therefore, if a certain group of interests wants more power than it can be obtained through democratic system, it can very easily speculate the creation of a certain identity that legitimates the request of a state, connected to a certain nation created over night. This is the case of every nationalism that sees in identity the differences between a certain privileged group and the rest of the population of an existing state. It is very easy to demand more political rights and power when you are dealing with a state where the democratic laws are not well established and the democracy does not function, where some ethnic or minority groups are not

included in the process of decision and the governance is questionable. The result of such challenge of the current state government, under the above mentioned circumstances could lead to war, when the conflict masters are also involved with their own interests. The experience of early warning in identity conflicts The experiences of Western Balkans, of ethnic conflicts in the former Soviet Union and in Caucasus make the experts establish many programs for solving ethnic conflicts, for preventing identity conflicts and establish a network of early warning The special purpose of these programs is to prevent every difference that can be speculated by political groups for destabilizing an existing state, especially within the democracies and economies in transition. The Stability Pact in South-Eastern Europe sustained by the European Union, the SEECP and other institutions, programs created by UNDP and the CPC of OSCE and a number of NGO's are very efficient nowadays, leading to an important experience in dealing with this kind of problems. Those problems arc not solved yet, but a special reaction plan in dealing with emerging identity conflicts is being elaborated. The present study presents the main actions on an identity conflict agenda, a very profound radiography of the origin of identity conflicts mechanism and the phases of sovereignty in the history, that makes this institution so important, credible and indispensable as a tool in identity conflicts, a thorough overview on the types of nationalism that speculates identity differences for political reasons. We have also focused on the current solutions to this problem: a presentation of the political, economic and social factors of confidence and stability building, the thesis on ethnic conflict prevention, the issue of refugees, the experiences of The UN High Commissioner for refugees and the OSCE High Commissioner for National Minorities and the role of non governmental organizations. Last but not least, we present some results of the common project theory within the Stability Pact actions.

Activity 2 1. Chose the right form of the personal pronouns given in brackets: 1. My husband and (I/me) have just come back from the theatre. 2. I am writing a letter to (she/her). 3. If you see Jane, please give (she/her) my best regards. 4. I sent (they/them) a present for their wedding. 5. Tell (his/him) to come home as soon as possible. 6. Don't ask (us/ours) so many questions, we are very tired now. 7. (We/Us), the Romanians are very proud of our past. 8. That's very kind of (they/them). 9. Pass (me/I) the bread, please!

10. We wanted to know where (they/them) lived.

2. Fill in the blanks with the corresponding Possessive Pronouns or Adjectives: 1. It seems that my secretary is more efficient than 2. She offered... services. 3. Grannie can't find... glasses. 4. I always pay... bills on time. 5. She is typing... reports and we are typing.... 6. He has left... book here. 7. Is this... opinion? 8. You should use... pencil. 9. They show Mary... toys. 10. I like... English teacher.

3. Put in the corresponding Reflexive or Emphatic Pronouns: 1. The princess used to spend long hours looking at... in the mirror. 2. He washes... every morning. 3. The light in the gate switches... off after two or three minutes. 4. My brother... withdrew the money from the Bank. 5. As she was not hungry she had to force... to eat. 6. The first condition to be successful is that you should believe in 7. We were surprised when we saw... in that large mirror. 8. Nobody helped me. I did it by... 9. Children should behave... when their parents have guests invited. 10. I feel very lonely when I have supper by...

4. Use the appropriate interrogative-pronouns adjectives in the questions below: 1. At... time do you get up in the morning? 2. ... is that beautiful lady?

or

3. ... is your favourite writer? 4. ... colour is his new tie? 5. ... does this car belong to? 6. ... of the tourists have visited British Museum? 7. ... car is that? 8. ... university is the best in your country? 9. ... did you go to the theater with? 10. ... are you looking at?

5. Fill in the blanks with the corresponding Relative Pronouns where necessary: 1. I don't know... was this painting painted by. 2. Although reliable enough, the partners... you are waiting for have not arrived yet. 3. Is this the man... sold you the PC? 4. He said that... frightened him was the appalling silence of the place. 5. The man... car was hit by that lorry is our manager. 6. The dog... is under that tree is very old. 7. I couldn't remember the number of my own car... made the police suspicious. 8. The woman... is crossing the street is our neighbour. 9. The child to... you gave that toy was very happy. 10. This is the man... son won the contest. 11. rich you are you cant buy happiness.

6. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate indefinite pronouns or adjectives: 1. I have... sugar and my neighbour hasn't either. 2. ... of us will be very pleased to help you. 3. Do you have... to add? 4. He must be... very important. 5. ... of us has ever heard such an interesting story. 6. Don't you realize that... detail is important in this case? 7. ... passenger for this flight must have his belongings

examined at the airport. 8. I think there's... at the door. Were you expecting... ? 9. I want to show you... interesting. 10. ... can never say for sure what is right and what is wrong. 11. One of my sisters is a lawyer,... is an accountant. 12. There are... apples left; you have eaten... of them. 13. He made two proposals, but... was accepted. 14. Neither Mike... his wife has an alibi;... of them might be the killer. 15. I have a very good wine. Would you like... ? 16. There are several books on the table;... of them are in English. 17. James asked me for... money but I couldn't give him... 18. I can't see my wallet;... must have taken it. 19. If you have no money, I can lend you... 20. ... hour they are getting closer to the end of the journey. 21. This time I can't do... for you. 22. There isn't... to be said regarding that matter as only... details are still unclear.

7. Fill in the blanks with the corresponding pronouns: 1. We helped... with some hot tea and felt much better afterwards. 2. He lost his key and Laura lost 3. After getting up I dress... and rush to my office. 4. There's a bed in the bedroom and... one in the guest room. 5. My friend... is a very experienced climber is now in an expedition in the Alps. 6. My girl has made this cake all by... 7. He is... best friend. 8. Do you think... will rain today ? 9. My brother has two girls: one is a teacher and the... is an economist. 10. The girl... skirt is short is my classmate.

11. If I were you I'd give up both solutions;... is reasonable.

Self-evaluation tests 1. Translate into English: 1. Cheltuielile acestei companii au fost din ce n ce mai sczute n ultimii ani. 2. Aceast companie a cheltuit anul trecut mai mult dect i putea permite. 3. Profitul de anul trecut al acestei firme a fost mai mare dect cel de anul acesta. 4. Anul acesta inflaia a fost ceva mai mare dect anul trecut. 5. ie i este mult mai fric dect ei c preurile vor deveni din ce n ce mai mari. 6. Cambia este una dintre cele mai vechi metode de plat. 7. Producia de anul acesta a companiei noastre este mult mai ridicat dect cea din anii precedeni . 8. Banca Angliei este mult mai veche dect Banca Naional a Romniei. 9. Anul acesta s-au emis mai multe aciuni dect anul trecut. 10. Am nevoie de informaii suplimentare nainte s plec mai departe. 11. Am doi prieteni, Andrei i Ioan: cel dinti este contabil, cel de-al doilea este avocat. 12. Era din ce n ce mai speriat c nu va putea s termine analiza financiar la timp. 13. Cu ct sunt termenii mai avantajoi, cu att este mai greu de obinut contractul. 14. Fratele meu cel mai mare este economist i lucreaz de doi ani ntr-o banc. 15. eful meu vine ntotdeauna primul i pleac ntotdeauna ultimul.

2. Translate into English: 1. Mai dorii nite vin? Da, doar puin v rog. 2. Este mai cald azi dect a fost ieri. 3. Dup ce i-au luat rmas bun unul de la cellalt, cei doi turiti i-au vzut de drum. 4. Se spune c ea vorbete cinci limbi strine. 5. E timpul s nelegei astfel de lucruri. 6. Avei grij de voi, copii ! 7. Ioan nsui i-a scris i i-a expediat scrisoarea cu ceva timp n urm. 8. Vine o vreme cnd e bine s lupi i s obii ceea ce vrei. 9. Ce ai reuit s afli la poliie ? 10. Cele trei fete se ateptau una pe cealalt la ieirea din coal. 11. Eu nsumi am ncercat s o fac s neleag c nu are dreptate. 12. Dup ce s-au uitat unul la altul cei doi copii au izbucnit n rs.

13. A cui este aceast carte?

3. Translate into English: 1. Tirajele presei TV sunt de zece ori mai ridicate n Frana dect cele ale marilor cotidiene naionale. 2. Televiziunea a dat o lovitur foarte grea presei scrise deturnnd n folosul su grosul bugetelor pentru publicitatea destinat marelui public. 3. Locurile de afiaj obinuite, pe care se percepe tax, sunt adesea acoperite cu afie violente". 4. Procentul posesorilor de aparate radio (99%) este mai mare dect cel al deintorilor de televizoare. 5. Reclama de la cinema se reine de patru-ori mai mult dect cea de la televiziune. 6. Dei relativ ieftin n raport cu numrul de persoane la care ajunge, publicitatea televizat este foarte scump dac privim din perspectiva sumei de bani necesare. 7. Doar marile firme i pot permite reclame televizate pentru a-i luda produsele. 8. O anumit parte a presei nu accept ca difuzarea sa s fie msurat sau controlat. 9. Tinerii, orenii i persoanele nstrite merg cel mai mult la cinema. 10. Pentru unii manageri de canale TV conteaz numai audiena. 11. Unul dintre rezultatele cele mai evidente este scderea calitii programelor. 12. Un alt rezultat este proliferarea jocurilor televizate stupide i abrutizante.

4. Translate into English: 1. Nu trebuie s se confunde tirajul cu difuzarea. 2. Nu toate exemplarele tiprite sunt n mod obligatoriu vndute. 3. Costul spaiului publicitar este costul care trebuie achitat pentru inserarea/difuzarea mesajului de ctre orice mijloc de comunicare n mas. 4. Rata de circulaie, care este foarte sczut pentru cotidiene (mai puin de dou), este, dimpotriv, ridicat pentru reviste (3, 4 sau mai multe). 5. Rata este de asemenea foarte ridicat n mediile industriale i studeneti (biblioteci). 6. Presa scris este singurul mijloc de comunicare n mas care face posibil argumentarea pe larg. 7. ntruct revistele sunt rsfoite foarte frecvent, reclamele lor ctig proporional n audien. 8. Aspectul calitativ al publicului este reprezentat de caracteristicile sale socio-economice, sociodemografice i de obiceiurile sale de consum. 9. O combinaie ideal trebuie s permit punerea n aplicaie a unor suporturi publicitare care se bucur de o mare credibilitate. 10. Ea trebuie de asemenea s mreasc la maximum acoperirea individual a audienei-int. 11. Scara de eficien a unui astfel de suport publicitar este proporia din inta atins care aparine audienei totale i care corespunde audienei relevante.

12. Cumularea audienei indic dup cte inserii se consider c s-a atins cel puin o dat audiena total a unui suport publicitar.

Key (exercise 3): 1. The circulation figures of the TV press are ten times as high in France as those of the major naional dailies. 2. TV has dealt the printed press a terrible blow by capturing the bulk of general public advertising. 3. Regular posters, on which a charge is levied, are often pasted over with "wild" posters. 4. The equipment rate for radio-sets (99%) is even higher than the one for TV sets. 5. The recall rate for cinema advertising is four times as high as for TV ads. 6. Although relatively low-priced in relation to the number of people reached, TV advertising is very expensive in terms of the amount of money needed. 7. Only large advertisers can afford TV ads to extol their products. 8. Some press media refuse to have their circulation monitored and measured. 9. Cinema-goers are to be found mainly among young people, urban dwellers and affluent citizens. 10. For some managers of TV channels, the number of viewers is all that counts. 11. One of the most obvious results is the downgrading of programmes. 12. Another consequence is the boom of stupid and debasing TV games.

Key (exercise 4): 1. One should not confuse print-run and circulation. 2. All printed copies are not necessarily sold. 3. The cost of advertising space is the price to be paid for the message to be inserted in/run by any medium. 4. The pass-on readership rate, which is very low for dailies (less than two) is on the contrary high for magazines (3, 4 or more). 5. The rate is also very high in industry, and among students (libraries). 6. The printed press is the only medium in which arguments can be developed at length. 7. As magazines are very frequently leafed through, their advertisements gain proportionate exposure. 8. The qualitative measurement of the audience is represented by its socio-economic and sociodemographic features, its consumption pattems. 9. An ideal combination should enable to feature media that enjoy high credibility. 10. It should also maximize the individual coverage of the target audience. 11. The efficiency scale of such a medium is the proportion of the target being reached that belongs to the overall audience and corresponds to the addressable audience.

12. Audience cumulation indicates after how many insertions one considers that the overall audience of a medium has been reached at least once.

III.

The verb

Activity 1
Read and translate the following texts: MAGNA CARTA An island on the Thames between Staines and Windsor had been chosen as the place of conference: the King encamped on one bank, while the barons covered the marshy flat, still known by the name of Runnymede, on the other. Their delegates met on the island between them, but the negotiations were a mere cloak to cover John's purpose of unconditioned submission. The Great Charter was discussed, agreed to and signed in a single day (1215, June 16). One copy of it still remains in the British Museum, injured by age and fire, but with the royal seal still hanging on the brown, shrivelled parchment. It is impossible to gaze without reference on the earliest monument of English freedom which we can see with our own eyes and touch with our own hands, the Great Charter to which from age to age patriots have looked back as the basis of English liberty. But in itself the Charter was no novelty, nor did it to establish any new constitutional principles. The character of Henry the First formed the basis of the whole and the additions to it are for the most part formal recognition of the judicial and administrative changes introduced by Henry the Second. But the vague expressions of the other characters were now changed for precise and elaborate provisions. The bounds of unwritten custom, which the older grants did little more then recognise, had proved too weak to hold the Angevins; and the baronage now threw them aside for the restraints of written law. It is in this way that the Great Charter marks the transition from the age of traditional rights, preserved in the nation's memory and officially declared by the Primate, to the age of

written legislation, of parliaments and statues, which was soon to come. The church had shown its power of selfdefence in the struggle over the interdict, and the clause that recognised its rights alone retained the older and general form. But all vagueness ceases when the Charter passes on to deal with the rights of Englishmen at large, their right to justice, to security of person, to good government. "No freeman", run the memorable article that lies at the base of the whole judicial English system, "shall be seized or imprisoned, or dispossessed, or outlawed, or in any way brought to ruin: we will not go against any man nor send against him, save by legal judgement of his peers or by the law of the land". "To no man will we sell", runs other, or "delay, right or justice". (Adapted from "A Short History of the English People" by JR. Green)

Activity 2 1. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Tense (Simple or Continuous): 1. I (to go) to school yesterday when (to see) a house on fire. 2. It (to snow) heavily when he (to wake) up. 3. He (to remember) that his friend (to come) for lunch and (to decide) to prepare the meal. 4. He (to meet) her as he (to cross) the bridge. 5. He (to run) in the street when he (to fall) and (to break) his leg. 6. When I (to get up) this morning it (to be) so late that the sun (to shine) high in the sky. 7. " What you (to do) between 9.00 and 10.00 yesterday?" (to ask) the detective. 8. When I (to reach) the house my brothers (to discuss) about the holidays. 9. He (not to see) me as he (to read) a book when I (to come) into the room. 10. Somebody (to play) Paganini and all of us (to stop) to listen. 11. A traffic warden (to stick) a parking ticket to my wind

screen when I (to come) back to the car. 12. We (to have) lunch when the telephone (to ring). 13. I (to learn) English when I (to live) in USA. 14. My cousins (to arrive) just as the train (to leave) the station. 15. Liam (to say) that he (to come) to see me the next day.

2. Translate into English: 1. Soarele strlucea puternic, psrile cntau, era o zi superb de primvar. 2. Cifra de afaceri a acestei companii anul trecut a fost de dou ori mai mare dect cea din anul precedent. 3. Cine era proprietarul fermei pe care ai vizitat-o? 4. Ieri pe vremea aceasta m duceam la birou. 5. A plouat mult anul trecut n Romania? 6. Era singur la ora aceea pentru c fratele ei era la coal, mama ei fcea cumprturile iar tatl ei lucra n gradin. 7. Cu cine vorbeai la telefon ieri cnd am intrat n camer? 8. Ieri a plouat toat ziua aa c am stat acas i m-am uitat la televizor.

3. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect (Simple or Continuous): l. We (to walk) ten kilometres. 2. The police (to look) for Billy for three months. 3. We (to walk) for three hours. 4. Billy (to eat) ten ice-creams. 5.He (to sleep) since ten o'clock, I think it's time for him to wake up. 6. I (to work) for him for ten years. 7. It (to rain) for ten hours. I hope it will stop till everybody gets crazy! 8. He (to hope) for a rise in salary for six months but he (not to dare) to ask for it yet. 9. I (to try) to open this door for half an hour. 10. My sister (to change) a lot lately.

11. We (to wait) for Susan since dawn, but she (not to come) home yet. 12. He (to sleep) for three hours. 13. I (not to see) her for ages. 14. He (to throw) stones at the wrong windows. His friend lives next door. 15. He (to be) in prison for a year. 16. You (to stare) at me for 5 minutes! 17. He is not home, he just (to leave). 18. I never (to read) such a beautiful story. You should publish it! 19. My friend (to translate) legislation since 1998. 20. I (to try) to get in touch with him for a week.

4. Translate into English: Planificarea mijloacelor de comunicare Pentru a face publicitate n mod eficient, nu este suficient creativitatea. Pentru susinerea unei campanii trebuie de asemenea selectate i planificate mijloacele de comunicare corespunztoare. Pentru aceasta, trebuie ca n primul rnd s fie eliminate mijloacele de comunicare inadecvate, apoi trebuie s fie selecionate acelea care vor fi utilizate i, n cele din urm, trebuie s fie evaluate diversele combinaii ntre mijlocul de comunicare principal al campaniei i celelalte, cu scopul de a stabili combinaia final. Prima etap este relativ simpl: unele mijloace de comunicare nu sunt adecvate n anumite cazuri (televiziunea sau posterele pentru o campanie industrial) sau sunt interzise prin lege (televiziunea pentru buturi alcoolice, tutun, cri...). Cea de-a doua este mai delicat, necesitnd o cunoatere aprofundat a caracteristicilor i posibilitilor fiecrui mijloc de comunicare n parte. Un anumit numr de criterii vor fi de ajutor n procesul de selecie: Compatibilitatea cu publicul vizat: sunt indispensabile datele furnizate de anchetele ntocmite de organizaiile de specialitate asupra structurii cantitative i calitative a publicului. Compatibilitatea cu produsul: fie pentru c sunt adaptate

la marele public (televiziunea) sau, dimpotriv, la o pia confidenial" (superspecializat); fie pentru c mesajul trebuie s ajung la cumprtori la un anumit moment (emisiuni difuzate la ore trzii de noapte pentru noctambulii consumatori de alcool). Compatibilitatea cu tipul de comercializare: afiajul este foarte adecvat pentru distribuia n mas. Stilul mesajelor: dac vrem s transmitem un mesaj conotativ, s sugerm o idee sau o stare de spirit, vom alege radioul, televiziunea sau chiar i afiajul. Dac vrem, dimpotriv, s convingem, s-i facem pe oameni s gndeasc, vom opta pentru un mesaj denotativ n presa scris. Timpul de reacie preconizat: unele mijloace de comunicare provoac o reacie mai rapid dect altele, dar rapiditatea rimeaz adesea cu efemerul. Key (exercise 4): Media-planning To advertise effectively, creativeness is not enough. To build up a campaign, it is also necessary to select and plan the appropiate media. Accordingly, one must frst eliminate irrelevant media, then select those one is going to use, and lastly assess the various combinations that can be achieved between the main campaign medium and the other media, so as to determine the final mix. The frst step is relatively easy: some media are not suitable in such or such a case (TV, posters for an industrial campaign), or are legally banned (TV for alcoholic drinks, tobacco, books...). The second is more delicate, and requires an in-depth knowledge of each medium's features and performances. Certain criteria will help in the selection process: Compatibility with the target audience: the data obtained from surveys conducted by professional organizations on the quantitative and qualitative structure of the audience are indispensable. Compatibility with the product: either because they are geared to the general public (TV), or on the contrary to a "confidenial" market (hyper-specialized market); or because purchasers have to be reached at specific moments (nightprogrammes for alcohol-drinking night-owls). Compatibility with the type of commercialization: posters are eminently suitable for mass distribution.

Style of messages: if one wants to express connotative notions, to suggest an idea or a mood one will select radio, the cinema, television or even posters. If, on the contrary one wants to convince, to get people to think, one will opt for a denotative message in the printed press. Expected response-time: some media generate faster reactions than others, but fast is often synonymous with short-lived!

Self-assessment tests: 1. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Tense (Simple or Continuous) or Present Perfect (Simple or Continuous): 1. I (to leave) here since 1973 since my parents (to buy) this house. 2. He (to live) in Bucharest for two years and then he (to go) to Mangalia. 3. Shakespeare (to write) a lot of plays. 4. My secretary (to type) letters since 8 o'clock this morning but she (to finish) only three of them so far. 5. My children (to go) to cinema three hours ago and they (not to come) back yet. 6. I (not to see) him for twenty years, since we (to be) children. 7. I can't go home because I (not to finish) my work yet. 8. He (not to play) football since he (to break) his leg. 9. You (to see) the moon last night ? 10. They (to arrive) late last night, so I (not to tell) them the truth yet. 1 l. The Second World War (to last) for four years. 12. How long you (to know) your boss? 13. Where else (to be) since you (to arrive) in Bucharest? 14. I (to listen) to your speech on radio yesterday, and I have to confess that I never (to listen) to something like this in all my life. 15. You (to go) there last week?

2. Translate into English, using Present Tense Simple and Continuous, Past Tense Simple and Continuous and Present Perfect Simple and Continuous: l. Firma lui a dat faliment i el nu i-a gsit nc un alt post de contabil. 2. Unde ai fost? 3. De cnd eti aici? 4. N-am mai vzut-o de trei ani. 5. Numeroase sucursale ale bncilor comerciale s-au deschis n ultimii doi ani. 6. Claudiu a venit de la coal la ora 12 i de atunci vorbete la telefon cu colegul lui de banc. 7. Mama tocmai a plecat. 8. Am cumprat maina noastr cea nou acum trei ani, dar de atunci am tot reparat cte ceva la ea. 9. N-am vzut niciodat Jamaica. 10. Ieri pe cnd veneam acas a nceput s plou torenial. 11. In cursul ultimului an profitul net al societii s-a dublat. 12. V cunoatei ? 13. Am primit aceast carte cnd am mplinit zece ani.

14. Anul trecut ai vizitat Anglia, acum doi ani ai vizitat Frana iar acum abia te -ai ntors din Germania. N-ai obosit s te tot plimbi ? 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect Continuous: 1. I (to work) for that company for a year when they merge with CMB in 1999. 2. They (to sail) for a fortnight when they finally saw an island. 3. By that time she (to play) the piano for two hours. 4. When she reached the office, the General manger and the American team (to negotiate) for an hour without reaching an agreement. 5. After we (to run) for an hour we felt terribly hungry. 6. I wondered what she (to do) all that time. 7. In 1995 they (to live) in Romania for three years. 8. He (to watch) TV for an hour when you got home, hadn't he? 9. You (to sleep) for three hours when I came in. 10. The manager (to wait) for you for half an hour when you finally arrived.

5. Read and translate the following text: A. Mohammed knocks at classroom door Fran Abrams Yusuf Islam, formerly the pop star Cat Stevens, has been trying for more than 10 years to get state funding for the Muslim school he founded. Now, at last, he glimpses success. Tomorrow, architects from the official Funding Agency for Schools visit the Islamia school in north London, to check whether its buildings and facilities make it worthy of state support. If the school is successful the final decision rests with Gillian Shephard, the Secretary of State for Education Islamia, with 300 pupils and a waiting list of 1,000, will be the first state supported Muslim school, enjoying similar status to hundreds of Church of England and Roman Catholic schools. For many Muslim parents, the day when their right to such schools is accepted cannot come soon enough, their growing assertiveness over how their children are educated has stretched their relations with secular schools to breaking point. As the new year began, 1,500 Muslims in West Yorkshire refused to send their children to the Christian assemblies which the law demands. A few weeks later it was revealed that a Birmingham primary school was offering Muslim religious education after the withdrawal of most of its pupils from the Christian-dominated lessons. Conflicts such as these are bound to multiply. Britain has about 400,000 Muslim children of school age and, according to some estimates, there could be a million by 2000. Todays Muslim parents are demanding that school adapt to accommodate their beliefs, and they are doing so with a force and a confidence that their own parents lacked. The Independent, February 11th, 1996

IV.

Ways of expressing Futurity 1.Future Tenses (Future Tense Simple, Future Tense Continuous, Future Perfect Simple, Future Perfect Continuous, Future in the Past) + To Be Going to 2.Near Future ( To Be To, To Be About To, To Be On the Verge of +vb+ing) Activity 1

Translate the following sentences into English:

1) l. Noul preedinte al companiei urmeaz s participe la o conferin de pres n urmtoarele cteva minute. 2) Am asigurat-o pe mama c nu voi ntrzia la coal. 3) La adunarea general a acionarilor vor fi prezeni toi cei invitai. 4) Te voi anuna care este hotrrea mea dup ce mi voi fi consultat avocatul. 5) Anul viitor cifra de afaceri a firmei noastre se va dubla, aa c va trebui s angajm un jurist i un contabil. 6) El va fi economisit mai mult de 2 milioane pn la sfritul acestei luni. 7) I-a spus c nu i va putea mri salariul. 8) Avocatul le-a atras atenia c vor trebui s respecte cu mai mult atenie termenele de livrare. 9) Banca noastr va deschide un acreditiv documentar n favoarea dumneavoastr. 10) Ne-au spus c domnul Smith va fi un partener pe care ne vom putea baza. 11) Ce-ai de gnd s faci cu banii? 12) Era sigur c fata ei o s aib succes. 13) La anul pe vremea aceasta voi fi studiat de doi ani trei limbi strine deodat, dar trebuie s mrturisesc c nu voi ti nici una la perfecie. 14) Luna viitoare aceast banc va mai deschide nc trei sucursale. 15) Dac mai continu s cheltuiasc astfel va rmne fr bani pn cnd va mplini 30 de ani.

Activity 1 Translate into English: 1) Compania noastr va produce o gam complet de aparatur electrocasnic. 2) Houl era pe punctul de a deschide seiful cnd a auzit pai n ncperea alturat. 3) Centralista m-a ntrebat cu ce interior s-mi fac legtura. 4) Sper c rata dobnzii va scdea cu timpul. 5) Ce faci mine sear? 6) Secretara va munci de dou ore cnd managerul va ajunge la birou. 7) Pe data de 24 ale lunii acesteia se vor mplini 50 de ani de cnd sunt cstorii. 8) Bancherul a hotrt c va locui n Anglia n urmtoarele cinci luni. 9) Va trebui s acceptai acest amendament ca fcnd parte din acreditiv. 10) Mine pe vremea asta voi zbura ctre Mexic.

11) Contribuia la asigurrile sociale se va calcula n conformitate cu salariul brut. 12) Vei fi citit aceast carte, cred, cnd erai mici. 13) Profitul pe anul 2000 va fi impozitat n urmtorul an financiar. 14) Firma dumneavoastr va fuziona cu o alt firm sau va fi preluat de un mare concern?

Self-evaluation tests Read and translate the folowing text: THE SOURCES OF THE ENGLISH LAW (1)

British Constitution and Government The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy and a unitary state, which is made up of the island of Great Britain (including England, Scotland and Wales) and of Northern Ireland. English law and Scots law are very different from each other in form and substance. The separate evolution of the two legal systems, both before and after Union, has resulted in different principles, institutions and traditions. Although in modern times Scots law has been greatly influenced by English law, it is still based upon principles of Roman and Civil law and upon rules of Canon, feudal or customary law origin. In spite of the existence of a common parliament for England and Scotland for over 250 years there has been no assimilation of the legal system of the two countries. A fusion of law has, however, taken place between England and Wales, as a consequence of the subjugation of the latter country in the middle ages. The law of Northern Ireland, although administered as a separate system, is similar in many essentials to English law. The constitutional principles, rules and practices of the United Kingdom have never been codified; they derive from statute law, from common law, and from conventions of the constitution, which are not laws at all, but political practices which have become considered as indispensable to the smooth working of the machinery of government. The monarchy is the most ancient secular institution in the United Kingdom, with a continuous history stretching back over a thousand years. The monarchy is hereditary and the present title of the crown derives from provisions of the Act of Settlement of 1701, which secured the Protestant succession. This succession cannot be altered, under a provision of the Statute of Westminster, 1931, except by common consensus of the member states of the Commonwealth which owe allegiance to the Crown. The monarchy in the United Kingdom has evolved over the centuries from absolute personal authority to the present constitutional form by which the Queen reigns but does not rule. Her Majesty's government governs in the name of the Queen who must act on advice of her ministers.The Queen summons, prorogues (discontinue until the next session without dissolution) and dissolves Parliament; she usually opens new sessions of Parliament with a speech from the throne in which the major governmental policies are outlined. The monarch must give her Royal Assent before a Bill which has passed all its stages in both houses of Parliament can become a legal enactment (Act of Parliament).The Monarch's consent and approval is required before a Cabinet can be formed or a minister take up office. As Head of State the Monarch has the power to sign international agreements, to cede, annex or receive territory, to declare war or make peace and to recognize foreign states and governments. The Monarch confers honors and formally appoints all important officeholders of state, including judges, government ministers, officers in the armed forces, diplomats, and the leading positions (as bishops and some other senior clergy) in the Established Church. As the "fountain of justice" she is also involved in pardoning people convicted of crimes; it is only the Monarch who is able to remit all or part of the penalties imposed upon persons convicted of crimes through the exercise of the prerogative of mercy on the advice of the appropriate minister. The Queen confers peerages, knighthoods and other honors. With rare exceptions-such as appointing the Prime Minister-acts involving the use of 'royal prerogative' powers are nowadays performed by government ministers. The ministers are responsible to Parliament and can be questioned about particular policies. Parliamentary authority is not required

for the exercise of these prerogative powers, although Parliament may restrict ar abolish such rights. The Queen also holds Privy Council meetings, gives audiences to her ministers and officials in Britain and overseas, receives accounts of Cabinet decisions, reads dispatches and signs state papers. Provision has been made to appoint a regent to perform these royal functions should the Queen be totally incapacitated. In the event of her partial incapacity or absence abroad, the Queen may delegate certain royal functions to the Counselors of State, who are members of the royal family. The Parliament is the legislative organ and is constitutionally composed of the Monarch, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. The three elements which make up the Parliament are constituted on different principles. They meet together only on occasions of symbolic significance such as the state opening of the Parliament, when the Commons are summoned by the Queen to the house of Lords. The agreement of all three elements is normally required for legislation, but that of the Queen is given as a matter of course to Bills sent to her. As there are no legal restraints imposed by a written constitution, Parliament may legislate as it pleases, subject to Britain's obligations as a member of the European Union. It can make or change any law; and can overturn established conventions or turn them into law. It can even prolong its own life beyond the normal period without consulting the electorate. In practice, however, Parliament does not assert its supremacy in this way. Its members bear in mind the common law and normally act in accordance with precedent. The validity of an Act of Parliament, once passed, cannot be disputed in the law courts. The House of Commons is directly responsible to the electorate, and in this century the House of Lords has recognised the supremacy of the elected chamber. The system of party government help to ensure that Parliament legislates with its responsibility to the electorate in mind. The House of Lords is for the most part still a hereditary body. It consists of the Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual. The Lords Temporal include hereditary peers and peeresses who have not disclaimed their peerages under the Peerages Act, 1963: life peers and peeresses created by the Crown under the Life Peerages Act, 1958 in recognition of public service; and the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary. The House of Lords is presided over by the Lord Chancellor who is ex oficio chairman of the House. The Lords Spiritual include the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Bishops of London, Durham and Winchester, and the 21 most senior diocesan bishops of the Church of England. The House of Commons is an elected and representative body; members (at present 650) are elected by almost universal adult suffrage to represent the constituencies in England (523), Scotland (72), Wales (38) and Northern Ireland (17). The law relating to parliamentary elections is contained in substance in the Representation of People Act, 1949, as amended. Any British subject aged 21 or over, not otherwise disqualified (as for example, members of the House of Lords, certain clergy, undischarged bankrupts, civil servants, holders of judicial office, members of the regular armed services and the police forces) may be elected a member of Parliament (MP). Members are paid a salary and an allowance for secretarial and office expenses; after a Parliament is dissolved all seats are subject to a General Election. By-elections take place when a vacancy occurs during the life of a Parliament, as when a member dies, is elevated to the House of Lords or accepts an "office of profit" under the Crown. The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected by the members from the members to preside over the House immediately after each new Parliament is formed. He is an impartial arbiter over parliamentary procedure and the traditional guardian of the rights and privileges of the House of

Commons. In the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 the Parliament has provided that in certain circumstances a Bill may become law without the concurrence of all the component parts of Parliament. These two Acts have clarified the supremacy of the House of Commons over the House of Lords, which can only delay the passage of Public Bills for a maximum period of one year and cannot delay at all the passage of Money Bills (financial measures). The government consists of the ministers appointed directly by the Crown on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, who is appointed directly by the Crown and is the leader of the political party which for the time being has a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is the Head of the government and presides over meetings of the Cabinet; by convention he is always a member of the House of Commons. He consults and advises the Monarch on government business, supervises and to some extent coordinates the work of the various ministries and departments and is the principal spokesman for the government in the House of Common. The Cabinet is the nucleus of government; its members are represented by a small group of the most important ministers who are selected by the Prime Minister. The size of the Cabinet is today about 23 and its main function is to determine, control and integrate the policies of the government for submission to Parliament. There are over 100 ministers of the Crown at the present time; they include departmental ministers (e.g., the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Chancellor of the Exchequer (Treasury)); non-departmental ministers; ministers of state, a.o. The Lord Chancellor and the Law Officers of the Crown deserve special mention at this point. The Lord High Chancellor and the Law Officers of Great Britain presides over the House of Lords both in legislative capacity and as a final court of appeal; he is a member of the Cabinet and also has departmental responsibilities in connection with the appointment of certain judges. He advises on, and frequently initiates, law reform programs with the aid of the Law Commissions, the Law Reform Committee and ad hoc committees/The four Law officers of the Crown include, for England and Wales, the Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General; for Scotland, the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor General for Scotland. The English Law Officers are usually members of the House of Commons and the Scottish Law Officers may be. They represent the Crown in civil litigation, prosecute in certain exceptionally important criminal cases, and advise government on points of law. They may appear in proceedings before the International Court of Justice, the European Commission of Human Rights and Court of Human Rights. They may also intervene generally in litigation in the United Kingdom as representatives of the public interest. The United Kingdom has no Ministry of Justice. Responsibility for the administration of the judicial system in England and Wales is divided between the courts themselves, the Lord Chancellor, and the Home Secretary. The Lord Chancellor is concerned with the composition of the courts, with civil law, parts of criminal procedure and law reform in general; the Home Secretary is concerned with the prevention of criminal offences, the apprehension, trial and treatment of offenders, and with prison service.