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WORKERS OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!

ENVER HOXHA
SELECTED WORKS

PUBLISHED BY DECISION OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE PARTY OF LABOUR OF ALBANIA

ENVER

HOXHA

THE INSTITUTE

OF MARXIST-LENINIST

STUDIES

AT THE CC OF THE PLA

ENVER HOXHA
VOLUME VI

IULY 1980 - DECEMBER 1984

NNTORI PUBLISHING T I R A N A 1987

HOUSE

FOREWORD

The 6th volume of Comrade Enver Hoxha's Selected Works, the last of the series in foreign languages, includes materials of the period 1980-1984. The conversations, contributions to discussion, speeches, and notes, part of which are already available for the reader in foreign languages, are extracted from the volumes of Collected Works, the Diary, the volumes Reports and Speeches and thematic publications. This volume also includes articles and selections from Comrade Enver Hoxha's books of memoirs, which were published in this period, The Khrushchevites, When the Party Was Born, The Anglo-American Threat to Albania, The Titoites, and Laying the Foundations of the New Albania. Through the materials of this volume the reader acquaints himself with the work and efforts of the Albanian people for the advance of the country further on the road of socialism, with the consistent revolutionary struggle of the Party of Labour of Albania in defence of the Homeland and the victories of the people's state power. These questions, together with those of the development of science, education and culture, are treated in the context of the struggle against the ideological, political and economic pressure of imperialism, social-imperialism and revisionisms of all hues. The selections from memoirs deal with the efforts for the mobilization of the Albanian people in the struggle for

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FOREWORD

the liberation of the country and the establishment of the people's state power, the struggle waged by the PLA against outside interference in the internal affairs of Albania and the subversive secret activity of foreign enemies against socialism in Albania, as well as questions of the struggle against modern revisionism, etc. The excerpts from the book, When the Party Was Born, which is published for the first time for the foreign reader, describes the experience of the struggle of the Albanian communists for the formation of the Communist Party of Albania. Some materials of this volume reflect the intensive work of the PLA and Comrade Enver Hoxha in drafting a five-year plan based entirely on our own forces and internal possibilities, without aid and credits from abroad. Here the reader will find theoretical generalizations and practical solutions to many current problems of the economic and social development of the country and the summing up of a comprehensive theoretical and practical work about problems of the perspective development of the economy on the road of socialism. This volume highlights Comrade Enver Hoxha's economic thinking on questions of the development of the economy, such as the development of industry, the intensification of agriculture, the gradual transformation of property of the group into the property of the whole people, and the further improvement of the socialist relations of production. Also, it deals with questions connected closely with the psychology of people, with the communist education of the working people and the strengthening of their socialist consciousness. Some of the materials explain the relationship between the general interest and the personal interest, between the development of the city and the advance of the rural area, between understanding and applying the laws ruling production and distribution, the circulation of goods and currency in socialism, and the role

FOREWORD

IX

which work, discipline at work and active creativeness of the masses play in the process of the building of socialism. Likewise, they stress the importance of the historical conditions of the country and the proper assimilation of the Marxist-Leninist theory, deal with the relationship between this science and other sciences, the connection between science and technique, the views of bourgeois theoreticians on this question, etc. This volume contains profound Marxist-Leninist analyses of the current world development. In its pages it reflects the stand of the PLA towards capital questions confronting the peoples and the Marxist-Leninist, revolutionary and liberation movements today. Having a profound knowledge of the political developments in the world and interpreting them on the basis of the teachings of MarxismLeninism, Comrade Enver Hoxha reaches revolutionary conclusions, points out the major contradictions eroding the capitalist system from within, analyses the many-sided crises afflicting this system, and widens the scope of the struggle of the proletariat and the peoples. The writings of this volume specially expose the expansionist and hegemonic policy of the superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Important questions dealt with in this volume are the struggle of the peoples, the genuine Marxist-Leninist forces and the revolutionary proletariat against capitalism and imperialism, the stand to be maintained towards imperialist war, towards chauvinism and national oppression in the capitalist and revisionist countries, as well as the elements determining the creation of the objective and subjective conditions and factors for the outbreak of the revolution and national liberation wars, as a constituent part of it, and the class which should emerge in the lead and guide them. Attention is devoted to the study, mastering and creative application of Marxism-Leninism, the creation of alliances

FOREWORD

in favour of the revolution, the work Marxist-Leninists must carry out with the masses, among the unemployed, the youth, and the ranks of the bourgeois army. Emphasis is laid on the work the Marxist-Leninist party must carry out among the working class to help it to find the road towards the revolution and not to allow itself to be split and manipulated, to avoid playing the game of reaction and reformism. Of great value are the conclusions about how to exploit the national moment in various countries and to expose the diversionist and mystifying methods of the bourgeoisie to lead the youth into the impasse of terrorism and to alienate the masses from the revolution by identifying terrorist acts with the true revolutionary activity. Comrade Enver Hoxha opposes the various anti-scientific and reactionary theories which try to prove that socialism can be built under the guidance of any ideology reformist, opportunist, or even fascist. He argues how the revolution can be carried out and the exploiting classes liquidated, how the independence and the victories achieved can be defended and further strengthened and true socialism, without debts and credits, be built with success, on the basis of the Marxist-Leninist doctrine. Relying strongly on the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism, Comrade Enver Hoxha analyses and argues with convincing facts the basis of the successes in Albania, explains where the strength of the policy pursued by the PLA and the Albanian socialist state lies. He exposes the aim of hostile slogans and propaganda about the socalled self-isolation of Albania and points out clearly the strategy of the capitalist, imperialist and social-imperialist states towards it. The materials of this volume, like those of the previous volumes of Selected Works, reflect the experience of the PLA in the struggle for the construction of socialism in

FOREWORD

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Albania and the defence of the common cause of the proletariat and the peoples. They reveal clearly the defence of the principles of Marxism-Leninism and their profound understanding and creative implementation by the PLA on the basis of the concrete conditions of Albania.

THE GREAT WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS IS INTENSIFYING


July 1, 1980

T h e g r e a t w o r l d e c o n o m i c c r i s i s w h i c h has a s t r a n g l e h o l d especially on the t w o imperialist superpowers, the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a a n d t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , a s w e l l as on the industrialized countries, J a p a n , F e d e r a l G e r m a n y , F r a n c e , B r i t a i n , C a n a d a , Italy, a n d others l i k e M a o i s t C h i n a , T i t o i t e Y u g o s l a v i a , the m e m b e r c o u n t r i e s o f the C o m e c o n , etc., is g e t t i n g d e e p e r a n d deeper e v e r y d a y . It is f r a u g h t w i t h g r a v e consequences f o r a l l the states d e p e n d e n t o n international capital. T h i s m a j o r e c o n o m i c crisis is a crisis of overproduction, of the industrial boom* but, at the same time, it has caused a profound crisis in production . In fact, in all t h e c a p i t a l i s t a n d r e v i s i o n i s t c o u n t r i e s i t has l e d t o i n c r e a s e d u n e m p l o y m e n t , i n f l a t i o n , p r i c e rises, etc. T h i s m e a n s that, a t present, p r o d u c t i o n has f a l l e n a n d t h e s t r u g g l e has b e g u n t o c l e a r stocks o f goods. H o w e v e r t h e c a p i t a l i s t b o u r g e o i s i e does n o t c l e a r these stocks of goods by r e d u c i n g prices, b u t b y t u r n i n g the w o r k e r s out o n t h e streets, t h a t is, b y s l o w i n g d o w n p r o d u c t i o n . So, since c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r y n o l o n g e r f u n c t i o n s a t its f o r m e r l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y , the c r i s i s o f r a w m a t e r i a l s emerges. T h i s crisis, l i k e w i s e , i s v e r y g r a v e a n d i s a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h t h e colossal
_______________________________________ * E n g l i s h in the o r i g i n a l .

ENVER HOXHA

inter-imperialist struggle for markets. T h i s struggle, somet i m e s open a n d s o m e t i m e s s u b v e r s i v e , i s a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h a n increase i n m i l i t a r y budgets a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o n ventional and nuclear weapons to levels incomparably higher than ever before. The United States of America, the Soviet Union, China and other imperialist powers have become the most frenzied inciters of a new imperialist world war. Their hegemonic policy, their eagerness to preserve the existing imperialist status quo on the one hand, and to redivide the spheres of influence on the other hand, have deepened and aggravated the contradictions among the great powers themselves and between them and their partners in crime, in their exploitation of other peoples, and so have created new conflicts. T h e economic, p o l i t i c a l a n d m i l i t a r y r e l a t i o n s i n t h e various imperialist and revisionist groupings have been s h a k e n . T h e m e m b e r s o f these g r o u p i n g s a r e s t r i v i n g t o cause, t o f i n d a n d t o e x p l o i t v a r i o u s s p l i t s a n d i n t h i s w a y t o f o r m u l a t e excuses f o r r e f u s i n g t o a d h e r e t o c o m m i t ments, treaties a n d agreements, w h i c h e x i s t a m o n g t h e m . At present the struggle of the peoples who are oppressed and exploited by world capital in crisis has assumed proportions and a variety of forms never seen before. This is precisely the true source of the great economic crisis w h i c h h a s e n g u l f e d t h e c a p i t a l i s t a n d r e v i s i o n i s t w o r l d . O n the surface, i t seems a s i f t h e a r m e d c o n f l i c t s , the c o n f l i c t s i n t h e f i e l d o f e c o n o m i c - f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s , the great e n e r g y c r i s i s a n d s o o n are o n l y b e t w e e n c a p i t a l ist states, b u t i n fact t h e o r i g i n o f these c o n f l i c t s i s m o r e deep-seated a n d i s e r o d i n g t h e b o u r g e o i s c a p i t a l i s t state w h i c h i s s t r i v i n g t o d e f e n d itself, t o s t a y a l i v e , t o h e a l its n u m e r o u s w o u n d s , etc. The force which is eroding the beourgeois capitalist state is the struggle in all forms and at all levels that the peoples are waging all over the world.

DEEPENING OP THE WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS

I n one w a y o r a n o t h e r , h e r e w i t h g r e a t e r t h e r e w i t h lesser i n t e n s i t y , t h e w o r k i n g class a n d a l l t h e e x p l o i t e d are a w a r e o f a n d f i g h t i n g against a l l f o r m s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t regime, either local or international, w h i c h is exploiting, impoverishing and oppressing them economically and m o r a l l y . H e n c e , t h e r e i s great d i s c o n t e n t a n d r e v o l t a m o n g the peoples o f t h e w o r l d . In almost all the capitalist countries today strikes i n v o l v i n g m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e a r e t a k i n g place, t h e r e are f i e r c e clashes w i t h the forces o f l a w a n d order, t h e r e are a r m e d r e v o l t s , b u t also m i l i t a r y putsches, acts o f t e r r o r ism and anarchism organized by the r u l i n g bourgeois cap i t a l i s t g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e r e is a colossal a m o u n t of s m u g gling and theft organized on a national and international scale, t h e r e i s a n u n l i m i t e d a n d m o n s t r o u s d e v e l o p m e n t of political, m o r a l and physical corruption. Thus the w a y is being prepared for fascism to come to power. Today we are living in the period of the decay of capitalism, of the weakening, disintegration and bankruptcy of this system, this degenerate society. T h e r e is no w a y o u t o f t h i s chaos, t h i s f i l t h , o t h e r t h a n t h e r e v o l u t i o n , t h e s u r g i c a l r e m o v a l o f t h e r o t t e n tissue, t h e s e i z u r e o f state p o w e r b y t h e w o r k i n g class, w h i c h has t h e m i s s i o n t o establish the dictatorship of the proletariat. W h a t L e n i n s a i d a b o u t t h i s process i s b e i n g c o n f i r m e d a n d i t w i l l c e r t a i n l y t a k e place. A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s m w i t h its chief, P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r , i s f a c i n g m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n its p o l i c y , i n t h e e c o n o m y , i n its a l l i a n c e s a n d colonies. A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s m does n o t k n o w w h i c h w a y t o t u r n , h o w t o cope w i t h t h e d a n gers w h i c h are t h r e a t e n i n g i t a n d i n c r e a s i n g d a y b y d a y . T h u s i t f i n d s i t s e l f seized i n a n i r o n g r i p f r o m w h i c h i t i s t r y i n g t o free itself b y a p p l y i n g a n i n s a n e p o l i c y o f i n t i m i d a t i o n , b l a c k m a i l , e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l pressure, open m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d s u b v e r s i v e a c t i v i t i e s , etc.

ENVER HOXHA

I n r e g a r d t o c u r r e n t events i t m u s t b e s a i d t h a t t h e struggle o f t h e I r a n i a n people d u r i n g these last t w o o r t h r e e y e a r s against the S h a h a n d t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a i s a h e a v y b l o w t o A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s m . The crisis of Iran is the crisis of the United States of America. B e f o r e this t h e peoples o f t h e w o r l d w e r e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the b a r b a r o u s p o l i c y o f the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a a n d its savage m e t h o d s o f d o m i n a t i o n a n d p l u n d e r , b u t i n I r a n they saw them still more clearly. T h e tool of the A m e r i c a n imperialists in Iran was the S h a h and his clique, m u r d e r ers of the people. F o r decades on end, t h e e x t e r n a l r o b b e r s in alliance w i t h the internal robbers, the murderers and b l o o d - s u c k e r s o f the I r a n i a n people, the S h a h ' s g o v e r n m e n t and administration under the direction of Washington, through the A m e r i c a n embassy in Teheran, made the l a w i n I r a n i n f u l l a c c o r d w i t h one a n o t h e r . I n the e n d , h o w e v e r , t h e I r a n i a n people rose i n r e v o l u t i o n , s w e p t t h e S h a h f r o m t h e face o f t h e e a r t h w i t h the i r o n b r o o m a n d c a p t u r e d a n d i m p r i s o n e d a l l t h e spies of the A m e r i c a n embassy w h o operated under the cloak o f d i p l o m a t s . F o r m o r e t h a n n i n e m o n t h s n o w , t h e soc a l l e d d i p l o m a t s o f a great p o w e r w h i c h m a k e s t h e l a w in t h e w o r l d h a v e b e e n in p r i s o n . O tempora! O mores! T h i s c o u l d n o t h a p p e n i n e a l i e r t i m e s , b u t i t has h a p p e n e d n o w a n d i t i s h a p p e n i n g also t o others besides t h e A m e r icans, i n other c o u n t r i e s . T h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a s u f f e r e d a m a j o r p o l i t i c a l defeat, w h i c h i t i s u n a b l e t o r e p a i r e i t h e r t h r o u g h diplomatic channels and economic blackmail, or through military intervention, as it attempted to do and failed w i t h its a i r c o m m a n d o s i n A p r i l a t T a b a s . I n I r a n t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a lost one o f its m o s t i m p o r t a n t sources of o i l a n d e n e r g y a n d colossal p r o f i t s . It lost t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f its A r a b allies o f t h e P e r s i a n G u l f , the American-Egyptian-Israeli agreement reached at C a m p

DEEPENING OF THE WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS

D a v i d w a s s h a k e n , zizanies* a n d o p e n a n d u n d e r g r o u n d disagreements w i t h its N A T O p a r t n e r s e m e r g e d . I n these s i t u a t i o n s t h e S o v i e t U n i o n w h e t s its teeth and bites. I t o c c u p i e d A f g h a n i s t a n a n d i s d r i v i n g wedges into N A T O , etc. A t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s bet w e e n the S o v i e t U n i o n a n d t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a are b e i n g d e e p e n e d . O u t w a r d l y t h e W a r s a w T r e a t y seems m o n o l i t h i c , w h i l e c r a c k s are s h o w i n g u p w i t h i n N A T O , United Europe and the E u r o p e a n C o m m o n M a r k e t . The cracks are j u s t a s great w i t h i n C o m e c o n a n d t h e W a r s a w T r e a t y , b u t t h e r e t h e S o v i e t a r m y has a s t r a n g l e h o l d o n the allies o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , w h i l e t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a i s l o s i n g its f o r m e r i n f l u e n c e o v e r its allies, especially o v e r F r a n c e a n d F e d e r a l G e r m a n y . Mete, M e t e , e v e r y m a n f o r h i m s e l f , o u r p e o p l e say. W h e n i t w i n s , the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a w a n t s t o b e t h e f i r s t t o t a k e t h e l i o n ' s s h a r e o f the p r o f i t s , w h i l e w h e n i t loses it w a n t s t h e allies to p a y f o r the losses, t h a t is, to s h a r e its m i s f o r t u n e s a n d defeats. B u t the l a w of the jungle operates; the capitalist w i l l see y o u h a n g e d , b u t w i l l n o t c o m e t o y o u r a i d . The France of De Gaulle and d'Estaign is in N A T O a n d i s n o t i n N A T O . I t r e m o v e d t h e N A T O bases, t h a t is, the A m e r i c a n bases, f r o m F r e n c h s o i l , s t r e n g t h e n e d its army independently, built the atomic and hydrogen bomb a n d n o w r e c e n t l y t h e n e u t r o n b o m b , too, a n d does not submit to the A m e r i c a n dictate on this question. The c u r r e n t F r e n c h p o l i c y proceeds f r o m the p o s i t i o n better to prepare to defend myself first than w a i t for the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a t o d e f e n d m e l a t e i n the day. T h i s constitutes a b r e a c h b e t w e e n F r a n c e a n d t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a . I n r e c e n t m o n t h s t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a a n d C a r t e r h a v e done t h e i r u t m o s t t o e n s u r e t h a t
____________________________________ * Quarrels (French in the original).

ENVER HOXHA

France and Federal G e r m a n y , especially, are united w i t h t h e m i n a l l t h e i r actions against I r a n . Paris and B o n n condemned in principle the holding o f t h e A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a t s a s hostages b y the I r a n i a n s , b u t t h e y d i d n o t agree w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s p r o posed b y the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a against I r a n , hence, t h e y left i t i n t h e l u r c h . T h i s i s a n o t h e r b r e a c h b e t w e e n the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a a n d F r a n c e a n d Federal G e r m a n y . T h e U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a condemned the occupation of A f g h a n i s t a n by the Soviet U n i o n . C h i n a a n d N A T O also c o n d e m n e d t h i s o c c u p a t i o n . W e c o n d e m n e d it, too, b u t n o t f r o m t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a n d a i m s . T o m o r r o w they w i l l come to terms w i t h the Soviets over this q u e s t i o n , w h i l e w e w i l l n e v e r d o s u c h a t h i n g . A s a s a n c t i o n against t h e S o v i e t U n i o n o v e r t h e quest i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r d e c l a r e d a b o y c o t t o f t h e O l y m p i c games, w h i c h are t o b e h e l d these d a y s in Moscow, and demanded that a l l the others boycott t h e m , too, b u t a m a j o r i t y of states, i n c l u d i n g F r a n c e a n d e v e n I t a l y w h i c h sent a n a l l e g e d l y u n o f f i c i a l t e a m p i athletes t o M o s c o w , left h i m i n t h e l u r c h once a g a i n . France went even further. Completely ignoring the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a , P r e s i d e n t G i s c a r d d ' E s t a i g n met Brezhnev in W a r s a w . G i s c a r d made official visits to s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s o f the M i d d l e E a s t w h e r e , i n p u b l i c speeches, h e e x p r e s s e d d o u b t s a b o u t t h e A m e r i c a n - E g y p t i a n - I s r a e l i C a m p D a v i d c o m p r o m i s e a n d p r e s e n t e d some flabby alternative formulations about the rights of the P a l e s t i n i a n people. T h i s i s a n o t h e r b r e a c h b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a a n d F r a n c e . E v e n after these defeats C a r t e r p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a s h o u l d d e p l o y some n e w P e r s h ing-2 a n d C r u i s e n u c l e a r m i s s i l e s i n E u r o p e f o r t h e defence o f E u r o p e a n N A T O p a r t n e r s . This proposal w h i c h Carter tried to impose was

DEEPENING OF THE WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS

rejected b o t h b y G i s c a r d a n d b y t h e G e r m a n C h a n c e l l o r Schmidt. W h y ? A p p a r e n t l y f r o m fear that if the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a d e p l o y s i t s n e w m i s s i l e s i n E u r o p e , the S o v i e t U n i o n w i l l m a t c h t h i s b y d e p l o y i n g its n e w SS-20 n u c l e a r m i s s i l e s i n t h e c o u n t r i e s o f t h e W a r s a w T r e a t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n S c h m i d t i s t o g o t o M o s c o w soon and it is said that he w i l l demand f r o m the Soviets a m o r a t o r i u m for three years on the question of the deployment of new missiles in Europe. Carter was angry and wrote to Schmidt telling h i m not to go to Moscow t o discuss t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f n e w m i s siles. B u t S c h m i d t w a s u n m o v e d a n d r e s p o n d e d n e g a tively to Carter's letter. Indeed, in regard to this letter Schmidt made the following declaration to the A m e r i c a n n e w s p a p e r Washington Post: F o r 20 y e a r s it has b e e n my custom to express my opinions w i t h o u t asking leave of a n y b o d y else, t h a t is, I h a v e no i n t e n t i o n of a s k i n g l e a v e o f C a r t e r n o w . T h i s w h o l e issue speaks o f u n i t y between France and Federal G e r m a n y and of rifts bet w e e n t h e m a n d t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a . U n i t e d E u r o p e i s n o l o n g e r u n i t e d i n itself. T h e q u a r r e l s , r i v a l r i e s , a n d o p p o s i n g i n t e r e s t s o f e a c h state of this so-called European C o m m u n i t y are increasing to the e x t e n t t h a t its v e r y e x i s t e n c e i s i n j e o p a r d y . B r i t a i n , t h e m o s t f a i t h f u l a l l y o f t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a , is refusing to pay the quota allocated by the European C o m m o n Market. Naturally neither B o n n nor Paris like t h i s . F r a n c e agrees t h a t G r e e c e s h o u l d b e r e a d m i t t e d t o the m i l i t a r y structures of N A T O and become a m e m b e r o f t h e E u r o p e a n C o m m o n M a r k e t , b u t i t i s against t h e admission of Spain and Portugal. Giscard knows that the a d m i s s i o n o f t h e I b e r i a n states t o t h e W e s t e r n f o l d w i l l b r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e sale o f F r e n c h a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o ducts. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a w h i c h , i n r e a l i t y , i s a n A m e r i c a n m i l i t a r y base, i f a d m i t t e d t o t h e

ENVER HOXHA

N A T O , becomes a n e w a l l y o f t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a i n E u r o p e , o n t h e side o f B r i t a i n . The contradictions between the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a a n d the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d E u r o p e a n states w e r e u n f u r l e d i n the m e e t i n g o f t h e heads o f state a n d g o v e r n m e n t o f the m a i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d w h i c h w a s h e l d a t t h e e n d o f J u n e i n V e n i c e . I n the middle of the meeting, w h i c h was held in a monastery in an island of the L a g o o n of Venice, a small d i p l o m a t i c m e t e o r i t e f o r G i s c a r d a n d some o t h e r s a r r i v e d f r o m Moscow. Moscow announced that it was w i t h d r a w i n g a d i v i s i o n o f s o l d i e r s a n d 100 t a n k s f r o m A f g h a n i s t a n , l e a v i n g there 10 other divisions, if not more. Thus M o s c o w tossed a p e b b l e i n t o t h e s t a g n a n t p o o l , b u t t h e r i p p l e i t caused soon d i e d a w a y . I t w a s a d i p l o m a t i c m a n o e u v r e , but short-lived. Cossiga asked M o s c o w to w i t h d r a w the r e m a i n d e r o f i t s t r o o p s f r o m A f g h a n i s t a n , too, b u t i t u n c o v e r e d its b a t t e r i e s a n d s h o w e d its t e e t h , r e p l y i n g t h a t far f r o m w i t h d r a w i n g more troops f r o m Afghanistan, it m i g h t , if n e e d be, send o t h e r t r o o p s t h e r e . Soviet social-imperialism is m o u n t i n g arrogant attacks o n t h e e n e m y c a m p w h i c h f i n d s itself i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h e S o v i e t l e a d e r s i n t e n d t o use G i s c a r d a n d S c h m i d t f o r this purpose, but to w h a t extent a n d f o r h o w long, this r e m a i n s t o b e seen. I t i s t r u e t h a t the S o v i e t s w o r d i s l o n g b u t t h e others, too, are k e e p i n g t h e i r daggers d r a w n . I n this great cauldron which is boiling, in this big fire which is burning world capitalism, the national liberation struggles, the objective and subjective factors are increasing, mounting, expanding in quantity and rising in quality. The peoples of the world are moving. I r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e manipulations of the various ideologies in the service of capital, the w o r l d proletariat is f i g h t i n g and leading the class struggle. V i e w i n g the situation as a whole with a Marxist-

DEEPENING OF THE WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS

L e n i n i s t eye, i t c a n b e seen t h a t t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s b e i n g waged in every corner of the w o r l d in classical and n o n classical f o r m s . E v e r y w h e r e the peoples are e x t r e m e l y anxious and w o r r i e d . T h e i r discontent and anger at the oppressive forces, w h e t h e r n a t i o n a l o r f o r e i g n , a r e i n c r e a s i n g , m o u n t i n g , t a k i n g s p e c i f i c m a t e r i a l shape. R e g a r d l e s s o f w h o i s l e a d i n g t h e n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n a r m e d struggles o f the peoples, t h e b l o o d o f t h e peoples f i g h t i n g f o r t h e i r freedom a n d independence reflects their hatred and w r a t h against l o c a l a n d f o r e i g n c a p i t a l i s t o p p r e s s i o n , a n d i n t h e course o f these s t r u g g l e s t h e peoples d i s t i n g u i s h t h e a n t i popular stands of i n d i v i d u a l s or groups, a n d f o r m alliances w i t h the m o s t p r o g r e s s i v e a n d m o s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y forces. In every movement, in every demonstration or strike, in every public, political or economic manifestation, it is i m p o s s i b l e n o t t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e d e s t r u c t i v e effects o f t h e g r a v e crises a n d n o t t o p u t t h e f i n g e r o n t h e persons responsible for the exploitation a n d oppression of the peoples, t h e f o r c e s w h i c h w a n t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f m a n k i n d . I n t h e c a p i t a l i s t a n d r e v i s i o n i s t c o u n t r i e s w i t h one pseudo-communist party, w i t h two or more pseudo-democratic p a r t i e s , d e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s o f these p a r t i e s t o l a y the b l a m e o n e a c h other, a n d d e s p i t e t h e b o u r g e o i s states, s e p a r a t e l y o r i n g r o u p s , t r y i n g t o p u t t h e b l a m e o n one another, n o t h i n g i s c h a n g i n g ; t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f t h e p e o ples c o n t i n u e s , b u t t h e i r a n g e r a n d r e v o l t c o n t i n u e t o mount as w e l l . This anger and revolt are h i t t i n g the capitalist a n d revisionist bourgeoisie in various f o r m s and w i t h different intensities. The peoples see that predatory imperialist war is threatening them. They understand who is preparing this war, who pays the cost of it and who profits from this war. T w o p h e n o m e n a s t a n d out i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n : t h e r e a r e some w h o a r e s t i l l a f r a i d o f i m p e r i a l i s t w a r , t h e r e are others w h o f i g h t a g a i n s t it. I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , h o w e v e r ,

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i n v a r i o u s f o r m s , t h e peoples a r e j o i n i n g i n t h e s t r u g g l e o f a c t i v e resistance, i n t h e i n i t i a l stages o f t h e n a t i o n a l liberation war, in sabotaging and stopping the imperialist w a r a n d , i n t h e e n d , are h u r l i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t o r e v o l u tion. The movements of opposition w h i c h are t a k i n g place in the w o r l d must not be judged f r o m the standpoint of bourgeois governments a n d their parties w h i c h t r y to m a n i p u l a t e t h e peoples; it is n e c e s s a r y to see t h e essence o f t h e p r o b l e m , t h e resistance a n d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d i r e c t i o n o f t h e peoples' p o l i t i c a l o r e c o n o m i c d e m a n d s , w h i c h force the capitalist bourgeois leaderships either to take d r a c o n i a n r e p r e s s i v e m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t these m o v e m e n t s , or in order to restabilize their already shaken situation, to s h i f t s o m e t i m e s i n one, s o m e t i m e s i n a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n a n d r e l y o n one o r t h e o t h e r s u p e r p o w e r . The Marxist-Leninists must master historical materiali s m a n d a p p l y i t i n p r a c t i c e . T h e y m u s t see t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w o r l d a n d t h e changes o c c u r r i n g i n i t f r o m the a n g l e o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . H e w h o u p h o l d s t h e occupation of A f g h a n i s t a n by the Soviet social-imperialists a n d considers it a j u s t a n d necessary a c t i o n c a n n o t be considered a M a r x i s t , he is an a n t i - M a r x i s t . Those s e l f - s t y l e d M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t s w h o t r y t o argue t h a t t h e A f g h a n people a n d t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e m i d d l e a n d e v e n o f the t o p b o u r g e o i s i e w h o f i g h t against t h e S o v i e t o c c u p i ers s h o u l d n o t be d e s c r i b e d as p a t r i o t s c a n n o t be c a l l e d M a r x i s t s , t h e y are a n t i - M a r x i s t s . H e w h o t h i n k s a n d acts i n t h i s w a y has u n d e r s t o o d n o t h i n g o f t h e t e a c h i n g s o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m o n alliances, o n n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n f r o n t s a n d struggles. L i k e w i s e t h e t h o u g h t s a n d actions o f some c o m m u n i s t c o m r a d e s a b r o a d w h o f a i l t o see t h e a n t i i m p e r i a l i s t aspects o f t h e s t r u g g l e o f t h e A r a b peoples, t h e I r a n i a n people a n d t h e M o s l e m w o r l d c a n n o t b e c a l l e d M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t thoughts and actions. To underestimate these a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t m o m e n t s , t o f a i l t o m a k e t h e m o s t

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o f t h e m a n d d i s p l a y o r t h o d o x y b y d e m a n d i n g t h a t these peoples i n r e v o l u t i o n a b a n d o n b e l i e f i n t h e i r r e l i g i o n , a n d the customs a n d h a b i t s w h i c h d e r i v e f r o m i t a l m o s t a t once, shows a t least M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t i d e o l o g i c a l i m m a t u r i t y . A s t h e e v e n t s i n I r a n p r o v e , t h e masses o f t h e p e o p l e p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t a n d d e c i s i v e r o l e i n c a r r y i n g out t h e revolution. It was they w h o placed themselves in the forefront of the fight, overthrew the feudal m o n a r c h y of the P a h l e v i s a n d d e a l t p o w e r f u l b l o w s a t i m p e r i a l i s m . H o w e v e r we cannot say that they h a v e t r i u m p h e d and their struggle can be carried f o r w a r d w i t h the b l i n d mediaeval fanaticism of the Ayatollahs. The communists m u s t s u p p o r t a n d h e l p t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y masses a n d t h e p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e . T h e s t r u g g l e t h e y are w a g i n g a t p r e s e n t creates c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e c o m m u n i s t s t o g o a m o n g t h e masses, t o w o r k f o r t h e i r c o r r e c t e d u c a tion, to deepen their o w n M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t ideological w o r l d outlook, to rely on the revolutionary people and o n t h e w o r k i n g class, i n t h e f i r s t place, a n d t o b e able t o m a k e use o f e v e r y s i t u a t i o n f a v o u r a b l e f o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n . T h i s i s h o w t h e process o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t r u g g l e o f t h e peoples m u s t b e u n d e r s t o o d a n d f o l l o w e d . It is a grave error to confound a n d i d e n t i f y the sentim e n t s o f t h e peoples, w h a t e v e r t h e y are, w i t h those o f the b o u r g e o i s c a p i t a l i s t g r o u p s i n p o w e r i n a p a r t i c u l a r country. T h e people of Egypt, for example, cannot and must not be identified w i t h Sadat and his clique, w h o u n t i l yesterday were in the service of the Soviets a n d have placed themselves in the service of the A m e r i c a n s t o d a y . . . The M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t communists must be able to m a k e correct analyses, to determine the proper strategy a n d tactics, t o f o r m a l l i a n c e s i n f a v o u r o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n , t o u n d e r t a k e c o r r e c t r e v o l u t i o n a r y actions a n d n o t a d v e n t u r e s a n d see a l l these f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y , because o n l y i n t h i s w a y c a n one

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s e r v e t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e peoples f r o m c a p i t a l i s m a n d make revolution. N a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n w a r s are j u s t w a r s . T h e y b r e a k out w h e n the o b j e c t i v e a n d s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s e x i s t a n d have matured. The Marxist-Leninists themselves must h e l p i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f these f a c t o r s . T h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t s m u s t n e v e r sit i d l e a n d n o t t a k e p a r t i n t h e j u s t w a r s , e i t h e r a s parties, o r a s g r o u p s w h e n t h e y a r e n o t y e t o r g a n i z e d a s parties, o r a s i n d i v i d u a l f i g h t e r s . T h e y m u s t n e v e r s t a n d aloof f r o m t h e masses w h o a r e f i g h t i n g f o r social and national liberation, but w h i l e f i g h t i n g in their midst, they must c o n f i r m their communist convictions, o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s a n d place the w o r k i n g class i n t h e l e a d e r s h i p . E v e n w h e n t h e y are n o t o r g a n i z e d , t h e y m u s t e m e r g e i n t h e v a n g u a r d o f t h e masses t h r o u g h t h e i r struggle and sacrifices, so that the n a t i o n a l liberation w a r a d v a n c e s t o w a r d s its m i n i m a l objectives, a n d t h e n goes o n t o its u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s . The creation of conditions for the outbreak of national liberation wars does not depend on the will of one or the other personality. It is the objective and subjective situations that cause the outbreak of the national liberation wars which are a high level form of the class struggle. T h a t class w h i c h emerges i n t h e f o r e f r o n t a n d leads t h e n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n w a r i s t h e most p r o g r e s s i v e , t h e d e c i s i v e f a c t o r . T h e w o r k i n g class i s t h e m o s t p r o g r e s sive of t h e p r o g r e s s i v e classes. It m u s t a s s u m e t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e l i b e r a t i o n w a r . I f a t t h e outset o f t h e w a r i t has n o t e n s u r e d its l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n , i t m u s t s t a n d i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e f i g h t i n g a n d s a c r i f i c e s , because o n l y i n this w a y can it take over the political and m i l i t a r y leadership, ensure the f u l f i l m e n t of the objectives of the n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n w a r a n d r e a l i z e i t s o w n desires. In the situation developing in the w o r l d today, the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t parties, t h e w o r k i n g class a n d its p o s s i b l e

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allies, t h e b r o a d s t r a t a o f t h e p e a s a n t r y a n d t h e p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , m u s t n o t o n l y see c l e a r l y t h e d a n g e r of a n e w i m p e r i a l i s t w o r l d w a r , b u t also o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s a n d assert t h e i r w i l l i n a t h o u s a n d f o r m s , i n o r d e r t o stop this destructive war, to expose the demagogy and falsity of the democratic slogans of enslaving capital a n d to free themselves f r o m the restrictive chains of the various p s e u d o - d e m o c r a t i c a n d p s e u d o - p o p u l a r p a r t i e s set u p b y the b o u r g e o i s i e . At a l l times it is necessary to study carefully, on the basis o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , e v e r y s i t u a tion that is created in each country a n d in the r a n k s of each people, t o d r a w c o n c l u s i o n s a n d c o m e o u t w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o g r e s s i v e j o i n t actions. N o t h i n g m u s t escape t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y e y e o f those w h o f i g h t f o r t h e g r e a t cause o f t h e i r o w n p e o p l e a n d a l l peoples. T h e M a r x i s t Leninists must utilize every development of the situation. This is a struggle w h i c h must be w a g e d every day, because i n t h i s w a y t h e great a v a l a n c h e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n w i l l s w e e p a w a y t h e e n e m i e s o f t h e peoples, a n d b r i n g f r e e d o m , progress, a n d socialist s o c i e t y a n d e v e n t u a l l y c o m m u n i s t society. T h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s great e c o n o m i c c r i s i s o f w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t c o m m u n i s t s , w h e r e v e r t h e y are i n the w o r l d , m u s t c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e i r l i n e a n d s t a n d s a n d k n o w h o w t o a p p l y t h i s l i n e i n p r a c t i c e . I n these h i g h l y c o m p l i c a t e d s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e clashes o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f classes w h i c h are n o t s e p a r a t e d b y c l e a r c u t d i v i s i o n s , b u t are i n t e r l i n k e d a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , o n l y a g e n u i n e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t c o m m u n i s t p a r t y c a n see c l e a r l y w h e r e t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d w h e r e t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s l i e , d i s t i n g u i s h enemies f r o m friends, k n o w w i t h w h o m t o unite, against w h o m a n d h o w t h e y m u s t f i g h t a n d c a r r y t h i s w a r f o r w a r d , etc. The Superpowers

THE WORK OF THE PARTY SHOULD BE UNDERSTOOD AS A SCIENCE AND APPLIED SCIENTIFICALLY

From the talk with the members of the Bureau of the Party Committee and some cadres of the district of Kora
July 18, 1980

I am h a p p y to meet y o u c o m r a d e s , r e s p o n s i b l e cadres of t h e P a r t y a n d state here, i n K o r a . T h i s m e e t i n g g i v e s m e the opportunity to acquaint myself w i t h the w o r k and life of the P a r t y and y o u r w o r k in the district and to exchange some o p i n i o n s . Y o u c o m r a d e s o f t h e base h a v e g r e a t experience in work, therefore I w o u l d l i k e y o u to help me w i t h your valuable opinions and experience. W i t h o u t t h e a i d o f t h e base t h e l e a d e r s h i p w i l l b e left l i k e a f i s h out of w a t e r , as t h e s a y i n g goes, a n d I s a y t h i s n o t o u t of m o d e s t y , b u t because it is a r e a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , do not t h i n k I h a v e c o m e t o t h i s m e e t i n g t o g i v e y o u a d v i c e or special instructions. No. I t h i n k that the m u t u a l exchange of opinions is v e r y important, and w h i l e acquainting ourselves w i t h t h e w o r k o f t h e P a r t y a n d t h e state i n y o u r d i s t r i c t , together w e s h a l l m a k e some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a n d r e a c h some c o n c l u s i o n s t o c a r r y t h e w o r k f u r t h e r a h e a d . T h a t is, w e s h o u l d assist one a n o t h e r . F o r m e i t i s i m p o r tant to acquaint myself concretely w i t h some k e y problems of first-rate importance for the development of industry a n d a g r i c u l t u r e a n d science a n d c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y , h e r e

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i n K o r a , because a l l t h e a c t i v i t y a n d t h e w o r k o f t h e P a r t y a n d state i n t h e d i s t r i c t i s r e f l e c t e d p r e c i s e l y i n those sectors.

After the first secretary of the Party Committee of the district of Kora informed Comrade Enver Hoxha about the sound moral-political situation of the people in the district of Kora, about the mobilization of the working class and the cooperativist peasantry in the struggle to fulfil the state plan, the work being done for the education of communists and workers, the fulfilment of tasks in defence works and military training, and about the increase of the ranks of the Party with new blood, Comrade Enver Hoxha took the floor again:
I n g e n e r a l , I , too, a g r e e w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o b lems w h i c h the first secretary of the P a r t y C o m m i t t e e of the d i s t r i c t p r e s e n t e d , a n d I t h i n k t h a t h e dealt c l e a r l y w i t h those p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e P a r t y i n the d i s t r i c t a n d i n t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y . H i s o u t l i n e g a v e m e an accurate general idea f r o m w h i c h I assume that y o u here i n K o r a see t h e p r o b l e m s c l e a r l y , n o t o n l y f r o m the t h e o r e t i c a l s t a n d - p o i n t , b u t also i n r e g a r d t o p u t t i n g the d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e P a r t y i n t o p r a c t i c e . T h e l e a d e r s h i p o f the P a r t y k n o w s y o u r s i t u a t i o n , b u t f r o m t h e o u t l i n e that w a s p r e s e n t e d I h a v e g a i n e d f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n that the leading activity of the P a r t y here in the district has y i e l d e d s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s w h i c h are t a n g i b l e a n d w h i c h c a n b e seen i n t h e p r o g r e s s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e economy, i n t h e i m p r o v e d w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e p e o p l e a n d in the enhanced moral-political and educational level of the b r o a d w o r k i n g masses o f t o w n a n d c o u n t r y s i d e , o f t h e w o r k i n g class, t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s a n d t h e people's i n t e l ligentsia.

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O f course, j u s t a s y o u c o m r a d e s e c r e t a r y s a i d , h o w e v e r m u c h progress w e m a k e , t h e r e s t i l l r e m a i n s m u c h t o b e done. B e a r i n g i n m i n d t h e p r e s e n t stage o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r c o u n t r y , t h a t is, t h e h i g h stage o f t h e c o n s t r u c tion of socialism, as w e l l as the international situation, our P a r t y a n d its l e v e r s a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f p a s s i n g , o n t h e basis o f these a c h i e v e m e n t s , f r o m t h i s stage t o a n o t h e r e v e n h i g h e r , m o r e p e r f e c t e d stage o f t h e w o r k , o f o r g a n i z ation and ideo-political and cultural uplift, in order to give the development and strengthening of the economy and t h e w h o l e o f o u r socialist society a m u c h g r e a t e r i m p e t u s t h a n i n t h e past. As y o u k n o w , as a result of this concern of the P a r t y , t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e recent m e e t i n g o f t h e P l e n u m o f t h e Central Committee of the P a r t y (1) was the further developm e n t o f science a n d t e c h n i q u e a n d s c i e n t i f i c - r e s e a r c h w o r k in our country. At this exceptionally important P l e n u m w h i c h is, y o u m i g h t say, t h e p r e l u d e t o t h e c o m i n g C o n gress o f o u r P a r t y , w h i c h w i l l b e h e l d n e x t y e a r , the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y b a s e d i t s e l f o n those o r i e n t a t i o n s w h i c h w e m u s t c a r r y out a n d w h i c h I m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r : t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e p r e s e n t stage t o a h i g h e r , m o r e a d v a n c e d stage, a n d i n t h e shortest t i m e p o s s i b l e . I b e l i e v e y o u are p r e p a r i n g t o e x a m i n e a n d discuss the materials of the P l e n u m of the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e of the P a r t y in the proper w a y . T h i s is not a simple matter t h a t c a n b e passed o v e r s u p e r f i c i a l l y a n d easily, w i t h o u t going into it thoroughly, but on the contrary, here we have to do w i t h a v e r y i m p o r t a n t problem. F o r this reason, i t i s necessary t o d e l v e t h o r o u g h l y i n t o t h o s e m a t e r i a l s , because, a s w e p o i n t e d o u t a t t h e P l e n u m , a l l o f u s m u s t
_________________________________ 1 T h e 8th P l e n u m of the C e n t r a l Committee of the P L A w h i c h held its proceedings from 24-25 June 1980 (See E n v e r H o x h a , Selected Works, v o l . 5, 8 N n t o r i P u b l i s h i n g House, T i r a n a 1985, p. 1006, E n g . ed.).

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analyse the existing situation thoroughly, l o o k i n g at it f r o m a l l angles, a n d t h e n c a r e f u l l y c a l c u l a t e t h e 6tep forward that we must take. Science and technical-scientific progress should not be c o n s i d e r e d a n a i m i n t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y are n o t s o f o r o u r P a r t y a n d state. H e r e w e a r e n o t t a l k i n g a b o u t p u r e science, science f o r t h e s a k e o f science. N o , w e a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t a n a d v a n c e d science w h i c h m u s t f i n d c o n c r e t e a p p l i c a t i o n and y i e l d r e s u l t s i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f o u r c o u n t r y . B e i n g Marxist-Leninists, we are not permitted to overreach ourselves, b u t m u s t c a r e f u l l y m e a s u r e t h e steps f o r w a r d w e take, b e a r i n g w e l l i n m i n d o u r r e a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . W o r l d science h a s m a d e c o n s i d e r a b l e a d v a n c e i n m a n y d i r e c t i o n s , i m p o r t a n t n e w d i s c o v e r i e s h a v e been made in every field, f r o m atomic energy to cybernetics, and likewise, m a j o r discoveries have been made in agriculture, i n m e d i c i n e , etc., etc. N a t u r a l l y , p a r a l l e l w i t h these d i s coveries, t h e r e s p e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d e v e r y w h e r e i n o r d e r t o p u t s u c h a d v a n c e d science i n t o p r a c tice. W e , too, a r e a d v a n c i n g t o w a r d s s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t , but, o f course, i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h o u r p o s s i b i l i t i e s a n d forces. T h i s does n o t i n a n y w a y m e a n t h a t o u r s c i e n t i f i c workers should not further develop their knowledge; they m u s t g o a h e a d i n step w i t h t h e m a j o r d i s c o v e r i e s o f t h e time a n d m a k e persistent and tireless efforts to master the n e w k n o w l e d g e a n d d i s c o v e r i e s i n e v e r y f i e l d o f science. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a r i n m i n d t h e fact t h a t b y t h o r o u g h l y and e x t e n s i v e l y a s s i m i l a t i n g t h e n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s o f w o r l d science, o u r w o r k e r s o f v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f science w i l l be able to apply them f r o m time to time, in rational ways, in the conditions of o u r country. T h i s u n d o u b t e d l y w i l l give a great impulse to our economic, scientific and ideological development and w i l l enable our country, w i t h i n a shorter time, to achieve great results for w h i c h others needed m o r e t i m e .

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W e are n o t against p o s i t i v e s c i e n t i f i c r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d b y others. T h e m a s t e r i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f science h a v e nothing to do w i t h whether this or that l a w or something else w a s d i s c o v e r e d b y s u c h a n d s u c h a c h e m i s t o r p h y s i c i s t . Irrespective that they w e r e bourgeois professors, N i e l s B o h r and Enrico F e r m i , w h o w o r k e d in the atomic field, w i t h the discoveries they made themselves, a n d m a n y other f a m o u s scientists l i k e t h e C u r i e s , w h o m a d e t h e first discoveries in the f i e l d of radioactivity, contributed valuable knowledge to the whole of m a n k i n d . We must m a s t e r t h i s k n o w l e d g e a n d use i t t o t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e people. I n t h e c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t c o u n t r i e s , science a n d technical-scientific development have been monopolized by the c a p i t a l i s t s a n d r e v i s i o n i s t s , w h o use i t n o t i n t h e interests o f society a n d m a n k i n d , b u t i n o r d e r t o e x p l o i t t h e masses, t o d o m i n a t e a n d e n s l a v e peoples. The reason that we gave this direction to the proceedings o f t h e recent P l e n u m o f t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f the P a r t y is that in this w a y we w a n t to shake up the P a r t y a n d a l l t h e state organs, a n d t h e o r g a n s o f t h e economy and culture, and free t h e m of m a n y remnants of self-satisfaction and routine, liberalism and bureaucracy, we w a n t to tell the P a r t y that we w i l l proceed on paths a l r e a d y opened, b u t w i t h e v e n g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h , e n e r g y a n d c l a r i t y , t h a t w e s h a l l p l a c e science a n d t e c h n i c a l progress m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e d e v e l o p ment of the economy, the education of the n e w m a n and the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the d e f e n c e of o u r c o u n t r y . I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e successes i n these f i e l d s , h o w e v e r , t h e w o r k of t h e P a r t y m u s t be c o n c e i v e d as a science a n d applied scientifically. The comrade secretary did w e l l to devote a m a j o r p a r t o f h i s o u t l i n e t o t h e w o r k o f t h e P a r t y , f i r s t o f a l l . I t i s science t o k n o w h o w t o w o r k t o m a s t e r t h e l i n e o f t h e P a r t y ; l i k e w i s e , i t i s science t o k n o w h o w t o a p p l y it. T h e c o m m u n i s t s w o r k a m o n g t h e

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people at large in industry, in agriculture, in education, in culture, in the army, and so on, in other words, in all sectors o f l i f e . T h e r e f o r e , w e m u s t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e w o r k o f t h e P a r t y i s t h a t s p i r i t u a l f o r c e w h i c h raises t h e consciousness of t h e c o m m u n i s t to s u c h a scale t h a t he c a r r i e s out t h e t a s k w h i c h i s e n t r u s t e d t o h i m p r o p e r l y . I t i s t h e d u t y o f t h e c o m m u n i s t t o c a r r y t h e socialist revolution continuously f o r w a r d , to ensure that the w e l l being of the people is raised to an ever higher level, in order to have healthy people developed f r o m every standpoint. A l l this p a r t y w o r k must be understood and guided by the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t ideology, by dialectical and historical m a t e r i a l i s m , w h i l e bearing w e l l i n m i n d the concrete historical conditions of our country, h o w we have advanced, how we have made the transition f r o m an old feudalb o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y t o a socialist society, a n d h o w , i n t h e future, we w i l l advance to communism. O b v i o u s l y , w e m u s t a l l w o r k w i t h m u l t i p l i e d forces s o that our development w i l l m a k e still greater strides f o r w a r d . T h e r e f o r e , I stress, the w o r k o f t h e P a r t y m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d , e s p e c i a l l y by its a p p a r a t u s e s , as a s c i e n t i f i c activity, and not as routine, bureaucratic w o r k . Let us take, for example, the problem of admissions to the P a r t y . We say that the proportions must be preserved, that there should be such and such percentage of w o m e n and girls, w o r k e r s and cooperativists in the P a r t y , t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e P a r t y t o a l l sectors must be kept in m i n d , and so on. As y o u said, comrade secretary, i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t h e r e are b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the P a r t y in almost all brigades. This is a v e r y i m p o r t a n t a c h i e v e m e n t . So, w e see t h a t i n these d i r e c t i o n s w o r k is being done and is proceeding according to instructions, b u t h e r e t h e q u e s t i o n m u s t b e a s k e d : h o w are these problems understood? Basing myself on the experience of the w h o l e Party, I

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t h i n k that there is a somewhat bureaucratic and schematic u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f these k e y p r o b l e m s o f t h e P a r t y . W h e n we admit w o m e n and girls to the Party, we do not do this simply in order to say: Look, there are w o m e n and g i r l s i n o u r P a r t y , b u t because t h e y c o n s t i t u t e h a l f o f o u r society a n d because t h e y h a v e r a i s e d t h e i r a l l - r o u n d l e v e l to s u c h a stage t h a t t h e y d e s e r v e to be m e m b e r s of t h e P a r t y . T h e correct a n d s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m lies i n t h i s . O r , w h e n w e s a y t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y , t h e greatest p e r c e n t a g e o f m e m b e r s o f t h e P a r t y , o u g h t t o consist o f w o r k e r s , ( 2 ) t h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e w o r k i n g class leads. A n d i t i s i n d i s p u t a b l e t h a t w e must apply this principle. B u t the problem is that it must be understood scientifically. We must admit workers to t h e P a r t y n o t j u s t because t h e y are w o r k e r s , b u t because t h e y are w o r t h y of i t . I s a y t h i s because t h e r e is a c a t e g o r y o f w o r k e r s w h o are c a l l e d w o r k e r s , b u t w h o l e a v e m u c h to be desired in their w o r k and behaviour. Therefore, w h e n w e are d i s c u s s i n g a d m i t t i n g a w o r k e r t o t h e P a r t y , w e m u s t e x a m i n e h i s a t t i t u d e w i t h g r e a t care, m u s t e x a m i n e h o w he w o r k s to apply the directives and orientations of the P a r t y a b o u t p r o d u c t i v i t y a n d costs o f p r o d u c t i o n , a b o u t d i s c i p l i n e , etc., etc., a n d see w h e t h e r h e r e a l l y w o r k s i n such a w a y as to become an example for all. H e n c e , a k e y p r o b l e m s u c h as t h a t of a d m i s s i o n s to t h e P a r t y , f o r e x a m p l e , m u s t n o t b e seen o n l y o n t h e basis o f c e r t a i n f i g u r e s . O f course, w e m u s t k e e p t h e percentages i n m i n d , because t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y h a s l a i d t h e m d o w n , a n d f r o m y e a r t o y e a r c o r r e c t i o n s are m a d e a n d a d v i c e a n d concrete i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n connection w i t h them. To be brief, w h a t I am getting at is that both in the apparatuses of the P a r t y and in life the
__________________________________ 2 In 1986 w o r k e r communists made the membership o f the P L A . up 39.2 per cent of

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w o r k o f t h e P a r t y m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e most a d v a n c e d sciences. W e see t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o n c l u s i o n s based o n the t e a c h i n g s o f M a r x , E n g e l s , L e n i n a n d S t a l i n a p p l i e d i n practice, m a t e r i a l i z e d i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s o r t h a t p r o b l e m b y o u r p e o p l e ; i n those cases w h e n s o m e o n e p u t s the cart b e f o r e t h e horse, t h a t is, w h e n s o m e o n e i s n o t a d v a n c i n g o n t h e r o a d o f t h e P a r t y , w e say t o h i m : S t o p ! A l l these q u e s t i o n s , seen w i t h a s c i e n t i f i c e y e b y t h e P a r t y , p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t , e v e n d e c i s i v e r o l e f o r t h e successful a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e w h o l e p r o g r a m o f t h e P a r t y i n a l l sectors o f l i f e . T h i s i s a p r o g r a m g u i d e d a n d i n s p i r e d b y a r e v o l u t i o n a r y science, b y t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t ideology. T h e problems w h i c h the 8th P l e n u m of the CC of the P a r t y d e a l t w i t h a n d t h e t a s k s w h i c h i t set i n g e n e r a l outline w i l l become even m o r e concrete at the c o m i n g congress o f t h e P a r t y . B u t I r e c o m m e n d t o y o u a n d a d v i s e you, w h a t I pointed out a little earlier, that in the w o r k w h i c h y o u are doing and w i l l do for the detailed e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l s o f t h i s P l e n u m , y o u s h o u l d engage i n t h o r o u g h - g o i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y debate, a n d n o t get b o g ged d o w n i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n . I n t h e m e e t i n g s w h i c h y o u w i l l h o l d y o u w i l l d e l i v e r r e p o r t s , a n d I a m n o t against this, b u t t h e y m u s t n o t b e r e p o r t s f o r t h e s a k e o f r e p o r t s . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e r e p o r t s a n d discussions a t these meetings m u s t b e t o g i v e c o n c r e t e assistance t o t h e p r o gress o f t h e w o r k . W h e n a p e r s o n s t a n d s u p t o discuss these m a j o r p r o b l e m s o f science, w h i c h w i l l c a r r y o u r c o u n t r y f o r w a r d , h e o u g h t t o h a v e some set o b j e c t i v e s . F o r example, the t u r n e r m a y have m a n y concrete things to say a b o u t h i s j o b , a b o u t h o w t h i s o r t h a t t o o l s h o u l d b e made; he m a y not indulge in flights of philosophy, but m a y speak s i m p l y a b o u t h i s l a t h e a n d g i v e o p i n i o n s a b o u t it. A n d t h e t u r n e r i s able t o p r e s e n t a n d b a c k u p these o p i n i o n s b e t t e r t h a n , say, t h e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e p a r t y

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committee of the district. A f t e r presenting the situation, t h e t u r n e r m a y s a y : If w e w a n t t o a d v a n c e , c o m r a d e s , w e o u g h t t o get t h e best o u t o f t h i s l a t h e , o u g h t t o d o t h i s a n d that, because t h e w a y w e are w o r k i n g n o w , w i t h t h i s d i s c i p l i n e n o t a t t h e p r o p e r l e v e l , a n d w i t h t h i s obsolete t e c h n o l o g y , f o r e x a m p l e , w e can't g o ahead. H e m i g h t say, I propose t h a t w e s h o u l d a p p l y a n o t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o cess w h i c h w o u l d b e m o r e s u i t a b l e f o r o u r p o s s i b i l i t i e s : t h e l a t h e i s m o d e r n , b u t let u s m o d e r n i z e i t f u r t h e r . I p r o pose t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t t h a t w e s h o u l d h a v e some s p e c i a l l a t h e s h e r e i n o u r factory. A l l the opinions and proposals about the p r o b l e m that i s b e i n g a n a l y s e d s h o u l d b e stated c o u r a g e o u s l y . T h e n w e w i l l t a k e t h e m a n d s t u d y t h e m c a r e f u l l y , w i l l see h o w f a r w e c a n g o a n d t h e n decide h o w m u c h w e c a n do. I n t h e e n d w e s h a l l s a y : W e accept t h i s p r o p o s a l , b u t n o t t h e other, because w e d o n ' t h a v e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e time being, w h i l e t o m o r r o w the possibilities m i g h t be c r e a t e d f o r u s t o accept it. T h i s m e a n s t h a t w e d o n o t reject a p r o p o s a l out of h a n d . A s I said, r e p o r t s w i l l b e d e l i v e r e d , b u t w e are c o n v i n c e d t h a t a l l t h e c o m r a d e s (not o n l y those w h o speak, b u t a l l t h e others) h a v e p l e n t y o f g o o d ideas i n t h e i r heads. T h e n , w h a t h i n d e r s t h e m f r o m e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r ideas, f r o m p o u r i n g t h e m o u t a s y o u m i g h t say, l i k e those s t r e a m s w h i c h p o u r w a t e r i n t o t h e r i v e r s , j u s t a s t h e y see t h i n g s ? T h e y s h o u l d e x p r e s s t h e i r ideas because t h e good o f t h e P a r t y a n d o u r socialist d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e i t o n a l l questions, s u c h as those of i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , e d u c a t i o n , defence, etc. I n a l l these sectors, a s y o u k n o w a n d p r o b a b l y t h e r e i s n o n e e d f o r m e t o t e l l y o u , t h e r e are m a n y places w h e r e we must m a k e improvements, strengthen the organi z a t i o n f u r t h e r a n d m a k e q u a l i t a t i v e changes. A n d t h i s i s w h e r e t h e s t r e n g t h o f o u r P a r t y lies. E v e r y o n e , e v e r y communist, wherever he works, first of all, must thoroughly

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master his profession and t r u l y regard it as a weapon to put the l i f e - g i v i n g directives of the P a r t y into practice. C o m m u n i s t s are able not only to talk, to give advice, but, first of all, to accomplish things, to organize, to propose a n d t o check u p . T h e P a r t y has s p o k e n a b o u t a l l t h e s e p r o b l e m s , b u t n o w its o r d e r s a n d d i r e c t i v e s m u s t b e p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e s t i l l better. But, comrades, the application of party directives and the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r o b l e m s m u s t b e m e a s u r e d b y t h e results. Y o u m a y b e a g o o d , honest c o m r a d e a n d m a y e v e n have a fine record, y o u m a y have taken part in the w a r (and n o one denies t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h y o u h a v e m a d e , and y o u r ardent desire is to go on c o n t r i b u t i n g to the Homeland and y o u ought to continue to do so to the end o f y o u r l i f e ) , b u t w i t h t h e passage o f t i m e (this i s a biological question), although y o u m a y have m e n t a l s t r e n g t h , y o u r p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h does n o t p e r m i t y o u t o d o the w o r k o f a y o u n g e r p e r s o n w h o i s a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h the t a s k s m o r e q u i c k l y a n d better. O u r P a r t y h a s w o r k e d i n s u c h a w a y t h a t i t has n o w created a l a r g e n u m b e r o f cadres. B e s i d e s t h e m , t h e b r o a d masses o f w o r k i n g people, t h e w o r k e r s a n d c o o p e r a t i v i s t s , h a v e also r a i s e d t h e i r l e v e l . H e n c e , those g e t t i n g o n i n y e a r s should open the w a y to such people prepared by the P a r t y , should open vistas of w o r k , management and organization to them and trust them w i t h responsibility for various questions. I n short, w e m u s t m a k e s u r e t h a t t h e n e w g e n e r a t i o n c o n t i n u o u s l y regenerates t h e i m m o r t a l w o r k o f the P a r t y i n p o s i t i v e w a y s . N o w , a f t e r 35-36 y e a r s o f f r e e socialist l i f e , w e c a n n o t say t h a t w e d o n o t h a v e e x p e r i e n c e i n o u r w o r k . T h e r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d i n a l l sectors s h o w t h a t w e a r e o n t h e u p a n d u p e v e r y w h e r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n some d i r e c t i o n s w e h a v e n o t f u l f i l l e d t h e p l a n s w e h a v e set. S o m e o n e m a y a s k : H a v e w e d r a f t e d these p l a n s w e l l , o r h a v e t h e y b e e n a b i t

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exaggerated, a n d have the failures to f u l f i l them, in some cases c o m e a b o u t because t h e y h a v e n o t b e e n f u l l y s t u d i e d ? I cannot s a y t h a t t h e r e has a l w a y s b e e n p e r f e c t i o n i n t h e d r a f t i n g o f these p l a n s . N o , p l a n s c a n n e v e r b e perfect, indeed, there m a y even be shortcomings in t h e m . But, genera l l y s p e a k i n g , the f i v e - y e a r p l a n s w h i c h w e h a v e d r a f t e d h a v e a l w a y s been based o n science, t h e r e f o r e t h e y h a v e b e e n s c i e n t i f i c . A n d yet w e a r e conscious t h a t w e a r e f a r f r o m t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f science i n e v e r y sector i n t h e c a r r y i n g out of the plans. Therefore, we must w o r k harder in this d i r e c t i o n . I n d r a f t i n g p l a n s w e m u s t a l w a y s base o u r s e l v e s o n science a n d w i t h c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n also r e l y o n advanced experience. W e see, a n d t h i s i s e n c o u r a g i n g , t h a t i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l cooperatives a n d factories there are groups, b r i gades a n d i n d i v i d u a l s w h o h a v e n o t o n l y f u l f i l l e d , b u t h a v e also o v e r f u l f i l l e d t h e p l a n s w h i c h w e h a v e set. H e r e I d o not wish to d w e l l on h o w they have overfulfilled the targets, because y o u c e r t a i n l y k n o w t h i s . W e t h e l e a d e r s h i p k n o w t h e results, w h i l e y o u see c o n c r e t e l y h o w t h o s e b r i g a d e s i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d those d e p a r t m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s i n the factories w o r k , w i t h w h a t w i l l , w i t h w h a t discipline and clear m i n d s they w o r k , w i t h w h a t political c l a r i t y t h e y see t h e targets o f t h e p l a n , h o w t h e y decide and w h a t efforts they m a k e to accomplish the tasks w i t h o u t f a i l . A n d , i n fact, t h e y d o o v e r f u l f i l t h e targets. B u t w h y ? In order to gain the limelight, or to f u r t h e r their personal interests? N o , these are n o t t h e reasons. T h e r e a l i t y i t s e l f m a k e s t h i s q u i t e clear. I n a b r i g a d e w h i c h m a n a g e s t o t a k e 45 q u i n t a l s of w h e a t , or 80 or 90 q u i n t a l s of m a i z e p e r hectare, t h e p a y f o r t h e w o r k d a y i s t h e s a m e f o r a l l t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s , i t i s t h e same, also, a s t h e p a y f o r t h e members of another brigade of the same economy, w h i c h t a k e s 25 or 29 q u i n t a l s of g r a i n p e r h e c t a r e . H e n c e , it t u r n s out t h a t i t i s t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t o f society w h i c h

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i n s p i r e s these g r o u p s o f people, these a d v a n c e d i n d i v i d u a l s to achieve h i g h results at w o r k . Therefore, we must regard the example of the advanced as a great m o v e m e n t , n o t j u s t to a c c o m p l i s h t h e e c o n o m i c plans ( a n d t h i s , of course, is basic), b u t also as a p o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m , a s a n e w p l a t f o r m w h i c h has t h e u p p e r h a n d o f t h e r e m n a n t s o f t h e past. I n a n a d v a n c e d b r i g a d e t h e r e m a y b e m e m b e r s w h o h a v e some h a n g o v e r s w h i c h they express, f o r example, w i t h i n the f a m i l y or even i n society. N a t u r a l l y , t h e y s h o u l d b e c o r r e c t e d s o t h a t a l l a d v a n c e i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n . W h e n y o u see t h a t a m o n g t h e w o r k i n g masses t h e r e i s a b r o a d p o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l understanding of the m a j o r p r o b l e m of accomplishing the plan, y o u r h e a r t i s w a r m e d a n d y o u are c o n v i n c e d t h a t our p l a n i s r e a l i s t i c . N o w the provisional 7th Five-year P l a n is being drafted and, a s u s u a l , a l l y o u c o m r a d e s o f t h e base h a v e discussed it and given opinions about different figures. The m i nistries a r e s t u d y i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w i l l b e passed on to the government, and w i l l then be presented to the Political B u r e a u of the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e of the P a r t y . T h e p e o p l e a t t h e base m a k e t h e p l a n a n d , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e i s d e b a t e t h e r e , b u t t h e r e a r e occasions w h e n t h e r e i s n o debate, a n d o f t e n t h e r e i s f o r m a l i s m , w h i c h w i t h o u t doubt is not a good t h i n g . F o r such questions as this of the plan, debate a n d confrontation is absolutely necessary. A n d i f t h i s i s d o n e i n t h e c o r r e c t p a r t y s p i r i t (that is, n o t t o r e d u c e t h e g u i d e l i n e f i g u r e s , b u t t o raise them, f o l l o w i n g the example of the advanced), then the p l a n w i l l n o t o n l y b e r e a l , b u t w i l l also b e a c c o m p l i s h e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a l l aspects. W e must m a k e ourselves f a m i l i a r w i t h the decisions o f the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y o n v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s . T h e P a r t y does n o t s a y t h a t t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y sees t h i s o r t h a t p r o b l e m c o r r e c t l y i n o r d e r t o boast,

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b u t because, i n r e a l i t y , a l l t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s i s s u e d a r e correct. T h e p r o b l e m t h a t c o n c e r n s u s n o w i s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and management of the w o r k to put t h e m into practice. A n d it must be understood that this task does n o t f a l l o n t h e base alone, b u t also o n t h e centre, because o u r p r o b l e m s are c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h one a n o t h e r , t h e r e i s n o base d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e l e a d e r s h i p , a n d l e a d e r s h i p d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e base, e i t h e r i n g o o d s i t u a t i o n s o r i n d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s . T h e r e a r e t h i n g s w h i c h t h e base does n o t a c c o m p l i s h f o r m a n y s u b j e c t i v e reasons, b u t t h e l e a d e r s h i p , too, does n o t a c c o m p l i s h m a n y t h i n g s w h i c h t h e base needs, because of l a c k of good o r g a n i z a t i o n , l a c k o f m a n a g e m e n t , c h e c k - u p , a n d persistence i n s o l v i n g t h e problems raised. The p l a n w h i c h we are drafting now, like a l l our f o r m e r plans, is realistic. T h e communists, the workers, the y o u n g and old generations must always bear in m i n d that a t a l l t i m e s t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y has i s s u e d d i r e c t i v e s a n d has t a k e n d e c i s i o n s i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e respective s i t u a t i o n s . I t has b e e n a n d i s p r e c i s e l y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h has c o m p e l l e d t h e P a r t y t o t a k e other, n e w decisions o n v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s . A l l t h e d i r e c t i v e s a n d decisions o f t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y s h o w this. T h e s e t h i n g s are a l l c o n n e c t e d a n d m a k e up the l i n k s of a single chain. Therefore it is i m p o r t a n t that not o n l y we, the communists and cadres of o u r g e n e r a t i o n , w h o h a v e d r a f t e d a n d a p p l i e d these d e c i s i o n s a n d d i r e c t i v e s , b u t also t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n s h o u l d study them, delve into them deeply and l i n k t h e m w i t h one a n o t h e r s o t h a t t h e y w i l l b e a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d , a n a l y s e a n d put into practice the decisions t a k e n recently, being v e r y clear about their importance for the progress of our country. I stress t h i s because t h e r e a r e m a n y c o m r a d e s w h o , w h e n t h e y are i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e P l e n u m

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o n t h e p r o b l e m s o f science a n d t e c h n i q u e , s a y : A h , . . . i s that all?! T r u e , t h e P a r t y h a s r a i s e d these issues at other t i m e s , b u t n o t i n t h i s w a y because n o w w e a i m t o achieve a n o t h e r , h i g h e r stage of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of science and technique. Hence, m a n y things have been said and these w o r d s h a v e n o t b e e n c a r r i e d a w a y b y t h e w i n d , b u t t h e y h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d . O n these p r o b l e m s w e a r e n o t b e g i n n i n g f r o m A , b u t w e h a v e not y e t r e a c h e d Z , t h a t is, communism, to put it figuratively we are about three quarters of the w a y t h r o u g h the alphabet. In other words, this m e a n s w e are n o t w i t h o u t e x p e r i e n c e i n these m a t t e r s . The line of the P a r t y must be understood in the dialectic o f t h e m a t e r i a l i s t d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r society. A t t h i s p e r i o d w e h a v e great c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t h e p l a n we are drafting, and this w i l l be an intensive p l a n the a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f w h i c h w i l l b e assisted b y t h e r e v olutionary enthusiasm of the workers, the decisions of the 8 t h P l e n u m a n d t h e c o m i n g C o n g r e s s o f t h e P a r t y w h i c h w i l l b e h e l d i n 1981, w i l l b e c a r r i e d o u t s u c c e s s f u l l y . A l l o u r people, f r o m those w i t h a l o w l e v e l t o those w i t h e x t e n s i v e a l l - s i d e d c u l t u r e , u n i t e d i n a bloc, m u s t p u t their m i n d s and shoulders to the w o r k , w i t h profound ideological and political understanding, in order to accomp l i s h a n d o v e r f u l f i l t h e targets a n d t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p o u r socialist society. T h e 7th F i v e - y e a r P l a n is based on the results achieved u p t i l l n o w , b u t w e s h a l l w o r k t o e n s u r e t h a t its a c c o m plishment m a r k s an even greater transformation of our society a n d t h a t t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e p e o p l e i s r a i s e d t o a still higher level f r o m every viewpoint, in this w a y laying the solid foundations for our future plans. M a n y important problems of energy industry, the mines, nitrogenous fertilizers, a n d s o o n , w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d a n d s t u d i e d n o w f o r the f u t u r e p l a n s . S o . t h e p l a n w h i c h w e are d r a f t i n g w i l l b e a n e v e n m o r e p o w e r f u l base f o r t h e f u t u r e ; w e are

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doing e v e r y t h i n g for the present a n d for the future. T h i s , comrades, i s h o w t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e recent P l e n u m o f the Central Committee of the P a r t y should be understood. Its d e c i s i o n s m u s t n e v e r b e c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m the tasks of the 7th F i v e - y e a r P l a n . I do not intend to go into details in this short talk w i t h y o u . I t i s a f a c t t h a t w e h a v e m a n y successes i n o u r w o r k , but, a s y o u k n o w , w e also h a v e s h o r t c o m i n g s w h i c h y o u p o i n t e d out. W e m u s t n o t u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e m , because i n some places a n d a t c e r t a i n m o m e n t s t h e y a r e f o s t e r e d also b y e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e . I f t h e P a r t y does n o t t a k e m e a s u r e s t o correct t h e m , i f i t does n o t g i v e p r o p e r a d v i s e a n d educate t h e people w h o m a k e m i s t a k e s , t h e n these s h o r t c o m i n g s c o u l d become d a n g e r o u s . H e n c e , i f t h e P a r t y goes t o sleep, t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s w i l l c e r t a i n l y get w o r s e a n d b e c o m e a great obstacle a n d , i n d e e d , a d a n g e r t o o u r socialist o r d e r . Oh, s o m e o n e m a y s a y f o o l i s h l y , it's o n l y a s m a l l m i s t a k e t h a t t h i s m a n m a d e a n d w e s h o u l d n ' t t a k e a n y n o t i c e o f it, because h e f o u g h t i n t h e w a r , too. D o n ' t m i s u n d e r s t a n d m e . I d o n ' t s a y t h a t w e s h o u l d t a k e those w h o m a k e m i s t a k e s t o c o u r t a t e v e r y instance. T h e t y p e o f m e a s u r e w h i c h i s t a k e n d e p e n d s on the gravity of the mistake or fault w h i c h has been committed. We can excuse even a m a j o r mistake w h e n w e see t h a t i t w a s m a d e u n w i t t i n g l y b y a p e r s o n w h o h a s a l w a y s b e e n honest, etc., etc. I n t h i s case t h i s p e r s o n o u g h t t o b e a d v i s e d , too, a n d w e s h o u l d b e c o n v i n c e d that he w i l l m a k e no further mistakes. B u t there are some w h o m a k e m i s t a k e s a n d d o n o t c o r r e c t t h e m s e l v e s , despite t h e a d v i c e t h e y receive. W i t h t h e passage o f t i m e t h e e v i l t a k e s deep root i n s u c h people, w h o b e c o m e d a n g e r o u s and exert a bad influence on others by setting t h e m on t h e i r w r o n g course. A n d t h e r e are s u c h cases. T h e P a r t y m u s t g i v e i m p o r t a n c e t o these p r o b l e m s , because t h e y h a v e t o d o w i t h t h e i d e o - p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n o f

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our n e w m a n . T h e basic organization of the P a r t y must be a leading vanguard detachment everywhere, in the factory, the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e o r b r i g a d e , a n d p l a y its l e a d i n g role i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f e v e r y p r o b l e m . W h e r e v e r i t f u n c tions, t h e b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n m u s t u r g e t h e masses o f workers to accomplish the plans and to be disciplined. I n t h e f i r s t place, t h e b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e P a r t y leads b y m e a n s o f its m e m b e r s w h o m u s t b e e x e m p l a r y i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n , h a v e i n i t i a t i v e a n d c a r r y t h e masses f o r w a r d w i t h t h e m t o t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f tasks. W i t h its w o r k i t s h o u l d s u p p o r t t h e y o u t h , p r o v i d e p o s s i b i l i t i e s for t h e m to express opinions; it must insist w i t h the leadership o f e v e r y w o r k centre, f a c t o r y , a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e or institution that the proposal of this comrade or that group of people should be discussed and studied carefully. S o m e m a n a g e r of an e n t e r p r i s e or c h a i r m a n of a c o o p e r a t i v e m i g h t s a y : O h , let i t be, b u t t h e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e organization should r e p l y : No, y o u must not leave the office w i t h o u t l i s t e n i n g c a r e f u l l y t o e v e r y t h i n g I a m p u t t i n g before y o u ; i f i t seems t o y o u t h a t I a m w r o n g , r e f u t e m y opinion w i t h arguments, and I w i l l go to tell the comrades of the organization that this w o r k cannot be done at the m o m e n t , o r t h i s o r t h a t p r o p o s a l i s n o t correct. H e n c e , this i s the s p i r i t i n w h i c h t h e b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e P a r t y must w o r k . W h y do we w a n t to have a basic organization of the P a r t y in every department of the enterprise or brigade of the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e ? S o t h a t i t w i l l l e a d a l l t h e w o r k t h e r e , a n d t h i s w i l l g o i n t h e best p o s s i b l e w a y . B u t the m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g f o r t h e P a r t y i s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f people w i t h t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f o u r n e w m a n . I f t h i s o r t h a t p e r s o n i s d i s c i p l i n e d , honest, a c t i v e a n d studies M a r x i s m L e n i n i s m , a l l these t h i n g s w i l l b e r e f l e c t e d i n h i s w o r k . A n d , as you know, it is through w o r k that education is carried out; we must criticize or praise people there w h e r e

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they work. We must be careful that we do not t u r n the basic o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the P a r t y i n t o a f o r u m w h i c h discusses a n d solves those p r o b l e m s w h i c h c a n b e s e t t l e d o n t h e j o b , because o t h e r w i s e t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the P a r t y w i l l b e o c c u p i e d b y s u c h m a t t e r s a t a t i m e w h e n it is faced w i t h m u c h more important problems w h i c h c e r t a i n l y o u g h t t o b e r a i s e d a n d s o l v e d i n its m e e t i n g s . I n t h e course o f t h e w o r k , t h i s o r t h a t w o r k e r ( w h e t h e r or not communist) can v e r y w e l l tell his w o r k m a t e that he is not w o r k i n g w e l l , is not disciplined, is not b e h a v i n g w e l l w i t h t h e others, etc., etc. W h y d o y o u act l i k e this, w h y d o y o u c o m e late, w h y d o y o u w a s t e t i m e a t w o r k ? It's n o t r i g h t t o act i n t h i s w a y , y o u o u g h t t o h a v e g o o d r e l a t i o n s w i t h y o u r comrades. T h i s i s h o w h e a d v i s e s o r c r i t i c i z e s his w o r k m a t e on the job. If the person criticized is a c o m m u n i s t or a m e m b e r of the trade-unions, the y o u t h , etc., h e s h o u l d r e p l y : Y o u are r i g h t , c o m r a d e , i r r e s p e c t i v e of w h e t h e r or n o t I am a c o m m u n i s t , I'll b e a r y o u r c r i t i c i s m i n m i n d a n d d o e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o k e e p pace w i t h t h e best. A n d , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h i s i s w h a t h a p p e n s in practice, H o w e v e r , w h e n the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f l a c k o f d i s c i p l i n e a r e n o t i c e d o n a b r o a d e r scale i n t h e b r i g a d e , sector, c o operative, department or factory, then the matter must without fail be raised in the basic organization, for this i s n o t a p r o b l e m o f j u s t one p e r s o n . T h i s i s h o w t h e P a r t y m u s t act a b o u t s u c h m a t t e r s . T h e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e P a r t y of a d e p a r t m e n t , a w h o l e factory or cooperative, must be in c o n t i n u a l contact w i t h t h e masses o f w o r k e r s o r c o o p e r a t i v i s t s , m u s t l i s t e n to t h e i r o p i n i o n s , h a v e a g e n e r a l i d e a of t h e i r w o r k and their problems, and so on and so forth. This is the l i v i n g w o r k of the P a r t y . In this w a y we can e l i m i n a t e m a n y defects m o r e q u i c k l y a n d i n t i m e a n d e d u c a t e m a n y people w h o m a k e m i s t a k e s . O u r P a r t y

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h a s great e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . O u r P a r t y has s t r a i g h t e n e d o u t a n d m a d e g o o d people e v e n o f some o f those t w i s t e d trees w h o are o f t e n s a i d t o b e i n c o r r i g i b l e . T h e y h a v e seen t h e correctness o f t h e l i n e o f t h e Party, understood their mistakes and have rectified them. Dear comrades, the further development of industry has e x c e p t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e f o r a n d great prospects i n o u r country. The priority development of our industry w i l l be one of t h e b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n s of t h e c o m i n g f i v e - y e a r plan. Of course we cannot say that the i n d u s t r y we have is among the most modern. We shall do e v e r y t h i n g possible to ensure that the machines we i m p o r t in the f u t u r e w i l l b e a s m o d e r n a s possible. W e p l a n t o i m p o r t f a c t o r i e s , plants and production lines w h i c h w i l l be of n e w models. B u t t h e p r o b l e m i s t h a t w i t h these a l o n e t h e large-scale, all-round development of the country cannot be ensured. O u r present i n d u s t r y i s n o t o l d , b u t w e d o n o t h a v e m o d e r n t e c h n o l o g y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e t a s k emerges e s p e c i a l l y f o r o u r m a s t e r c r a f t s m e n (because n o w w e h a v e c a p a b l e c r a f t s m e n ) , a n d o u r engineers, w h o h a v e a v e r y g o o d a n d c o m p e t e n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n , w h o f a r o u t s t r i p those s p e c i a l ists w h o m C h i n a sent us, t o set t o w o r k s e r i o u s l y t o e n s u r e t h a t w e t a k e b o l d steps f o r w a r d i n t h i s f i e l d , too. A n d successes h a v e b e e n a c h i e v e d i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . T h e f a c t i s t h a t w e h a v e a m o d e s t people. A n d t h e cadres w h o m t h e P a r t y h a s t r a i n e d are l i k e that, too. I n their t i m e we sincerely considered the Chinese and Soviet, n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e Y u g o s l a v specialists, a s f r i e n d s , respected them and listened to t h e m w i t h attention and modesty. N o w , w h e n w e see w h a t o u r cadres are d o i n g i n a l l sectors of industry and w h e n we consider retrospectively the s k i l l o f t h e f o r e i g n specialists w h o w e r e sent t o u s i n t h e past a n d t h e s k i l l o f o u r cadres t o d a y , w e c a n s a y w i t h o u t b o a s t i n g t h a t those w h o w e r e sent t o u s (and m o s t l y t h e y

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w e r e sent h e r e w i t h i n i m i c a l aims) c a n n o t c o m p a r e w i t h o u r c a p a b l e specialists. Y o u have heard that we have achieved some good results i n t h e o i l sector; n e w o i l - f i e l d s , w h i c h a r e o f g r e a t importance, have been discovered by our o w n oil workers, t e c h n i c i a n s a n d specialists. N e i t h e r t h e S o v i e t n o r t h e C h i n e s e specialists e v e r s e r i o u s l y e n g a g e d i n s u c h w o r k . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y sabotaged u s i n t h i s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t sector of o u r e c o n o m y . T h e same t h i n g m u s t b e s a i d , i n g e n e r a l , o f t h e o t h e r branches of industry. Y o u k n o w that the Chinese provided u s w i t h a credit, h e l p e d u s t o set u p t h e m e t a l l u r g i c a l i n d u s t r y , but, a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e y s a b o t a g e d m a n y p l a n t s a n d l e f t m a n y objects o f t h i s i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y h a l f - c o m p l e t e d . N o w o u r p e o p l e h a v e set t o w o r k c o m p e t e n t l y t h e r e t o c o m p l e t e these objects a n d i m p r o v e a l l the plants in the metallurgical combine. O u r cadres h a v e b e e n a n d are s t i l l b e i n g sent a b r o a d f o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n o r e x p e r i e n c e , t o see, f o r e x a m p l e , v a r i o u s d e v e l o p e d sectors o f t h e e c o n o m y s u c h a s t h e c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y , t h e m e t a l l u r g i c a l i n d u s t r y , etc. W h a t I w a n t t o stress once a g a i n i s t h a t i n t h e e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s o u r scientists, scholars, m a s t e r c r a f t s m e n a n d q u a l i f i e d cadres m u s t q u i c k l y a n d c o n t i n u o u s l y i m p r o v e the technology of our industry. A n o t h e r task of great i m p o r t a n c e i s t h a t these people m u s t f u r t h e r s t u d y t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e e c o n o m y , i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , etc. Y o u k n o w that w o r k i n g groups have been appointed for this purpose. A n d as you heard, at the meeting of the 8th P l e n u m of t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y i t w a s d e c i d e d t o set up the Committee of Science and Technique w h i c h w i l l o r g a n i z e , assist a n d g u i d e t h e s c i e n t i f i c w o r k a l l o v e r o u r c o u n t r y . T h e c o u n t r y ' s best scientists a n d best t r a i n e d a n d c o m p e t e n t people o f v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s o f science w i l l take part in this Committee. As w e l l as this, everyone,

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specialists, m a s t e r c r a f t s m e n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e w o r k i n g class, w h e r e v e r t h e y w o r k , w i l l t r y t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e targets i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r w o r k a n d , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , to develop and raise themselves ever higher. N o w I w i s h t o e x p r e s s some ideas a b o u t a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s sector c o n s t i t u t e s t h e base o f o u r w h o l e e c o n o m y . W i t h this I am not saying a n y t h i n g new, but I w a n t to stress t h e great i m p o r t a n c e w h i c h p r o g r e s s i n a g r i c u l t u r e has f o r us. T h e p e o p l e n e e d n o t o n l y b r e a d , b u t also c l o t h i n g a n d f o o t w e a r . B e s i d e s this, t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f targets i n t h e o t h e r b r a n c h e s l i k e i n d u s t r y , f o r e x a m p l e , is greatly dependent on agriculture. The industry w h i c h w e h a v e set u p needs r a w m a t e r i a l s f r o m a g r i c u l t u r e s u c h as c o t t o n , s u n f l o w e r , sugar-beet, tobacco, vegetables, etc., etc. T h e s e a r e a l l n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o r a i s e t h e w e l l - b e i n g of t h e people, to e n s u r e a b e t t e r a n d c o n t i n u o u s s u p p l y f o r t h e p e o p l e a n d t o c r e a t e i n c o m e f r o m e x p o r t s , too. In the situation in w h i c h we are l i v i n g agriculture assumes e x c e p t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e f o r o u r c o u n t r y . T h a t i s w h y t h e P a r t y l o n g ago l a u n c h e d t h e s l o g a n , A g r i c u l t u r e a n issue f o r t h e w h o l e people. E v e r y o n e m u s t u n d e r s t a n d and apply this directive properly. A l l must be interested in agriculture. B u t the tasks are divided, some have been appointed to w o r k in agriculture, others on the f r o n t of i n d u s t r y , o r t h a t o f c u l t u r e , etc., etc. M e a n w h i l e t h e P a r t y w o r k s a n d l e a d s e v e r y w h e r e , i n a l l sectors. Its p e r m a n e n t c o n c e r n m u s t b e t o see t h a t t h e w o r k i n a l l these sectors goes l i k e c l o c k w o r k , i n p a r a l l e l a n d u n i n terruptedly. C o n t i n u a l progress has been made in agriculture a n d good r e s u l t s h a v e b e e n a c h i e v e d i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . W h e n w e s p e a k a b o u t successes i n t h i s sector t o d a y , w e h a v e n o need t o m a k e c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e f i r s t post-Liberation years, but can m a k e comparisons w i t h the results a c h i e v e d , say, t e n y e a r s ago, a n d i n t h i s w a y w e

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w i l l see w h a t great progress has b e e n m a d e i n a g r i c u l t u r e , livestock-raising and fruit-growing. I n these sectors, too, h o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e d i s t r i c t s w h i c h a r e o u t s t a n d i n g , w h i l e t h e r e a r e o t h e r s w h i c h are lagging behind in the accomplishment of the targets of the plan. S u c h a t h i n g is evidence of the level of political understanding of the economic tasks w h i c h the w o r k i n g people i n e a c h d i s t r i c t h a v e . T h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t a r g e t s i n agriculture is greatly dependent on management and organization, and on the scientific and agrotechnical k n o w ledge w h i c h t h e people w h o w o r k i n a g r i c u l t u r e h a v e acquired. In other words, it is greatly dependent on the w o r k w h i c h t h e P a r t y does a t t h e base w i t h t h e w o r k i n g people. T h i s m u s t b e l i v e l y , c o n c r e t e w o r k w h i c h a n a l y s e s a n d details the orientations and directives of the C e n t r a l Committee of the P a r t y and makes t h e m thoroughly k n o w n everywhere, bearing in m i n d the conditions, the l e v e l of t h e people, etc., etc. In o r d e r to h a v e t h e d e s i r e d results all the time it is essential that the P a r t y should w o r k and i m p e l the advanced ever further ahead, w h i l e i t s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e b a c k w a r d t o c a t c h u p w i t h t h e best. Progress in agriculture is brought about by people w h o h a v e a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l a l l t h e necessary m e a n s , m a c h ines, seeds a n d f e r t i l i z e r s , w h o also h a v e a g r o t e c h n i c a l knowledge and experience i n the w o r k and w h o k n o w w h a t measures must be taken to m a k e the l a n d ever more p r o d u c t i v e , t o i n c r e a s e l i v e s t o c k - b r e e d i n g rates a n d get h i g h y i e l d s of meat, m i l k , etc., etc. It is a f a c t t h a t o u r a g r i c u l t u r e h a s n o w f u l l y set o u t a n d is a d v a n c i n g w i t h determination on the course of m o d e r n socialist f a r m i n g . I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n is the true Leninist road for the construction of socialism i n the countryside. The B o l s h e v i k P a r t y , w i t h S t a l i n at the head, followed and applied this course in the Soviet U n i o n . O u r P a r t y applied the teachings of L e n i n and

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Stalin and made agriculture advance in A l b a n i a . It collectivized agriculture and lifted our peasantry and the w h o l e p e o p l e f r o m t h e great b a c k w a r d n e s s , m i s e r y a n d poverty w h i c h they inherited. T h e course w h i c h the P a r t y has f o l l o w e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m i n t h e countryside, a n d the continuously i m p r o v i n g results w h i c h have been achieved in a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d livestock products speak c l e a r l y o f t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e socialist c o o p e r a t i v i s t order. I f w e c o m p a r e o u r a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h t h a t o f t h e r e v isionist c o u n t r i e s , w h e r e t h e socialist a g r i c u l t u r e h a s n o w been d e s t r o y e d a n d t u r n e d i n t o a c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r e , w e s h a l l see t h a t a n i n d e s c r i b a b l e c r i s i s r e i g n s t h e r e . A s a consequence of the course w h i c h has been pursued in r e g a r d t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e i n those c o u n t r i e s t h e r e are great s h o r t a g e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s everywhere. F o r example, in Vojvodina of Yugoslavia hundreds of thousands of hectares of l a n d a n d thousands of tractors are in the hands of the capitalist owners. In the S o v i e t U n i o n t h e y s t i l l r e t a i n s o m e s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h are socialist i n f o r m , b u t i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , i n f a r m i n g , c a p i t a l i s m i s a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d t h e r e a s i t i s i n a l l sectors. I n t h e o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o f t h e f o r m e r people's d e m o c r a c y , as a r e s u l t of a b a n d o n i n g t h e course of t h e socialist c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e , i n one t h e r e i s a c r i s i s f o r b r e a d g r a i n , i n a n o t h e r f o r vegetables, i n a n o t h e r f o r meat, i n a n o t h e r f o r e v e r y t h i n g , etc., etc. I n those c o u n t r i e s t h e c a p i t a l i s t l a w o f s u p p l y a n d d e m a n d operates. A n d see, j u s t a w e e k ago i n G d a n s k , W a r s a w a n d a l l o v e r P o l a n d big d e m o n s t r a t i o n s w e r e h e l d . A b o u t 50,000 w o r k e r s w e n t o n s t r i k e a n d c a m e out s h o u t i n g i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . W h y ? Because o f t h e g r e a t s h o r t a g e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d a n i m a l products. T h e y h a d no meat or vegetables. T h i s is o c c u r r i n g i n t h e o t h e r r e v i s i o n i s t c o u n t r i e s , too. B u l g a r i a , w h i c h was r i g h t l y considered an agricultural country w i t h a m p l e p r o d u c t i o n (we h a v e b e e n i n B u l g a r i a w h e n i t w a s

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o n t h e socialist r o a d a n d h a v e seen t h e s i t u a t i o n f o r ourselves), i s n o w g o i n g t h r o u g h a g r a v e c r i s i s because the revisionists have destroyed agriculture there. There is n o n e e d f o r m e t o speak a b o u t Y u g o s l a v i a a n d t h e o t h e r capitalist countries. T h a t o u r a g r i c u l t u r e h a s set o u t o n t h e r i g h t c o u r s e o f c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n i s a k n o w n h i s t o r i c a l fact. A n d its f u r ther development by proceeding resolutely on this course is likewise k n o w n . F r o m the small cooperatives we w e n t on to their unification. This action m a r k e d a more advanced stage, a d e v e l o p m e n t of o u r socialist a g r i c u l t u r e to a h i g h e r l e v e l . L a t e r , w e set u p t h e h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s , w h i c h i s a n o t h e r great s t r i d e f o r w a r d , a n d t o d a y these h a v e o u t s t r i p p e d some state f a r m s i n r e g a r d b o t h t o p r o ductivity and income. We have t a k e n and in the future w i l l take other measures for the development of agricult u r e a t h i g h rates, t o increase y i e l d s o f a l l p r o d u c t s . D u r i n g t h e w h o l e n e w f i v e - y e a r p l a n great i m p o r t a n c e w i l l b e given to agriculture, to the further improvement of land a n d also t o i m p r o v e d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n t h i s sector. N o w let u s speak a l i t t l e m o r e c o n c r e t e l y a b o u t t h e experience for the P l a s a agricultural cooperative. The c h a i r m a n of the Plasa cooperative spoke in the discussion at the P l e n u m of the C e n t r a l Committee of the Party, and w h a t he said made a v e r y good impression on a l l t h e c o m r a d e s . T h e P l a s a c o o p e r a t i v e has a c h i e v e d good results, a n d s o h a v e other a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s and state f a r m s i n t h e K o r a d i s t r i c t . T h e P o j a n c o o p e r a t i v e , f o r e x a m p l e , has g o o d results i n t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t a r g e t s . Hence, I w a n t to k n o w more concretely about h o w the w o r k to spread the advanced experience of Plasa is proceedi n g in regard to the concentration, specialization and rotation o f t h e crops. I f I a m n o t m i s t a k e n , t h e s t u d y o n t h i s p r o -

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b l e m w a s u n d e r t a k e n some 8 y e a r s ago. ( 3 ) B u t w e h a v e received no precise i n f o r m a t i o n about w h a t is being done w i t h that study since then. T h e question of the disseminat i o n o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e has b e e n o f great c o n c e r n t o m e a n d C o m r a d e H y s n i [ K a p o ] , w h o m w e lost. A l t h o u g h e v e r y e f f o r t w a s m a d e w e c o u l d n o t save h i m f r o m t h a t g r a v e disease w h i c h h e s u f f e r e d . H e w a s a c o m r a d e w i t h r a r e attributes, a m a n of extensive a n d p r o f o u n d k n o w l e d g e a n d w i t h a s p e c i a l l y great e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e Party. W h e n a s t u d y i s done, i t s h o u l d n o t b e left o n p a p e r , but s h o u l d b e a p p l i e d , because i n this w a y w e c a n see a n d j u d g e b o t h its g o o d aspects a n d its n e g a t i v e aspects. H e n c e , application, p u t t i n g the study into practice, w i l l dictate the need f o r f u r t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t o f it. Y o u , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e c o m r a d e s e n g a g e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e , are b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e p u r p o s e o f w h i c h is, first, t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p s ; second, t h e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e m ; t h i r d , t h e r o t a t i o n o f c r o p s (this i s v e r y necessary, a g r i c u l t u r e c a n n o t a d v a n c e w i t h o u t it). These t h r e e t h i n g s are c l o s e l y i n t e r c o n n e c t e d a n d a l l h a v e t o d o w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l science. T h i s s y s t e m a i m s a t t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e , b u t also a t a d v a n c i n g towards the continual strengthening of the c o m m o n property, t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e c o l l e c t i v e p r o p e r t y o f t h e g r o u p t o s o c i a l p r o p e r t y . O f course, b e f o r e t h i s a i m c a n b e a c h i e v e d , y o u m u s t f i r s t g o t h r o u g h s e v e r a l stages, but i t also r e q u i r e s i m p r o v e d o r g a n i z a t i o n o n t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e scientific bases, w h i c h , as t h e P a r t y teaches us, enables us
___________________________________ 3 Reference is to the study on P l a s a carried out by a group of specialists under the guidance of the C e n t r a l Committee of the Party, a study w h i c h , as the documents show, w a s not applied because of the silent opposition of the enemy M e h m e t Shehu. (See page 568 of this volume.)

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to c a r r y out intensive f a r m i n g w i t h o u t neglecting its e x t e n s i v e aspect. I n some d i s t r i c t s , c o n c e n t r a t i o n h a s b e e n a c h i e v e d i n i n d u s t r i a l crops, f o r e x a m p l e . O f these c r o p s w e h a v e e x t e n d e d o n l y tobacco a l i t t l e m o r e w i d e l y , a n d , i n d e e d , w e g r o w i t i n some d i s t r i c t s w h e r e g o o d y i e l d s are s t i l l n o t b e i n g o b t a i n e d . T h i s comes a b o u t because t h e r e t h e tobacco i s p l a n t e d o n l a n d n o t r e a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r it, w h e r e o t h e r crops, f r o m w h i c h i t i s p o s s i b l e t o get g o o d y i e l d s , m i g h t very w e l l be planted. We deliberately took this measure f o r tobacco, because t h e r e w a s a g r e a t e r s t i m u l u s f o r t h i s crop. However, for the general economy, whether of the cooperative or the district, this was a t e m p o r a r y solution. M e a n w h i l e w e h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d c o t t o n a n d sugar-beet. Hence, the interests of socialism a n d the intensive development of our economy have led us to the concentrat i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l crops. I n t h e f u t u r e , h o w e v e r , w e m u s t c o n c e n t r a t e b r e a d g r a i n better, a n d l i k e w i s e , f o r a g e crops, f r u i t - g r o w i n g , etc. L o o k a t t h e M a l i q state f a r m , w h i c h has s e v e r a l m a i n e c o n o m i c d i r e c t i o n s s u c h a s p r o d u c t i o n o f sugar-beet, w h e a t , a n d potatoes, a n d i t also raises l i v e s t o c k , etc. T h e w h o l e p l a i n o f K o r a lies close t o t h i s enterprise. B u t should the P a r t y not consider w h a t this plain should produce so that even higher yields than h i t h e r t o are o b t a i n e d i n w h e a t , s u g a r - b e e t a n d potatoes? It was precisely for this reason that the P a r t y gave the orientations and undertook that study on the Plasa coo p e r a t i v e 8 y e a r s ago. W h a t good does t h e p u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e o f t h e P l a sa experience bring? It means that in the p l a i n of K o r a , for example, we w i l l have an important centre of the intensive development of agriculture. A n d we give it all the possibilities to stabilize the yields in all crops. F o r e x a m p l e , w e are c o n c e n t r a t i n g w i n t e r potatoes i n K o r a

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and S h i s h t a v e c . T h e o t h e r d i s t r i c t s w i l l p l a n t potatoes, too, but m a i n l y K o r a a n d S h i s h t a v e c w i l l e n s u r e s u p p l i e s o f w i n t e r potatoes f o r o u r m a r k e t , w h i l e w e a l l o c a t e the g r o w i n g o f s u m m e r potatoes t o t h e o t h e r s . I n t h i s w a y t h e s i t u a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o potatoes c a n b e r e g u l a t e d b o t h f o r the i n t e r n a l m a r k e t a n d f o r e x p o r t . W e m u s t act i n a s i m i l a r w a y f o r the o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l crops, too. L e t u s t a k e w h e a t , f o r e x a m p l e , w h i c h has great importance. The problem of where wheat-growing should b e c o n c e n t r a t e d m u s t b e s t u d i e d . L e t u s s a y w e decide to concentrate it in K o r a , L u s h n j a , Fier, D u r r s and S h k o d r a . T h e w h e a t p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h w e e x p e c t t o get f r o m those d i s t r i c t n o t o n l y m u s t b e s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n o f A l b a n i a , b u t m u s t also p r o v i d e a s u r p l u s w i t h w h i c h w e create reserves a n d h a v e some f o r export, too. T h i s does n o t m e a n that w e s h o u l d n o l o n g e r plant w h e a t o r m a i z e i n t h e m o u n t a i n s . N o , w e w i l l c o n tinue to plant t h e m there, indeed, we w i l l increase the area p l a n t e d t o these k i n d s o f g r a i n , b u t i n t h e d i s t r i c t s w h i c h I mentioned, where we are developing an ever more intensive f a r m i n g , w e w i l l p r a c t i c e t h e P l a s a s y s t e m . W e w i l l apply t h i s s y s t e m i n t h e m o u n t a i n s a n d e l s e w h e r e , too, b u t w i t h d i f f e r e n t crops. O r let u s look, f o r e x a m p l e , a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f l i v e s t o c k , r a i s i n g sheep a n d goats. T h e r e a r e sheep a n d goats e v e r y w h e r e , b u t s h o u l d w e a l l o w t h e k e e p i n g o f sheep a n d goats o n p l a i n s , l i k e t h e p l a i n o f K o r a , o n h e a v y soils w h e r e w e are g o i n g t o p l a n t w h e a t a n d m a i z e , t o use c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s a n d s u p p l y m a c h i n e r y a n d o t h e r necessary means, w h e n w e h a v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o d e v e l o p sheepand g o a t - r a i s i n g i n i n t e n s i v e a n d e x t e n s i v e w a y s i n t h e h i l l y a n d m o u n t a i n o u s zones? H o w a r e w e g o i n g t o a p p l y the d e c i s i o n o n t h e s e t t i n g u p o f l a r g e s h e e p - a n d goatraising enterprises? We have launched the idea that the f l o c k s f o r m e d f r o m t h e peasants' h o u s e h o l d sheep a n d

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goats, f o r e x a m p l e , s h o u l d n o t b e k e p t o n t h i s f e r t i l e p l a i n w h i c h we have allocated to the intensive development of m a i n crops. T h u s , w e m u s t create b i g l i v e s t o c k e n t e r p r i s e s i n t h e mountains, w h e r e the flocks f o r m e d f r o m the peasants' household livestock, w h i c h are an i m p o r t a n t part of the people's w e a l t h , c a n b e p a s t u r e d . W e h a v e n o t y e t a p p l i e d the i d e a w h i c h w a s r a i s e d i n t h e P o l i t i c a l B u r e a u o f t h e Central Committee of the P a r t y about the creation of l i v e s t o c k e n t e r p r i s e s based o n t h e P l a s a e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s w i l l provide the possibility to study w h e r e the sheep- a n d g o a t - r a i s i n g s h o u l d b e c o n c e n t r a t e d . O f course, t h i s does not mean that the collective economies of the l o w l a n d zones s h o u l d n o t k e e p sheep o r goats a t a l l . T h e p r o b l e m i s w h e r e s h o u l d w e c o n c e n t r a t e t h e r a i s i n g o f sheep a n d goats, cattle, horses a n d m u l e s ? W e s h o u l d t h i n k t h i s o u t and take measures for the development of all types of l i v e s t o c k , j u s t a s w e h a v e d o n e f o r w h e a t , sugar-beet, a n d so o n . We have managed, comrades of agriculture, to improve t h e seeds o f v a r i o u s crops, o f w h e a t , f o r e x a m p l e , a n d now, if I am not mistaken, we have hundreds of varieties o f w h e a t (today w e h a v e h u n d r e d s o f t y p e s o f h y b r i d s w h i c h w e produce ourselves, but w h i c h w e bought i n the past). A s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s p e r s i s t e n t w o r k t h a t h a s been done b y o u r p e o p l e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n w e h a v e a c h i e v e m e n t s i n m a i z e , too. C a r e f u l studies a r e r e q u i r e d f o r a l l these m a t t e r s , otherwise we can make no headway. We must w o r k w i t h great care f o r l i v e s t o c k - r a i s i n g , too. This is how we must understand and w o r k to study and apply the experience of Plasa. W h e n this question i s s t u d i e d (and y o u h a v e d o n e t h i s a n d sent i n t h e c o n clusions), t h e p l u s e s a n d m i n u s e s w i l l c e r t a i n l y b e seen. T h a t is, i t w i l l b e seen t h a t t h i s s y s t e m c a n n o t b e a p p l i e d

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if this or that crop is not r e m o v e d f r o m this economy or that d i s t r i c t . K o r a , f o r e x a m p l e , w i l l n o t g r o w t h i s o r t h a t crop, b u t those w h i c h h a v e b e e n r e m o v e d f r o m a n o t h e r district and are suitable for the conditions of K o r a w i l l be a l l o c a t e d t o it. A n d t h e state w i l l p r o v i d e i t w i t h the f a c i l i t i e s t o get h i g h y i e l d s i n those c r o p s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a l l o c a t e d t o it, b u t y o u , too, m u s t m a k e e f f o r t s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . T h u s , t h e d i s t r i c t s w i l l s u p p l e m e n t one a n o t h e r . T h e fact is that in the cooperativist system our socialist e c o n o m y i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e i s g r o w i n g s t r o n g e r a n d by means of this system the development of an even more a d v a n c e d socialist a g r i c u l t u r e i s b e i n g p r e p a r e d i n t e n s i v e ly. W h e n t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e r i p e , t h e n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f Plasa w i l l be applied on a broad front all over A l b a n i a . In the higher-type cooperatives we w i l l not proceed in the s a m e w a y a s i n t h e state f a r m s . T h e P l a s a s y s t e m must be applied in certain higher-type cooperatives i m m e d i a t e l y , or in a w h o l e d i s t r i c t , a n d n o t o v e r a p e r i o d of t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s . T h i s s y s t e m m u s t b e b u i l t u p a t once, f o r e x a m p l e , o v e r t h e w h o l e p l a i n , w h i l e t h e others w i l l still r e m a i n united cooperatives. This is h o w we have raised this question in the P o l i t i cal B u r e a u o f t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y . Theoretically, we say that development is dynamic, dialectics c a r r i e s i t f o r w a r d , b u t i t i s k n o w n t h a t n e w t h i n g s a d v a n c e w i t h d i f f i c u l t y , t h e r e f o r e , w h e n w e decide s o m e t h i n g , i f w e a r e c o n v i n c e d i t i s correct, w e m u s t l o o k a t the f u t u r e o f it, a t t h e p r o b l e m s t o w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r a c t i c e w i l l g i v e rise, w h i c h m a y p r o v e t h a t t h i s o r that solution is not suitable for the given period. We set up t h e c a t t l e - r a i s i n g e n t e r p r i s e h e r e as a s e p a rate e c o n o m y , b u t w h e n i t w a s c r e a t e d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s o f m o u n t a i n o u s v i l l a g e s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n it. T h a t is, w e m a d e all the cooperativists w o r k e r s and thought we were acting c o r r e c t l y ! W h i l e n o w , w h e n w e see t h e results, w e s a y :

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W h y d i d we do that? In order to raise this n u m b e r of cattle w i t h great success, d i d w e r e a l l y h a v e t o i n c l u d e the surrounding cooperatives in this enterprise? T h i s increases t h e cost a n d creates o t h e r p r o b l e m s f o r us. H e n c e , t h i s causes u s d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h e n , w h a t are w e t o d o a b o u t i t ? W e s h a l l accept t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d s t r u g g l e t o ensure t h a t the m o u n t a i n c o o p e r a t i v e s w e i n c l u d e d i n t h e e n t e r p r i s e g r o w apples, f o r e x a m p l e . W h y d o w e s a y t h e y should g r o w apples? Because apples g r o w w e l l here. Hence, w h a t I am getting at is that we must f i n d the most suitable forms of organization so that our w o r k a d v a n c e s . W e h a v e some e x p e r i e n c e a n d w e w i l l h a v e m o r e e x p e r i e n c e , b u t w e m u s t k n o w h o w t o a p p l y it, m u s t s t u d y the conditions t h o r o u g h l y and then t a k e decisions. F o r example, we should concentrate cattle-raising where there are a l l t h e c o n d i t i o n s a n d p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o get h i g h rates o f p r o d u c t i v i t y of meat, a n d so o n . It is important that w h e n an orientation is given, it i s e m b r a c e d , tested, a p p l i e d , a n d f o l l o w e d c a r e f u l l y , a n d t h e l e a d e r s h i p m u s t b e t o l d w i t h great courage, I stress, w i t h great courage, t h a t h e r e i t h a s a c t e d c o r r e c t l y a n d there incorrectly, here things should be changed and there they should not be changed. Then, it is our d u t y to s u m m o n y o u a n d s a y b r a v o t h a t y o u speak t o u s i n t h i s w a y , because t h i s i s w h a t i s n e e d e d , a n d t h e n , s a y t o y o u : W e h a v e these p o s s i b i l i t i e s , w e h a v e a t o t a l o f s o m a n y l e k s i n f o r e i g n c u r r e n c y , w h i l e y o u ' r e a s k i n g f o r more. O r , Y o u w a n t s o m a n y t r a c t o r s , s o m a n y f r u i t - t r e e s , etc., etc., b u t w e c a n n o t g i v e y o u s o many. T h i s i s h o w these t h i n g s s h o u l d b e discussed, a n d n o t r e j e c t i n g a n y s u g g e s t i o n b y saying, Oh, the matter has been decided, so n o t h i n g can be changed. I n m y speech ( 4 ) a t t h e 3 t h P l e n u m I p o i n t e d o u t t h a t
____________________________________ 4 See E n v e r H o x h a , Selected W o r k s , v o l . 5, 8 N n t o r i P u b l i s h i n g House, T i r a n a 1985, p. 1006, E n g . ed.

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the p l a n i s t h e p l a n a n d w e m u s t a p p l y it, b u t i t s h o u l d not b e d o g m a t i c , a n d w h e n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e a c h a n g e i n it, t h e n t h i s s h o u l d b e done. F o r example, w h e n a difficult situation is created, we b r i n g out a s t r i c t l a w f o r a g i v e n q u e s t i o n . L a t e r we see that t h e s i t u a t i o n changes, i m p r o v e s , a n d t h e n t h e l a w can b e a n n u l l e d , because e v e n i f i t i s n o t a n n u l l e d i t has no j u r i d i c a l relations to regulate, and so is no longer applied. I n c o n c l u s i o n . I w a n t t o stress t h a t w e m u s t l o o k a t these p r o b l e m s , n o t o n l y i n a g r i c u l t u r e , b u t a l l p r o b l e m s , w i t h a p o l i t i c a l eye. T h e c o m m u n i s t s , i n t h e f i r s t place, and all our w o r k i n g people must be realists. O u r P a r t y is strong, its u n i t y i s l i k e steel, t h e p a t r i o t i s m o f t h e masses i s great. W e h a v e m a d e progress, b u t w e also h a v e difficulties, indeed, even greater difficulties m a y be created f o r us. W e m u s t n e v e r f o r g e t t h i s .

Reports and Speeches 1980-1981

ONLY IN STRUGGLE CAN THE MARXIST-LENINIST PARTIES BE STRENGTHENED AND TEMPERED AND GAIN CAPABILITY
From the conversation with Joao Amazonas, First Secretary of the CC of the Communist Party of Brazil
July 25, 1980

W e r e j o i c e t o see y o u i n A l b a n i a a g a i n , C o m r a d e A m a z o n a s . A s f i g h t e r s i n t h e c o m m o n cause w e are a l w a y s pleased t o h a v e y o u a m o n g us. W h e n w e meet w e e x c h a n g e o p i n i o n s a b o u t the s i t u a t i o n i n o u r o w n o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s a n d b e n e f i t f r o m each other's e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r b o t h sides. W e are v e r y pleased t h a t t h i s t i m e y o u h a v e c o m e t o K o r a and Pogradec, a part of A l b a n i a y o u h a d not visited before. I believe that y o u l i k e K o r a , w h i l e y o u still have not seen P o g r a d e c p r o p e r l y , b u t y o u o u g h t t o s t a y h e r e f o r a d a y o r t w o a n d h a v e a good l o o k a r o u n d . T h e t o w n h a s a beach, h o l i d a y hostels f o r w o r k e r s a n d o t h e r w o r k i n g people, a s w e l l a s c h i l d r e n ' s c a m p s . P e o p l e f r o m a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y come h e r e t o s p e n d t h e i r h o l i d a y s . T h e beach a t D u r r s i s f i n e f o r t h e y o u n g f o l k , because t h e y l i k e t o s w i m a n d s u n b a t h e o n t h e s a n d . I t gets h o t there, w h i l e f o r e l d e r l y f o l k l i k e u s i t i s b e t t e r here, because t h e w e a t h e r is cooler. P o g r a d e c is a pleasant place, a l t h o u g h it is s m a l l .

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A l b a n i a is a small country, Comrade Amazonas. Speaki n g o f its size, l e t m e t e l l y o u a n episode f r o m t h e t i m e o f the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r . I r e m e m b e r a s c l e a r l y a s i f i t w a s t o d a y h o w once a c o m r a d e , a f t e r h e h a d t r a v e l l e d o n f o o t f r o m one zone t o t h e o t h e r a n d t r a v e r s e d m o u n t a i n range a f t e r m o u n t a i n r a n g e , s a i d t o m e : M y w o r d , C o m r a d e E n v e r , t h i s A l b a n i a o f o u r s i s a b i g place, i t i s n o t n e a r l y a s s m a l l a s i t i s o n t h e m a p . N o , no, A l b a n i a i s v e r y big!

COMRADE JOAO AMAZONAS: Well, Comrade Enver, w e s a y t h a t A l b a n i a i s b i g , because o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l t a s k s i t a c c o m p l i s h e s . I n t h i s sense w e m a y s a y t h a t i t i s t h e biggest c o u n t r y i n t h e w o r l d . COMRADE ENVER HOXHA: T h e great ideology of M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m g i v e s o u r c o u n t r y its i m p o r t a n c e . B y a p p l y i n g i t f a i t h f u l l y a n d c o r r e c t l y m a n y successes a n d t h e happy days we enjoy have been achieved in A l b a n i a . N a t u r a l l y , w e also h a v e s h o r t c o m i n g s w h i c h w e are c o m bating a n d t r y i n g to eliminate. In our experience the other M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t c o m m u n i s t s see t h e great f o r c e of o u r common doctrine. COMRADE JOAO AMAZONAS: Is the town an old one? COMRADE ENVER HOXHA: Before Liberation Pogradec w a s v e r y small, but n o w it has expanded. It is an ancient settlement. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l discoveries have p r o v e d that this place w a s inhabited by the Illyrians. There is a small m u s e u m here w i t h exhibits f r o m the I l l y r i a n tribe, the E n c h e l e a n s . I n K o r a , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w e h a v e set up the M u s e u m of A l b a n i a n Mediaeval A r t .
In the M i d d l e Ages our country had painters and b u i l d e r s w h o w o r k e d n o t o n l y h e r e , b u t also i n G r e e c e . T u r k e y a n d other countries of Europe. A n u m b e r of mosques in T u r k e y , l i k e the B l u e M o s q u e and t w o or t h r e e others, w e r e d e s i g n e d b y A l b a n i a n a r c h i t e c t s i n t h e 16th a n d 17th c e n t u r i e s .

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In A l b a n i a there are a n u m b e r of B y z a n t i n e churches w h i c h w e p r e s e r v e . O n e o f t h e m i s f o u n d i n a v i l l a g e of. the G j i r o k a s t r a district w h e r e I was b o r n . It is said to h a v e been b u i l t a t t h e s a m e t i m e a s t h e c h u r c h o f S t . Sophia in Constantinople. The m a n w h o w o r k e d on b u i l d i n g the c h u r c h o f S t . S o p h i a also w o r k e d o n t h i s c h u r c h , w h i c h has the i d e n t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , b u t is a m i n i a t u r e of the c h u r c h i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . The painting of Onufri, for example, w h i c h y o u must h a v e seen y e s t e r d a y i n t h e m u s e u m o f K o r a , has b e e n very highly praised even in Paris. A l t h o u g h it is of the B y z a n t i n e p e r i o d , i t does n o t h a v e a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f B y z a n t i n e p a i n t i n g . I t has h u m a n f o r m s o f r e a l people. H i s p a i n t i n g i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y its b e a u t i f u l c o l o u r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r e d . O n u f r i also p a i n t e d b e a u t i f u l f r e s coes w h i c h are f o u n d i n t h e c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n t h e h i g h l a n d of the Elbasan district. W e are t r y i n g t o c o n c e n t r a t e a n d p r e s e r v e i n m u s e u m s these c u l t u r a l w o r k s , these icons, a s w e c a l l t h e m . W o r k s o f art are v a l u a b l e t o s o c i a l i s m . T h e p e o p l e h a v e h a n d e d o v e r m a n y icons, b u t t h e r e are o t h e r s w h i c h w e h a v e n o t yet g a t h e r e d u p . A l o t o f w o r k i s b e i n g d o n e i n o u r country to preserve them. However, this is not all that effective, because w e s t i l l d o n o t h a v e t h e p r o p e r t e c h nical-scientific means to preserve t h e m properly and to protect t h e m f r o m the ravages of time and weather. As I h a v e r e a d , e v e n L e o n a r d o D a V i n c i ' s f a m o u s fresco, T h e L a s t S u p p e r , has b e g u n t o s h o w s i n g s o f d a m a g e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e a l a r m h a s b e e n s o u n d e d f o r its r e s t o r a t i o n . T h e r e are b e a u t i f u l i c o n s i n t h e c h u r c h o f V o s k o p o j a . V o s k o p o j a n o w i s a v i l l a g e , b u t i n t h e 18th c e n t u r y i t was a flourishing town. At that time there was a higher s c h o o l t h e r e t o w h i c h s t u d e n t s came f r o m G r e e c e t o p u r s u e t h e i r studies. S o m e w e n t t h e r e t o b e c o m e priests. L e a r n e d people h a v e e m e r g e d f r o m V o s k o p o j a . O n e o f t h e m w a s

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a capable c h u r c h l i b r a r i a n of the H o l y M o u n t a i n near S a l o n i k a in Greece, w h i c h is called Athos. T h e p r o m o n t o r y w h e r e these c h u r c h e s a n d m o n a s t e r i e s h a v e b e e n b u i l t (most o f t h e m b y t h e R u s s i a n t z a r s a n d t h e P a t r i a r c a t e o f Istanbul) has the f o r m of the five fingers of the h a n d . W o m e n are not permitted to enter there. B u t whoever v i s i t s i t i s s t r u c k b y m a n y a n c i e n t objects a n d a r t i s t i c a l l y f i n e b u i l d i n g s . T h e r e i s also a l i b r a r y . A s I s a i d , t h e librarian was an A l b a n i a n from Voskopoja, a very learned man. W h e n Petersburg was built, the tzar of Russia, Peter the G r e a t , s u m m o n e d t h i s m a n t o o r g a n i z e h i s l i b r a r y f o r h i m . He w e n t there, but died before he had finished the j o b . H i s g r a v e c a n b e seen t h e r e t o t h i s d a y . T h e i n s c r i p t i o n o n h i s t o m b s t o n e says h e i s a n A l b a n i a n . So, s i n c e t h a t time Voskopoja had learned men. N o w there is a very old church left in that village w h i c h we are preserving, in w h i c h t h e r e i s a v e r y b e a u t i f u l iconostasis. M u s e u m s are e x c e p t i o n a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e e d u c a tion of the people. In A l b a n i a they have been created and enriched o n l y since the L i b e r a t i o n of the country. Before L i b e r a t i o n archaeological research was done only in t w o places, a t P o j a n o f F i e r a n d B u t r i n t o f S a r a n d a . T h e F r e n c h w e r e t h e f i r s t t o s t a r t t h e w o r k a t these t w o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l centres, a n d t h e n t h e I t a l i a n s c o n t i n u e d i t . T h e I t a l i a n s stole m o s t o f t h e objects t h e y d i s c o v e r e d , w h i l e the F r e n c h d i d not steal so m a n y as they. W i t h w h a t r e m a i n e d a s m a l l m u s e u m w a s set u p i n V l o r a . W h e n fascist Italy i n v a d e d our country, a m o n g other things, the Italians b o m b a r d e d this m u s e u m . T h e F r e n c h p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h i s a c t i o n i n t h e n e w s p a p e r Figaro. A f t e r t h e L i b e r a t i o n o f the c o u n t r y , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research developed not only in the direction of discovering objects o f t h e a n c i e n t R o m a n a n d H e l l e n i c c u l t u r e s , b u t especially in the direction of the culture of the Illyrians, w h o are o u r ancestors. M a n y v a l u a b l e t h i n g s , vases a n d

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c e r a m i c objects, coins, v a r i o u s o r n a m e n t s , statues, etc., h a v e been found in the t u m u l a r graves excavated. T o d a y our archaeological museums have been filled w i t h m a n y objects a n d d o c u m e n t s . A p a r t f r o m a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m u seums, t o d a y w e also h a v e e t h n o g r a p h i c m u s e u m s , w h i c h h a v e been set u p e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e b i g cities. N o w e a c h c i t y i s t r y i n g t o create its o w n e t h n o g r a p h i c m u s e u m . H i s t o r i c a l m u s e u m s , too, h a v e b e e n set u p i n A l b a n i a i n towns and villages. F o r centuries on end our w h o l e c o u n t r y was at w a r i n defence o f n a t i o n a l f r e e d o m , a n d s o e v e n o u r s m a l l e s t v i l l a g e has its o w n h i s t o r y . T h e P a r t y has i s s u e d t h e d i r e c tive that the historical records of all the villages, f r o m t h e most a n c i e n t t i m e s w h e n facts a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r this, m u s t b e w r i t t e n u p . N o w these h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n a n d are b e i n g e n r i c h e d w i t h r e c o r d s a n d m a t e r i a l , i n c l u d i n g e v e n f i r e tongs, w o o d e n cups a n d spoons, a n d so on. Likewise, i n f o r m a t i o n about historical figures of v i l l a g e s has b e e n c o l l e c t e d , t h e i r b i o g r a p h i e s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n a n d t h e y a r e b e i n g e n r i c h e d w i t h a n y sources o r m a t e r i a l object s u c h a s a n a r t i c l e o f c l o t h i n g , a p h o t o g r a p h , etc. A p a r t f r o m t h e h i s t o r y o f the A l b a n i a n people's w a r s , the m a i n m u s e u m s o f o u r c o u n t r y also r e f l e c t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e n a i s s a n c e , t h a t is, t h e s t r u g g l e w h i c h o u r t h i n k e r s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , h i s t o r i a n s , scientists, a n d o t h e r s waged in other countries. N o w w e are also s e t t i n g u p s p e c i a l i z e d m u s e u m s , f o r example, that of K r u j a , the former capital of A l b a n i a in the time of Skanderbeg, w h i c h w i l l be dedicated solely to the life of our National Hero. W h a t sort o f r e c o r d s a n d objects h a v e w e a b o u t S k a n d e r b e g that we can place in this m u s e u m ? We don't h a v e a great d e a l , a l t h o u g h w e h a v e s o m e d o c u m e n t s w r i t t e n a s e a r l y a s t h e 15th c e n t u r y b y p r i n c e s a n d o t h e r

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rulers and by merchants of Rome, Venice and the Slavonic countries, by great composers w h o have w r i t t e n musical w o r k s , a n d b y poets a n d d r a m a t i s t s w h o h a v e w r i t t e n beautiful poems and dramas about the life and wars of this h e r o a g a i n s t t h e T u r k s . A l l t h e m a t e r i a l d o c u m e n t s t h a t w e possess a b o u t h i m w i l l be reflected in this museum. A l r e a d y our painters have begun w o r k to acquaint themselves in detail w i t h Skanderbeg's battles in order to present t h e m later in paintings. T h e m o s t c o m p l e t e h i s t o r y o f a l l h i s battles w a s written b y a n A l b a n i a n w r i t e r called M a r i n Barleti. ( 1 ) U p t i l l n o w t h i s i s t h e m o s t p r e c i s e h i s t o r y , t h e basis o f the history of the life and the protracted heroic wars of Gjergj Kastrioti. This, Comrade Amazonas, is how we have worked on t h e q u e s t i o n of m u s e u m s w h i c h , as I said, p l a y an e x ceptional educational role. In every country of the w o r l d these i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e f r e q u e n t e d b y m a n y people. B u t o u r a i m i s t h a t b y m e a n s o f t h e m o u r w o r k i n g people, a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e y o u t h , s h o u l d b e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e past, not o n l y w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c a l past, b u t also w i t h t h e m i s e r able e c o n o m i c past o f o u r p e o p l e d u r i n g t h e centuries. T o d a y , f o r e x a m p l e , w e see t h e p l a i n s o f o u r c o u n t r y s y s t e m a t i z e d , p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t floods, d r a i n e d w i t h i r r i g a tion canals and beautifully tended, but we older folk who l i v e d b e f o r e L i b e r a t i o n k n o w t h a t t h e y w e r e not l i k e t h i s at that time. L e t m e t e l l y o u a t r u e s t o r y a b o u t this, C o m r a d e A m a z o n a s . A r e s i d e n t of these parts, a b o u t 50 y e a r s ago, w h e n h e w a s a b o u t 2 0 y e a r s o l d , h a d gone t o t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a a s a n e c o n o m i c e m i g r a n t a n d h a d left M a l i q a s w a m p . W h e n he returned to the H o m e l a n d , not
__________________________________ 1 M a r i n B a r l e t i , 1460-1513. He w r o t e the w o r k , T h e History of the L i f e a n d Deeds of Skanderbeg, published in 1508-1510.

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l o n g ago, h e w a s a b o u t 7 0 y e a r s o f age. H i s s o n m e t h i m a t D u r r s a n d t h e y set out t o g e t h e r f o r K o r a . O n t h e w a y h i s son t o l d h i m a b o u t t h e great changes w h i c h h a d b e e n made d u r i n g the t i m e of the P a r t y and t i m e after t i m e a s k e d his f a t h e r w h e t h e r h e u n d e r s t o o d . Yes, I u n d e r s t a n d you, h i s f a t h e r r e p l i e d . Nevertheless, w h e n they were passing t h r o u g h M a l i q the father asked: Where is the M a l i q swamp? I t o l d you, h i s son s a i d , we h a v e d r a i n e d it. But where was it? insisted his father. R i g h t here, e x p l a i n e d h i s son, this p l a i n w e a r e passing through was the M a l i q swamp. A t these m o m e n t s , a s t h e y w e r e t a l k i n g , t h e f i r s t s e c r e t a r y o f t h e P a r t y C o m m i t t e e o f t h e d i s t r i c t w a s passi n g t h r o u g h the plain. The son stopped the car and pointed h i m out t o h i s f a t h e r . That m a n is the first secretary of the P a r t y C o m m i t tee. A h . . . , s a i d h i s f a t h e r , that m e a n s h e i s t h e o w n e r of t h i s p l a i n . No, r e p l i e d h i s son, t o d a y the p l a i n i s t h e p r o p e r t y of t h e w h o l e people. So, t h i s A l b a n i a n w h o r e t u r n e d t o t h e H o m e l a n d w a s q u i t e u n a b l e t o see a l l t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h h a d o c c u r r e d , a l t h o u g h he r e p e a t e d l y s a i d I u n d e r s t a n d y o u , I u n d e r s t a n d you, t o h i s s o n o n t h e j o u r n e y . T h e w o r k s w h i c h w e place i n m u s e u m s are w o r k s o f a r t w h i c h t h e people h a v e p r e s e r v e d a n d h a v e v a l u e d r a t h e r t h a n w o r k s o f r e l i g i o u s belief. I n r e g a r d t o t h i s I w i l l t e l l y o u t h e h i s t o r y o f a cross, w h i c h i s p r o o f n o t o n l y o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , b u t also o f t h e f a c t t h a t r e l i g i o u s s t r i f e has n o t e x i s t e d i n o u r c o u n t r y i n those f o r m s w h i c h are k n o w n i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . M o r e o v e r , i n o u r c o u n t r y the followers of the M o s l e m religion have not been in

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c o n f l i c t w i t h those o f the O r t h o d o x r e l i g i o n . I n t h e c h u r c h w h i c h I m e n t i o n e d t h e r e is a v e r y o l d cross s a i d to date f r o m t h e 14th c e n t u r y . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1913-1916 G j i r o kastra was occupied by the G r e e k s w h o , amongst other t h i n g s , stole t h i s cross a n d t o o k i t t o A t h e n s . H o w e v e r , t h e whole population of G j i r o k a s t r a , not only the Christians, b u t also t h e M o s l e m s , arose a g a i n s t t h i s act. A d e l e g a t i o n , w h i c h included Moslems as w e l l , went to A t h e n s especially t o d e m a n d t h e r e t u r n o f t h e cross. T h o s e w h o m a d e u p t h e d e l e g a t i o n s a i d t o t h e G r e e k s : T h e cross i s t h e p r o perty of our country, therefore it must be returned to t h e c h u r c h i t belongs. A n d i n the e n d t h a t i s w h a t h a p p e n e d . T h e G r e e k s r e t u r n e d t h e cross t o t h e people o f Gjirokastra. While, w h e n Khrushchev visited a museum d u r i n g his stay in our country, (2) he said to us: What good are these lifeless t h i n g s to y o u ? O r a n g e s , t o b a c c o . . . are w h a t w e need!I n fact, o u r p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l h a v e n o t b e e n great b e l i e v e r s . E v e n t h e p r o p h e t M o h a m m e d assisted u s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . W h y a n d h o w ? B e c a u s e i n one o f t h e versets o f the K o r a n it is said that the Moslems should hear the s a c r e d b o o k o f t h e i r f a i t h o n l y i n A r a b i c . T h a t is, h e s a i d the K o r a n s h o u l d n o t b e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . Therefore, the A l b a n i a n Moslems could not understand this b o o k a t a l l , because i t c o u l d b e r e a d o n l y i n A r a b i c . T h e c h u r c h , too, a c t e d i n t h e s a m e w a y a t f i r s t , a l t h o u g h later the N e w Testament w a s translated, but this d i d not occur w i t h t h e K o r a n . T h e M o s l e m c l e r g y i n A l b a n i a w e r e w i t h o u t schooling, w h i l e the Catholic priests h a d schooling, indeed higher schooling. D e s p i t e t h e successes w h i c h w e h a v e i n e l i m i n a t i n g the religious influences, the P a r t y still continues to wage a s k i l l f u l a n d i n t e l l i g e n t p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e against r e l i g i o u s
___________________________________ 2 M a y 1959.

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r e m n a n t s a n d customs. H o w e v e r m u c h t h e y h a v e b e e n w e a k e n e d , w e c a n n o t say t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the c o u n t r y s i d e , w h i c h h a s b e e n more conservative and b a c k w a r d t h a n the city. Likewise, w e c a n n o t say that, i f w e f o r g e t t h e m , those r e m n a n t s w o u l d not revive. R e c e n t l y , C o m r a d e A m a z o n a s , w e h a v e lost t w o o u t standing comrades, H y s n i K a p o a n d A r r u d a C a m a r a , t w o great M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t s . T h e d e a t h o f C o m r a d e H y s n i w a s a great loss t o o u r P a r t y , b u t t h e d e a t h o f C o m r a d e A r r u d a also w a s a g r i e f b o t h f o r y o u a n d f o r us. W h e n t h e y l e a r n e d o f h i s d e a t h , a l l o u r c o m r a d e s w e r e v e r y g r i e v e d because they k n e w h i m .

Comrade Joao Amazonas spoke about the circumstances of Arruda Camara's death and the question of party cadres, and expressed his appreciation of the works Imperialism and the Revolution and Eurocommunism Is Anti-Communism, then Comrade Enver Hoxha again took up the conversation:
A s y o u h a v e seen, w e h a v e t r i e d t o p r e s e n t t h e ideas in the book

Eurocommunism

Is

Anti-Communism

simply

s o t h a t t h e masses o f o r d i n a r y p e o p l e c a n r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e m . T h a t is, s o t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h w e d e a l t w i t h there are understood not only by those w h o have M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t c u l t u r e , b u t also b y o r d i n a r y w o r k e r s . T h e a i m of the analysis w h i c h we have m a d e on the basis of documents w h i c h we have used in this book is to prove that A m e r i c a n imperialism is the inspirer of m o d e r n r e visionism through the corruption of communist parties. We have arrived at Party this has conclusion about by beginning w i t h the before question of B r o w d e r . Our spoken Browder even

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this, but in this book his position had to be dealt w i t h m o r e e x t e n s i v e l y , because h e w a s t h e f i r s t w h o p r e a c h e d the l i q u i d a t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i s t p a r t i e s a n d d e c l a r e d t h a t c o m m u n i s m i s t h e A m e r i c a n i s m o f t h e 20th century. He claimed that after the Second W o r l d W a r the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a w o u l d assist a l l t h e c o u n t r i e s d a m a g e d and devastated by the w a r . In other words, B r o w d e r was the s p o k e s m a n f o r t h e c a p i t a l i s t d e g e n e r a t i o n o f c o m m u n i s t parties. In order to present the most complete picture of his p o s i t i o n w e u t i l i z e d a l l t h e d o c u m e n t s i n o u r possession. N a t u r a l l y , w e also h a d i n m i n d t h e q u e s t i o n o f C h i n a . F o r t h i s , too, w e d e l v e d i n t o t h e d o c u m e n t s o f t h e A m e r icans a n d t h e speeches o f M a o a n d Z h o u E n l a i . A n d i t emerged that d u r i n g the w h o l e period of the w a r they, t h a t is, t h e C h i n e s e l e a d e r s h e a d e d b y M a o Z e d o n g , h a d h a d close c o n t a c t w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n m i l i t a r y a n d d i p l o m atic m i s s i o n s a t t a c h e d t o C h i a n g K a i - S h e k . F a c t s a n d documents have been discovered w h i c h show that as early a s a t t h a t t i m e , w h e n t h e y w e r e f i g h t i n g against J a p a n and C h i a n g K a i - S h e k , the Chinese leaders were pro the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a , w h i l e they m a i n t a i n e d a stand not t o t a l l y h o s t i l e t o t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . I n those d o c u m e n t s we learn that the C h i a n g K a i - S h e k lobby in the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a w a s s t r o n g e r a n d t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e w a s not c o n v i n c e d t h a t M a o should; b e assisted, b u t h a d h o p e s t h a t C h i a n g K a i - S h e k w o u l d liquidate h i m . F r o m these d o c u m e n t s , t h e a c t i v i t y i n C h i n a o f E d g a r S n o w , w h o w a s a n agent o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f State, also emerges c l e a r l y . E d g a r S n o w r e m a i n e d i n M a o Z e d o n g ' s headquarters and was i n f o r m e d about the internal activity of the P o l i t i c a l B u r e a u of the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of C h i n a . T h e t h i n g s h e has s a i d a b o u t Z h o u E n l a i ' s requests a d d r e s s e d t o t h e A m e r i c a n s are facts. A l l that we have said about this question in the book

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Reflections on China, is n o w b e i n g c o n f i r m e d . W h i l e we w e r e already convinced about the links, first, of the T i t o i t e s a n d t h e n , the K h r u s h c h e v i t e s , w h o w e r e i n p o w e r , w i t h the A m e r i c a n imperialists. T h r o u g h the analysis of B r o w d e r i s m , Titoism, K h r u s h c h e v i s m , M a o i s m a n d E u r o c o m m u n i s m i n t h i s b o o k w e see the unbroken thread of the whole strategy of A m e r i c a n imperialism and w o r l d capitalism for the degeneration of communist parties into revisionist parties. One of the ideas o f t h i s book, b a s e d o n d o c u m e n t s , p r o v e s t h a t t h e r e v i s i o n i s t p a r t i e s are renegades f r o m M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m a n d agencies o f w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m . I n t h i s b o o k w e h a v e dealt m o r e e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e events i n t h e r e v i s i o n i s t p a r t i e s o f I t a l y , F r a n c e a n d S p a i n , because o u r o b j e c t i v e w a s t o expose E u r o c o m m u n i s m . O f course, o u r P a r t y has d o n e t h i s previously, but now their anti-Marxist, counter-revolut i o n a r y stands a n d a c t i v i t i e s h a d t o b e s u m m e d u p s o m e w h a t more clearly, by analysing the w h o l e development o f t h e i r d e g e n e r a t i o n . So, t h e p r o b l e m w a s t o d e f i n e t h e m a i n phases o f t h e i r d e g e n e r a t i o n , h o w i t c a m e a b o u t a n d h o w i t d e v e l o p e d u p t o t h e p r e s e n t stage, w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e , also, p o i n t i n g o u t r e a l i s t i c a l l y t h e p o s i t i v e aspects o f c e r t a i n m o m e n t s o f the I t a l i a n p a r t y , t h e F r e n c h party or the old Spanish party w h i c h fought against Franco.
T h e present t a c t i c o f t h e S o v i e t r e v i s i o n i s t s i s t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e stands o f o u r M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t P a r t y a g a inst M a o Z e d o n g t h o u g h t . T h r o u g h t h i s t a c t i c t h e y a i m to d r a w us into their orbit, but neither y o u r p a r t y nor o u r s f a l l s r e a d i l y i n t o t h e i r t r a p s . O f course, t h e r e are p e o p l e i n the w o r l d w h o d o n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e tactics o f the Soviets. A n o t h e r a i m o f t h e S o v i e t t a c t i c s i s t o s p l i t t h e socalled Eurocommunist group, w h i c h cannot have u n i t y because each o f t h e r e v i s i o n i s t p a r t i e s w h i c h c o m p r i s e i t

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is in the service and, in general, follows the strategy of the b o u r g e o i s i e i n i t s o w n c o u n t r y . T h u s , t h e I t a l i a n r e visionist party is in friendship w i t h C h i n a and, up to a point, i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . W e see t h i s t a c t i c o f t h e S o v i e t r e v i s i o n i s t s b e i n g followed, for example, towards the F r e n c h revisionist party. T h i s has made Marchais's revisionist party to adopt a s t a n d w h i c h at p r e s e n t is o p p o s e d to t h e E u r o c o m m u n i s t stand of the Italian a n d S p a n i s h revisionist parties. M a r c h a i s i s n o t a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n i n r e g a r d t o the aggression i t has c o m m i t t e d i n A f g h a n i s t a n . I n d e e d , i t m u s t b e s a i d t h a t h e has b e g u n t o m o v e close t o t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , n o t o n l y o n t h i s q u e s t i o n , b u t also o n o t h e r q u e s tions. I t i s o u r d u t y t o b e v e r y v i g i l a n t , because t h e S o v i e t s still have political and economic influence. The Soviet U n i o n uses m i l i t a r y b l a c k m a i l a n d , i f w e j u d g e t h e s i t u a t i o n c o r r e c t l y , w e see t h a t a t present, f i n d i n g itself i n face o f m a n y e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l defeats, i t i s b e c o m i n g e v e r m o r e a g g r e s s i v e a n d i s u s i n g n o t o n l y its a r r o g a n c e as a b i g i m p e r i a l i s t state, b u t also w e a p o n s and aggression. Therefore, w i t h o u t i n a n y w a y t o n i n g d o w n the struggle against A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s m , we must step u p t h e s t r u g g l e against S o v i e t s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s m , too, because m i l i t a r i l y i t i s v e r y s t r o n g , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e fact t h a t i t h a s b e e n a n d i s b e i n g d i s c r e d i t e d p o l i t i c a l l y a n d i d e o l o g i c a l l y . O n t h e one h a n d , t h e S o v i e t s act l i k e capitalists, l i k e i m p e r i a l i s t s a n d c h a u v i n i s t s , w h i l e , o n the o t h e r h a n d , t h e y p r o c l a i m t h e m s e l v e s L e n i n i s t s . T h e y are t r y i n g t o j u s t i f y t h e i r a g g r e s s i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n a s b e i n g d o n e to d e f e n d t h e r e v o l u t i o n there. T h e S o v i e t social-imperialists' demagogy to present themselves as L e n i n i s t s a n d t h e i r r e f e r r i n g t o t h e past o f t h e i r c o u n t r y can a n d does h a v e a n i n f l u e n c e , n o t o n l y o n c o m m u n i s t s w h o are n o t t e m p e r e d i d e o l o g i c a l l y i n s t r u g g l e a n d battles,

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b u t also o n m a n y o t h e r people w h o a r e a f r a i d o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y struggle and w a n t to go d o w n in history as c o m m u n i s t s , of course, as o r a n g e - c o l o u r e d c o m m u n i s t s , a c cording to Aragon's stand-point. I have mentioned this in m y book. W h e n i t i s o n l y a m a t t e r o f t a l k i n g , these elements s a y : W e are c o m m u n i s t s , w h i l e w h e n i t comes t o p u t t i n g u p resistance t h e y r e t r e a t . T h e S o v i e t s a r e t r y i n g t o use t h e s i t u a t i o n t o t h e i r advantage. B u t without overestimating the strength of our M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t parties, we t h i n k that the Soviet revisionists realize clearly that M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m is an i n v i n c i b l e force. Today or t o m o r r o w this force w i l l become a great a v a l a n c h e . E v e n t h o u g h t h e y h a v e b e t r a y e d M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , t h e y k n o w its f o r c e a n d c a n n e v e r t h i n k t h a t t h i s great r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g y has b e e n w i p e d out o r has g r o w n w e a k w i t h age a s i s c l a i m e d b y t h e E u r o c o m munists and m a n y other revisionists w h o attack L e n i n , because h e i s t h e a r c h i t e c t o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n , w h i l e a l l e g e d l y t h e y s p a r e M a r x . I n r e a l i t y t h e y a r e against M a r x , too, because i t w a s h e w h o l a i d t h e basis f o r t h e c o m p l e t e o v e r throw of capitalism. H e n c e , t h e S o v i e t r e v i s i o n i s t s k n o w t h i s great f o r c e o f t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t i d e o l o g y . T h e y k n o w also t h a t a n y r e v o l u t i o n a r y m o v e m e n t against c a p i t a l i s m assists t h e forces o f t h e w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g f r o m this, t h e y r e a l i z e t h a t i f t h e y d o n o t act a g a i n s t t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t parties, t h e y w i l l become b i g a n d p o w e r f u l t o m o r r o w , a l t h o u g h t h e y are s m a l l t o d a y , because a l l t h e peoples struggle f o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n . T h e S o v i e t r e v i s i o n i s t s k n o w t h a t the s u b j e c t i v e factor, t h a t is, t h e p a r t i e s w h i c h s t a n d i n the p o s i t i o n s o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , w i l l c h a n n e l t h e g a t h e r i n g d i s c o n t e n t a n d i n d i g n a t i o n o f t h e peoples a g a inst A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s m a n d Soviet social-imperialism. Previously, w h e n M a o Zedong thought had not yet been o p e n l y e x p o s e d b y o u r p a r t i e s , t h e s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s t s

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a n d i m p e r i a l i s t s w e r e r a t h e r t r a n q u i l , because t h e y t h o u g h t that this revisionist current w a s w o r k i n g w i t h i n us l i k e a w o r m i n a n a p p l e . N o w , a f t e r o u r e x p o s u r e o f it, w e see t h a t t h e y h a v e i n c r e a s e d t h e i r a t t a c k s u p o n us. B u t h o w a r e they attacking us? In the w a y that Prestes and other f a c t i o n a l i s t s do. W e a r e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e f a c t i o n a l s t r u g g l e i n c i t e d b y c a p i t a l i s m a n d r e a c t i o n , a n d n o w also b y m o d e m r e v i s i o n i s m . O u r c l a s h w i t h these v a r i o u s retrogressive currents is unavoidable, but n o w both we a n d y o u w h o h a v e passed a l l these tests are m u c h b e t t e r a r m e d a g a i n s t t h e strategies a n d t a c t i c s o f o u r enemies. This m a k e s us better able to discern their aims a n d the f o r m s o f s t r u g g l e w h i c h t h e y use. W e , too, m u s t b u i l d a n d in fact we are concretely b u i l d i n g the forms of our struggle a g a i n s t t h e m . O f course, o u r s t r u g g l e i s n o t a n d w i l l not be easy. W e u n d e r s t a n d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e sister p a r t i e s i n t h e s t r u g g l e . W e , too, l i b e r a t e d o u r c o u n t r y t h r o u g h struggle. Nevertheless, we are and must be continuously i n s t r u g g l e , a t e v e r y m o m e n t , w h i l e w e m u s t also k n o w h o w t o use d i p l o m a c y , w h i l e a d h e r i n g t o o u r p r i n c i p l e s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e w e m u s t also b e v i g i l a n t b o t h i n s i d e a n d outside t h e c o u n t r y , because, a l t h o u g h t h e i m p e r i a l i s t s , s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s t s a n d r e v i s i o n i s t s s m i l e a t us, t h e y h a v e t h e i r d a g g e r s r e a d y t o stab u s i n t h e b a c k . So, C o m r a d e Amazonas, we have difficulties, but we w i l l b e a b l e t o cope w i t h t h e m , because w e k n o w t h a t w e are o n t h e r i g h t r o a d a n d w e a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e peoples u n d e r s t a n d us. F r o m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w e h a v e r e c e i v e d a b o u t t h e b o o k s w h i c h o u r P a r t y has p u b l i s h e d , it turns out that even progressive bourgeois elements f i n d i n t h e m a n a l y s e s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s o f interest, w h i l e others w h o are, y o u m i g h t say, c o m m u n i s t s y m p a t h i z e r s t e l l u s that n o w they understand clearly w h a t the Soviet U n i o n a n d C h i n a a r e a n d w h a t t h e y are d o i n g i n E t h i o p i a , A l -

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geria, S o m a l i a and elsewhere. T h e question arises: W h y d o t h e y t e l l u s these t h i n g s ? B e c a u s e i n o u r b o o k s t h e y f i n d explanations for questions w h i c h they w e r e unable to understand o r e x p l a i n before. O n l y M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m c a n e x p l a i n a n d m a k e these t h i n g s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o a l l . T h a t i s w h y w e are c o n f i d e n t t h a t w e w i l l o v e r c o m e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h e v i c t o r y , o f course, i s n o t a c h i e v e d i m mediately. B u t in this w a y , through struggle against i m perialism, revisionism and factionalism gradually our avalanche w i l l be formed and build up. O n l y in struggle can the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t parties be strengthened and t e m p e r e d a n d g a i n c a p a b i l i t y t o d o v e r y great t h i n g s . The Soviet revisionists say they are s t r i v i n g for general disarmament, but in reality they are continuing to a r m themselves. T h e facts show that the situation w i t h i n the organization of the W a r s a w Treaty and that of Comec o n i s n o t a l l t h a t p e a c e f u l , let a l o n e m o n o l i t h i c . T h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s are p r o p p e d u p o n l y t h a n k s t o the a r m e d might of the Soviet U n i o n . In all the W a r s a w T r e a t y c o u n t r i e s t h e r e h a v e b e e n s t r i k e s a s b i g a s those i n t h e c a p italist countries. There have been such strikes in P o l a n d , for i n s t a n c e . E v e n B u l g a r i a h a s its o b j e c t i o n s w i t h i n C o m e c o n . In appearance the B u l g a r i a n revisionist leadership is w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , i n d e e d , i s its m o s t s e r v i l e l a c k e y , b u t o n e c o n o m i c m a t t e r s i t has f a r f r o m m i n o r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . I n R u m a n i a , too, t h e r e i s d e g e n e r a t i o n . C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , likewise, is in economic crisis and the prices of all the goods h a v e b e g u n t o rise. In our opinion there is discontent in the W a r s a w T r e a t y c o u n t r i e s a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t presence, b u t t h i s i s n o t a t t h e same l e v e l a n d o f t h e s a m e s t r e n g t h a s i n N A T O , w h e r e t h e p o l i c y o f t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a has c r e a t e d a n u m b e r of splits. F r o m the economic stand-point the m e m b e r countries o f the W a r s a w T r e a t y are d e p e n d e n t o n the S o v i e t U n i o n .

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T h e y carry on the b u l k of their trade w i t h the Soviets. T h e y get e l e c t r i c p o w e r , o i l , gas a n d o t h e r r a w m a t e r i a l s mainly f r o m them. Steel production in Hungary, for e x a m p l e , d e p e n d s o n t h e o r e w h i c h comes f r o m K r i v o y R o g . H e n c e , t h e m e m b e r states o f t h e W a r s a w T r e a t y are u n a b l e t o m o v e f r o m t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w i t h i n N A T O w e see t h a t F r a n c e a n d W e s t G e r m a n y h a v e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a over the measures w h i c h the latter wants to be taken against I r a n a n d t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d o v e r t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f n e w m i s s i l e s i n E u r o p e , etc. T h i s s h o w s t h a t t h e r e are splits i n t h i s b l o c . T h e e x i s t e n c e a n d d e e p e n i n g o f these splits i s o f interest t o us, because t h e y w e a k e n t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a , b u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e S o v i e t s , w h o k n o w h o w t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e m , are t r y i n g t o exploit them. T h e r e are people w h o s a y t h a t the S o v i e t s d o n ' t k n o w h o w t o c o n d u c t p o l i t i c s . N o , t h i s i s n o t so. A s y o u k n o w , at t h e e n d of J u n e , a m e e t i n g of heads of state a n d g o v e r n ment of the m a i n industrialized countries of the w o r l d was held in Venice. Carter was to go there and, amongst other t h i n g s , d e c i s i o n s w e r e t o b e t a k e n against t h e Soviets o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n . C a r t e r w e n t t o V e n i c e , b u t , b e f o r e t h e m e e t i n g , B r e z h n e v sent G i s c a r d d ' E s t a i g n a message i n w h i c h h e i n f o r m e d h i m t h a t h e w a s g o i n g to w i t h d r a w a d i v i s i o n of S o v i e t soldiers a n d a hundred tanks f r o m A f g h a n i s t a n , although the Soviets h a v e t e n s of t h o u s a n d s of o t h e r s o l d i e r s t h e r e . T h i s w a s a c a r e f u l l y t h o u g h t out p o l i t i c a l act o n t h e p a r t o f t h e S o v i e t s t o come t o t h e a i d o f d ' E s t a i g n a n d S c h m i d t i n t h e i r s t a n d against C a r t e r ' s pressures. A n d i n fact t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n assisted these t w o . A s has been p o i n t e d out i n t h a t book, t h e w o r k o f t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t party in the r a n k s of the bourgeois a r m y

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has great i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s w o r k m u s t b e d o n e i n t h r e e phases: b e f o r e t h e sons o f t h e p e o p l e a r e c o n s c r i p t e d t o t h e a r m y , w h i l e t h e y are d o i n g t h e i r m i l i t a r y service, a n d a f t e r t h e y c o m p l e t e it. O u r e x p e r i e n c e a n d y o u r s s h o w h o w important it is to w o r k w i t h the y o u t h before they g o i n t o t h e a r m y . A s w e see, t o d a y , b e f o r e t h e y g o i n t o t h e a r m y , the y o u t h f o l l o w t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y m o v e m e n t s , t h e g e n e r a l m o v e m e n t s o f p r o t e s t a g a i n s t crises, u n e m p l o y m e n t , a n d s o o n . T h e s t u d e n t s also r i s e a g a i n s t u n e m p l o y m e n t w h e n t h e y g r a d u a t e f r o m t h e h i g h e r schools. H e n c e , a m o n g t h e y o u t h w e see a g r e a t m o v e m e n t , y o u m i g h t say, a n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e r e g i m e i n p o w e r . T h i s i s a p p a r e n t i n m a n y c o u n t r i e s . W e see also t h a t t h e b o u r g e o i s i e i s a w a r e o f t h e d a n g e r o f t h i s g r e a t f o r c e . Its p a r t i e s p l a c e great i m p o r t a n c e o n t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e y o u t h . W h y ? I n o r d e r t o cause d e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e y o u t h t h r o u g h t h e use o f d r u g s , t h e p r o p a g a n d a o f sex, t h e s p r e a d o f a n a r c h i s m , t e r r o r i s m , etc. C a p i t a l i s m does a l l these things in order to disintegrate this massive force of the people w h i c h constitutes a d a n g e r t o it, because b o t h t h e w o r k i n g class, t h e p e a s a n t r y , etc., are r e n e w e d t h r o u g h t h e youth. This is biological. Some people grow old, but at the same time the n e w generation, the youth, come along. T h e bourgeoisie tries to suppress precisely this n e w generation a n d e l i m i n a t e its r e v o l u t i o n a r y s p i r i t . W e see t h e effect o f this work, for example, in the role w h i c h the a r m y plays. T h e s o l d i e r i s t h e s o n o f t h e p o o r peasant o r t h e w o r k e r w h o goes o n s t r i k e , a n d y e t h e opens f i r e o n t h e people. O f course, t h e e n t i r e y o u t h c a n n o t i m p l i c a t e i t s e l f i n t h i s evil hostile activity of the bourgeoisie. A m o n g the y o u n g people, w h e t h e r w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s o r students, t h e r e a r e forces w h o t h i n k , p o l i t i c a l l y a n d i d e o l o g i c a l l y , n o t a s w e c o m m u n i s t s do. o f course, b u t i n p r o g r e s s i v e w a y s . T h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e see a l l t h e i n j u s t i c e s o f the b o u r g e o i s o r d e r , t h e r o b b e r y , t h e p l u n d e r , a n d a l l

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those t h i n g s w e m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r . T h e y see a l l these things, b u t t h e y d o n o t see t h e s o u n d o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p a r t i e s m u s t c a r r y out i n o r d e r t o create a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h w i l l c h a n n e l a l l t h e h e a l t h y forces of the y o u t h into a single front as occurred in our country, f o r e x a m p l e . D u r i n g t h e N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r the y o u t h of our country w e r e mobilized in the Anti-fascist Y o u t h Organization w h i c h subsequently, after the Congress of the Unification of the Y o u t h , was amalgamated w i t h the organization of the C o m m u n i s t Y o u t h to f o r m the L a b o u r Y o u t h U n i o n o f A l b a n i a . T h e s e y o u n g people f i l l e d t h e ranks of our army. W h i l e acting in this w a y we d i d not u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e w o r k i n g class. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , e v e n though it was s m a l l in number, we had it in the centre of our attention and our work. Neither did we underestim a t e t h e s o - c a l l e d n a t i o n a l i s t s , t h a t is, t h e p r o g r e s s i v e elements, e v e n w h e n t h e y w e r e o v e r 4 5 y e a r s o f age. I f w e l o o k b a c k a t o u r w a r , w e see t h a t t h e r a n k s of the partisan brigades were filled m a i n l y w i t h the youth. O u r P a r t y , a t f i r s t , w a s m a d e u p o f o n l y 200 people, m o s t of w h o m were young, w h i l e the y o u t h in the ranks of the army, w h o m the P a r t y inspired, amounted to thousands. O u r country was occupied, and this was an important n a t i o n a l m o m e n t . W e c a n also c a l l the p e r i o d o f t h e o p p r e s sion of our people by k i n g A h m e t Zog and the occupation o f A l b a n i a b y fascist I t a l y n a t i o n a l m o m e n t s . P r e c i s e l y a t these m o m e n t s t h e P a r t y k n e w h o w t o u t i l i z e t h e revolutionary patriotic sentiments of the youth. We t h i n k that this national m o m e n t exists in every capitalist country today. In the various capitalist countries there is exploitation by the n a t i o n a l bourgeoisie, as w e l l as imperialist d o m i n a t i o n and exploitation, the d o m i n a t i o n a n d e x p l o i t a t i o n b y m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o m p a n i e s , etc. A l l these f a c t o r s create t h e n a t i o n a l m o m e n t w h i c h m u s t b e u t i l i z e d i n e v e r y w a y . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e some c o m r a d e s w h o u n d e r -

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stand this in simplistic ways, in somewhat classical ways. O f course, w e m u s t a d h e r e t o a n d a p p l y o u r p r i n c i p l e s . F o r example, as I told you, at the start of o u r struggle we d i d n o t h a v e a b i g w o r k i n g class, i t w a s s m a l l , b u t w e b a s e d o u r s e l v e s o n its i d e o l o g y . T h e w o r k i n g class i s t h e b a c k b o n e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n , b u t t h i s does n o t r u l e o u t its a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e p e a s a n t r y , w i t h t h e e x p l o i t e d s t r a t a o f t h e people, even though various tendencies and situations exist w i t h i n them. Let us take just the problem of the youth. V a r i o u s ideologies, t h a t is, b o u r g e o i s a n d r e v i s i o n i s t i d e o l o g i e s act u p o n t h e y o u t h . A s a result, w i t h i n its r a n k s t h e r e i s m o r a l and physical demoralization. On the other hand, there is also t h e s o u n d p a r t w i t h i n the masses o f t h e y o u t h . T h e r e fore, i t behoves t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p a r t i e s t o e x e r t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o n a n d create t h e f r o n t o f t h e y o u t h . T h i s f r o n t c a n n o t be set u p , as some t h i n k , by c r e a t i n g a c o m m u n i s t y o u t h organization. No, that w o u l d be a v e r y n a r r o w organization w h i c h m a n y of the y o u n g people w o u l d not j o i n . B u t i f a b r o a d p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i s set u p , t h e n tens o f t h o u s a n d s o f y o u n g p e o p l e w i l l g a t h e r i n it. I t i s u p t o the p a r t y t o t h i n k out h o w t h i s y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d b e c r e a t e d a n d g r a d u a l l y c o n c r e t i z e its w o r k . T h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t c o m m u n i s t s m i g h t h a v e c l e a r ideas, b u t they have to w o r k to ensure that the y o u n g people unders t a n d a n d accept these ideas, w h i l e a l w a y s s a f e g u a r d i n g the solidarity of their o w n ranks. A c c o r d i n g to the situation, the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t communists, without declaring t h e m selves o p e n l y , c a n a n d m u s t c a r r y o u t p r o p a g a n d a a m o n g t h e y o u n g people, f o r e x a m p l e , against t h e b o u r g e o i s a r m y , against p r i c e rises, a g a i n s t u n e m p l o y m e n t , etc. I n o t h e r words, a broad p r o g r a m of w o r k w i t h the y o u t h must be m a p p e d out and applied. Of course, these t h i n g s t h a t I m e n t i o n e d c a n n o t be d o n e a l l a t once. O u r P a r t y , f o r e x a m p l e , has a l w a y s p l a c e d

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great i m p o r t a n c e o n w o r k w i t h t h e y o u t h , a n d does s o even to this day. In the capitalist countries there is another problem, too, t h e p r o b l e m o f t r a d e - u n i o n s . W e h a v e discussed t h i s together, C o m r a d e A m a z o n a s , a n d w e h a v e b e e n i n c o m plete a g r e e m e n t o n e v e r y t h i n g . N o w I a m r e f e r r i n g t o a n o t h e r issue, t h a t o f t h e unemployed. W h a t is being done and w h a t should be done w i t h t h i s mass, w i t h t h i s c a t e g o r y o f p e o p l e o f t h e w o r k i n g class a n d o t h e r w o r k i n g masses o f t o w n a n d c o u n t r y s i d e , w h o m capitalism has t h r o w n out a n d continues to t h r o w out i n t h e s t r e e t ? T h i s mass o f people i s m o r e r e a d y t o s t r u g g l e t h a n those w h o a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t r a d e - u n i o n s . W h i l e s a y i n g this we do not in a n y w a y forget the p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e w o r k i n g class i s t h e b a c k b o n e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n , therefore, we must not i n t e r r u p t our w o r k w i t h it even f o r a m o m e n t . B u t t h e u n e m p l o y e d are w o r k e r s , t o o . A n d i t seems t o m e t h a t here, a m o n g these u n e m p l o y e d w o r k e r s , the p a r t y has a c o n t i n g e n t f i f t y p e r cent r e a d y t o l a u n c h attacks. T h e y are desperate a n d i n r e v o l t . A m o n g s t t h e m t e r r o r i s m a n d a n a r c h i s m t a k e root, because t h e y t h i n k t h a t t h e y c a n d o s o m e t h i n g b y these m e a n s . T h e y t h i n k a n d act i n t h i s w a y , because t h e y h a v e n o t h i n g t o eat, because, a s M a r x says, t h e y h a v e n o t h i n g t o lose b u t t h e chains w h i c h e n s l a v e t h e m . W h i l e t h e w o r k e r s i n t r a d e unions receive t h e i r pay, h a v e guaranteed pensions and, as a result, n u r t u r e i l l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e s t r i k e m o v e m e n t w h i c h is m a n i p u l a t e d by the aristocracy of the w o r k i n g class. W e m u s t w o r k w i t h t h e m w i t h o u t f a i l , because t h e y c o n s t i t u t e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e w o r k i n g class, b u t w e m u s t not f o r g e t t h e u n e m p l o y e d . W e h a v e r e a c h e d t h i s o p i n i o n o n t h e basis o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o u r P a r t y . However, there are comrades w h o do not understand a l l i a n c e s c o r r e c t l y . F o r e x a m p l e , some t h i n k q u i t e r i g h t l y t h a t a l l i a n c e s s h o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e ele-

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merits, w h o a r e opposed t o the r e g i m e i n p o w e r a n d w i t h w h o m y o u can reach agreement on a n u m b e r of questions, w i t h the exception of revisionists w h o are opposed to our i d e o l o g y . T h e f o r m e r , too, are a g a i n s t us, b u t t h e r e v i s i o n i s t s d e l i b e r a t e l y pose a s b e i n g a g a i n s t t h e r u l i n g state p o w e r , w h i l e i n r e a l i t y t h e y are i n a l l i a n c e w i t h t h i s state a n d h a v e t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t parties as their aim. E v e n though the progressive elements are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f b o u r g e o i s p a r t i e s , t h e y a t t a c k s o m e aspects o f b o u r g e o i s p o w e r , because t h e y h a v e e c o n o m i c contradictions and, first of all, political contradictions over t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y i n P a r l i a m e n t , etc. W e e x p l o i t p r e c i s e l y these c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n o r d e r t o create a n d d e e p e n the divisions amongst them, w h i l e the revisionists unite w i t h t h e m t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e state p o w e r o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e . O u r t a c t i c consists o f t h i s : w e f o r m a l l i a n c e s o n c e r t a i n issues w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e p e o p l e a n d n o t w i t h t h e r e v i s i o n i s t s . B u t t h e r e are some w h o t h i n k t h a t t h e y s h o u l d m e e t e v e n w i t h the heads o f t h e b o u r g e o i s p a r t i e s . V e r y w e l l , t h e y , too, s h o u l d n o t b e u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , b u t t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t h a t contacts m u s t b e e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e base, w i t h t h e r a n k - a n d - f i l e m e m b e r s o f those p a r t i e s . D u r i n g the time of the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r we m a d e e f f o r t s t o meet w i t h t h e c h i e f s o f g r o u p s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s of t h e b o u r g e o i s i e . I p e r s o n a l l y w a s one of t h e comrades w h o m the P a r t y h a d charged t o talk w i t h t h e chiefs w h o , a t t h a t t i m e , posed a s p a t r i o t s a n d p r o c l a i m e d h i g h a n d l o w t h a t the t i m e h a s come, o r the t i m e h a s n o t come, t o f i g h t against t h e o c c u p i e r s . S o m e c o m munists, e s p e c i a l l y t h e Y u g o s l a v s , t h r o u g h V u k m a n o v i Tempo, criticized us saying: W h y do you continue w i t h t h e m , w h y d r a g m a t t e r s out, w h a t i s t h i s o p p o r t u n i s m . . . ? But, w h i l e we tried to talk to the chiefs and m a k e things c l e a r t o t h e m , o n the o t h e r h a n d , w e w o r k e d t o w i n o v e r their rank and file. We proceeded f r o m the principle t h a t

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w e m u s t n o t a b a n d o n e f f o r t s t o a l l y w i t h t h e chiefs, because t h e y h a d i n f l u e n c e a n d because w e c o u l d d o o u r w o r k t h r o u g h t h e m , a l t h o u g h w e h a d n o great h o p e i n t h e m a n d p l a c e d o u r h o p e s i n t h e base. T h i s , C o m r a d e A m a z o n a s , i s t h e w a y w e see these t h i n g s , t h a t i s t o say, t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e a r m y , o f t r a d e unions, of the y o u t h a n d of the unemployed.

Speaking about unemployment and strikes, about the work of the party in the trade-unions and among the ranks of the youth, as well as about other questions, Joao Amazonas said among other things:
T h e problems w h i c h y o u raised today, C o m r a d e Enver, a n d a b o v e a l l , t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e y o u t h , seem t o u s t i m e l y , because i n B r a z i l w e h a v e a m i l i t a n t y o u t h . D u r i n g o u r stay h e r e w e v i s i t e d t h e m a r t y r s ' c e m e t e r y . R e a d i n g t h e dates o f t h e i r b i r t h a n d d e a t h i t e m e r g e s t h a t m o s t o f t h e m w e r e y o u n g people. I n B r a z i l , too, t h e y o u n g p e o p l e h a v e a m i l i t a n t s p i r i t . W e h a v e been a w a r e o f t h i s f o r m a n y years. F o r our part, w h i l e h a v i n g the w o r k w i t h students a t t h e c e n t r e o f o u r a t t e n t i o n , w e h a v e also g i v e n great i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e w o r k w i t h t h e w o r k e r y o u t h , w h o make up the majority, as w e l l as the w o r k w i t h the peasant y o u t h .

Comrade

Enver

Hoxha

again

took

up

the

conversation:

T h e c a p i t a l i s t e m p l o y s t h e m o s t e n e r g e t i c people, those of 25-30 y e a r s of age. W h e n t h e w o r k e r reaches 45 y e a r s o f age, t h e c a p i t a l i s t h a s squeezed h i m d r y a n d t h r o w s h i m out. I t i s n o t t h a t t h e w o r k e r i s n o t r e v o l u t i o n a r y a t t h i s age, b u t he is a l i t t l e m o r e c a u t i o u s in s t r u g g l e . It is t h e same also w i t h w o m e n , w h o a r e r a t h e r m o r e c o n c e r n e d about t h e i r c h i l d r e n , w h i l e t h e y o u t h t h r o w e v e r y t h i n g into the struggle.

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I h a v e discussed t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e y o u t h p e r s o n a l l y w i t h other f o r e i g n f r i e n d s , too. I n a t a l k w i t h a f r i e n d f r o m France, he told me that the youth in his country w e r e d e g e n e r a t i n g . T h e bourgeoisie, h e s a i d , w i t h its c o n s e r v a t i v e tendencies, i s t r y i n g t o save its o w n c h i l d r e n f r o m t h i s great d e g e n e r a t i o n , b u t i s w o r k i n g t o cause t h e d e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e w o r k i n g class. Then, the question emerges: W h o must defend the y o u t h o f t h e w o r k i n g class? W e , t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t communists. The M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p a r t y is the mother of t h e w o r k i n g class y o u t h , t h e r e f o r e t h e p a r t y m u s t o p e n t h e i r eyes a n d save t h e m f r o m t h e d a n g e r s . T h i s c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d i n i n d i v i d u a l w a y s , b u t t h r o u g h mass o r g a n i z a tional, political and cultural w o r k and creating possibilities f o r t h e y o u t h t h e m s e l v e s t o f i g h t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . In our country we have party organizations among the c i v i l p o p u l a t i o n a n d i n t h e a r m y . W h e r e t h e r e a r e fewer t h a n three party members, joint groups of party members and y o u t h can be created. We have approved t h i s i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e P a r t y . T h e best cadres o f t h e y o u t h , w h o are m e m b e r s o f these g r o u p s a n d t a k e p a r t i n meetings, c a r r y t h e l i n e o f t h e P a r t y t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e y o u t h . B e s i d e s t h i s , i n t h i s w a y , t h a t is, w i t h i n t h e P a r t y , we educate and temper boys a n d girls w i t h the s p i r i t o f t h e P a r t y . W e get m o s t o f o u r p a r t y m e m b e r s f r o m the youth. O u r conversations w i t h you, Comrade Amazonas, help us a g r e a t d e a l to see m o r e c l e a r l y t h e successes y o u h a v e a c h i e v e d a n d t h e great p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h l i e a h e a d o f y o u . W e are c o n f i d e n t y o u w i l l a c h i e v e f u r t h e r successes. T h e e x c h a n g e o f o p i n i o n s w i t h y o u i s i m p o r t a n t f o r us, because it opens up to us the p e r s p e c t i v e of a m o r e p r o f o u n d r e f l e c tion on our o w n work. T h e complexity of the problems of workers, trade-unions, the countryside, the disruptive w o r k

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o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e c h u r c h , etc., a b o u t w h i c h y o u spoke, help us to reflect. T h e e x c h a n g e o f o p i n i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r h e l p s u s t o s h a r p e n o u r v i g i l a n c e against pressures f r o m t h e c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t c o u n t r i e s , b u t also t o r e f l e c t o n t h e assistance, w i t h those p o s s i b i l i t i e s w e h a v e , w h i c h w e m u s t g i v e our M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t comrades. T h a n k y o u v e r y m u c h for y o u r visit, Comrade A m a zonas! I w i s h y o u success! C o n v e y m y g r e e t i n g s t o a l l t h e c o m rades o f y o u r P a r t y !

Published for the first time f r o m notes taken during this meeting, w h i c h are kept in the Central Archives of the Party.

PROBLEMS AND TASKS FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE HIGHER-TYPE COOPERATIVES INTO STATE FARMS

From a talk at the daily meeting with the secretaries of the CC of PLA
September 9, 1980

The study of the situation of higher-type cooperatives i s based m a i n l y o n some f i g u r e s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t s , w h i c h it is essential to k n o w . B u t it is not only the figures w h i c h m a k e us take this or that decision. The whole p r o b l e m m u s t b e seen m o r e w i d e l y , t h a t i s t o say, h o w o u r socialist agriculture is going to develop further. W e are c a r r y i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m , i n general, constantly f o r w a r d and w i l l f u r t h e r intensify it. I n t h i s context, w e are w o r k i n g t o i n t e n s i f y a g r i c u l t u r e , too. B u t i n o r d e r t o d o t h i s s u c c e s s f u l l y , w e m u s t r a i s e t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l consciousness a n d t h e p r o g r e s s i v e t h i n k i n g of o u r c o o p e r a t i v i s t masses to a h i g h e r level. One of the m a i n problems for achieving this far f r o m easy o b j e c t i v e i s t h e w o r k w h i c h w e m u s t d o t o c o m b a t t h e r e m n a n t s o f t h e sense o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , w h i c h s t i l l exist, a n d t h e p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s m e n t a l i t y o f o u r r u r a l w o r k i n g people. I f w e d o n o t d o t h i s p o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l w o r k properly and systematically, we w i l l r u n into dif-

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ficulties d u r i n g our advance. N a t u r a l l y , we have w o r k e d c o n t i n u a l l y in this direction a n d it is true to say that we have achieved results. At the same time, however, r e m nants of the petty-bourgeois mentality exist in our countryside and reappear here more strongly and there more w e a k l y , disappear a n d r e t u r n anew in the most v a r i e d f o r m s . O f course, w e k n o w t h e i r f o r m s , b u t the p o i n t i s w e m u s t k n o w t h e m m o r e t h o r o u g h l y , because t h e y k e e p changing f r o m time to time. Likewise, we need better knowledge of the level of their intensity, not only among t h e p e a s a n t r y as a w h o l e , b u t also a m o n g p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p s and strata of the peasantry. N o w let u s c o m e t o t h e c o n c r e t e q u e s t i o n , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f socialist a g r i c u l t u r a l economies, t h a t is, t h e social property of the w h o l e people and the property of the g r o u p . T h i s l a t t e r c o n t a i n s a n e l e m e n t o f c a p i t a l i s m . We have to understand that between the property of the g r o u p a n d t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people t h e r e i s a distinction both f r o m the psychological stand-point and in o t h e r s o c i a l aspects. T h e P a r t y k n o w s these t h i n g s , b u t I t h i n k i t o u g h t t o k n o w t h e m e v e n better. T h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e g r o u p i s a f o r m o f socialist p r o p erty, b u t t h i s f o r m c o n s t i t u t e s a n i n t e r m e d i a t e phase. I n t i m e i t m u s t pass i n t o p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people, a n d w e a r e w o r k i n g t o a r r i v e a t t h a t stage. T h i s i s a c o n t i n u i n g process i n m o v e m e n t , w h i c h b e g a n w i t h t h e L a n d R e f o r m , c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e socialist c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t r y , w i t h t h e s e t t i n g u p o f state f a r m s property of the w h o l e people a n d later, w i t h the enlargement of a g r i c u l t u r a l cooperatives t h r o u g h their u n i f i c a t i o n up to the establishment of higher-type cooperatives, w h i c h represent a h i g h e r l e v e l of t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of t h e p r o p e r t y o f the g r o u p o n t h e c o u r s e o f b r i n g i n g i t closer t o t h e p r o p e r t y of t h e w h o l e people, as w e l l as w i t h a series of other s o c i o - e c o n o m i c m e a s u r e s w h i c h s t r e n g t h e n t h e s o c i a l -

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ist c h a r a c t e r o f o u r a g r i c u l t u r e . W e m u s t n o t f o r g e t t h a t i n c a r r y i n g f o r w a r d this process w e h a v e h a d d i f f i c u l t i e s , sometimes we have proceeded a little more rapidly, somet i m e s m o r e s l o w l y , b u t w e h a v e n e v e r t a k e n a step b a c k w a r d s a n d w e h a v e n e v e r stood s t i l l i n a n y phase. A s w e all know, in the i n i t i a l phase of collectivization m a n y peasants d i d n o t j o i n c o o p e r a t i v e s because t h e y w e r e n o t convinced, w h i l e later we came to a situation that all the peasants w e r e c o n v i n c e d a n d set out o n t h i s r o a d o f t h e i r o w n free w i l l . B u t this took about 20 years. Throughout this whole period of development and progress, t h a t is, f r o m t h e s e t t i n g u p o f t h e f i r s t c o o p e r a t i v e t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f h u n d r e d s o f others, a n d t h e n to their unification in bigger cooperatives and, finally, t o t h e s e t t i n g u p o f some tens o f h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d other m e a s u r e s w h i c h t h e P a r t y has t a k e n , w e h a v e h a d to w o r k v e r y cautiously. Changes a n d progress have been made in our countryside, not only in the m a t e r i a l aspects, b u t also i n t h e m e n t a l i t y o f t h e peasants, i n w h o m socialist consciousness has b e e n s t r e n g t h e n e d step b y step. Nevertheless, we must never t h i n k that n o w we have r e a c h e d s u c h a stage of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t the petty-bourgeois mentality has been eliminated a m o n g our peasantry. We must not t h i n k that it has been e l i m i n a t e d a m o n g t h e w o r k i n g class, e i t h e r , a l t h o u g h , i n fact, i t i s m o r e a d v a n c e d t h a n t h e p e a s a n t r y , because i t i s t h e class w h i c h leads t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m , a n d t h e P a r t y i s t h e edge o f t h i s s w o r d , because M a r x i s m L e n i n i s m i s its i d e o l o g y . E v e n i n t h e consciousness o f t h e w o r k i n g class t h e r e are s t i l l r e m n a n t s o f t h e p e t t y - b o u r geois p s y c h o l o g y a n d m e n t a l i t y , a l t h o u g h less t h a n a m o n g the peasantry. B u t h o w are they manifested? T h e P a r t y has e x p l a i n e d a n d e x p l a i n s t h i s c o n t i n u o u s l y . T h e m a n ifestations o f n a r r o w p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s w h i c h are o b s e r v e d e v e n a m o n g some w o r k e r s , t h e e f f o r t s o f m a n y o f t h e m

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t o k e e p t h e w o r k q u o t a s l o w , t h e breaches o f d i s c i p l i n e , the a t t e m p t s w h i c h are seen a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r s t o t a k e m o r e f r o m s o c i e t y a n d c o n t r i b u t e less to it, etc., etc., a l l these are p h e n o m e n a a n d e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e p e t t y - b o u r geois p s y c h o l o g y . W h e n w e say t h a t s u c h p h e n o m e n a a n d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s are o b s e r v e d a m o n g t h e w o r k i n g class, i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r u s t h a t t h e y are o b s e r v e d a m o n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , too, indeed somewhat more frequently. A n d in the intellectuals t h e y are m o r e d a n g e r o u s t h a n t h e y are i n the p e a s a n t r y , t h e r e f o r e , i f care i s n o t t a k e n t o c o m b a t a l i e n m a n i f e s t a tions a m o n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e y i n c r e a s e i n m o r e r e f i n e d w a y s , a n d t h i s g r e a t l y d a m a g e s t h e w o r k o f the P a r t y . T h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s a r e sons o f t h e people, o f w o r k e r s a n d peasants, b u t since t h e y a r e cadres, i f t h e y set o u t o n a w r o n g course, s u b m i t t i n g b o t h to the p r e s s u r e of p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s r e m n a n t s a n d t h e e x t e r n a l pressure, t h e a l i e n m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n t h e i r consciousness e m e r g e m o r e q u i c k l y and become m u c h more dangerous and h a r m f u l . A t o u r p r e s e n t stage o f d e v e l o p m e n t w e c a n n o t c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e these a l i e n r e m n a n t s a n d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , t h e r e fore t h e y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o e x e r t a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o n our w o r k . T h i s faces u s w i t h t h e t a s k t h a t t h e s t r u g g l e w h i c h the P a r t y wages in this field must be vigorous and unceasing. N o w let u s c o m e t o t h e p r o b l e m o f a g r i c u l t u r e . W e h a v e s a i d t h a t t h e h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s are a t r a n s i t i o n a l f o r m o f g o i n g o v e r t o state f a r m s . B u t w h e n are w e g o i n g t o pass o n t o t h i s stage? N a t u r a l l y , t h e r e i s n o c u t a n d - d r y a n s w e r t o this, b u t t h i s does n o t m e a n t h a t t h e P a r t y should not t h i n k about this objective and that the q u e s t i o n s h o u l d b e left t o s p o n t a n e i t y . T h e fact i s w e h a v e not w o r k e d a s m u c h a s w e s h o u l d f o r t h i s o b j e c t i v e a n d this i s s o m e t h i n g w e c e r t a i n l y m u s t d o s o t h a t n o t o n l y the m e m b e r s o f h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s , b u t also t h e

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others bee the p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s h a v e to k n o w t h a t a d v a n c i n g on this course m e a n s a q u a l i t a t i v e u p l i f t , f r o m the e c o n o m i c s t a n d - p o i n t , t h e i r w a y o f l i f e , m e n t a lity and psychology. T h e P a r t y has not f o r g o t t e n t h i s o b j e c t i v e . I a m r e f e r r i n g t o the care w h i c h w e m u s t d i s p l a y i n t h e great e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k w e m u s t d o f o r t h e best p o s s i b l e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e P a r t y itself s o t h a t i t w i l l b e c l e a r a b o u t t h i s course. T h e P a r t y m u s t d o m o r e w o r k w i t h g r e a t e r p e r spective f o r t h i s process i n d e v e l o p m e n t , o n t h e ascent, so that it can explain and m a k e it clear to the cooperativists. T h i s is a q u e s t i o n of p r i n c i p l e a n d a q u e s t i o n of l i n e . It m u s t be m a d e c l e a r to the peasant that, j u s t as he b r o k e w i t h the private property and joined the agricultural cooperative, so he m u s t p r o c e e d on t h i s c o u r s e to t h e state f a r m , w h i c h i s the p r o p e r t y o f the w h o l e people. H o w e v e r , t h i s has not been e x p l a i n e d t o h i m i n s u c h a w a y a s t o prepare h i m ideologically, psychologically, economically a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y f o r t h i s change. L e t u s come n o w t o t h e s t u d y w h i c h i s u n d e r w a y i n connection w i t h the higher-type cooperatives. We have discussed h e r e t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t e m e r g e f o r t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s s u c h a s economic, p a y m e n t s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d other p r o b l e m s . T h e s t u d y m a y s h o w , f o r e x a m p l e , w h a t s h o u l d b e done w i t h those f u n d s w h i c h t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s possess. A s w e h a v e discussed p r e v i o u s l y , w e m u s t s t u d y w h a t has t o b e done, f o r e x a m p l e , o v e r w h a t p e r i o d w e w i l l p a y off t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s , s o t h a t t h e m e m b e r s welcome this politically and discontent is not created a m o n g t h e m . B u t t h e p r o b l e m i s n o t s i m p l y one o f p a y m e n t , i t i s l i n k e d closely also w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y goods w h i c h must be placed on the market to cover the money w h i c h w i l l be given to the cooperativists, a t h i n g w h i c h requires improved organization in the circulation of c o m -

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m o d i t i e s , i n d i s t r i b u t i o n , etc. I t i s i m p o r t a n t that, a t t h e moment of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the higher-type cooperatives i n t o state f a r m s , w e are c a r e f u l t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e society i s n o t u n d u l y b u r d e n e d a n d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s a r e n o t h a r m e d . W e h a v e d i s c u s s e d these issues f r o m a l l aspects. A p a r t f r o m these, t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e peasants i s also a p r o b l e m . F o r e s e e i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of events, in my opinion, they w i l l be unprepared. Therefore, they may become discontented. W h y w i l l this occur? Because the f a c t s s h o w t h a t n o s m a l l n u m b e r o f h i g h e r - t y p e cooperatives h a v e l e v e l s o f i n c o m e a n d p a y m e n t t o t h e i r m e m b e r s w h i c h a r e a l m o s t e q u a l t o those o f t h e w o r k e r s o f t h e state f a r m s . W h e n t h i s i s a c h i e v e d w i t h i n t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e g r o u p , t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s are s a t i s f i e d , b e cause, besides t h e i r r e m u n e r a t i o n f o r t h e w o r k d a y s , t h e y also h a v e t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p l o t s . W h e n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s is c a r r i e d out, t h e state w i l l p a y t h e m f o r t h e cows, sheep a n d goats, a n d s o o n , which they have owned on their personal plot and in the cooperative. I t h i n k t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e s h o u l d be p a i d f o r t h e i r h o u s e h o l d l i v e s t o c k s o t h a t t h e y are n o t damaged. A s t o w h a t c o n c r e t e course w i l l b e p u r s u e d t o this e n d , t h i s m u s t b e s t u d i e d , because w e are n o w forming joint flocks in more organized ways. In regard to the p a y m e n t for the livestock of the cooperative t h i s s h o u l d b e p a i d i n i n s t a l m e n t s . A s a r e s u l t of this, t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t t u r n e d i n t o a state f a r m w o r k e r , besides g e t t i n g t h e s a m e w a g e a s t h e w o r k e r o f t h e f a r m , will have an increased income f r o m the payment for the cows, sheep a n d goats, etc., a n d t h i s w i l l b e o n e o f t h e w a y s to compensate p a r t l y for the income of some years w h i c h the c o o p e r a t i v i s t s e c u r e d f r o m t h e l i v e s t o c k a n d p r o d u c t i o n of his p e r s o n a l plot. Apart from this, the cooperatives have funds for

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i n v e s t m e n t , w h i c h i r r e s p e c t i v e o f w h e n a n d h o w the state w i l l g i v e t h e m t o the m e m b e r s , are t h e i r p r o p e r t y , too. H o w ever, the peasant m e n t a l i t y m a k e s h i m t h i n k , B e f o r e these are p a i d off t h e state w i l l w i p e t h e m out, w i l l t a k e t h e m f r o m us, etc., etc. T h e r e f o r e , I s a y t h a t f o r t h i s reason, too, p r e p a r a t i o n s m u s t b e done f r o m t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspect. P o s s i b l y w e c o u l d q u i t e e a s i l y settle the q u e s t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y t h a t comes f r o m t h e h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e one w a y o r another, a n d p a y f o r i t a c c o r d i n g t o r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h w i l l b e e s t a b l i s h e d . B u t here a q u e s t i o n arises w h i c h w e m u s t c o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y : D o e s t h e peasant r e a l l y c o n s c i o u s l y accept this m e t h o d w h i c h t h e state m a y d e c i d e o r does he accept it because he is t o l d to? It is essential t h a t w e w o r k h a r d w i t h the c o o p e r a t i v i s t s o t h a t h e i s c o n v i n c e d , accepts a n d u n d e r s t a n d s c o n c r e t e l y t h a t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the c o o p e r a t i v e i n t o a state f a r m w i l l be to his great a d v a n t a g e . T h a t is a m e n t a l i t y t h a t o u g h t to h a v e been i n c u l c a t e d , b u t u p t i l l n o w t h i s w o r k h a s n o t b e e n p r o p e r l y done. W h e n I s a y t h i s I h a v e i n m i n d n o t o n l y t h a t the masses o f c o o p e r a t i v i s t s d o n o t r e a l l y k n o w , b u t also t h a t t h e cadres t h e m s e l v e s are n o t f u l l y c l e a r a b o u t w h a t i s g o i n g t o b e done i n this d i r e c t i o n . T o d a y t h e y k n o w o n l y t h a t w h e n t h e t i m e comes t h e h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s w i l l b e c h a n g e d i n t o state f a r m s , b u t t h e y k n o w n o t h i n g about w h e n a n d h o w this w i l l c o m e about. T h e P a r t y m u s t p r e p a r e t h e m f o r this, because the socialist e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t i n u a l l y creates n e w s i t u a t i o n s . If the p r o b l e m w e r e p r e s e n t e d t h a t a good p a r t of h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s s h o u l d b e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o state f a r m s r i g h t n o w , i t m i g h t t u r n out t h a t the state c o u l d n o t cope w i t h i t f i n a n c i a l l y . T h e r e f o r e , i t m i g h t b e s a i d t h a t t h i s i s not t h e t i m e t o t a k e t h i s step, a n d w e s h o u l d postpone it f o r a l i t t l e l a t e r . I t h i n k that, if we p u t off the solution of this p r o b l e m for a long time, the p r o b l e m

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w i l l become even more difficult. However, by proceeding o n t h i s course, t h e i r a c c u m u l a t i o n w i l l increase, t h a t i s t o say, a d a y w i l l c o m e w h e n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m e m b e r s say: N o w , j u s t h a n g o n a m o m e n t , because w e cannot agree to be p a i d 14 or 16 l e k s f o r e v e r w h e n t h e y i e l d s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s are i n c r e a s i n g . W e w a n t 20 or 22 l e k s p e r w o r k d a y , we h a v e a stack of m o n e y for i n v e s t m e n t s , etc. C o n s e q u e n t l y , if t h i s course is pursued, the pay of members of the higher-type cooperatives w i l l o u t s t r i p t h a t o f t h e m e m b e r s o f the state f a r m s . That is w h y I think that leaving this problem as it is, w i t h t h e e x c u s e t h a t t h e t i m e has n o t come, w i l l create great d a n g e r s f o r us. In w h a t do I see these d a n g e r s ? In the m e n t a l i t y a n d p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e g r o u p p r o p e r t y , w h i c h continues t o g r o w s t r o n g e r , a s w e l l a s i n t h e great d i f ferences i n t h e p a y o f m e m b e r s a n d i n t h e i r i n c o m e f r o m the g r o u p p r o p e r t y , w h i c h w i l l b e b i g g e r t h a n those o f workers. To prevent this f r o m occurring and to m a i n t a i n the p r o p e r l e v e l o f p a y a n d i n c o m e i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s , the i n v e s t m e n t s m u s t b e r e d u c e d , b u t t h i s w o u l d m e a n deliberately h i n d e r i n g the development of agriculture. A n d w e cannot a l l o w this. T h e P a r t y i s f o r t h e u n i n t e r r u p t e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o d u c t i v e forces. H e n c e , m a j o r p r o b l e m s are b e i n g c r e a t e d f o r us, i n t o w h i c h w e m u s t d e l v e m o r e deeply. If we look at the five-year plan, the investments in a g r i c u l t u r e are o f t w o t y p e s : state i n v e s t m e n t s a n d i n v e s t ments m a d e b y t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s . O f course, the i n v e s t m e n t s of the c o o p e r a t i v e s are s m a l l e r t h a n state investments, w h i c h m e a n s t h a t the state c o n t i n u e s t o i n v e s t in agriculture and in cooperatives in order to strengthen the s i t u a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p p r o p e r t y . A n d w h e n t h e t i m e comes that these c o o p e r a t i v e s are t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o state farms, i t seems a s t h o u g h the state o u g h t t o p a y t h e m . B u t i n fact, b y m a k i n g i n v e s t m e n t s i n them t h e state i s p a y i n g

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t h e m i n a d v a n c e . B u t w h e n d i d these i n v e s t m e n t s b e g i n to be d i v i d e d into and calculated as funds of the cooperat i v e a n d f u n d s o f the state w i t h i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e ? T h i s w a s done o n l y w h e n w e c r e a t e d t h e h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s . H o w e v e r , o u r p r o l e t a r i a n state h a s i n v e s t e d i n cooperatives r i g h t f r o m t h e t i m e t h e y w e r e set u p . T h e bearing in m i n d of the investments a n d aid w h i c h the state has p r o v i d e d f o r t h e h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d f o r t h e o t h e r c o o p e r a t i v e s h a s p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e , because it shows our concern for raising the group property towards t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , however, we must struggle to ensure that the cooperatives m a k e f u l l use o f t h e i r o w n f u n d s a n d i n v e s t m e n t s f o r production and do not content themselves w i t h the results achieved. A p a r t f r o m t h e i n v e s t m e n t s w h i c h i t m a k e s , t h e state also p r o v i d e s t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t economies w i t h s h o r t - a n d l o n g - t e r m c r e d i t s f o r i n v e s t m e n t s . A n d , i n fact, m o s t o f t h e m h a v e r e p a i d t h e credits a n d h a v e n o debts. H e n c e , m a t t e r s h a v e r e a c h e d s u c h a stage t h a t state c r e d i t s are n o t a l w a y s r e q u i r e d . W h y does t h i s o c c u r ? B e c a u s e some o f the cooperatives have created their o w n special funds f o r i n v e s t m e n t s o r f o r t h e g u a r a n t e e d p a y , etc. B u t w h a t occurs w i t h some o f these i n v e s t m e n t f u n d s i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s ? T h e y h a v e i n v e s t m e n t f u n d s u n u s e d , because w i t h the m a t e r i a l base a t o u r d i s p o s a l w e h a v e n o t h a d poss i b i l i t i e s t o d r a w i n these f u n d s , t h a t i s t o say. t o use t h e m to m a k e investments in the cooperatives so that in t i m e t h e y w o u l d n o l o n g e r exist a s f u n d s . H a d w e b e e n a b l e t o d r a w i n these f u n d s , w e w o u l d h a v e n o n e e d t o p a y f o r t h e m , a s emerges n o w . W h y w o u l d w e n o t p a y f o r t h e m ? B e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d h a v e been m a t e r i a l i z e d i n i n v e s t m e n t s i n t h e l a n d , f o r seed a n d i n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s . W h a t w o u l d t h i s have brought about? It w o u l d have brought about that the cooperatives w o u l d get m o r e p r o d u c t i o n a n d i n c o m e , a n d

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thus, speed u p the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o state f a r m s . W e m u s t p l a n a l l t h e i n v e s t m e n t s w h i c h are m a d e i n the c o o p e r a t i v e , d i v i d i n g t h e m i n t o i n v e s t m e n t s b y the c o o p e r a t i v e a n d i n v e s t m e n t s b y t h e state. T h e accounts m u s t b e k e p t i n t h i s w a y , too. T h i s m u s t b e d o n e b o t h i n o r d e r t o c h e c k u p b e t t e r o n h o w t h e i n v e s t m e n t s are u s e d a n d also so t h a t t h e m e m b e r s of t h e c o o p e r a t i v e understand clearly and k n o w that the group property of the c o o p e r a t i v e i s n o t e n t i r e l y t h e i r p r o p e r t y , b u t also belongs t o t h e w o r k e r s a n d t h e socialist state w h i c h h a s i n v e s t e d l a r g e s u m s . T h i s s h o w s c l e a r l y t h a t t h e state i s n o t i n d e b t e d t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e , b u t the c o o p e r a t i v e i s i n d e b t e d to t h e state W h y do I say so? B e c a u s e t h e p r o d u c t i o n f r o m i n v e s t m e n t s w h i c h t h e state m a k e s i n i n d u s t r y , f o r e x a m p l e , b e n e f i t s t h e w h o l e society, w h i l e a l l t h e p r o d u c t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e use o f state i n v e s t m e n t s i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e b e n e f i t s t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d each o f its m e m b e r s . O f course w e d o n o t l e a v e a l l t h i s p r o d u c t i o n t o the cooperatives, because w e t a k e p a r t o f i t t h r o u g h the p a y m e n t s b y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s f o r t h e services p e r f o r m e d b y t h e state a n d f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h are sold to t h e m , etc., as w e l l as because of those r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n the c o o p e r a t i v e a n d t h e state w h i c h I e x p l a i n e d above. B u t t o b e i n o r d e r w e m u s t m a k e t h e peasant u n d e r s t a n d these r e l a t i o n s , s o t h a t h e w i l l c o m b a t t h e p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s mentality in his o w n m i n d and implant the sound opinion t h a t t h e state i s n o t i n d e b t e d t o h i m . b u t o n t h e c o n t r a r y , he is i n d e b t e d to t h e state, t h a t he has o b l i g a t i o n s to the e c o n o m y , a s I s a i d above. B y a c t i n g i n h i s w a y , w e w i l l proceed towards i m p r o v e m e n t of the situation. In the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , w h e n we are r e q u i r e d to i n t e n s i f y a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e state m a y i n v e s t i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s not 100 b u t e v e n 200 m i l l i o n l e k s . To t h i s end, f o r e x a m p l e , w e w i l l c a r r y out d r a i n a g e a n d l a n d i m p r o v e m e n t schemes, w i l l p r o v i d e better cows, etc. A n d

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w e d o t h i s i n o r d e r t o get m o r e p r o d u c t i o n . B u t w h a t does t h e c o o p e r a t i v e d o w i t h t h i s c o n t i n u a l increase o f p r o d u c t i o n ? I t increases t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p p r o p e r t y . So, w e m u s t c o n s i d e r t h i s p r o b l e m m o r e d e e p l y , because y o u see w h a t p r o b l e m i s e m e r g i n g n o w . W h e n we want to take a measure to advance further, this prob l e m i m m e d i a t e l y emerges b e f o r e u s a n d w e b e g i n t o t h i n k : W h a t are w e g o i n g t o d o w i t h these f u n d s ? O f course, e v e n t o d a y , i f y o u t e l l t h e m e m b e r s o f economically weak cooperatives that they should go into state f a r m s , t h e y are r e a d y . B u t t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h w e are d i s c u s s i n g has t o d o w i t h t h e m o s t d e v e l o p e d a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y s t r o n g c o o p e r a t i v e s , those o f the h i g h e r t y p e . A n d their development w i l l not stand still. H e r e the p r o b l e m i s t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e forces m u s t b e a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h t h e i m p r o v e m e n t step b y step of t h e socialist r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . T h u s , the great intensification of our agriculture, w h i c h is going to include most of the a g r i c u l t u r a l cooperatives, e s p e c i a l l y those of the p l a i n i n w h i c h w e w i l l m a k e i n v e s t m e n t s , m o r e s c i e n t i f i c r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l c i r c u l a t i o n , etc., w i l l lead to uninterrupted g r o w t h of production and i n come. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s g r o w t h r e q u i r e s t h a t w e t h i n k c o n t i n u a l l y a b o u t t h e f u r t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e socialist r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . W e h a v e been a n d are v e r y i n t e r e s t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n increases n o t o n l y i n t h e state f a r m s , b u t also i n t h e cooperatives, w h i c h i n c l u d e a b o u t 80 p e r cent of the a r e a of a r a b l e l a n d . If we get a m p l e production, that w i l l be all to the good. T h e n we w i l l d i s t r i b u t e i t t o the w h o l e c o u n t r y , because i f a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s o f the c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d state f a r m s increase, t h e y w i l l b e s o l d e v e r m o r e c h e a p l y o n the m a r k e t . A s w e l l a s this, f r o m t h i s p r o d u c t i o n f u n d s w i l l b e s e c u r e d for investments in agriculture and in heavy and light

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i n d u s t r y , i n t h e e x t r a c t i n g a n d p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r y , etc., a n d t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o f t h e w o r k i n g people w i l l b e r a i s e d , a n d w e are m o v i n g i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . A l l this w i l l b e done, n o t t h r o u g h r a i s i n g wages, b u t t h r o u g h r e d u c i n g p r i c e s o r k e e p i n g t h e m stable, t h r o u g h e x p a n d i n g the n u m b e r o f j o b s a v a i l a b l e a n d e m p l o y i n g n e w forces w h o are i n c r e a s i n g , a n d s o o n . H e n c e , t h e p r o b l e m o f t u r n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s a n d t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h are l i n k e d w i t h t h i s process m u s t b e seen a s p a r t o f t h e w h o l e a n d c o n n e c t e d closely w i t h o u r w h o l e a d v a n c e on t h e r o a d of s o c i a l i s m , a n d n o t as s o m e t h i n g separate. O r let u s t a k e t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s ' p e r s o n a l plots. T h i s is a p r o b l e m of great economic, i d e ological a n d p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e , t h e r e f o r e w e m u s t s t u d y i t v e r y c a r e f u l l y a n d f o l l o w its t e n d e n c y step b y step. W e notice t h a t t h e v o l u m e o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d t h e t o t a l i n c o m e f r o m t h e p l o t h a s r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d , o r has i n c r e a s e d slightly. It is not f a l l i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e r e is a t e n d e n c y f o r it to d i m i n i s h o v e r a l l as against the p r o d u c t i o n of the a g r i c u l tural cooperatives. T h e v o l u m e of production and income of the c o o p e r a t i v e m u s t be i n c r e a s e d c o n t i n u a l l y , w h i l e that o f t h e peasant p l o t s h o u l d s t e a d i l y d i m i n i s h . W h y ? Because, since p r o d u c t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g a n d t h e i n c o m e o f the c o o p e r a t i v e s is r i s i n g , t h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e needs of the c o o p e r a t i v i s t s are b e i n g f u l f i l l e d e v e r b e t t e r f r o m t h e collective p r o p e r t y , hence, t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l p l o t should g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r . W e m u s t k e e p a n eye o n h o w this m a t t e r develops, because h e r e lies t h e biggest w o r m w h i c h eats a w a y a t t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e , i t i s l i k e the n a i l o f N a s t r a d i n , a c o n s t a n t excuse, i n t h e v i l l a g e , w h i c h keeps t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p a l i v e among the c o o p e r a t i v i s t s , a n d i f w e d o n o t see t h e p r o b l e m s i n this w a y , t h e p e r s o n a l p l o t w i l l b e a n o t h e r obstacle w h i c h emerges b e f o r e u s o n t h e course o f t u r n i n g c o o p e r a tives into state f a r m s . N o w , after decades of t h e c o o p e r a -

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tivist economy, we must not support the idea that the p e r s o n a l p l o t s h o u l d assist t h e peasant e c o n o m y as s t r o n g l y a s w e d i d a t t h e start o f c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n . N o . T h i s i s n o t correct a n d c a n n o t b e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s a m e w a y f o r a l l t h e cooperatives, b o t h f o r those w h i c h are w e a k e s t a n d f o r those w h i c h are t h e m o s t a d v a n c e d a n d o f t h e h i g h e r type. If t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t p l o t is c o n s i d e r e d , a n d is f o r a certain time, an a u x i l i a r y economy for the families in the w e a k cooperatives, is it so a n d to t h e s a m e degree f o r t h e families of the advanced cooperatives? T h e s e are n o t m i n o r m a t t e r s w h i c h h a v e t o d o w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f one o r t w o shops t o s u p p l y t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s , b u t are m a j o r p r o b l e m s o f p r i n c i p l e w h i c h m u s t b e understood and solved correctly, always accompanied w i t h s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l measures, o t h e r w i s e , w e w i l l h a v e n e g a t i v e consequences. T h e p r o b l e m o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h are b e i n g c r e a t e d f o r t u r n i n g three, f o u r , f i v e o r s i x h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s m u s t b e l o o k e d a t w i t h t h i s eye. A n d e v e n i f w e m a n a g e t o solve t h e p r o b l e m f r o m t h e p s y chological, political, economic and other stand-points, still perfect o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . N o w let u s c o m e t o t h e p r o b l e m o f f o r m i n g j o i n t f l o c k s o f t h e peasants' h o u s e h o l d l i v e s t o c k , w h i c h t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e says i s b e i n g s o l v e d . L e t u s h e a r h o w it is being solved. Is this p r o b l e m being solved in s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s m e n t a l i t y of peasants is b e i n g c o m b a t e d p r o p e r l y ? W h a t I am g e t t i n g at is t h a t t h e peasants m u s t b e c o n v i n c e d a n d s u r e t h a t f r o m these animals, w i t h w h i c h joint flocks are formed, they w i l l h a v e a m a t e r i a l g a i n i n r e t u r n , i.e.. t h a t t h e y w i l l b e s u p p l i e d w i t h m i l k a n d meat a n d w i l l b e g i v e n w o o l f o r a n y need t h e y m i g h t have, o r w i l l b e sold c l o t h i n p l a c e o f the w o o l t h e y w o u l d h a v e t a k e n f r o m t h e i r h o u s e h o l d a n i m a l s . H o w e v e r , i f these needs are n o t f u l f i l l e d w i t h t h e

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j o i n t f l o c k s , t h e n w e are n o t a c h i e v i n g t h e a i m o f r a i s i n g the w e l l - b e i n g of the cooperativists. I am convinced that the w a y we are proceeding w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n i s correct, b u t i t m u s t b e e x a m i n e d p o l i t i c a l l y and ideologically to ensure that it is advantageous and that the administrative, organizational and financial arr a n g e m e n t s are s u c h t h a t t h e p e a s a n t i s n o t d i s s a t i s f i e d . T h e state m u s t r e s p o n d t o h i s needs n o t s i m p l y w i t h m o n e y , because i t w i l l p a y h i m m o n e y , b u t w i t h goods, regular supplies of w h i c h should be provided for the peasants w i t h o u t shortages. I n r e g a r d t o t h e rest o f c o w s a n d o t h e r l i v e s t o c k b e l o n g i n g t o the c o o p e r a t i v e , t h e state m u s t c e r t a i n l y b u y t h e m at a p r i c e w h i c h ensures that t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t is i n t e r e s t e d i n s e l l i n g t h e m t o t h e state a n d w i l l n o t s l a u g h t e r t h e m . T h i s i s h o w w e s h o u l d h a n d l e t h e p r o b l e m o f the livestock. N o w let u s c o m e t o t h e b u i l d i n g s o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e . W h o has m a d e i n v e s t m e n t s f o r t h e m ? O b v i o u s l y , i f t h e state, also, h a s m a d e i n v e s t m e n t s f o r t h e m , w e m u s t t e l l the c o o p e r a t i v i s t s h o w m u c h the state h a s i n v e s t e d a n d h o w m u c h t h e c o o p e r a t i v e . I f o n l y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e has m a d e i n v e s t m e n t s f o r t h e stalls, t h e n t h e p r o b l e m m u s t be studied carefully. T h e n , we come to other problems, for example, w h o has m a d e i n v e s t m e n t s f o r t h e b l o c k s o f f r u i t - t r e e s ? I f w e suppose t h a t i n t h i s sector one p a r t o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t s has been m a d e b y t h e state, w h i l e a n o t h e r p a r t b y the coo p e r a t i v e , t h e n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e has n o o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h e state a n d t h e state has n o o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e . I f the state has p r o v i d e d a c r e d i t a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e has r e p a i d it, a g a i n t h e p r o d u c t s b e l o n g t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d the state m u s t p a y c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e i r v a l u e . Reports and Speeches 1980-1981

T H E D R A F T I N G OF A SCIENTIFIC A N D MOBILIZING P L A N REQUIRES PROFOUND, C O M P L E X A N D SPECIFIC STUDIES

Opinions and views about the study on the rates of agricultural development as a whole and the intensification of production with priority in the lowland zones of several districts (1)
October 1, 1980

W e h a v e a l l s t u d i e d the m a t e r i a l s o n a g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h h a v e been presented to us. H o w e v e r , I t h i n k t h a t we s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o reflect o n t h e m , a n d a l l o f u s h a v e been d o i n g t h i s d u r i n g the recent p e r i o d . T h a n k s t o t h e w o r k a l r e a d y done, n o w w e h a v e a p i c t u r e o f h o w a g r i c u l t u r e i s s u p posed t o a d v a n c e d u r i n g t h e 7th F i v e - y e a r P l a n , a l t h o u g h
_____________________________________ 1 F o r the d r a f t i n g of the 7th F i v e - y e a r P l a n for the period 1981-1985, on the instructions of the C e n t r a l Committee of the Party, a series of studies on the situation and on the development of various branches and sectors of the economy, education and culture and on raising the w e l l - b e i n g of the people were carried out in advance by the State P l a n n i n g C o m mission and other state, economic and scientific bodies. As l a i d down, the studies w e r e examined, first, by the w o r k i n g group set up at the C o u n c i l of Ministers, and later, d u r i n g the months of November-December 1980, w e r e presented one by one for discussion and a p p r o v a l to the P o l i t i c a l B u r e a u of the C e n t r a l Committee of the P a r t y . C o m r a d e E n v e r H o x h a gave i m p o r tant opinions, suggestions and v i e w s on each material p r e sented.

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w e m a y s t i l l h a v e r e m a r k s t o m a k e a b o u t this sector, a n d m a y h a v e m o r e later, b u t these o u g h t t o b e w e l l - s t u d i e d a n d s y s t e m a t i c . I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h the n e w f i v e - y e a r p l a n , g r e a t e r e f f o r t s a r e r e q u i r e d f r o m a l l o f us, n o t o n l y f r o m the p h y s i c a l s t a n d - p o i n t , b u t also f r o m the m e n t a l a n d s c i e n t i f i c s t a n d - p o i n t , because I b e l i e v e m o r e d i f ficulties w i l l emerge for us d u r i n g this period. W e m u s t t h o r o u g h l y t h r a s h out t h e v i e w s w e h a v e a b o u t a g r i c u l t u r e i n a p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n b e f o r e the p l a n goes t o t h e P o l i t i c a l B u r e a u . B e s i d e s p a r t i a l r e m a r k s , w e m u s t also d r a w some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t the plan for agriculture. F o r example, if we reflect a little m o r e d e e p l y , w e c a n accept the v a r i a n t s a b o u t t h e t o t a l v o l u m e of a g r i c u l t u r a l production, but we must take better a c c o u n t o f the p r o g r e s s a l r e a d y m a d e . . . I am of the opinion that we must examine very attentively the possibility of the intensification of agriculture on the plains, because this is essential and must be done. It seems to me t h a t t h i s s t u d y p r e s e n t e d to us is a basis, b u t it is not c o m p l e t e . We h a v e to r e a l i z e t h a t w i t h t h i s w e are m a k i n g a change, a n a d v a n c e i n t h e f i e l d of the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e , b u t t h i s also gives r i s e t o m a n y p r o b l e m s . T h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e a n d w e o u r s e l v e s h a v e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t since t h e t i m e of t h e d e c i s i o n to h o l d t h e congress of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d u p t o n o w m a n y n e w ideas h a v e e m e r g e d . C a n y o u i m a g i n e n o w , c o m r a d e s , h o w t h i s congress w o u l d be held, w h a t w o u l d have been said there? W e l l , d u r i n g this p e r i o d the question of the cooperativist plots emerged, also the question of turning some higher-type agricultural cooperatives into state farms, that is, into the property of the whole people, that of turning a number of ordinary agricultural cooperatives into higher-type cooperatives, and finally, the question of the further intensification of agriculture on the plains and the question of form-

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joint herds of the peasants' household livestock. T h e s e are a l l m a j o r a n d c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s f o r a g r i c u l ture. W h a t I w a n t to say is that we must not w a i t to solve the p r o b l e m s w h e n t h e y c r o p u p , b u t t r y t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e m w i t h studies s o t h a t w e c a n decide w h e t h e r m e a s u r e s m u s t be t a k e n step by step or some of t h e m s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . N o w w e face t h e 7 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n f o r w h i c h w e must take measures so that agriculture makes f u r t h e r advance and the cooperativists are mobilized to accomplish t h i s p l a n o f the P a r t y . T h e m a i n t h i n g t h a t w e m u s t k e e p in m i n d is the drafting of the five-year plan, w h i c h we m u s t s t r i v e t o d o i n t h e m o s t correct m a n n e r . During this five-year plan special attention will be paid to the intensification of agriculture. In t h e s t u d y w h i c h has been p r e s e n t e d t o u s t h i s p r o b l e m h a s b e e n seen m a i n l y f r o m one angle, t h a t o f the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f p a r t o f the p l a i n s . A t the s a m e t i m e , i t has e n v i s a g e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f the r o t a t i o n o f c r o p s i n these p l a i n s , t h e m a t e r i a l aspect necessary t o a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d results, etc. T h u s , t h e p r o b l e m has b e e n seen m a i n l y f r o m t h e aspect of the d e v e l o p m e n t of p r o d u c t i v e forces. B u t w h a t i s n o t c l e a r a n d has n o t b e e n s t u d i e d p r o p e r ly is the problem of the improvement of relations of production, which must be seen in close connection with the development of the productive forces, which we want to achieve in these lowland zones. H e r e I am r e f e r r i n g concretely to the relations among the cooperativists, the r e l a t i o n s o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s o f t h i s zone w i t h one a n o t h e r a n d the r e l a t i o n s o f the c o o p e r a t i v e s w i t h t h e state. T h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n w h i c h w e are g o i n g t o c a r r y out i s n o t t r a n s i t i o n o f h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s . The creation and development of higher-type cooperatives i s a c o n t i n u a l process. T h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n w h i c h w e e n v i s a g e w i l l create g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e e v e n t u a l g r a d u a l t r a n s i t i o n o f these c o o p e r a t i v e s w h i c h a r e b e i n g i n t e n s i f i e d

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to the p r o p e r t y of the w h o l e people o v e r a l a r g e a r e a of a b o u t 100 t h o u s a n d hectares. T h u s , the state sector of agriculture w i l l continue to be extended to that arable a r e a o f t h e H o m e l a n d w h i c h i s n o w state p r o p e r t y . My idea about intensification is that with this process we are beginning a new stage of development in these plains, and thus, going beyond the phase of creating higher-type cooperatives, which continues in the other regions. T h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h o u g h t t o b e a d d e d t o t h i s s t u d y i s the i m p r o v e m e n t o f r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n this zone. T h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s w i l l s t i l l b e a p r o b l e m f o r us, b u t o n l y i n the other l o w l a n d zones a n d t h e h i l l y a n d m o u n t a i n o u s zones w h e r e h i g h e r t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s m a y also b e c r e a t e d i n t h e f u t u r e ; w h i l e i n t h e p l a i n s , w h i c h w e are i n t e n s i f y i n g w i t h p r i o r i t y , we w i l l bypass this situation t h r o u g h the forms of i n tensification. A n d in order to do this we must bear w e l l in m i n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e a l r e a d y g a i n e d a n d base o u r s e l v e s o n it. T h e f u r t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t and perfecting of the relations o f p r o d u c t i o n b e t w e e n people h a v e s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e f o r us because of t h e e x i s t e n c e of state o w n e r s h i p a n d h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v i s t o w n e r s h i p , w h i c h are i n t e r l i n k e d i n t h i s p h a s e o f i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . W i t h the t u r n i n g o f t h r e e o r f o u r h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s , into t h e c o m m o n p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people, a n u m b e r of p r o b l e m s e m e r g e s u c h as t h a t of t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n w h i c h w e m u s t p a y f o r the l i v e s t o c k o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s o r t h e i r m e m b e r s , etc. W i t h t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , t h e p r o b lem o f c o m p e n s a t i o n w i l l n o t b e a v o i d e d , b u t t h r o u g h t h e creation of n e w relations of production, w h i c h we must study, i t w i l l b e d i m i n i s h e d a n d g r a d u a l l y s o l v e d d u r i n g the process. T h e s i t u a t i o n w i l l b e c r e a t e d t h a t w i t h the large i n v e s t m e n t s o f t h e state a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e , t h e property of the cooperative w i l l be gradually merged into

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p r o p e r t y o f the w h o l e people. A c c o r d i n g t o m y i d e a , the f u n d a m e n t a l f u n d s o f t h e o l d c o o p e r a t i v e a s the p r o p e r t y of the g r o u p w i l l g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h as a p r o p o r t i o n of t h e w h o l e , but nevertheless, t h e c o o p e r a t i v e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o m a k e i n v e s t m e n t s a l o n g w i t h the state i n v e s t m e n t s . I n t h e zone w h i c h w i l l b e i n t e n s i f i e d t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s w i l l c o n tinue to be paid by the w o r k d a y . T h e s t u d y o u g h t t o i n c l u d e a l l the p l a i n s o f t h e c o u n t r y , a l t h o u g h its a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l b e c a r r i e d out i n stages. W h y i n stages? B e c a u s e the p l a n w h i c h w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d to us covers o n l y a p e r i o d of f i v e y e a r s , up t i l l 1985. N a t u r a l l y , c e r t a i n steps w i l l b e t a k e n y e a r b y y e a r d u r i n g t h e c a r r y i n g out o f t h i s p l a n . H e n c e , t h e y i e l d s w h i c h h a v e been e n v i s a g e d o v e r t h e f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d w i l l n o t be a c h i e v e d a l l at once, b u t g r a d u a l l y . H o w e v e r , a p l a n c o v e r i n g a l o n g e r p e r i o d of t e n y e a r s s h o u l d be d r a f t e d f o r the w h o l e l o w l a n d zone. W i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d , t h e f i v e y e a r stages, as w e l l as the concrete steps f o r each y e a r w i l l b e d e f i n e d . I n t h e course o f t h e w o r k t h e n e e d f o r the r e - e x m i n a t i o n a n d a d v a n c e o f t a r g e t s w i l l arise. T h u s , w e w i l l h a v e a separate p e r s p e c t i v e p l a n o f a l o n g e r t e r m f o r the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e a n d t h e P o l i t i c a l B u r e a u , a n d another w h i c h we must accomplish d u r i n g the 5 years of t h e 7th F i v e - y e a r P l a n . In this five-year period we shall integrate the respective part of the perspective plan and, at the same time, take measures to prepare for the coming stage. This is my general idea. F r o m a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s t u d y w h i c h h a s been presented, w e see t h a t some p r o b l e m s emerge. F i r s t o f a l l , i t seems t o m e t h a t t h i s s t u d y deals m a i n l y w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l a n d f i n a n c i a l aspects, w i t h o u t l i n k i n g t h e m p r o p e r l y w i t h the s o c i a l aspects. F o r e x a m p l e , a c c o r d i n g t o the s t u d y , a great increase of m e c h a n i z a t i o n is e n v i s a g e d i n the p l a i n s , b u t n o t h o u g h t has been g i v e n t o the quest i o n o f w h a t w e are g o i n g t o d o w i t h t h e s u r p l u s l a b o u r

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forces released w h e n the a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k i s m e c h a n i z e d at s u c h a l a r g e scale. B e c a u s e it is clear t h a t m e c h a n i z a t i o n reduces t h e n e e d f o r l a b o u r , w h i l e w e n e e d t o i n c r e a s e mechanization to such a level w h i c h w i l l help us to increase p r o d u c t i o n a n d t o a c t i v i z e t h e l a b o u r forces s o t h a t w e d o n o t l e a v e people i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e u n e m p l o y e d , b u t at the same time, we must increase mechanization continuously. We must bear in m i n d that the r u r a l population w i l l increase n o t o n l y f r o m n a t u r a l b i r t h s , b u t also w i t h the s u r p l u s l a b o u r sent t h e r e f r o m t h e c i t y . H e n c e , t h i s p r o b l e m , too, m u s t b e t a k e n i n t o account. I n t h e l o w l a n d zones w h i c h w i l l b e i n t e n s i f i e d w i t h p r i o r i t y t h e r e are state f a r m s w h i c h are s h o r t o f l a b o u r , t h e r e f o r e , i n o u r p l a n n i n g t h e sectors m u s t s u p p l e m e n t one a n o t h e r , w h i l e retaining the relations of production. Thus, w h e n the state f a r m s are s h o r t o f l a b o u r w e m u s t f i l l these shortages w i t h t h e s u r p l u s forces w h i c h some o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n t e n s i f i e d l o w l a n d zone m a y h a v e . Hence, we must take care that the increase in mechanization, which reduces the need for labour, should not create unemployment and obstacles for us. We absolutely must avoid unemployment. T h e v e r y i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m o f t h e f u l l e m p l o y m e n t o f a l l t h e l a b o u r forces i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t o c a r r y out t h e services w h i c h c r o p s need has not been t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t p r o p e r l y i n t h i s s t u d y . I t s o u n d s v e r y n i c e t o s a y w e s h o u l d h a r v e s t the wheat w i t h mechanized means over the w h o l e Republic w i t h i n 1 5 days, o r w e s h o u l d h a r v e s t a l l t h e m a i z e w i t h combines, o r w e s h o u l d e n s u r e i r r i g a t i o n o n a w i d e scale w i t h a r t i f i c i a l r a i n p l a n t s , o r w e s h o u l d hoe a l l t h e s p r i n g crops w i t h n e w m a c h i n e s , etc. B u t i f w e d o a c h i e v e a l l these t h i n g s , t h e n w e w i l l c e r t a i n l y face t h e p r o b l e m o f surplus l a b o u r in the countryside. We cannot proceed on the course of those c a p i t a l i s t states w h i c h h a v e o n l y a v e r y

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l o w percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n of the c o u n t r y in the r u r a l areas a n d h a v e the r e m a i n d e r u n e m p l o y e d i n the streets of the cities. T o d a y we h a v e a b o u t 65 p e r cent of the p o p u l a t i o n o f the c o u n t r y l i v i n g i n t h e r u r a l a r e a . A n d t h i s percentage w i l l b e r e t a i n e d m o r e o r less a t t h i s l e v e l , i f w e d o n o t increase it. T h e r e f o r e , t h e m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e , w h i c h m u s t b e i n c r e a s e d , has t o b e h a r m o n i z e d w i t h the l a b o u r e m p l o y e d i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e people t h e r e m u s t b e e m p l o y e d m a i n l y i n a g r i c u l t u r e , b u t also i n other activities w h i c h are carried on in the territory of the v i l l a g e s . S o m e o f these forces c o u l d b e sent t o t h e h i l l y a n d m o u n t a i n o u s zones. H o w e v e r , t h e p r o b l e m i s n o t s o l v e d s o e a s i l y s i m p l y w i t h decrees a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m e a s u r e s . We m u s t be r e a l i s t i c a b o u t t h i s . H e r e a series of m e a s u r e s are r e q u i r e d w h i c h h a v e t o d o w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e a n d o t h e r sectors i n these zones, w i t h t h e m e c h a n i c a l m o v e m e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n o r g a n i z e d f o r m s a n d w i t h c l e a r p e r s p e c t i v e s . I t seems t o m e t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n , too, has n o t b e e n e n v i s a g e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Another question unenvisaged here is that in the united cooperatives of the plains, w h i c h w i l l be included i n the zone o f p r i o r i t y i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e are also v i l l a g e s o f h i l l y a n d m o u n t a i n o u s zones. W h a t p r o b l e m s e m e r g e f r o m t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? W e m u s t t h i n k a b o u t t h i s a n d act w i t h care. I stress t h i s because t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e zones w h i c h h a v e been s t u d i e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e are also m a j o r p a r t s o f c o o p e r a t i v e s w h i c h e x t e n d t o the m o u n t a i n o u s zones a n d w h i c h f o r m a n d r e m a i n a w h o l e . T h e r e f o r e , I t h i n k t h a t u n t i l t h i s process is completed we ought to retain the existing organization o f the c o o p e r a t i v e s w h i c h are i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . D u r i n g this period the value of the w o r k d a y w i l l be increased f o r the c o o p e r a t i v i s t s w h o m u s t m a k e e f f o r t s t o accomplish the five-year plan, and that is the purpose of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , the f u n d o f a c c u m u l a t i o n s h o u l d

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also b e i n c r e a s e d b y the c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h i s w i l l s t i m u l a t e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the c o o p e r a t i v e s to i n c r e a s e t h e l e v e l of production. By this means and in this w a y the l i v i n g s t a n d a r d o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s w i l l b e i m p r o v e d a n d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i l l b e c r e a t e d f o r t h e state t o i n c r e a s e its i n v e s t m e n t s i n o t h e r zones a n d d i s t r i c t s . A t the s a m e t i m e , w e w i l l l e a d a l l t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s o n t h i s course t o w a r d s t u r n i n g i n t o state f a r m s . W e m u s t s t u d y these p r o b l e m s carefully, comrades, a n d f i n d the practical possibilities to m a k e the investments we intend to m a k e in the l o w l a n d zone. W e m u s t m a k e the i n v e s t m e n t s i n stages a n d h a r m onized a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h a d v a n c e t h e development of agricultural production, for example, irrigat i o n b y a r t i f i c i a l r a i n p l a n t s , t h e use o f f e r t i l i z e r s , m e c h a n i z a t i o n , t h e l e v e l l i n g a n d d r a i n i n g o f t h e l a n d , etc. N o w let m e d e a l w i t h m e c h a n i z a t i o n . W h a t emerges f r o m t h e s t u d y p r e s e n t e d t o u s ? T h e forecast m a d e seems to me high. In the 7th F i v e - y e a r P l a n the level of mechan i z a t i o n w i l l b e h i g h e r i n the d i s t r i c t s w h e r e w e i n t e n d t o i n t e n s i f y the p l a i n s w i t h p r i o r i t y . B u t h e r e w e m u s t bear w e l l i n m i n d w h a t I s a i d b e f o r e a b o u t t h e f a c t o r o f l a b o u r i n a g r i c u l t u r e , a n d w e m u s t i n n o w a y neglect the other p a r t o f a g r i c u l t u r e w h e r e t h e r e m u s t b e progress i n i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , too. I n s p e c i f y i n g t h e m a c h i n e s w h i c h w e w i l l i m p o r t we must take proper account of this latter factor a n d i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f this m a c h i n e r y w e m u s t take w e l l i n t o a c c o u n t t h e m e c h a n i c a l base t h a t w e h a v e created h i t h e r t o . Its d i s t r i b u t i o n m u s t b e c a r e f u l l y c a l culated on t h e basis of t h e targets set f o r the i n c r e a s e of production. It is important for us that the five-year plan in agriculture should be accomplished m a i n l y w i t h the m e c h a n i c a l base w h i c h w e possess, w i t h a r e a s o n a b l e number of additional machines f r o m imports and local production.

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A b o v e I h a v e p r e s e n t e d s o m e ideas a b o u t i m p r o v e m e n t of t h e socialist r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n in (he z o n e of priority intensification. N o w I w a n t to develop this problem a little more extensively. T h e i m p r o v e m e n t of r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i s essential i n o r d e r t o open b r o a d e r roads to the d e v e l o p m e n t of p r o d u c t i v e forces, as w e l l as t o p r e p a r e the c o n d i t i o n s t o g o o v e r g r a d u a l l y i n t h e f u t u r e to the transformation in a n a t u r a l and v o l u n t a r y w a y of the g r o u p p r o p e r t y i n t o p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people. T h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n a n d t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f socialist r e l a t i o n s in t h i s zone m u s t a c h i e v e a n u m b e r of o b j e c t i v e s : T h e increase of a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t i o n a t m o r e r a p i d rates, i n o r d e r t o f u l f i l t h e greatest needs of the c o u n t r y better. T h e increase of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n v e s t m e n t s a n d e x p e n d i t u r e i n p r o d u c t i o n , m a k i n g b e t t e r use o f t h e best s o i l a n d c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . T h e g r a d u a l r a i s i n g of t h e l e v e l of w e l l - b e i n g of t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t p e a s a n t r y u p t o t h a t o f w o r k e r s o f state farms. T h e increase in i n c o m e f o r society. I t h i n k the f u r t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t of the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n s h o u l d b e m a d e i n these d i r e c t i o n s : a ) i n t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n the state a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e ; b ) i n t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d its m e m b e r s ; c ) i n the r e l a t i o n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t of t h e work and production. T h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f r e l a t i o n s i n these t h r e e d i r e c tions m u s t be done in s u c h a w a y t h a t the s p h e r e of r e l a tions o f state o w n e r s h i p i s g r a d u a l l y e x t e n d e d , a n d t h e s p h e r e of r e l a t i o n s of c o o p e r a t i v i s t o w n e r s h i p is g r a d u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d . T h i s process w i l l b e c a r r i e d o u t b o t h i n t h e r e l a t i o n s o f o w n e r s h i p a n d i n those o f e x c h a n g e , d i s t r i b u tion and management.

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A. ABOUT THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE STATE AND THE COOPERATIVE


T h e state s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n a l l t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s of t h e zone of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n (both the h i g h e r - t y p e a n d the o r d i n a r y cooperatives). T h i s p a r t i c i p a tion should be: With fundamental investments for the development of production (for t h e l a n d , i r r i g a t i o n , f o r b u i l d i n g stalls, for m a c h i n e r y , f o r f r u i t - t r e e s , f o r p r o d u c t i o n l i v e s t o c k , a n d for o t h e r objects). O n the basis o f e x i s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s , t h e t e n d e n c y o f the state i n v e s t m e n t s s h o u l d b e f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u a l increase w i t h t h e a i m o f a c h i e v i n g the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d a n d g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e s h a r e o f the state i n t h e m a i n means of p r o d u c t i o n . F o r t h e i r p a r t , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s , too, m u s t continue t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r sources o f a c c u m u l a t i o n i n o r d e r to meet a p a r t of t h e i n v e s t m e n t s a n d of the essential needs for m e a n s of c i r c u l a t i o n : With means of circulation, in o r d e r to meet t h e increase i n t h e m a t e r i a l e x p e n d i t u r e f o r p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h comes a b o u t as a r e s u l t of a h i g h e r l e v e l of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . The state s h a r e i n these m e a n s o f c i r c u l a t i o n s h o u l d a l w a y s be s u p p l e m e n t a r y , a f t e r t h e f u n d s of t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s themselves h a v e f i r s t b e e n u s e d . With the combination of relations of ownership between the state and the cooperative, the relations in the field of distribution must also be improved. As a r e s u l t of the g r e a t e r i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , the r i g h t emerges f o r t h e state to t a k e w i t h o u t c o m p e n s a t i o n a g r e a t e r s h a r e t h a n hitherto f r o m t h e p r o d u c t f o r society, w h i c h i s c r e a t e d b y the l i v i n g l a b o u r i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e . T h i s c a n be done t h r o u g h the present c h a n n e l s (by m e a n s of t a k i n g from the c o o p e r a t i v e a l a r g e r a m o u n t t h a n at present of

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the c e n t r a l i z e d net i n c o m e ) , o r t h r o u g h some o t h e r f o r m w h i c h i s u s e d a t present i n t h e state f a r m s . . . W h e n t h e accounts are m a d e a n d t h e net i n c o m e i s d i v i d e d , t h i n g s m u s t b e w o r k e d out c l e a r l y . I n r e g a r d t o the f i v e - y e a r p l a n w h i c h w e are p r e p a r i n g w e m u s t b e a r i n m i n d t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m u s t a c c o m p l i s h it, a d h e r i n g t o the r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h e x i s t u n d e r t h e l a w s a n d o r d e r s i n force. T h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t c a n n o t r e c e i v e m o r e t h a n h i s due. L i k e w i s e , i n the c o o p e r a t i v e s o f t h i s zone, i n o r d e r to a v o i d a f a l l in p a y in t h e case of a l e a n y e a r , in t h e e a r l y y e a r s t h e y s h o u l d p r o c e e d a t s l o w e r rates i n t h e i r distribution of the f u n d of consumption, w h i l e transferring a s m u c h m o n e y a s possible t o t h e g u a r a n t e e d p a y f u n d . T h e state o r g a n s a n d t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s s h o u l d set t h e l e v e l o f t h e n o r m o f a c c u m u l a t i o n j o i n t l y , a i m i n g t o m a i n t a i n the p r i o r i t y o f t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e fund of accumulation in comparison w i t h the fund of c o n s u m p t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h e i n t e r n a l resources o f t h e cooperative, b u t w i t h o u t r e d u c i n g t h e l e v e l o f a v e r a g e p a y r e c e i v e d d u r i n g the past t w o t o t h r e e y e a r s . In regard to the long-term bank credit for investments, i n a l l t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s o f t h i s zone i t s h o u l d b e r e p l a c e d w i t h t h e state p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F o r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e f o r p r o duction (which is not covered w i t h the funds of circulation o f the c o o p e r a t i v e a n d t h e state) s h o r t - t e r m c r e d i t s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d to be p r o v i d e d j u s t as is d o n e f o r t h e state farms. B y a c t i n g i n t h i s w a y , e v e n t u a l l y , w h e n t h e socioe c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s are c r e a t e d f o r t u r n i n g t h e c o o p e r a t i v e i n t o a state f a r m , t h e v a l u e o f t h e m a i n m e a n s ( b u i l d i n g s , m a c h i n e r y , f r u i t - t r e e s , r e p l a c e m e n t l i v e s t o c k , etc.), i n general, should not be distributed to the members. F r o m the m a i n means, t h e v a l u e o f t h e l i v e s t o c k o f p r o d u c t i o n w i l l b e d i s t r i b u t e d . L i k e w i s e , those v a l u e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t stocks o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d a n i m a l p r o d u c t s , t h e u n u s e d

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p a r t o f the g u a r a n t e e d p a y f u n d a n d some o t h e r i t e m could be distributed to them. In t h e f i e l d of r e l a t i o n s of e x c h a n g e i m p r o v e m e n t s can be made in a n u m b e r of m a i n directions. T h e method of collection, storing and h a n d l i n g of bread g r a i n should g r a d u a l l y change. T h e a i m should be that eventually only seed g r a i n a n d f o d d e r g r a i n s h o u l d b e h e l d b y t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l cooperatives, w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g g r a i n should be h a n d e d t o t h e state, w h i c h m u s t u n d e r t a k e t h e s u p p l y o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s w i t h b r e a d , w h i c h i s p a i d for, j u s t a s i t does f o r t h e w o r k e r s o f t h e state f a r m s , u s i n g the bakeries of the agricultural cooperatives for this purpose. I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h this, t h e i d e a c o u l d b e s t u d i e d o f s e t t i n g up a n u m b e r of c o l l e c t i o n centres f o r g r o u p s of cooperatives, to w h i c h b u l k products l i k e wheat, maize, cotton, rice, s u n f l o w e r , etc., or vegetables, potatoes a n d f r u i t are f i r s t t r a n s p o r t e d t o b e processed a n d t h e n m a n i p u l a t e d by the wholesale purchase or trade enterprises. I n t h i s context, t h e n e e d w i l l a r i s e f o r r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of some s t a n d a r d s ( m o i s t u r e content, i m p u r i t i e s , etc.), as w e l l a s t h e w h o l e s a l e p u r c h a s e prices, b e a r i n g i n m i n d t h a t t h e costs o f p r o c e s s i n g s h o u l d b e m e t b y t h e p r o d u c i n g economies. T h e p l a n n i n g of material-technical supplies and securi n g t h e necessary base f o r i n v e s t m e n t s a n d f o r the e x p e n d i t u r e o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e zone o f p r i o r i t y i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d b e d o n e o n a m o r e s c i e n t i f i c basis f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l cooperatives, too. a n d s h o u l d b e g u a r a n t e e d .

B. ABOUT THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE COOPERATIVE AND THE MEMBERS


D e p e n d i n g on the degree of intensification, t h e i n c r e a s e in production and the improvement of the relations bet w e e n t h e state a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e , the r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n

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the c o o p e r a t i v e a n d its m e m b e r s w i l l also g r a d u a l l y c h a n g e . T h e a i m s h o u l d b e that, f r o m the s t a n d - p o i n t o f r e m u n e r ation for t h e i r labour, forms of payment, social security, supplies o f f o o d - s t u f f s a n d the f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e i r needs f o r v i t a l services, t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s s h o u l d g r a d u a l l y r e a c h the situation of agricultural workers. T h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s ' l e v e l o f p a y s h o u l d g r a d u a l l y rise u p t o the l e v e l o f t h e p a y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s , b u t s h o u l d b y n o m e a n s exceed it. H e r e w e m u s t t a k e i n t o account p r o p e r l y b o t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f g u a r a n t e e i n g their pay and the priority in the creation of the f u n d of a c c u m u l a t i o n (as m e n t i o n e d above). T h e l e v e l o f t h e payments in advance made throughout the year should g r a d u a l l y increase. E v e r y t h i n g w i l l b e a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h w o r k and w i l l be paid according to the amount of w o r k done. W e w i l l create the m a t e r i a l blessings o u r s e l v e s . L i k e w i s e , t h e m e a s u r e s l a i d d o w n f o r the f o r m i n g o f j o i n t h e r d s o f the c o o p e r a t i v i s t s ' h o u s e h o l d c o w s a n d t h e r e duction of the personal plot should be applied completely a n d , first, i n t h e zone w h i c h i s t o b e i n t e n s i f i e d . T h i s w i l l b r i n g a b o u t that, a l o n g w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e v e l o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s ' pay, t h e i r i n c o m e f r o m t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t plot w i l l b e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r e d u c e d . I n t h e zone t o b e i n t e n s i f i e d w e m u s t p r o c e e d g r a d u a l l y and in an organized w a y towards the t a k i n g over by the state o f the t r a d e i n c e r t a i n f o o d p r o d u c t s , w h i c h the cooperatives t r a d e t o d a y (bread, vegetables, m i l k , etc.), as w e l l a s c o m m u n a l a n d v i t a l services, j u s t a s i s d o n e f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l centres on the state f a r m s .

C. ABOUT THE RELATIONS OF MANAGEMENT AND THE ORGANIZATION OF WORK AND PRODUCTION
T h e tasks f o r t h e m o r e r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o d u c t i v e forces a n d t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c

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a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f the g r o u p p r o p e r t y w i t h those o f t h e state p r o p e r t y also r e q u i r e o t h e r m e a s u r e s i n the f i e l d of organization and management, so that they support all t h i s process o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t h e best possible w a y . F i r s t o f a l l , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s c r e a t e d b y t h e i n t e n s i f i cation and the improvement of relations in this l o w l a n d zone must be utilized w i t h the m a x i m u m effectiveness to b r i n g a b o u t a c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d c o o p e r a t i o n on a b r o a d e r scale a n d o n s o u n d s c i e n t i f i c f o u n d a t i o n s . I n some cases this m a y r e q u i r e g o i n g b e y o n d t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f this o r that cooperative. I n those a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s p l a n n i n g s h o u l d a s s u m e t h e f o r m o f a n o b l i g a t o r y state d i r e c t i v e a n d not the f o r m o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , w h i c h i t i s t o d a y . L i k e w i s e , the c o n t r o l b y t h e state organs, i n t h e course o f c a r r y i n g out t h e p l a n , o f t h e accounts, t h e e x p e n d i t u r e , t h e d e p o s i t i n g a n d use o f i n c o m e s h o u l d b e s t r e n g t h e n e d c o n t i n u o u s l y a n d g r a d u a l l y r e a c h t h e l e v e l o f state f a r m s . B e a r i n g in m i n d the perspective, we must proceed step b y step t o w a r d s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f f o r m s o f i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h t h e m o s t a d v a n c e d state f a r m s h a v e a n d a p p l y (the o p t i m a l size o f sectors, t h e i r t a s k s a n d competences, t h e size a n d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of b r i g a d e s , etc.). I n t h i s zone, too, i n v e s t m e n t s w i l l b e m a d e i n b u i l d ings o f c o n s i d e r a b l e m a t e r i a l v a l u e a n d w i t h m o r e a d v a n c e d technology, w h i c h w i l l require the strengthening of the existing organs in the service of agriculture and, possibly, e v e n t h e c r e a t i o n o f s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g enterprises, o r the finding of other more suitable forms. T h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e P a r t y d i r e c t i v e t o accelerate the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n and i m p r o v e t h e r e l a t i o n s of production over an extensive t e r r i t o r y requires that the organs a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e P a r t y a n d t h e state a n d the e c o n o m i c o r g a n s a t t h e base a n d i n t h e c e n t r e s h o u l d

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step u p the care a n d t h e w o r k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d l e a d e r s h i p . I n this d i r e c t i o n , the n e e d f o r f o l l o w i n g t h e m e a s u r e s t h a t w i l l b e t a k e n i n t h i s zone m o r e c l o s e l y a n d i n c o n centrated ways could be examined. I see this course as a transitional stage in the further strengthening of our socialist system of agriculture and the turning of the agricultural cooperatives of the lowland zone into state farms. This will be a great success. This does not mean in any way that we are going to neglect the mountainous zones, on the contrary, with these measures that we are taking we shall create greater material possibilities to assist the mountainous zones, too (and this we must do without fail), because a large part of the population of the country lives there and those zones include a considerable proportion of the arable land. In the intensification of production and. closely l i n k e d w i t h this, i n the i m p r o v e m e n t o f r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n the zone i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y w e m u s t t a k e w e l l i n t o account t h e o v e r a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e e c o n o m y a n d t h e needs for further development of production in the r e m a i n i n g part o f the l o w l a n d zone a n d t h e h i l l y a n d m o u n t a i n o u s zone. I f possible, t h e i n v e s t m e n t s a n d s u p p l e m e n t a r y resources w h i c h w i l l b e u s e d i n t h i s zone s h o u l d b e s e c u r e d i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e w h o l e e c o n o m y , a n d n o t t h r o u g h the redistribution of the quotas of the five-year p l a n f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , because this w o u l d r e d u c e t h e rates o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e o t h e r zones, a n d t h i s m u s t n o t be p e r m i t t e d . W i t h i n t h e zone t o b e i n t e n s i f i e d , t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f the needs a n d the a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f targets i n t h e e x i s t i n g state f a r m s s h o u l d h a v e p r i o r i t y , w i t h t h e a i m t h a t t h e state f a r m s s h o u l d b e i n t h e v a n g u a r d a n d a l w a y s set t h e e x a m p l e t o the c o o p e r a t i v e s f r o m a l l v i e w p o i n t s . I t h i n k t h a t t h e s t u d y p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e a r e a of

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a b o u t 100 t h o u s a n d hectares needs to go m o r e t h o r o u g h l y i n t o s u c h p r o b l e m s as t h e i n c r e a s e of t h e effectiveness of investments, the period required for investments to pay f o r t h e m s e l v e s , etc. T h e w h o l e c o m p l e x o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f e x t e n d e d r e p r o d u c t i o n i n t h i s zone (the i n c r e a s e o f p r o duction, of expenditure, of the income w h i c h w i l l be secured and h o w it w i l l be distributed, of the investments, t h e m e a n s o f c i r c u l a t i o n , t h e f u n d s o f p a y a n d social security, the amount of accumulation w h i c h the stale w i l l t a k e , etc.) m u s t b e e x a m i n e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t . I f a l l these q u e s t i o n s a n d o t h e r p r o b l e m s w h i c h m i g h t a r i s e d u r i n g t h e s t u d y a n d its a p p l i c a t i o n are t r e a t e d i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e m a n n e r , t h e r e s u l t w i l l b e t h a t the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e forces a n d t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e w h o l e zone e n v i s a g e d w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d c o r r e c t l y a n d s e r v e as a basis f o r t h e n e x t steps t h a t w i l l b e t a k e n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e coo p e r a t i v i s t o r d e r a n d t h e w h o l e l i f e o f o u r socialist c o u n t r y s i d e . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s process m u s t b e f o l l o w e d c o n t i n u o u s l y , a n d its i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s m u s t b e e l a b o r a t ed time after time so that we proceed confidently on the right road to attain in practice the n e w objectives w h i c h w e are d e c i d i n g . About the 7th Five-year Plan

THE KHRUSHCHEVITES
Memoirs

(Excerpts)

T w o decades h a v e gone b y since the M e e t i n g o f 8 1 c o m m u n i s t a n d w o r k e r s ' p a r t i e s o f t h e w o r l d , w h i c h has gone d o w n i n h i s t o r y a s one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s i n the s t r u g g l e w h i c h i s b e i n g w a g e d b e t w e e n M a r x i s m L e n i n i s m and opportunism. At this M e e t i n g our P a r t y opened f i r e o n the r e v i s i o n i s t g r o u p o f K h r u s h c h e v w h i c h was ruling in the Soviet U n i o n and struggling in every w a y to subjugate the entire international communist movement, all the communist and workers' parties of the w o r l d , and set t h e m on its r o a d of b e t r a y a l . O u r open a n d p r i n c i p l e d a t t a c k o n K h r u s h c h e v i t e m o d e r n r e v i s i o n i s m a t t h e M e e t i n g i n N o v e m b e r 1960 w a s not a s u r p r i s e m o v e . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , i t w a s t h e l o g i c a l c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t s t a n d w h i c h t h e P a r t y of Labour of A l b a n i a had always maintained, was the t r a n s i t i o n to a n e w , h i g h e r stage of t h e s t r u g g l e w h i c h o u r P a r t y h a d l o n g b e e n w a g i n g f o r t h e defence a n d consistent a p p l i c a t i o n o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . F r o m t h e t i m e t h e K h r u s h c h e v i t e s took p o w e r t o t h e m o m e n t w h e n w e c a m e out i n o p e n c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h them, the relations of the P a r t y of L a b o u r of A l b a n i a w i t h the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of the Soviet U n i o n went through

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(EXCERPTS)

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a c o m p l i c a t e d process, w i t h zigzags, w i t h p e r i o d s o f e x a cerbation and periods of temporary normalization. This w a s t h e process o f each g e t t i n g t o k n o w the other t h r o u g h e n c o u n t e r s i n t h e course o f t h e s t r u g g l e a n d t h e c o n t i n u a l c l a s h o f v i e w s . A f t e r the K h r u s h c h e v i t e r e v i s i o n i s t p u t s chists c a m e t o p o w e r , o u r P a r t y , b a s i n g itself o n t h e events t h a t w e r e t a k i n g p l a c e t h e r e , o n c e r t a i n stands a n d actions, w h i c h w e r e i l l - d e f i n e d a t f i r s t , b u t w h i c h , step b y step, w e r e b e c o m i n g m o r e concrete, b e g a n t o sense t h e great d a n g e r o f t h i s c l i q u e o f renegades, w h i c h h i d b e h i n d a deafening pseudo-Marxist demagogy, and to understand t h a t t h i s c l i q u e w a s b e c o m i n g a great t h r e a t b o t h to t h e cause of t h e r e v o l u t i o n a n d s o c i a l i s m , as a w h o l e , a n d to our country. We became more and more aware that the v i e w s and stands of N i k i t a K h r u s h c h e v on important questions of t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i s t m o v e m e n t a n d t h e socialist c a m p d i f f e r e d f r o m o u r v i e w s a n d stands. T h e 20th C o n g r e s s o f t h e C P S U , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w a s t h e event w h i c h m a d e u s adopt a stand of opposition to K h r u s h c h e v a n d the K h r u s h chevites. As M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t s a n d in a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t w a y , t i m e a f t e r t i m e w e h a d p o i n t e d out t o t h e S o v i e t leaders our reservations a n d objections to their conciliatory stands t o w a r d s t h e Y u g o s l a v r e v i s i o n i s t s , a b o u t m a n y aspects of their u n p r i n c i p l e d foreign policy, about m a n y of their w r o n g a n d c o m p l e t e l y u n - M a r x i s t stands a n d actions o n m a j o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , etc. A l t h o u g h t h e y s o m e t i m e s f e i g n e d a r e t r e a t , t h e y c o n t i n u e d o n t h e i r course, w h i l e w e r e f u s e d t o s w a l l o w w h a t t h e y s e r v e d u p t o us, b u t o n t h e contrary, defended our views and implemented our internal and external policy. W i t h t h e passage o f t i m e t h i s b r o u g h t a b o u t t h a t w e became b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h each other's positions, a n d n e i t h e r side t r u s t e d t h e o t h e r . F o r o u r p a r t , w e c o n t i n u e d t o p r e s e r v e o u r f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , w i t h its

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peoples, c o n t i n u e d to b u i l d s o c i a l i s m a c c o r d i n g to the t e a c h ings o f L e n i n a n d S t a l i n , c o n t i n u e d a s b e f o r e t o d e f e n d t h e great S t a l i n a n d h i s w o r k a n d t o f i g h t u n w a v e r i n g l y against Y u g o s l a v r e v i s i o n i s m . O u r e x i s t i n g d o u b t s a b o u t the Soviet revisionists increased and deepened f r o m day to day, because d a y b y d a y K h r u s h c h e v a n d c o m p a n y w e r e acting in opposition to M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . K h r u s h c h e v w a s a w a r e o f o u r r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t the 20th Congress, a n d a b o u t t h e p o l i c y w h i c h h e f o l l o w e d w i t h the Titoites, i m p e r i a l i s m , etc., b u t h i s t a c t i c w a s not t o hasten t o e x a c e r b a t e the s i t u a t i o n w i t h u s A l b a n i a n s . He hoped to profit f r o m the friendship w h i c h we displayed f o r the S o v i e t U n i o n t o t a k e t h e A l b a n i a n f o r t r e s s f r o m w i t h i n a n d t o get u s i n t o t h e b a g w i t h s m i l e s a n d threats, b y g i v i n g u s some r e d u c e d credits, a s w e l l a s through pressure and blockades. K h r u s h c h e v a n d the K h r u s h c h e v i t e s t h o u g h t : W e k n o w the A l b a n i a n s . H o w e v e r s t u b b o r n t h e y are, h o w e v e r h o t - t e m p e r e d t h e y are, t h e y h a v e n o w h e r e else t o t u r n to, because w e h a v e t h e m p i n n e d u p a n d , i f t h e y p r o v e d i f f i c u l t , i f t h e y don't obey us, t h e n w e w i l l s h o w o u r t e e t h , w e ' l l cut t h e m off a n d boycott t h e m , a n d o v e r t h r o w a l l those w h o oppose us. T h e K h r u s h c h e v g r o u p p r e p a r e d this c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , p r o m o t e d a n d deepened it, t h i n k i n g t h a t i t w o u l d a c h i e v e its a i m q u i e t l y a n d g e n t l y a n d w i t h o u t a n y fuss. H o w e v e r , the reality was convincing them that this tactic was yielding no fruit, and thus their impatience and arrogance began t o emerge. T h e s i t u a t i o n b e c a m e tense. T h e n i t w a s eased o n l y t o g r o w tense a g a i n . W e u n d e r s t o o d w h e r e t h i s course w o u l d lead K h r u s h c h e v a n d c o m p a n y , t h e r e f o r e w e strengthened our vigilance, and w h i l e replying to manifestations of t h e i r despotism, we t r i e d to p r o l o n g the peace while safeguarding our principles. B u t the m o m e n t came w h e n the c u p w a s f u l l t o o v e r f l o w i n g . T h e peace, w h i c h h a d seemed t o e x i s t before,

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c o u l d c o n t i n u e n o longer. K h r u s h c h e v w e n t o p e n l y o n t o t h e a t t a c k t o s u b j u g a t e a n d f o r c e u s t o f o l l o w his u t t e r l y opportunist line. T h e n we told K h r u s h c h e v bluntly and l o u d l y No!, w e s a i d Stop! t o his t r e a c h e r o u s a c t i v i t y . T h i s m a r k e d the beginning of a long and very difficult s t r u g g l e i n w h i c h o u r P a r t y , t o its g l o r y a n d t h e g l o r y o f the people w h o g a v e b i r t h t o i t a n d r a i s e d it, c o n s i s t e n t l y s a f e g u a r d e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f its socialist H o m e l a n d , p e r sistently defended M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m and the genuine international communist movement. A t t h a t t i m e m a n y people d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d the attitude of the P a r t y of L a b o u r of A l b a n i a ; there were even well-wishers of our P a r t y and country w h o considered this a c t i o n hasty, some h a d not yet c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t o o d the K h r u s h c h e v i t e s ' b e t r a y a l , some others t h o u g h t t h a t w e b r o k e a w a y f r o m the S o v i e t U n i o n t o l i n k u p w i t h C h i n a , etc. T o d a y , not o n l y t h e f r i e n d s , but also t h e e n e m i e s of socialist A l b a n i a h a v e u n d e r s t o o d the p r i n c i p l e d c h a r a c t e r o f the u n i n t e r r u p t e d s t r u g g l e w h i c h o u r P a r t y has w a g e d a n d i s w a g i n g against o p p o r t u n i s t s o f e v e r y hue. T i m e has f u l l y c o n f i r m e d h o w r i g h t t h e P a r t y o f L a b o u r o f A l b a n i a w a s t o f i g h t the K h r u s h c h e v i t e s a n d r e f u s e to follow their line. To this fight, w h i c h demanded and s t i l l d e m a n d s great sacrifices, our s m a l l H o m e l a n d owes t h e f r e e d o m a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e i t p r i z e s s o h i g h l y a n d its s u c cessful d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e r o a d o f s o c i a l i s m . O n l y t h a n k s t o t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t l i n e o f o u r P a r t y d i d A l b a n i a not become a n d n e v e r w i l l b e c o m e a p r o t e c t o r a t e o f the R u s sians or a n y o n e else. S i n c e 1961 o u r P a r t y o f L a b o u r h a s not h a d a n y l i n k o r contact w i t h t h e K h r u s h c h e v i t e s . I n t h e f u t u r e , too, i t w i l l never establish party relations w i t h them, and we do not h a v e a n d w i l l n e v e r h a v e e v e n state r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e Soviet social-imperialists. As up to now, our P a r t y w i l l consistently w a g e t h e i d e o l o g i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e f o r

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the e x p o s u r e o f these e n e m i e s o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . W e acted i n t h i s w a y b o t h w h e n K h r u s h c h e v w a s i n p o w e r a n d w h e n he was brought d o w n and replaced by the Brezhnev team. O u r P a r t y had no illusions, but on the contrary, was quite certain that Brezhnev, Kosygin, Suslov, M i k o y a n , a n d others w h o h a d been K h r u s h c h e v ' s closest c o l l a b o r a t o r s and had jointly organized and put into practice the revisionist c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , w o u l d persist i n t h e i r f o r m e r line. * T h e y eliminated K h r u s h c h e v (1) w i t h the a i m of protecting K h r u s h c h e v i s m f r o m the d i s c r e d i t w h i c h t h e m a s t e r h i m s e l f w a s b r i n g i n g u p o n i t w i t h h i s endless b u f f o o n e r y , e l i m i n ated the f a t h e r w i t h t h e a i m o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e c o m plete r e s t o r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n w i t h g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y a n d effectiveness. I n this d i r e c t i o n B r e z h n e v a n d c o m p a n y h a v e p r o v e d to be the w o r t h y pupils of their i l l - f a m e d teacher. W i t h i n the S o v i e t U n i o n t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d a n d s t r e n g t h e n e d the d i c t a t o r i a l fascist r e g i m e , w h i l e t h e y t u r n e d t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y of t h e i r state i n t o a p o l i c y of great-state c h a u v i n i s m , expansion and hegemonism. U n d e r the leadership of the B r e z h n e v Khrushchevites, the Soviet U n i o n has been turned into an imperialist world power and, like the United States o f A m e r i c a , a i m s t o r u l e t h e w o r l d . A m o n g the bitter evidence of the u t t e r l y reactionary policy of S o v i e t s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s m are the t r a g i c e v e n t s i n C z e c h o s l o vakia, (2) the strengthening of the domination of the K r e m l i n o v e r the c o u n t r i e s o f t h e W a r s a w T r e a t y , t h e d e e p e n i n g o f
_______________________________________ * See article W i t h the D o w n f a l l of N. K h r u s h c h e v K h r u s h chevite R e v i s i o n i s m H a s Not B e e n Eliminated, E n v e r H o x h a , Selected Works, v o l 3, 8 N n t o r i P u b l i s h i n g House, T i r a n a 1980, pp. 657-665, E n g . ed. 1 K h r u s h c h e v w a s relieved of his functions on October 14, 1964. 2 In August 1968 the armies of the Soviet revisionists and their satellites occupied Czechoslovakia.

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their all-round dependence on M o s c o w and the extension o f t h e tentacles o f S o v i e t s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s m t o A s i a , A f r i c a and elsewhere. T h e c o r r e c t assessments a n d forecasts o f o u r P a r t y about the reactionary internal a n d foreign policy of B r e z h nev have been a n d are being constantly confirmed. T h e most recent example is A f g h a n i s t a n , where the B r e z h n e v K h r u s h c h e v i t e s u n d e r t o o k a n o p e n fascist aggression ( 3 ) a n d n o w a r e t r y i n g t o q u e l l t h e f l a m e s o f t h e people's w a r t h e r e w i t h f i r e a n d steel i n o r d e r t o p r o l o n g t h e i r s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l ist o c c u p a t i o n . T h e fact t h a t o u r s m a l l H o m e l a n d a n d people h a v e not s u f f e r e d t h e t r a g i c f a t e o f a l l those w h o a r e n o w languishing under imperialist or social-imperialist slavery is t h e best t e s t i m o n y to t h e correctness of t h e consistent, courageous a n d p r i n c i p l e d line w h i c h our P a r t y of L a b o u r has a l w a y s f o l l o w e d . T h e m e r i t of this correct course belongs to the w h o l e P a r t y a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o its l e a d e r s h i p , t h e C e n t r a l C o m mittee, w h i c h , i m b u e d w i t h a n d l o y a l t o t h e t e a c h i n g s o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , o u r g u i d i n g t h e o r y , has a l w a y s l e d t h e P a r t y a n d t h e p e o p l e c o r r e c t l y . I n t h e g r e a t tests w h i c h w e h a v e h a d t o w i t h s t a n d , t h e u n i t y o f the P a r t y w i t h its l e a d e r s h i p a n d t h e u n i t y o f t h e people a r o u n d the P a r t y have been b r i l l i a n t a n d have become further t e m pered. T h i s steel u n i t y g a v e t h e P a r t y s u p p o r t a n d s t r e n g t h i n t h e d i f f i c u l t b u t g l o r i o u s s t r u g g l e against t h e K h r u s h c h e v i t e r e v i s i o n i s t s , too. T h i s u n i t y has b e e n a n d i s t h e foundation of the stability and confidence w i t h w h i c h A l b a n i a has m a r c h e d a n d i s m a r c h i n g f o r w a r d , w i t h s t a n d ing the pressure and blackmail, the blandishments and d e m a g o g y of e n e m i e s of a l l hues. As a c o m m u n i s t a n d l e a d e r of t h e P a r t y , I, too, h a v e
__________________________________ 3 In the end of December 1979.

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had to take part actively in and m a k e my contribution to a l l this h e r o i c s t r u g g l e o f o u r P a r t y . C h a r g e d b y t h e P a r t y a n d its l e a d e r s h i p , since t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f A l b a n i a , a n d e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the y e a r s 1950-1960, I h a v e h e a d e d delegations o f t h e P a r t y a n d the state m a n y t i m e s i n o f f i c i a l m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e S o v i e t leaders a n d w i t h t h e m a i n leaders o f o t h e r c o m m u n i s t a n d w o r k e r s ' p a r t i e s . L i k e w i s e , m a n y times we have exchanged reciprocal visits, I have taken part in consultations and international meetings of communist parties at w h i c h I have expressed and defended t h e correct line, decisions a n d i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e P a r t y . I n a l l these m e e t i n g s a n d v i s i t s I h a v e b e c o m e c l o s e l y a c q u a i n ted w i t h glorious, unforgettable leaders, l i k e S t a l i n , D i m i t r o v , G o t t w a l d , B i e r u t , P i e c k a n d others, a n d l i k e w i s e , I h a v e h a d t o enter i n t o contact w i t h a n d k n o w t h e K h r u s h chevite traitors, who, t h r o u g h a long a n d complicated process, g r a d u a l l y u s u r p e d p o w e r i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d in the former countries of people's democracy respectively. T h e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e m a n d t h e stands m a i n t a i n e d by our P a r t y d u r i n g this period have been reflected in the d o c u m e n t s o f t h e P a r t y , i n m y w r i t i n g s w h i c h are b e i n g p u b l i s h e d b y d e c i s i o n o f the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e , a s w e l l a s i n other d o c u m e n t s w h i c h a r e f o u n d i n t h e C e n t r a l A r c h i v e s o f t h e P a r t y . N o w I a m h a n d i n g o v e r these notes f o r publication as my reminiscences and impressions f r o m t h e m a n y contacts a n d clashes w i t h the K h r u s h c h e v i t e s , w h i c h cover t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1953, a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f S t a l i n , t o t h e e n d o f 1961, w h e n the K h r u s h c h e v g r o u p b r o k e o f f diplomatic relations w i t h the People's R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a . T a k e n together w i t h other p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s a n d d o c u m e n t s c o v e r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , these notes, too, I b e l i e v e , w i l l serve t o a c q u a i n t t h e c o m m u n i s t s a n d w o r k i n g masses better, both w i t h the counter-revolutionary activity of the Soviet revisionists inside and outside the Soviet U n i o n , a n d w i t h

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t h e a l w a y s c o r r e c t a n d consistent s t r u g g l e o f o u r P a r t y i n defence o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , t h e people a n d o u r socialist Homeland. One of the m a i n directions of K h r u s h c h e v ' s strategy a n d t a c t i c s w a s t o seize c o m p l e t e p o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l power w i t h i n the Soviet U n i o n and to put the Soviet a r m y a n d t h e state s e c u r i t y o r g a n s i n h i s service. The K h r u s h c h e v group w o u l d w o r k to achieve this o b j e c t i v e step b y step. A t f i r s t , i t w o u l d not a t t a c k M a r x ism-Leninism, the construction of socialism in the Soviet U n i o n and S t a l i n frontally. On the contrary, this group w o u l d base itself o n t h e successes a c h i e v e d a n d , m o r e o v e r , w o u l d exalt t h e m to the m a x i m u m , in order to gain credit f o r itself a n d create a s i t u a t i o n o f e u p h o r i a , w i t h the a i m o f d e s t r o y i n g t h e socialist base a n d s u p e r s t r u c t u r e l a t e r . F i r s t o f a l l , t h i s r e n e g a d e g r o u p h a d t o get c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r t y , i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h e possible resistance o f those cadres w h o h a d n o t lost t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y class vigilance, to neutralize the waverers and w i n t h e m over by m e a n s of p e r s u a s i o n or threats, as w e l l as to p r o m o t e to t h e k e y l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n s b a d , a n t i - M a r x i s t , careerist, o p p o r t u n ist e l e m e n t s o f w h o m , o f course, t h e r e w e r e some i n t h e Communist P a r t y of the Soviet U n i o n and the apparatus of t h e S o v i e t state. A f t e r t h e G r e a t P a t r i o t i c W a r some n e g a t i v e p h e n o mena appeared in the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of the Soviet U n i o n . T h e d i f f i c u l t e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n , the d e v a s t a t i o n a n d d e s t r u c t i o n , t h e g r e a t h u m a n losses w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n the S o v i e t U n i o n , r e q u i r e d a total m o b i l i z a t i o n of t h e cadres a n d t h e masses f o r its c o n s o l i d a t i o n a n d progress. H o w ever, i n s t e a d of t h i s , a f a l l i n g - o f f in the c h a r a c t e r a n d m o r a l e o f m a n y cadres w a s n o t i c e d . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h r o u g h t h e i r conceit a n d b o a s t i n g a b o u t t h e g l o r y o f t h e battles w o n , t h r o u g h t h e i r d e c o r a t i o n s a n d p r i v i l e g e s , w i t h

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t h e i r m a n y vices a n d d i s t o r t e d v i e w s , t h e p o w e r - s e e k i n g elements were overwhelming the vigilance of the party a n d c a u s i n g i t t o decay f r o m w i t h i n . A caste w a s c r e a t e d i n t h e a r m y w h i c h e x t e n d e d its despotic a n d a r r o g a n t d o m i n a t i o n t o the p a r t y , too, a l t e r i n g its p r o l e t a r i a n c h a r a c t e r . T h e party should have been the s w o r d of the revolution, but this caste c o r r o d e d it. I am of the opinion that even before the w a r , but e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e w a r , signs of a d e p l o r a b l e a p a t h y a p peared in the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of the Soviet U n i o n . T h i s p a r t y h a d a great r e p u t a t i o n a n d h a d a c h i e v e d colossal successes i n t h e c o u r s e o f its w o r k , b u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e i t h a d s t a r t e d t o lose t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s p i r i t a n d w a s b e c o m ing infected by bureaucracy and routine. The Leninist norms, the teachings of L e n i n and S t a l i n h a d been transf o r m e d b y the apparatchiki i n t o stale p l a t i t u d e s a n d h a c k n e y e d slogans d e v o i d o f o p e r a t i v e w o r t h . T h e S o v i e t U n i o n w a s a vast c o u n t r y , t h e people w o r k e d , p r o d u c e d , c r e a t e d . It was said that i n d u s t r y w a s developing at the necessary rates a n d t h a t the socialist a g r i c u l t u r e w a s a d v a n c i n g . B u t t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t w a s not a t t h e l e v e l i t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n . I t w a s n o t the w r o n g l i n e o f S t a l i n w h i c h h e l d u p t h e progress. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , this l i n e w a s c o r r e c t a n d M a r x i s t Leninist, but it was frequently applied badly and even d i s t o r t e d a n d sabotaged b y e n e m y elements. S t a l i n ' s c o r r e c t l i n e w a s d i s t o r t e d also b y t h e d i s g u i s e d e n e m i e s i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e p a r t y a n d i n t h e organs o f t h e state, b y t h e opportunists, liberals. Trotskyites and revisionists, as the K h r u s h c h e v s , M i k o y a n s , Suslovs, Kosygins, a n d others e v e n t u a l l y t u r n e d out t o be. B e f o r e t h e d e a t h o f S t a l i n , K h r u s h c h e v a n d h i s close collaborators in the putsch were among the m a i n leaders w h o acted u n d e r cover, w h o m a d e p r e p a r a t i o n s a n d awaited the appropriate moment for open action on a b r o a d scale. It is a fact t h a t these t r a i t o r s w e r e h a r d e n e d

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conspirators, w i t h the experience of various Russian c o u n ter-revolutionaries, the experience of anarchists, Trotskyites a n d B u k h a r i n i t e s . T h e y w e r e also a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e e x perience of the r e v o l u t i o n a n d the B o l s h e v i k Party, a l though they learned nothing of benefit f r o m the revolution, b u t l e a r n e d e v e r y t h i n g t h e y n e e d e d t o u n d e r m i n e the r e v o l u t i o n a n d s o c i a l i s m , w h i l e e s c a p i n g the b l o w s o f the r e v o l u t i o n a n d t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . I n short, they were counter-revolutionaries and double-dealers. On the one h a n d , t h e y s a n g t h e p r a i s e s o f s o c i a l i s m , t h e r e v olution, the Bolshevik C o m m u n i s t Party, L e n i n and Stalin, and on the other hand, they prepared the counter-revolution. H e n c e , a l l t h i s a c c u m u l a t e d s c u m c a r r i e d o u t sabotage w i t h t h e subtlest m e t h o d s , w h i c h t h e y d i s g u i s e d b y p r a i s i n g S t a l i n a n d t h e socialist r e g i m e . T h e s e e l e m e n t s d i s o r g a n i z e d the revolution w h i l e organizing the counter-revolution, displayed severity against i n t e r n a l enemies in order to spread f e a r a n d t e r r o r i n t h e p a r t y , t h e state a n d t h e people. It was they w h o created a situation f u l l of euphoria w h i c h they reported to Stalin, but in reality they destroyed the base of t h e p a r t y , t h e base of the state, c a u s e d s p i r i t u a l degeneration a n d b u i l t up the cult of S t a l i n to the skies in order to overthrow h i m more easily in the future. T h i s was a diabolical hostile activity w h i c h h a d a stranglehold on the Soviet U n i o n , the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of the Soviet U n i o n and Stalin, who, as the historical facts s h o w e d , w a s s u r r o u n d e d b y enemies. A l m o s t n o n e of the members of the P r e s i d i u m and the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e r a i s e d t h e i r voices i n d e f e n c e o f s o c i a l i s m a n d Stalin. If a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s is m a d e of t h e p o l i t i c a l , i d e o l o g i c a l and organizational directives of Stalin in the leadership and organization of the party, the w a r and the w o r k , in g e n e r a l , m i s t a k e s o f p r i n c i p l e w i l l not b e f o u n d , b u t i f w e

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bear in m i n d h o w they were distorted by the enemies a n d a p p l i e d i n practice, w e w i l l see t h e d a n g e r o u s consequences o f these d i s t o r t i o n s a n d i t w i l l b e c o m e o b v i o u s w h y t h e p a r t y began t o become b u r e a u c r a t i c , t o b e i m m e r s e d i n r o u t i n e w o r k a n d d a n g e r o u s f o r m a l i s m w h i c h s a p p e d its s t r e n g t h , s t r a n g l e d its r e v o l u t i o n a r y s p i r i t a n d e n t h u s i a s m . T h e p a r t y b e c a m e c o v e r e d b y a h e a v y l a y e r o f rust, b y political apathy, t h i n k i n g mistakenly that the head, the l e a d e r s h i p , operates a n d solves e v e r y t h i n g o n its o w n . F r o m s u c h a concept, t h e s i t u a t i o n w a s c r e a t e d t h a t i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e a n d about e v e r y t h i n g t h e y w o u l d say, this i s t h e l e a d e r s h i p ' s business, the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e does not m a k e m i s t a k e s , S t a l i n has s a i d this, a n d t h a t ' s a l l t h e r e i s t o it, etc. S t a l i n m i g h t not h a v e s a i d m a n y t h i n g s , b u t t h e y w e r e c o v e r e d w i t h his n a m e . T h e a p p a r a t u s a n d the officials became omnipotent, infallible and operated i n b u r e a u c r a t i c w a y s u n d e r t h e slogans o f d e m o c r a t i c c e n tralism and bolshevik criticism and self-criticism, w h i c h were no longer bolshevik in reality. T h e r e is no doubt that i n t h i s w a y t h e B o l s h e v i k P a r t y lost its f o r m e r v i t a l i t y . I t l i v e d o n w i t h correct slogans, b u t t h e y w e r e o n l y s l o g a n s ; i t c a r r i e d out orders, b u t d i d not act o n its o w n i n i t i a t i v e ; w i t h the m e t h o d s a n d f o r m s o f w o r k w h i c h w e r e u s e d i n the l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p a r t y , t h e opposite r e s u l t s w e r e achieved. In such conditions bureaucratic administrative m e a sures began t o p r e d o m i n a t e o v e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y m e a s u r e s . V i g i l a n c e w a s n o l o n g e r o p e r a t i v e because i t w a s n o l o n g e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y , r e g a r d l e s s o f a l l t h e b o a s t i n g a b o u t it. F r o m a v i g i l a n c e o f t h e p a r t y a n d the masses, i t w a s b e i n g t u r n e d i n t o a v i g i l a n c e of b u r e a u c r a t i c a p p a r a t u s a n d t r a n s f o r m e d , i n fact, i f not c o m p l e t e l y f r o m t h e f o r m a l v i e w p o i n t , i n t o a v i g i l a n c e o f t h e state s e c u r i t y organs a n d t h e courts. It is understandable that in such conditions, non-prolet a r i a n , n o n - w o r k i n g class f e e l i n g s a n d v i e w s b e g a n t o t a k e

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root a n d t o b e c u l t i v a t e d i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e C P o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d i n t h e consciousness o f m a n y o f t h e c o m munists. Careerism, servility, charlatanism, unhealthy cronyi s m , a n t i - p r o l e t a r i a n m o r a l i t y , etc., b e g a n t o s p r e a d . T h e s e evils eroded the party f r o m w i t h i n , smothered the feeling of class s t r u g g l e a n d s a c r i f i c e a n d e n c o u r a g e d s e e k i n g t h e good life w i t h comforts, w i t h privileges, w i t h personal g a i n s a n d t h e least p o s s i b l e w o r k a n d e f f o r t . I n t h i s w a y the b o u r g e o i s a n d p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s m e n t a l i t y w a s c r e a t e d , and this was expressed in such w o r d s and thoughts as: W e w o r k e d a n d f o u g h t f o r t h i s socialist state a n d w e t r i u m p h e d , n o w let u s e n j o y t h e b e n e f i t s f r o m it, w e c a n ' t b e t o u c h e d , t h e past excuses u s f o r e v e r y t h i n g . T h e greatest danger was that this outlook was becoming established e v e n i n t h e o l d cadres o f t h e p a r t y w i t h a s p l e n d i d past a n d proletarian origin, even in the members of the P r e s i d i u m o f t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e , w h o o u g h t t o h a v e set a n e x a m p l e o f p u r i t y t o t h e others. T h e r e w e r e m a n y s u c h people i n the l e a d e r s h i p , i n the a p p a r a t u s , a n d t h e y m a d e a d r o i t use of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y w o r d s and phrases and the theoretical formulas of L e n i n and Stalin, reaped the laurels of the w o r k o f o t h e r s a n d encouraged t h e b a d e x a m p l e . T h u s , a w o r k e r a r i s t o c r a c y m a d e u p o f b u r e a u c r a t i c cadres w a s being created in the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of the Soviet U n i o n . R e g r e t t a b l y , s u c h a process of d e g e n e r a t i o n d e v e l o p e d u n d e r t h e j o y f u l a n d h o p e f u l slogans t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s g o i n g w e l l , n o r m a l l y , w i t h i n t h e l a w s a n d n o r m s o f the p a r t y , w h i c h i n fact w e r e b e i n g v i o l a t e d , t h a t the class struggle is still being waged, that democratic centralism is safeguarded, c r i t i c i s m a n d s e l f - c r i t i c i s m c o n t i n u e s as before, t h a t there i s steel u n i t y i n t h e p a r t y , there are n o m o r e f a c t i o n a l , a n t i - p a r t y elements, the t i m e o f T r o t s k y i t e a n d B u k h a r i n i t e g r o u p s i s passed, etc., etc. G e nerally speaking, even the revolutionary elements consid e r e d s u c h a d i s t o r t e d concept of t h e s i t u a t i o n to be a

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n o r m a l r e a l i t y a n d , t h i s i s t h e essence o f t h e d r a m a a n d the fatal mistake, therefore it was considered that there w a s n o t h i n g t o b e a l a r m e d about, t h a t t h e e n e m i e s , t h e thieves, t h e v i o l a t o r s o f m o r a l i t y w e r e b e i n g c o n d e m n e d b y t h e courts, t h a t t h e u n w o r t h y m e m b e r s w e r e b e i n g e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e p a r t y , a n d n e w m e m b e r s a d m i t t e d t o it, a s usual, that the plans were being realized although there w e r e some t h a t w e r e n o t b e i n g r e a l i z e d , t h a t p e o p l e w e r e being criticized, condemned, praised, etc. Hence, according to them, life was proceeding normally, and thus it was reported to Stalin: Everything is going normally. W e are c o n v i n c e d t h a t i f S t a l i n , a s t h e g r e a t r e v o l u t i o n a r y he was, had k n o w n the reality of the situation in the party, he w o u l d have struck a crushing blow at this u n healthy spirit and the entire party and the Soviet people w o u l d h a v e r i s e n t o t h e i r feet t o s u p p o r t h i m because, q u i t e c o r r e c t l y , t h e y h a d great t r u s t i n S t a l i n . Not only d i d the apparatuses m i s i n f o r m Stalin, and b u r e a u c r a t i c a l l y d e f o r m h i s correct d i r e c t i v e s , b u t t h e y h a d created such a situation among the people and in the p a r t y t h a t e v e n w h e n S t a l i n w e n t a m o n g t h e masses o f t h e p a r t y a n d t h e people, t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t h i s age a n d h e a l t h p e r m i t t e d , t h e y d i d not i n f o r m h i m a b o u t t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s a n d m i s t a k e s w h i c h w e r e o c c u r r i n g , because t h e a p p a r a t u s had implanted the opinion amongst the communists a n d t h e masses t h a t w e m u s t n o t w o r r y S t a l i n . T h e great h u l l a b a l o o t h e K h r u s h c h e v i t e s m a d e a b o u t t h e so-called c u l t o f S t a l i n w a s r e a l l y o n l y a b l u f f . I t w a s not Stalin, w h o was a modest person, w h o h a d built up this cult, b u t a l l t h e r e v i s i o n i s t s c u m a c c u m u l a t e d a t t h e h e a d o f t h e p a r t y a n d t h e state w h i c h , a p a r t f r o m a n y t h i n g else, e x p l o i t e d t h e great l o v e o f t h e S o v i e t peoples f o r S t a l i n , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e v i c t o r y o v e r f a s c i s m . I f one r e a d s t h e speeches o f K h r u s h c h e v , M i k o y a n a n d a l l t h e o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e P r e s i d i u m , one w i l l see w h a t u n r e s t r a i n e d

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a n d h y p o c r i t i c a l p r a i s e s these e n e m i e s p o u r e d o n S t a l i n a s l o n g a s h e w a s a l i v e . I t i s s i c k e n i n g t o r e a d these t h i n g s when y o u t h i n k that behind all this praise they were hiding t h e i r h o s t i l e w o r k f r o m t h e c o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e masses w h o were deceived, t h i n k i n g that they had to do w i t h leaders l o y a l t o M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m a n d c o m r a d e s l o y a l t o Stalin. E v e n f o r some t i m e a f t e r S t a l i n ' s d e a t h , t h e n e w S o v i e t leaders, a n d K h r u s h c h e v a b o v e a l l , s t i l l d i d n o t speak b a d l y a b o u t h i m , i n d e e d t h e y d e s c r i b e d h i m a s a great m a n , a leader of i n d i s p u t a b l e a u t h o r i t y , etc. K h r u s h c h e v h a d t o speak i n t h i s w a y t o g a i n c r e d i t i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , i n o r d e r t o create t h e i d e a that h e w a s l o y a l t o s o c i a l i s m a n d t h e r e v o l u t i o n , a continuer o f t h e w o r k o f L e n i n a n d S t a l i n . K h r u s h c h e v a n d M i k o y a n w e r e the bitterest enemies of M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m and Stalin. These two headed the plot a n d t h e p u t s c h w h i c h t h e y h a d p r e p a r e d l o n g before, together w i t h a n t i - M a r x i s t , c a r e e r i s t e l e m e n t s o f t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e , o f t h e a r m y , a n d l e a d e r s a t t h e base. These p u t s c h i s t s d i d not s h o w t h e i r h a n d i m m e d i a t e l y after the d e a t h o f S t a l i n , b u t , w h e n i t w a s necessary a n d t o t h e extent i s w a s n e c e s s a r y c o n t i n u e d t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e p o i s o n along w i t h t h e i r p r a i s e s f o r S t a l i n . I t i s t r u e t h a t M i k o y a n , in particular, in the m a n y meetings I have had w i t h h i m , never boosted S t a l i n , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e fact t h a t i n speeches and discourses t h e p u t s c h i s t s h e a p e d p r a i s e s a n d g l o r y o n S t a l i n o n e v e r y occasion. T h e y f o s t e r e d t h e c u l t o f S t a l i n i n o r d e r t o isolate h i m a s m u c h a s possible f r o m t h e masses, and, h i d i n g b e h i n d t h i s cult, t h e y p r e p a r e d t h e catastrophe. K h r u s h c h e v and M i k o y a n w o r k e d to a plan and after the d e a t h o f S t a l i n f o u n d a n o p e n f i e l d f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t y , also because o f t h e f a c t t h a t M a l e n k o v , B e r i a , B u l g a n i n a n d V o r o s h i l o v p r o v e d t o b e not o n l y b l i n d , b u t also a m b i t i o u s , and each o f t h e m s t r u g g l e d f o r p o w e r .

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T h e y a n d others, o l d r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a n d honest c o m munists, h a d n o w turned into typical representatives of that bureaucratic routine, of that bureaucratic legality, w h i c h d e v e l o p e d , a n d w h e n t h e y m a d e a feeble a t t e m p t t o use t h i s l e g a l i t y against t h e o b v i o u s p l o t o f t h e K h r u s h c h e v i t e s , i t w a s a l r e a d y too late. K h r u s h c h e v and M i k o y a n , in complete unity, k n e w h o w t o m a n o e u v r e a m o n g s t t h e m a n d t o set one a g a i n s t t h e other. I n a f e w w o r d s , t h e y a p p l i e d t h i s t a c t i c : s p l i t a n d d i v i d e i n t h e P r e s i d i u m , o r g a n i z e t h e forces o f t h e p u t s c h outside, c o n t i n u e t o speak w e l l a b o u t S t a l i n i n o r d e r t o h a v e t h e m i l l i o n s s t r o n g masses o n t h e i r side, a n d t h u s b r i n g closer t h e d a y o f t h e s e i z u r e o f p o w e r , t h e l i q u i d a t i o n of opponents, a n d of a w h o l e g l o r i o u s e p o c h of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m , t h e v i c t o r y o f the P a t r i o t i c W a r , etc. A l l t h i s f e v e r i s h a c t i v i t y (and w e sensed this) w a s a i m e d t o create t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f K h r u s h c h e v i n s i d e the S o v i e t U n i o n a n d outside it. U n d e r the u m b r e l l a of the victories w h i c h the Soviet U n i o n and the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of the Soviet U n i o n had scored u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f L e n i n a n d S t a l i n , K h r u s h c h e v d i d h i s u t m o s t t o m a k e t h e S o v i e t peoples a n d t h e S o v i e t c o m m u n i s t s t h i n k t h a t n o t h i n g h a d c h a n g e d , one great l e a d e r h a d d i e d , b u t a greater l e a d e r w a s r i s i n g , and w h a t a leader he w a s ! As principled and Leninist as t h e f o r m e r , i f n o t m o r e so, but l i b e r a l , p o p u l a r , s m i l i n g , a l l humour and jokes! M e a n w h i l e the revisionist viper, w h i c h was becoming active, s t a r t e d t o p o u r out its p o i s o n a b o u t t h e f i g u r e a n d w o r k o f S t a l i n . A t f i r s t t h i s w a s done w i t h o u t a t t a c k i n g Stalin by name, but attacking h i m indirectly. I n one o f t h e m e e t i n g s w h i c h I h a d w i t h K h r u s h c h e v , i n J u n e 1954, i n a n a l l e g e d l y p r i n c i p l e d a n d t h e o r e t i c a l w a y h e b e g a n t o e x p o u n d t o m e t h e great i m p o r t a n c e o f c o l l e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p , a n d t h e great d a m a g e w h i c h comes

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about w h e n t h i s l e a d e r s h i p i s r e p l a c e d b y t h e c u l t o f one person, a n d m e n t i o n e d i s o l a t e d e x c e r p t s f r o m M a r x a n d Lenin, so that I w o u l d t h i n k that w h a t he was saying h a d a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t basis. H e s a i d n o t h i n g against S t a l i n , b u t h e f i r e d off a l l his b a t t e r i e s a t B e r i a , a c c u s i n g h i m o f r e a l a n d n o n - e x i s t e n t crimes. T h e t r u t h i s t h a t i n t h i s i n i t i a l stage o f K h r u s h chev's r e v i s i o n i s t assault, B e r i a w a s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c a r d t o p l a y t o a d v a n c e t h e secret p l a n s . A s I h a v e w r i t t e n above, B e r i a w a s p r e s e n t e d b y K h r u s h c h e v a s t h e cause of m a n y evils: he h a d allegedly underrated the role of the f i r s t secretary, d a m a g e d t h e c o l l e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p , and w a n t e d t o p u t t h e p a r t y u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e state s e c u r i t y a p p a r a t u s . O n t h e p r e t e x t o f t h e s t r u g g l e against t h e d a m a g e c a u s e d b y B e r i a , K h r u s h c h e v , o n t h e one h a n d , e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f i n t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p a r t y a n d state a n d t o o k c o n t r o l o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f I n t e r n a l Affairs, and on the other hand, prepared public opinion for t h e open a t t a c k w h i c h h e w a s t o u n d e r t a k e l a t e r o n Joseph V i s s a r i o n o v i c h S t a l i n , a n d o n t h e r e a l w o r k o f t h e Bolshevik Communist P a r t y of L e n i n and Stalin. M a n y o f these s u r p r i s i n g actions a n d changes m a d e an i m p r e s s i o n on us, b u t it w a s too e a r l y to be a b l e to grasp t h e t r u e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e p l o t w h i c h w a s b e i n g carried out. N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e n a t t h a t t i m e w e c o u l d n o t fail t o n o t i c e t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y n a t u r e o f v a r i o u s actions and o p i n i o n s o f t h i s n e w leader, w h o w a s t a k i n g o v e r the reins i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . T h i s same K h r u s h c h e v , w h o was n o w p a r a d i n g b e f o r e us as a d i s c i p l e of c o l l e c t i v e leadership, a f e w d a y s e a r l i e r i n a m e e t i n g w h i c h w e h a d with h i m , w h e n he spoke to us about the role of the first secretary o f t h e p a r t y a n d t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r , p r e s e n t e d himself a s a n a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r o f t h e role o f t h e i n d i vidual a n d t h e f i r m h a n d . A f t e r Stalin's death, it seemed an allegedly collec-

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t i v e l e a d e r s h i p w a s e s t a b l i s h e d b y these a d h e r e n t s t o p r i n c i ple. T h e c o l l e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p w a s p u b l i c i z e d t o s h o w t h a t Stalin had violated the principle of collective leadership, t h a t h e h a d d e g r a d e d t h i s i m p o r t a n t n o r m for L e n i n i s t leadership, a n d t h a t the l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p a r t y a n d t h e state h a d b e e n t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m c o l l e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n t o i n d i v i d u a l leadership. T h i s was a big lie, publicized by the Khrushchevites to prepare the g r o u n d for themselves. If the collective leadership principle h a d been violated, the b l a m e f o r t h i s m u s t b e l a i d , n o t o n t h e c o r r e c t ideas w h i c h Stalin expressed on different problems, but on the h y p o c r i t i c a l f l a t t e r y o f those o t h e r s a n d o n t h e a r b i t r a r y d e c i sions w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s took, d i s t o r t i n g t h e l i n e i n t h e v a r i o u s sectors w h i c h t h e y l e d . H o w c o u l d a l l t h e a c t i v i t y o f these a n t i - p a r t y e l e m e n t s w h o w o r k e d a r o u n d S t a l i n be checked upon, w h e n they themselves spread the idea t h a t Tse-Ka znayet vsyo*?! In t h i s w a y t h e y w a n t e d to convince the party and the people that Stalin k n o w s e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s g o i n g on, a n d he a p p r o v e s e v e r y t h i n g . I n other w o r d s , i n t h e n a m e o f S t a l i n , a n d b y m e a n s o f their apparatchiki, they suppressed criticism a n d t r i e d to t u r n the B o l s h e v i k P a r t y i n t o a l i f e l e s s p a r t y , i n t o a n o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h o u t w i l l a n d energy, w h i c h w o u l d vegetate f r o m d a y t o day, a p p r o v i n g e v e r y t h i n g t h a t the b u r e a u c r a c y decided, concocted a n d d i s t o r t e d . In the campaign allegedly for the establishment of the collective leadership K h r u s h c h e v was t r y i n g to p e r f o r m a s l i g h t - o f - h a n d t r i c k , u n d e r c o v e r of a d e a f e n i n g c l a m o u r about t h e s t r u g g l e against t h e c u l t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h e r e were no more photographs of K h r u s h c h e v on the daily press, n o m o r e b i g h e a d l i n e s s b o o s t i n g h i m , b u t a n o t h e r stale t a c t i c w a s u s e d : a l l t h e n e w s p a p e r s w e r e f i l l e d w i t h
_________________________________________ * T h e C e n t r a l Committee k n o w s everything (Russian in the original).

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his p u b l i c speeches, h i s discourses, r e p o r t s a b o u t h i s m e e t ings w i t h f o r e i g n a m b a s s a d o r s , h i s n i g h t l y a t t e n d a n c e s a t diplomatic receptions, his meetings w i t h delegations of communist parties, his meetings w i t h A m e r i c a n journalists, businessmen a n d senators a n d W e s t e r n millionaires, w h o were friends of K h r u s h c h e v . The aim of this w h o l e tactic was to m a k e a contrast w i t h Stalin's method of w o r k i n g b e h i n d closed doors, o f his s e c t a r i a n w o r k , w h i c h , a c cording to the Khrushchevites, h a d allegedly been so h a r m f u l to the opening of the Soviet U n i o n to the w o r l d . The purpose of this Khrushchevite propaganda was to show the Soviet people that n o w they had found the genuine L e n i n i s t l e a d e r w h o k n o w s e v e r y t h i n g , w h o settles e v e r y t h i n g c o r r e c t l y , w h o has e x t r a o r d i n a r y v i g o u r , w h o is g i v i n g the proper r e p l y to everyone, whose irresist i b l e a c t i v i t y is p u t t i n g e v e r y t h i n g r i g h t i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , c l e a n i n g u p t h e c r i m e s o f t h e past, a n d a s s u r i n g p r o gress. Taken f r o m The Khrushchevites, T i r a n a 1982, A l b . ed.

WE MUST H A V E A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE LIFE AND THE RICH WORLD OF THE Y O U T H

From a talk at the daily meeting of the secretaries of the CC of the PLA
November 7, 1980

Yesterday at the meeting of the Secretariat (1) we h a d a material on the w o r k w i t h the youth. In the contribution w h i c h I m a d e on this p r o b l e m , a m o n g other things, I p o i n t e d out t h a t we s h o u l d t a k e a closer l o o k at t h e m e t h o d Of w o r k o f t h e P a r t y w i t h t h e y o u t h . I w a n t t o stress some matters again today. T h e w o r k of the P a r t y w i t h the y o u t h is v e r y i m p o r tant. I t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t s i m p l y t o g i v e t h e y o u t h g e n e r a l orientations and directives of the Party. On the contrary, i t i s necessary t o r a c k o u r b r a i n s h o w t o m a k e these d i r e c tives and orientations understandable so that they are applied effectively. T h e problem is that we must achieve in practice a more qualified leadership, w i t h broader h o r i zons, b y t h e P a r t y . T h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e P a r t y i n t h e y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d not b e g a u g e d a n d e v a l u a t e d b y w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e basic o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
___________________________________ 1 T h i s meeting discussed the report presented by the C e n t r a l Committee o f the L Y U A , O n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e tasks of the 4th P l e n u m of the CC of the P L A for the r e v o l u tionary education of the youth a n d the struggle against a l i e n manifestations.

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t h e P a r t y o r some o t h e r c o m m u n i s t a t t e n d e d its m e e t i n g , b y whether or not the leaders of the y o u t h have been called o n t o r e p o r t , b u t b y t h e r e s u l t s w h i c h are a c h i e v e d i n p r a c tice, b y t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e P a r t y arid b y t h e d a i l y w o r k o f t h e y o u t h . T h i s m e a n s y o u m u s t k e e p the y o u t h i n f o r m e d a n d c l e a r a b o u t t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f the P a r t y , m u s t d e t a i l these d i r e c t i v e s i n t h e concrete c o n d i tions i n w h i c h t h e y o u t h w o r k a n d l e a r n , m u s t h a v e f i r s t hand knowledge of their w o r k and problems, must live w i t h them all the time, must enter into their internal w o r l d and mobilize t h e m for ever greater achievements. The y o u t h cannot tolerate f o r m a l i s m and they t h e m selves w o r k a n d s t r u g g l e t o o v e r c o m e a n y t h i n g t h a t s m e l l s o f it. T h o s e w h o t h i n k t h a t the y o u t h o u g h t t o discuss t h e problems w h i c h w o r r y t h e m only at the meetings of their o r g a n i z a t i o n o v e r l o o k t h e fact t h a t l i f e i s b r o a d a n d deep, t h a t i t c o n t i n u a l l y g i v e s r i s e t o m a n y p r o b l e m s a l l of w h i c h cannot be raised and solved in an hour and a half a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h i s h e l d once a m o n t h . T h e m a n y d i f f e r e n t ideas a n d o p i n i o n s o f t h e y o u t h cannot b e b r o u g h t together a n d c h a n n e l l e d i n s u c h a s h o r t t i m e . W h a t ' s t h e use o f a s k i n g t h e y o u n g m a n w h y h e does not discuss a l l t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h w o r r y h i m i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ? H e comes t o the m e e t i n g o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o l e a r n s o m e t h i n g h e doesn't k n o w a n d t o r e c e i v e t h e o r i e n t a t i o n w h i c h h e has t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d a p p l y c o r r e c t l y o n t h e basis of t h e l i n e of t h e P a r t y , b u t he c a n n o t be r e q u i r e d to s a y e v e r y t h i n g a t t h e m e e t i n g , because t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e a n d w o u l d m a k e the meeting boring. We must educate the y o u t h a l l the time as the P a r t y requires, e m p l o y i n g t h e m o s t v a r i e d f o r m s a n d m e a n s . I t cannot b e e d u c a t e d solely t h r o u g h m e e t i n g s , w h i c h f r e q u ently become boring a n d are reduced to meetings w h i c h simply criticize, criticize a n d criticize undesirable actions o f y o u n g people. T h e y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n has a m a j o r e d u -

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c a t i o n a l r o l e based o n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f t h e P a r t y . A n y o n e w h o breaches n o r m s o f o u r socialist s o c i e t y w i l l be criticized, but the educational w o r k must not be continually reduced s i m p l y to meetings, s i m p l y to criticisms. The important thing is that we should k n o w and understand the y o u t h thoroughly. A n d to achieve this it is essential t h a t w e c o n t i n u a l l y g o b a c k i n r e t r o s p e c t i n o u r o w n feelings a n d in our aims in order to imagine h o w we w e r e ourselves i n e a r l i e r t i m e s . W o u l d i t b e r i g h t t o d a y if we w e r e to c o n s i d e r it a c r i m e w h e n a b o y or a g i r l e x p r e s s t h e i r feelings o f sincere l o v e f o r one a n o t h e r ? T h i s i s n o r m a l a n d n o one has a n y r e a s o n t o t h i n k t h a t people's m o r a l i t y has been r u i n e d . B o y s a n d g i r l s g o a s v o l u n t e e r s t o r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n sites a n d other actions, b u t n o scandals h a v e o c c u r r e d a n d w e h a v e n o t h e a r d o f a n y problems being created between them. T h e y w o r k there together w i t h great a r d o u r , get t o k n o w e a c h other, c r a c k j o k e s together, b e c o m e f r i e n d l y a n d s o m e t i m e s t h e y f a l l i n l o v e a n d become engaged. T h e same t h i n g occurs w h e n b o y s a n d g i r l s g o o n excursions to M t . D a j t i , M t . T o m o r and elsewhere. T h e y w o r k e d together w i t h t h e i r c o m r a d e s o n r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n sites a n d n o w t h e y a r e g o i n g o n e x c u r s i o n s together, are a t s c h o o l together, l e a r n a n d h e l p one a n o t h e r a n d one of t h e m m a y p r o p o s e to get e n g a g e d to a n o t h e r , or t h e y become f r i e n d s a n d t h i s f r i e n d s h i p leads t o l o v e a n d marriage and there is nothing w r o n g w i t h this. A l l o f u s a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t o u r y o u t h are v e r y good. W e d o n o t s a y t h i s a s a s l o g a n b u t w e e x p r e s s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s c o m p l e t e l y t r u e . W h e n w e see w h a t goes o n i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s w e a r e m o r e f i r m l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e y o u t h o f o u r c o u n t r y are v e r y good, b u t w e n e e d to thoroughly understand them. We must k n o w the n e w m e n t a l i t y w h i c h has been c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of culture and the level of social life. Social life today

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i s not w h a t i t w a s i n t h e past, b u t i s m o r e p r o f o u n d , a n d r i c h e r , a socialist l i f e w i t h w i d e d e m a n d s of a h i g h l e v e l . O u r y o u t h are outstanding for their m o r a l purity, for their political loyalty to the Party, for their ideological maturity, for their elevated educational and cultural level a n d t h e i r socialist a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s w o r k a n d p r o p e r t y . B u t w h e n r e p o r t s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o u s t h a t such a n d s u c h percentage of crimes have been committed by y o u n g people, t h a t the y o u n g w o r k e r s a r e t h e ones w h o m i s s w o r k i n t h e f a c t o r y , etc., w e m u s t n o t t h i n k t h a t the y o u n g p e o p l e d o a l l t h e b a d t h i n g s , w h i l e t h e o l d e r people are not t o b l a m e a t a l l . W h o w i l l educate t h i s y o u t h ? T h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e f a c t o r y o r the e n t e r p r i s e w i l l educate t h e m a n d it m u s t l o o k w i t h a c r i t i c a l e y e at its w o r k of m a n a g e m e n t , its w o r k w i t h t h e people, h o w i t has a c t e d t o w a r d s t h i s o r t h a t y o u n g p e r s o n w h o has f a u l t s . I f w e l o o k c a r e f u l l y a n d concretely at a young m a n or w o m a n who, for example, is m i s s i n g f r o m w o r k f o r h a l f a n h o u r , i t t u r n s out t h a t h e has s t i l l n o t b e e n f o r m e d . O f course, t h a t y o u n g f e l l o w w h o does n o t g o t o w o r k r e g u l a r l y has n o t p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d that w o r k is a m a t t e r of h o n o u r a n d a d u t y . O u r t a s k is not t o a b a n d o n a n d d e r i d e t h i s y o u n g m a n , b u t b y k e e p i n g close t o h i m , b y t a l k i n g t o h i m i n a f r i e n d l y f a s h i o n , t o convince h i m to become disciplined at work, a n d we must not a l l o w h i m t o degenerate. I t seems t o m e t h a t t h e l i f e and the r i c h w o r l d of the y o u t h should be thoroughly understood b y e v e r y b o d y . A t the present time, w h e n the m a t e r i a l a n d c u l t u r a l l e v e l i n o u r c o u n t r y has r i s e n a n d i s r i s i n g e v e r higher, the i n t e r e s t s a n d d e m a n d s o f t h e y o u t h h a v e changed. T o d a y t h e y o u t h a r e n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h w h a t w a s sufficient for us w h e n we w e r e young. Hence, another p r o b l e m w h i c h has t o d o w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e y o u t h is the u t i l i z a t i o n of spare t i m e , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of v a r i o u s sports, c u l t u r a l , a r t i s t i c a n d s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . W h e n w e

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s p e a k a b o u t sports activities, f o r e x a m p l e , w e d o n o t m e a n that o n l y n a t i o n a l c h a m p i o n s h i p s s h o u l d b e h e l d . T h e r e c a n b e m a n y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f sport a n d s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . F o r example, w h y are there not more marches a n d games? T h e language w h i c h is sometimes used telling y o u n g people: D o n ' t d o t h i s a n d don't d o that, a n d l i k e w i s e , t h e d i s t r u s t w h i c h is sometimes displayed towards t h e m cannot educate the mass o f t h e y o u t h . E v e n w h e n a w i n d o w - p a n e i s a c c i d e n t a l l y b r o k e n d u r i n g a game, i m m e d i a t e l y i t i s s a i d : The y o u t h are t o b l a m e . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w h i c h are out o f p l a c e a n d u n f o u n d e d are v e r y d a n g e r o u s . S p a r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t a r e n o t t h e task o f t h e y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n alone. A f t e r w o r k o r lessons y o u n g people need t o r e l a x , t o p l a y , t o r e a d , t o t a k e p a r t in a d i s c u s s i o n or s o c i a l e v e n i n g , to go to a f i l m ; t h e y also w a n t to d r i n k a coffee, to eat a cake, etc. E a c h of t h e m s h o u l d h a v e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o d o these i n h i s s p a r e t i m e , because i n t h i s w a y h e w i l l g o t o w o r k t h e n e x t d a y w i t h fresh strength. T h e y o u t h are the future of the country. T h e y represent the a r m s o f t h e P a r t y w h i c h a r e r i s i n g e v e r h i g h e r . I f w e d o not t a k e i n t o account t h e j u s t d e m a n d s , t h e honest desires o f these arms, w h i c h are r i s i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y , t h e n t h e a l l - r o u n d e d u c a t i o n o f t h e y o u n g people, t h e i r ideo-political tempering and further revolutionization is damaged. We have the bitter experience of the other e r s t w h i l e socialist c o u n t r i e s , l i k e t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , w h e r e the y o u t h degenerated. T h i s danger exists for our y o u t h , too, i f w e d o not w o r k p a t i e n t l y f o r t h e i r M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t e d u c a t i o n . B u t o u r P a r t y has w o r k e d a n d w o r k s c o n t i n u o u s l y t o educate the y o u t h a c c o r d i n g t o its l i n e a n d w i t h its ideals, w i t h t h e q u a l i t i e s o f c o m m u n i s t m o r a l i t y . T h i s i s w h y w e h a v e s u c h a n honest a n d p a t r i o t i c y o u t h s o closely l i n k e d t o t h e P a r t y . T h e m a j o r e c o n o m i c questions w h i c h i n v o l v e u s m u s t

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never m a k e us forget the proper ideological a n d political e d u c a t i o n o f t h e y o u n g people. O u r y o u t h m u s t b e e d u c a t e d w i t h i n the norms of communist morality, in the context of the d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r socialist society a n d e c o n o m y . T h i s e d u c a t i o n i s not b e i n g c a r r i e d out a s i t s h o u l d b y e v e r y b o d y . The education of the younger generation is not the task of the y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n alone. T h e schools, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e masses, t h e c u l t u r a l a n d s c i e n t i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , m u s t a l l be engaged more thoroughly w i t h this question. The e d u c a t i o n o f t h e y o u t h c a n n o t b e c a r r i e d out b y t h e teacher i n one h o u r w h i c h has b e e n a l l o c a t e d f o r w o r k o u t s i d e lessons. ( 2 ) E d u c a t i o n is a c o n t i n u o u s process a n d r e q u i r e s work inside and outside the a u d i t o r i u m and the classroom, in collectives a n d in s m a l l groups, right d o w n to i n d i v i d u a l y o u n g persons. A l l t e a c h e r s h a v e possibilities t o d o t h i s . . . Negative attitudes in life must be criticized, but we must d e a l w i t h a n d c o r r e c t those c r i t i c i z e d i n s u c h a w a y that w e d o n o t p r e j u d i c e t h e i r l o v e f o r t h e P a r t y . T h i s i s h o w w e m u s t act w i t h t h e y o u n g people, too, because t h e y a r e v e r y s e n s i t i v e . A s w e p o i n t e d out i n t h e meeting o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t o f t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e , w h e n certain n e g a t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a r e n o t i c e d i n t h i s o r t h a t y o u n g p e r s o n , t h e causes m u s t b e f o u n d a n d c o m b a t e d , a n d not j u s t t h e consequences. A n d t h i s c a n b e d o n e w h e n t h e p r o b l e m i s s t u d i e d a n d w h e n w e act b y t h e m e t h o d o f persuasion. T h i s i s h o w t h e c o m m u n i s t s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the masses s u c h as those of t h e y o u t h , w o m e n , t h e t r a d e unions, etc., s h o u l d w o r k w i t h c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h b a d habits s o t h a t t h e y a r e c o n v i n c e d a n d a d v a n c e o n t h e r i g h t course o f t h e P a r t y . P e o p l e m a y h a v e m a d e m i s t a k e s , b u t , i f w e act c o r r e c t l y w i t h t h e m , t h e y a r e d i s p o s e d t o l i s t e n to the a d v i c e t h e y a r e g i v e n . L e t u s t a k e a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n . W e say t h a t p e o p l e i n o u r
_______________________________________ 2 Reference is to the educational class.

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c o u n t r y h a v e n o r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s a n d t h i s i s t r u e . B u t does this mean that religion has been totally eradicated, that t h e r e a r e n o l o n g e r r e l i g i o u s r e m n a n t s i n people's m i n d s ? It is not good f o r a b o y or g i r l to displease h i s f a t h e r or m o t h e r , but w h e n t h e l a t t e r t r y t o stop a b o y o r g i r l o f families w h i c h formerly had different religions f r o m f a l l i n g in love, they should not be annoyed that their c h i l d r e n d o not obey t h e m . W h e n t h e b o y i s good, h o n e s t and patriotic, then the g i r l w h o loves h i m w i l l take h i m e v e n i f h e r f a t h e r o r m o t h e r a r e opposed. A f t e r a l l , i t i s t h e boy and girl w h o have life ahead of them. A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n i s t h a t o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e needs o f t h e y o u t h . P a r e n t s m u s t create a w a r m f a m i l y a n d s o c i a l c i r c l e around them, show their concern to f u l f i l any reasonable requirement, without neglecting their education as the main thing. O u r y o u t h are educated, have schooling. W e , w o r k e r s o f t h e P a r t y , f r o m t h e c e n t r e t o t h e base, m u s t u n d e r s t a n d this well. We have a political advantage w h i c h we must u n d e r s t a n d . T h e y o u n g cadres w h o h a v e g r a d u a t e d f r o m school are people o f t h e masses a n d l o v e t h e P a r t y ; i f t h e P a r t y w o r k s w e l l w i t h t h e m , t h e y w i l l not t u r n i n t o t e c h nocrats. T h u s , i f w e a p p o i n t a y o u n g a g r o n o m i s t a s h e a d of a cooperative and surround h i m w i t h the proper care, according to the norms of the Party, then he w i l l not become a technocrat, a s i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n the S o v i e t U n i o n d i d . W h e r e a s i f w e l e a v e t h e y o u n g c a d r e u n a s s i s t e d , one d a y h e w i l l become a t e c h n o c r a t . H e n c e , w e m u s t a p p r e c i a t e a n d utilize this advantage w h i c h we have to the benefit of our young cadres... I n these s i t u a t i o n s t h e P a r t y m u s t d o b e t t e r a n d m o r e profound w o r k w i t h the youth. T h e y o u t h today have c u l ture, k n o w foreign languages a n d read technical a n d scientific literature. We must w o r k in order to f o r m in the y o u n g m e n and w o m e n a sound opinion based on our

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Marxist-Leninist w o r l d outlook and, by means of our r a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n a n d press, d i s p e r s e t h e f o g o f a l i e n t h i n g s and illuminate the m i n d s of our people w i t h the M a r x i s t Leninist t r u t h , w i t h our line. O u r meetings, conferences a n d t a l k s also h a v e t h e i r p o s i t i v e effects w h e n t h e y a r e c o n d u c t e d i n t h e p r o p e r w a y s . If, f a l l i n g p r e y t o t h e f o r e i g n p r o p a g a n d a a f e w of o u r y o u n g p e o p l e degenerate, these d o not c o n s t i t u t e t h e w h o l e o f o u r y o u t h . S u c h t h i n g s h a v e o c c u r r e d a n d w i l l occur. T h a t i s p a r t o f l i f e . W e w i l l also have those w h o d e v i a t e . O u r y o u t h h a v e t h e i r eyes o n t h e P a r t y . B u t t h e P a r t y , too, has its eyes o n t h e y o u t h , o n t h e f u t u r e , o n t h e w o r k and c o n t i n u o u s care t o e n s u r e t h a t w h e n e v e r a n d w h e r e v e r they are t h e y a l w a y s l i v e u p to, t h i n k a b o u t a n d w o r k f o r our r e a l i t y , k e e p i n step w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d c o n t r i b u t e w i t h a l l t h e i r m i g h t i n o r d e r t o m a k e o u r socialist H o m e land p r o s p e r o u s a n d e v e r s t r o n g e r . About the Youth, vol. 2

THE ECONOMISTS SHOULD GIVE PRECISE AND CORRECT OPINIONS BASED ON MARXISM-LENINISM
From a talk at the daily meeting of the secretaries of the CC of the PLA
December 10, 1980

I n t h e c o n t e x t o f m e a s u r e s f o r t u r n i n g some h i g h e r t y p e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s , a n o t h e r m a t e r i a l has b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o u s b y some e c o n o m i s t s . T h e i r m a t e r i a l centres o n t h e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e m e m b e r s , a n d p r e c i s e l y o n the q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e m e m b e r s s h o u l d b e c o m p e n s a t e d f o r p a r t o f t h e assets o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d , i f so, f o r w h a t p a r t . S o m e o f t h e m t r y t o a r g u e t h a t since w e h a v e t o d o w i t h the t r a n s i t i o n f r o m a l o w e r f o r m t o a h i g h e r f o r m o f socialist p r o p e r t y , it is not r e a s o n a b l e to c o m p e n s a t e t h e m e m b e r s f o r e v e n a p a r t of t h e assets of t h e c o o p e r a t i v e . T h e y say that compensation should be p a i d only for the cooperativists' household livestock. T h e y t r y to back this u p w i t h some q u o t a t i o n f r o m M a r x o r E n g e l s , w h i c h t h e y i n t e r p r e t i n a n erroneous, s t e r e o t y p e w a y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y d o n o t present the p r o b l e m c o r r e c t l y . T h e q u o t a t i o n f r o m E n g e l s w h i c h t h e y g i v e , t a k e n f r o m h i s w o r k Anti-Dhring, is as f o l l o w s : ... social ownership extends to the land and other means of production, and private owner-

the

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ship to the products, that is, the articles of consumption. And in order to make this comprehensible even to children of six..., Marx assumes, c o n t i n u e s E n g e l s , 'a community of free individuals carrying on their work with the means of production in common, in which the labour power of all the different individuals is consciously applied as the combined, labour power of the community', that is, a society organized on a socialist basis, a n d E n g e l s a g a i n quotes M a r x : The total product of our community is a social product. One portion serves as a fresh means of production and remains social. But another portion is assumed by the members as means of subsistence. A distribution of this portion among them is constantly necessary.*
P r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h i s q u o t a t i o n , these economists say t h a t i n t h e concrete i n s t a n c e o f these t h r e e h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s w h i c h w e p r o p o s e t o t u r n i n t o state f a r m s , since w e h a v e t o d o w i t h a c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e same t y p e o f o w n e r s h i p , state o w n e r s h i p a n d c o o p e r a t i v i s t o w n e r s h i p , we should not p a y compensation for part of the means of production. F o r them, the property of the whole p e o p l e i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the j o i n t c o o p e r a t i v i s t p r o p e r t y ! T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y w h e r e these e c o n o m i s t s g o w r o n g , b e cause, t r u e , these are f o r m s of socialist o w n e r s h i p , b u t n o t the s a m e f o r m , one i s socialist p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people a n d t h e o t h e r i s socialist p r o p e r t y o f t h e g r o u p , a n d here, i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f these t w o f o r m s o f o w n e r s h i p , we do not deviate a fraction f r o m the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y . W h y ? B e c a u s e s o c i a l o w n e r s h i p e x t e n d s t o the land and the other means of production, the livestock,
________________________________________ * F. Engels, A n t i - D h r i n g , T i r a n a 1974, pp. 146-147, A l b . ed.

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m o t o r vehicles, etc., w h i l e p e r s o n a l o w n e r s h i p e x t e n d s t o t h e p r o d u c t , t h e a r t i c l e s o f c o n s u m p t i o n , I n t h e cooperatives, t h e p r o p e r t y o f the g r o u p exists, b u t t h e g r o u p p r o p e r t y in the cooperative of Preza, for example, is not in c o m m o n w i t h t h e g r o u p p r o p e r t y o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e o f V a q a r r ; no, i t i s the g r o u p p r o p e r t y o f P r e z a . A n d t h i s g r o u p does n o t h a v e t h e r i g h t t o b e s u p p l i e d , let u s say, w i t h m i l k f r o m the other cooperative. W h y ? Because the m i l k is the property of that group. On the other hand, the products o f t h e state f a r m o f S u k t h , w h i c h i s state p r o p e r t y , b e l o n g t o t h e state a n d i t t a k e s t h e m w h e r e v e r i t l i k e s , d i s t r i b u t e s t h e m t o t h e people a l l o v e r A l b a n i a . W h y h a v e these t w o t y p e s o f p r o p e r t y b e e n d e f i n e d i n t h i s w a y ? B e c a u s e t h e y are d i s t i n c t f r o m each other, f r o m t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c class content. W i t h i n t h e g r o u p p r o p e r t y t h e l a n d i s t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people, because, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h M a r x ' s teachings, t h e l a n d i n o u r c o u n t r y has been n a t i o n a l i z e d , w h i l e some o t h e r m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a r e p r o p e r t y not o f t h e state, b u t o f t h e g r o u p . T h i s g r o u p has c r e a t e d these m e a n s t h r o u g h socialized w o r k in that f o r m of property w h i c h i s socialist. A n d since t h i s g r o u p has c r e a t e d these m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n itself t h r o u g h its o w n w o r k , a n o t h e r s o c i a l i z e d g r o u p , t h a t o f N d r o q , f o r e x a m p l e , does not h a v e t h e r i g h t t o p u t its h a n d s o n t h e i n c o m e o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e of P r e z a ; there is a b o u n d a r y in regard to the land, in regard to other means of production and to the products w h i c h are t u r n e d out o n t h e basis o f t h e m . O f course, M a r x a n d E n g e l s d o n o t s a y a n y t h i n g concretely about this p r o b l e m w h i c h we are discussing; t h e y g i v e t h e basic p r i n c i p l e w h i c h w e h a v e f o l l o w e d f r o m s t a r t t o f i n i s h . B e s i d e s this, M a r x has also d e f i n e d t h e stages o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n . H o w e v e r , these e c o n o m i s t s o v e r l o o k t h i s . A t f i r s t w e d i s t r i b u t e d t h e l a n d , too, t o t h e peasants a n d w e w e r e o b l i g e d t o d i s t r i b u t e it, b e a r i n g i n m i n d t h e c o n -

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crete h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , t h e m e n t a l i t y a n d t h e a g e - o l d aspirations of our peasantry for the land. Therefore, after L i b e r a t i o n w e c a r r i e d out t h e L a n d R e f o r m , d i s t r i b u t i n g part of the l a n d to the peasantry. However, if we judge m a t t e r s as these e c o n o m i s t s do, a p p a r e n t l y we m a d e a m i s t a k e i n d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e l a n d . H a d w e a c t e d a s t h e y say, we w o u l d have made a very grave error of principle, because w e w o u l d h a v e s k i p p e d t h e stage a n d c r e a t e d e x t r a ordinary political problems w h i c h w o u l d have endangered the w h o l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m i n o u r c o u n t r y . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e L a n d R e f o r m , too, w e a c t e d a g a i n o n t h e basis o f t h e t e a c h i n g s o f M a r x w h o , w h i l e s t r e s s i n g t h e absolute necessity o f t h i s r e f o r m , teaches t h a t t o c a r r y out t h e l a n d r e f o r m m e a n s t h a t y o u m u s t t a k e t h e l a n d f r o m t h e b i g estate o w n e r s a n d g i v e i t t o the peasants w h o t i l l it, a n d t h e n create t h e state sector (and w e c r e a t e d t h i s sector, too, w i t h t h e state f a r m s ) . A f t e r distributing the land, we went on to the next stage, t h a t o f c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n , a n d h e r e a g a i n w e a c t e d according t o t h e a d v i c e o f M a r x w h o e x p l a i n e d t h i s p r o b l e m in theory, w h i l e later L e n i n taught us h o w to go about it i n t h e o r y a n d i n p r a c t i c e . O n t h i s q u e s t i o n S t a l i n , i n one o f the m e e t i n g s ( 1 ) I h a d w i t h h i m , a d v i s e d u s t o p r o c e e d c a u t i o u s l y a n d w i t h o u t haste o n t h e r o a d o f c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n . W h y d i d he say this? Because collectivization involves m a j o r p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c issues, t h e r e f o r e , i t s h o u l d not b e d o n e h a s t i l y , its stages m u s t n o t b e s k i p p e d . H a d w e t h o u g h t i n t h e s a m e w a y a s these economists, t h e n from the moment we began the collectivization we w o u l d have h a d t o c o l l e c t i v i z e t h e w h o l e lot i m m e d i a t e l y a n d n o t g r a d u a l l y . B u t i f w e h a d d o n e so, w e w o u l d c e r t a i n l y h a v e failed a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e of o u r socialist state, of t h e state
___________________________________ 1 See E n v e r H o x h a , W i t h S t a l i n (Memoirs), 8 N n t o r i Publishing House, T i r a n a 1984, pp. 97-99, 206-213, 3rd. E n g . ed.

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of the dictatorship of the proletariat, w o u l d have been placed in jeopardy. Therefore, we began collectivization by phases a n d e x t e n d e d i t g r a d u a l l y o v e r t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y . P r o c e e d i n g o n t h i s course, w e passed f r o m l a r g e - s c a l e private property to another phase in w h i c h , t h r o u g h the L a n d R e f o r m , w e d i s t r i b u t e d t h e l a n d t o t h e peasants. W e d i d not p r o c l a i m the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e l a n d , because t h e p e a s a n t r y , i n w h o m the p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s s e n t i m e n t f o r private ownership of the l a n d was very strong, w o u l d not have understood this correctly at that time. We brought out a n u m b e r o f l a w s o n t h e basis o f w h i c h the p e a s a n t d i d not h a v e the r i g h t t o a l i e n a t e t h e l a n d , t h a t is, h e d i d not h a v e t h e r i g h t t o s e l l it, t o e x c h a n g e it, o r t o l e a v e i t a s an inheritance. Thus, we d i d not p r o c l a i m the nationalizat i o n d e jure, b u t i n fact, w i t h t h e m e a s u r e s w h i c h w e t o o k g r a d u a l l y , w e h a d n a t i o n a l i z e d t h e l a n d . O n t h i s basis, w e began the collectivization and created a new f o r m of o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h L e n i n i s m g a v e us, t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a tive, socialism in the countryside, by means of w h i c h we socialized the w o r k and the means of production. Hence, in the creation of cooperatives we have always adhered to the course o f M a r x a n d L e n i n . W i t h the c o m p l e t i o n o f c o l l e c t i vization we came to that idea stated by M a r x that social o w n e r s h i p e x t e n d s t o t h e l a n d , t h a t is, w e s o c i a l i z e d the l a n d de jure, we n a t i o n a l i z e d it. The property of higher-type agricultural cooperatives is n o t state p r o p e r t y , b u t socialist p r o p e r t y of the g r o u p . H e r e lies t h e essence o f t h e q u e s t i o n . A n d i t i s p r e c i s e l y o n t h i s t h a t these e c o n o m i s t s a r e w r o n g w h e n t h e y s a y t h a t i n the concrete i n s t a n c e o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o state f a r m s w e h a v e t o d o w i t h a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the same type of ownership. This is the mistake that they m a k e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e m , t h e state p r o p e r t y a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t p r o p e r t y a r e a l l e g e d l y one, a n d o n l y t h e l a b e l , t h a t is, t h e n a m e , d i s t i n g u i s h e s a c o o p e r a t i v e f r o m a state f a r m .

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B u t t h i s is n o t so. C o o p e r a t i v i s t o w n e r s h i p is a t r a n s i t i o n a l form, w h i c h we have to go through in order to arrive at o w n e r s h i p o f t h e w h o l e people. W e m u s t n e v e r f o r g e t t h i s . B u t these e c o n o m i s t s f o r g e t i t a n d g i v e a d o g m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n o f those t h i n g s t h e y h a v e r e a d i n b o o k s w i t h o u t t a k i n g practice, the reality, into account. We created the higher-type agricultural cooperatives a s a n o t h e r m o r e a d v a n c e d stage o n t h e r o a d o f d e v e l o p m e n t of the cooperativist order a n d of the transformation of c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s . A c c o r d i n g t o these e c o n o m ists, w e c o u l d h a v e gone o v e r t o state f a r m s w i t h o u t h a v i n g passed t h r o u g h t h e stage o f h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s ! (Those i n d i v i d u a l cases w h e n w e h a v e m a d e changes d i r e c t l y f r o m o r d i n a r y c o o p e r a t i v e s , a r e s o m e t h i n g else.) A s a g e n e r a l r u l e , h o w e v e r , w e c o u l d n o t act i n t h a t w a y . I n s u c h a case t h e P a r t y w o u l d h a v e m a d e a m i s t a k e , b u t it d i d n o t d o that, b u t a f t e r m u c h t h o u g h t i t c r e a t e d a b o u t 40 higher-type cooperatives. Practice showed that most of t h e m a r e g o i n g w e l l a n d some a r e g o i n g m o r e s l o w l y , b u t w e m u s t set u p o t h e r h i g h e r - t y p e cooperatives. T h e r e fore, w e m u s t p r o c e e d g r a d u a l l y , because p o l i t i c a l a n d economic problems, w h i c h are difficult to be solved, emerge o n t h i s course. T h a t i s w h y n o w w e are t h i n k i n g v e r y deeply about t r a n s f o r m i n g first only three or four of t h e m i n t o state f a r m s . H e n c e , a t f i r s t , w e w i l l s t a y w i t h i n these l i m i t s a n d continue to strengthen the other cooperatives of this type, just a s w e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s a l l over A l b a n i a in order to create the conditions for the c o m plete c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e e c o n omic, i n t h e f i r s t place, a n d h a v e t o d o w i t h a n a p p r e c i a b l e increase in the intensification of production and reduction o f t h e cost o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s . I n t h i s w a y the cooperativists w i l l understand that the line of the P a r t y in connection w i t h the social ownership of the land

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a n d t h e o t h e r m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n , too, i s correct a n d t o t h e i r b e n e f i t , t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e w h o l e people. T h a t , comrades, i s w h y w e are t h i n k i n g s o h a r d a n d s o d e e p l y about t u r n i n g these f e w h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s , w h e r e a s , a c c o r d i n g t o these economists, i t i s a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e easy t o t u r n a l l t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o state f a r m s a n d t o r e f u s e t o p a y t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e cooperative as joint owners for even a part of the m a i n means! N o doubt, w h e n t h e y j u d g e m a t t e r s i n t h i s w a y t h e y h a v e i n m i n d one o r t w o instances w h e n s o m e o n e leaves t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d goes t o w o r k o n a state f a r m a n d does n o t care about h i s c o w o r o t h e r m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e t h a t h e has left b e h i n d . B u t t h e p r i n c i p l e i s n o t so s i m p l e as these economists p r e s e n t it. If it w e r e t r u l y s o that t o d a y t h e masses o f t h e peasants h a v e r e a c h e d the level w h e n they can say: What do we want the c o o p e r a t i v e s ' c o w s f o r ? , t h e n t h e P a r t y w o u l d n o t need t o create h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s . W e c a n n o t base t h e l i n e o f t h e P a r t y o n one o r t w o s u c h instances, o r e v e n o n t h e o p i n i o n o f some h u n d r e d s o f peasants. H e r e w e h a v e to do w i t h the principles of M a r x i s m , the w h o l e political line of the Party. In this transition w h i c h we are m a k i n g so carefully a n d i n w h i c h w e see b o t h t h e p o l i t i c a l aspect a n d t h e e c o n o m i c aspect, w e m a i n t a i n t h e j o i n t o w n e r s h i p o v e r t h e l a n d a n d t h e other m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . W i t h t h i s c h a n g e we do not distribute the other means of production, but t r a n s f e r t h e m a l l t o state o w n e r s h i p . I f w e c o n s i d e r t h e c o w s , t h e other l i v e s t o c k , t h e v i n e y a r d s , t h e f r u i t - t r e e s , t h e stalls, etc. as m e a n s of p r o d u c t i o n , a n d t h e y h a v e to be considered as means of production, f r o m this stand-point we d o n o t d i s t r i b u t e a l l these t o t h e peasants, because t h a t w o u l d break up the common property, but on the contrary, we raise the joint property of the group to a higher level, t o p r o p e r t y o f the w h o l e people.

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These means r e m a i n social property. N o w it remains t o b e seen f o r w h a t w e s h o u l d a n d f o r w h a t w e s h o u l d n o t p a y c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e peasants. M a r x does not a n d c o u l d not t e l l u s this. T h i s d e p e n d s o n t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y a n d o n w h a t i t i s d e c i d e d t h e peasant s h o u l d b e p a i d f o r . D o e s t h e peasant s a y p a y m e f o r t h e stalls? W e j u d g e t h a t h e does n o t s a y this. T h e r e f o r e , w h a t s h a l l w e do? W e s h o u l d n o t p a y , w e say. L i k e w i s e , w e are c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e peasant does not s a y p a y m e f o r t h e v i n e y a r d o r the m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t . T h e n , w h a t are t h e t h i n g s f o r w h i c h the peasant w i l l d e m a n d t o b e p a i d ? H e w i l l d e m a n d c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e c o w s a n d t h e sheep o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e , o t h e r w i s e , h e w i l l say, t h e y w e r e t a k e n f r o m us. ( W h i l e for the household animals, there is no doubt that they must be p a i d for, too.) A n o t h e r p r o b l e m is the question of w h e t h e r we decide t o p a y f o r these t h i n g s a l l a t once, o r t o s a y t o t h e p e a s a n t : W e w i l l p a y y o u i n i n s t a l m e n t s n o t w i t h i n one o r t w o years, b u t o v e r a n u m b e r of y e a r s a c c o r d i n g to o u r s i t u a tion. T h i s s t a n d does n o t v i o l a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e s i n a n y w a y . M a r x does not s a y a n y w h e r e w h a t s h o u l d b e n a t i o n a l i z e d a n d w h a t s h o u l d b e e x p r o p r i a t e d , b u t h e has g i v e n t h e explanation: social ownership extends to the l a n d and the other m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n , a n d p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p t o t h e articles o f c o n s u m p t i o n . M a r x does n o t say a n d c o u l d n o t say w h e t h e r a t t h e t i m e t h a t t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i s m a d e i t w i l l b e done w i t h o r w i t h o u t c o m p e n s a t i o n . A m o n g s t u s there a r e r e m n a n t s o f t h e t i m e o f b y g o n e r e g i m e s a n d t h e f o r m e r b o u r g e o i s s y s t e m w h i c h w i l l b e r e t a i n e d f o r some t i m e yet. W e k n o c k d o w n houses, let u s say, f o r t o w n p l a n n i n g reasons, t o s t r a i g h t e n u p t h e streets a n d w e p a y c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e o w n e r s o f these houses a c c o r d i n g t o the v a l u t a t i o n set b y t h e e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e . P o l i t i c a l interests r e q u i r e t h i s p a y m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n y o u h a v e t o d o w i t h t h e peasant, i n w h o m t h e p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s p s y -

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c h o l o g y o f p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p i s p r o n o u n c e d . O f course, w e must combat this psychology, although not w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e g a l measures, b u t b y c o n v i n c i n g t h e peasant t h a t i n t h i s w a y h e w i l l l i v e better, h i s p r o d u c t s a n d i n c o m e w i l l be increased, etc. T h e r e f o r e , in t h e case of t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o state f a r m s , too, w e t e l l t h e peasant t h a t i n o r d e r t o b u y c o n s u m e r goods w e w i l l p a y h i m a s a w o r k e r , m o r e t h a n h e gets a t present, besides w h i c h w e s h a l l also g i v e h i m so m a n y leks extra per year for the cow a n d other things f r o m t h e assets o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e , f o r w h i c h w e c o n s i d e r the member should be compensated. M a r x has not p r o h i b i t e d u s f r o m d o i n g this, o n t h e c o n t r a r y , i n t h i s w a y w e are o n his course a n d d o not v i o l a t e a n y p r i n c i p l e . T h e economists w h o are opposed t o c o m p e n sation, a s stated above, d o not i n t e r p r e t M a r x w e l l , because t h e y equate state p r o p e r t y w i t h the c o o p e r a t i v i s t p r o p e r t y , alleging that we have to do w i t h a mechanical exchange w i t h i n the one f o r m o f p r o p e r t y . T h u s , these e c o n o m i s t s w a n t u s t o speed t h i n g s u p , t o s k i p t h e stages, t h a t is, t o d e c l i n e t o p a y t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s a n y t h i n g . T h e y d o not r e a l i z e that, i f w e d e c l i n e t o p a y a n y t h i n g , i n d i r e c t l y w e w i l l t e l l t h e others w e are g o i n g t o t a k e a l l y o u r c o m m o n assets f r o m y o u w i t h o u t c o m p e n s a t i o n , hence, d i s t r i b u t e more income per w o r k d a y to the detriment of the f u n d of a c c u m u l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , w h e n w e c a l l o n t h e specialists t h e y s h o u l d g i v e u s precise a n d c o r r e c t o p i n i o n s b a s e d o n dialectical interpretations of the teachings of M a r x i s m L e n i n i s m , because i n t h e concrete i n s t a n c e u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e g r o u p i s not i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people a n d w e a r e not d e a l i n g m e r e l y w i t h a c h a n g e i n names, b u t w i t h a n h i s t o r i c a l process o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d m a t e r i a l , social, p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d other p r o g r e s s . T h e P a r t y has r e c o m m e n d e d t h e s t a n d a r d C o n s t i t u t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r a l Cooperatives w h i c h the members have adopted. T h e Constitution of A g r i c u l t u r a l Cooperatives is

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l a w f o r t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e y p r o c e e d o n t h e basis o f t h i s C o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i l e t h e state f a r m s o p e r a t e o n t h e basis o f the l a w o n e n t e r p r i s e s . H e n c e , t h i s s e p a r a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s f r o m state f a r m s has n o t b e e n d o n e f o r m a l l y . F r o m t h i s s t a n d - p o i n t , too, i t seems t o m e t h a t w i t h t h e o p i n i o n s these e c o n o m i s t s express, t h e y are n o t sufficiently linked w i t h life. On Science, vol. 2

POLAND CAN BE SAVED ONLY BY ITS WORKING CLASS

Article published in the newspaper Zri i popullit


February 13, 1981

T h e situation in P o l a n d continues to deteriorate and grow more complicated. As a result of uninterrupted strikes the e c o n o m y has b e e n d e v a s t a t e d a n d i s o n t h e v e r g e o f disaster. S o c i a l l i f e i s d e g e n e r a t i n g f r o m d a y t o d a y . C o n fusion, anarchy and corruption reign everywhere. U n d e r the pressure and threats of Solidarity, the P o l i s h p a r t y a n d g o v e r n m e n t h a v e b e e n o b l i g e d t o m a k e concessions a f t e r concessions a n d cede m a n y o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . A l l t h e m e a s u r e s w h i c h h a v e been t a k e n a n d t h e c o m promises made have not led to the stabilization of the s i t u a t i o n , but, o n the c o n t r a r y , h a v e m a d e m a t t e r s e v e n worse. It is Solidarity w h i c h is m a k i n g the l a w in the c o u n t r y . T h e a i m w h i c h i t has set itself i s b e c o m i n g m o r e a n d m o r e e v i d e n t : t o g r a d u a l l y t a k e o v e r state p o w e r , t o w i t h d r a w P o l a n d f r o m the W a r s a w Treaty a n d to push it t o w a r d s t h e W e s t . A l l its actions a r e s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h i s strategy. S o l i d a r i t y , w h i c h presents itself as a w o r k e r s ' union, is an out-and-out reactionary movement. B e h i n d i t stands t h e P o l i s h C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a n d t h e V a t i c a n , w h i c h r u n i t a n d l e a d it, h o w e v e r , besides those w h o a r e r e presented by L e c h Walessa a n d company, participating in

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the l e a d e r s h i p o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e a r e also t h e C l u b o f the C a t h o l i c I n t e l l i g e n t s i a ( K O R ) , w h i c h i s a g r o u p o f representatives of internal reaction and external w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t r e a c t i o n , t h e n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y , the C o n f e d e r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n t P o l a n d a n d some o t h e r g r o u p i n g o f this type. I t i s p r e c i s e l y these v a r i o u s r e a c t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l forces a n d c u r r e n t s w h i c h h a v e t h e P o l i s h w o r k i n g class i n t h e i r clutches a t p r e s e n t a n d a r e m a n i p u l a t i n g i t f o r t h e i r o w n p o l i t i c a l ends. F o r the m o m e n t , these c u r r e n t s h a v e u n i t e d i n a l l i a n c e against t h e P o l i s h U n i t e d W o r k e r s ' P a r t y , w h i c h i s s p l i t into v a r i o u s f a c t i o n s a n d g r o u p s , p r o - S o v i e t a n d a n t i Soviet, n a t i o n a l i s t a n d c h a u v i n i s t , r e f o r m i s t a n d c l e r i c a l . That party is completely anti-Marxist and counter-revolutionary. T h e policy and ideology it pursues have disc r e d i t e d i t i n t h e eyes o f the masses a n d h a v e m a d e i t i n c a p a b l e o f e x e r c i s i n g its i n f l u e n c e o r i m p o s i n g its w i l l . I t i s the o m n i p o t e n t C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , its s p i r i t u a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l p o w e r , w h i c h d o m i n a t e t h e l i f e o f the P o l i s h people today. I n c a m o u f l a g e d w a y s a n d t h r o u g h t h e n e w s q u i r e s w h o are i n p o w e r , t h e V a t i c a n i s r u n n i n g not o n l y s p i r i t u a l matters b y also t e m p o r a l m a t t e r s i n P o l a n d . N o w t h e C a tholic C h u r c h is struggling to take over the r u n n i n g of the state c o m p l e t e l y t h r o u g h S o l i d a r i t y . T h e Polish C h u r c h , the V a t i c a n and Western Europe are f o l l o w i n g t h e t a c t i c o f roast t h e meat, b u t don't b u r n the spit. T h e y are a d v o c a t i n g : t a k e a step a n d consolidate the p o s i t i o n s a c h i e v e d , t a k e a n o t h e r step a n d a v o i d S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n , use t h e 21 p o i n t s as an e c o n o m i c p l a t f o r m just t o d e c e i v e t h e w o r k i n g class a n d t r a n s f o r m t h e m i n t o p o l i t i c a l actions to e r o d e t h e f o u n d a t i o n s of the r e v i s i o n i s t system a n d o f t h e p s e u d o - c o m m u n i s t p a r t y . N e x t , pass f r o m the c i t y to the c o u n t r y s i d e , to t h e peasant S o l i d a r i t y , r a l l y and o r g a n i z e p o l i t i c a l l y the l a n d e d squires, w h o n e v e r p e r -

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m i t t e d c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n a n d w h o r e m a i n t h e m a i n basis o f the Polish C h u r c h and of old chauvinist traditions. W i t h i n S o l i d a r i t y , h o w e v e r , t h e r e are also t h e u l t r a ists, w h o w a n t t o o v e r t h r o w t h e F r a n c o - G e r m a n O s t p o l i t i k , a n d especially, t h e detente o f W e s t - E u r o p e a n p o w e r s w i t h the S o v i e t U n i o n . T h e u l t r a i s t s are f o r t h e t a c t i c of rapid advance and p o w e r f u l blows even if they m a y cause S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d a r m e d clashes. T h e y a r e operating according to the A m e r c i a n policy w h i c h aims to cause a r m e d c o n f l i c t w i t h i n P o l a n d , w h i c h w o u l d also l e a d t o t h e defeat of the t a c t i c of t h e F r a n c o - G e r m a n O s t p o l i t i k . That would be a w a y to weaken France and G e r m a n y and return t h e m to the positions of obedient lackeys, by threatening them w i t h the danger of Soviet imperialism. T h i s i s the strategy a n d these a r e t h e tactics o f i n t e r n a l Polish reaction and international reaction. These are the objectives o f the c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i n P o l a n d , w h i c h i s t a k i n g place in a c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n a c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y state. T h e present r e v i s i o n i s t state is in a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e i t i s b e i n g a t t a c k e d f r o m a l l sides a n d does n o t k n o w w h i c h w a y t o g o t o escape. C l e r i c a l r e a c t i o n i s m a n i p u l a t i n g the w o r k i n g class, not t o m e n t i o n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e w h e r e i t has h a d s t r o n g bases. T h e p a r t y a n d the state, w h i c h h a v e lost a u t h o r i t y a n d i n f l u e n c e , are o b l i g e d t o m a k e concessions to the c h u r c h a n d to accept it as arbiter in t h e c o n f l i c t . I n p r a c t i c e t h e y are a t t h e m e r c y o f W y s z y n s k i . H o w e v e r , the P o l i s h r e v i s i o n i s t g o v e r n m e n t has t o please b o t h the goat a n d t h e cabbage. It has to b e h a v e w i t h great c a u t i o n a n d l i s t e n a t t e n t i v e l y also t o t h e r i g o r o u s d e m a n d s o f t h e S o v i e t a l l y . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , i t has t o t a k e i n t o account t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e r u l i n g s q u i r e a r c h y , t h e m e n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , of the a p p a r a t u s e s of the p a r t y , the e c o n o m y a n d the a r m y , w h o also w a n t t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r privileges.

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T h i s s i t u a t i o n has caused chaos a n d d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n the r a n k s o f t h e p a r t y a n d t h e state. T h e y a r e n o l o n g e r operating as centralized institutions. Their rank and file listen more t o w h a t S o l i d a r i t y a n d the e p i s c o p a c y say than to the directives that come f r o m the C e n t r a l Committee and t h e o r d e r s w h i c h the g o v e r n m e n t issues. T h e r e v i s i o n ist l e a d e r s h i p is t a l k i n g a b o u t a r e v i v a l , b u t it has no p r o g r a m o f a c t i o n t o p u l l t h e c o u n t r y out o f the c r i s i s a n d does not k n o w w i t h w h o m t o u n i t e a n d w i t h w h o m t o split. T h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r s w h o w e r e c h a n g e d one a f t e r t h e other b r i n g a b o u t n o c h a n g e w h a t s o e v e r . T h e r e v i v a l has r e m a i n e d a s l o g a n d e v o i d of content. B u t i t i s not o n l y t h e P o l i s h l e a d e r s h i p t h a t i s i n great t r o u b l e . T h e K r e m l i n a n d its allies o f the W a r s a w T r e a t y are i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . T o a l l o w P o l a n d t o s l i p t o the w e s t e r n c a m p w o u l d m e a n t o e n d a n g e r t h e a l l i a n c e , the S o v i e t h e g e m o n y i n t h e c o u n t r i e s o f the East, t o e n danger t h e v i t a l r o u t e s o f t h e S o v i e t a r m y i n E u r o p e , t o endager t h e p r e s e n t S o v i e t s t r a t e g y based o n t h e i r m i l i t a r y s t r i k i n g force. T e c h n i c a l l y i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t f o r S o v i e t social-imperialism to undertake military intervention to establish order i n P o l a n d . B u t t h i s w o u l d e n d a n g e r t h e East-West trade relations, w o u l d jeopardize the billions of dollars w h i c h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d its satellites h a v e received a n d are r e c e i v i n g f r o m t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a a n d f r o m W e s t e r n E u r o p e , w o u l d e n d a n g e r detente a n d w o u l d d e s t r o y the F r a n c o - G e r m a n O s t p o l i t i k , w h i c h t h e K r e m l i n w a n t s t o e x p l o i t i n its r i v a l r y w i t h American imperialism. This explains that stern propaganda and the firm stands of the organs of t h e S o v i e t press against those forces w h i c h it describes as a n t i - S o v i e t , anti-socialist, etc. T h e K r e m l i n i s o p e n l y a n d s t u b b o r n l y d e f e n d i n g its o w n P o l i s h clan w i t h i n P o l a n d , e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e a n d m a k i n g t h r e a t s and k e e p i n g its attack forces i n readiness, w h i l e , i n o r d e r

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to s h o w t h a t it is calm, f o r a p p e a r a n c e s ' sake it e v e n a c cepts some o f the retreats w h i c h t h e P o l i s h l e a d e r s h i p i s m a k i n g . T h e a i m and desire of the Soviet U n i o n is to defeat s u b v e r s i o n w i t h s u b v e r s i o n . B u t w h e n i t sees a n y hope o f a n i n t e r n a l s o l u t i o n f a d i n g , o n l y t w o r o a d s r e m a i n open t o i t : e i t h e r t o i n t e r v e n e w i t h a r m s a n d stabilize the s i t u a t i o n t h r o u g h v i o l e n c e , o r t o accept t o t a l defeat, t h a t is, the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the W a r s a w T r e a t y a n d C o m e con. B u t S o v i e t s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s m c a n n o t accept t h i s t o t a l defeat. K a n i a , W y s z y n s k i a n d L e c h W a l e s s a k n o w this, a n d those i n B o n n a n d P a r i s k n o w it, too. At present there is no organized political force in Poland w h i c h could take over the leadership and the resp o n s i b i l i t y t o p u l l the c o u n t r y f r o m chaos a n d a n a r c h y , f r o m the dangers w h i c h t h r e a t e n its f r e e d o m a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d its f u t u r e . I f t h e P o l i s h people, t h e w o r k i n g class, w o r k i n g p e a s a n t r y , the p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , t h e gen u i n e patriots, d o not u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m p l i c a t e d s i t u a t i o n into w h i c h the various capitalist, clerical and revisionist r e a c t i o n a r y c u r r e n t s h a v e l e d t h e m , t h e y w i l l f a l l out o f the frying-pan into the fire. T h e lack of a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t c o m m u n i s t p a r t y r e m a i n s t h e greatest h a n d i c a p f o r t h e P o l i s h w o r k i n g class. W i t h o u t a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t c o m m u n i s t p a r t y i t cannot f i n d its c o u r s e t o w a r d s the r e v o l u t i o n . T h e w o r k i n g class w i l l a l w a y s r e m a i n s p l i t a n d , a s s u c h , t h e capitalist-revisionist bourgeois parties w i l l manipulate it for t h e i r o w n interests. A p o l i t i c a l l y d i v i d e d w o r k i n g class, without a Marxist-Leninist communist party, w i l l always be a t o y i n the h a n d s o f those p a r t i e s a n d w i l l p l a y t h e g a m e o f r e a c t i o n a n d the r e f o r m i s t s . I n t h e present e r a , t h e r e v olution and any positive and progressive change in favour of t h e people a n d oppressed classes c a n n o t be c a r r i e d o u t if t h e y are not l e d by a r e v o l u t i o n a r y , M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t communist party. The Party of Labour of Albania, through its organ

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Zri i popullit, has e x p r e s s e d in c l e a r a n d p o l i t i c a l l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e w a y s its o p i n i o n s o n the past a n d present e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g i n P o l a n d . I t has c o n d e m n e d the r e g i m e s o f G o m u l k a , G i e r e k and K a n i a , who, through the revisionist a n d c a p i t a l i s t l i n e t h e y h a v e p u r s u e d , a r e t o b l a m e for the s i t u a t i o n w h i c h has b e e n c r e a t e d i n P o l a n d a n d f o r t h e dangers i t presents f o r others. O u r P a r t y has d e n o u n c e d a n d e x p o s e d t h e S o v i e t r e v i s i o n i s t s a n d t h e i r satellites a n d t h e i r c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i c y a n d a c t i o n s ; has d e n o u n c e d a n d e x p o s e d A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s m a n d the n e o - c o l o n i a l i s t states a n d t h e i r a i m s , a n d has p o w e r f u l l y s u p p o r t e d the peoples' l i b e r a t i o n m o v e m e n t a n d p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n s .
O u r P a r t y has a l w a y s s u p p o r t e d t h e e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l c l a i m s o f the w o r k i n g class o f e v e r y Capitalist o r revisionist country. B u t it always looks at any movement of the w o r k i n g class w i t h a class eye, f r o m the s t a n d p o i n t o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , f r o m the p o l i t i c a l angle. I t i s not d e c e i v e d b y slogans a n d s h i b b o l e t h s , b u t e x a m i n e s c a r e f u l l y w h o m the o r i e n t a t i o n s serve, w h a t c o u r s e t h e c l a i m , t h e s t r i k e o r the i n s u r r e c t i o n takes. T h i s i s the s p i r i t i n w h i c h o u r P a r t y analyses, j u d g e s a n d reaches c o n c l u sions a b o u t the s t r i k e s i n P o l a n d , too. T h e p r e s e n t s t r i k e s i n P o l a n d d o not l e a d t o r a i s i n g the l e v e l o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y m o v e m e n t o f t h e w o r k i n g class, d o n o t s e r v e t h e political and ideological emancipation, the revolutionary o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g people o r the e n h a n c e m e n t o f t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y consciousness. T h e s e s t r i k e s d o n o t assist t h e r e v o l u t i o n , b u t h e l p t o c a r r y out t h e c o u n t e r - r e v olution w i t h i n the counter-revolution. Not the Polish revolutionaries, b u t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f r e a c t i o n , t h e f r i e n d s and a l l i e s o f the V a t i c a n a n d w o r l d i m p e r i a l i s m s t a n d a t the h e a d o f these s t r i k e s . T h e y are t h r o w i n g t h e w o r k e r s into s t r i k e s i n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r o w n c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y aims, o n b o t h the i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l planes. T h e y w a n t t o r e p l a c e one o p p r e s s i v e a n d e x p l o i t i n g r e g i m e

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w i t h another, n o less savage a n d h o s t i l e r e g i m e t o t h e P o l i s h w o r k e r s a n d people. B e i n g in favour of political and economic strikes, of popular uprisings and the revolution, Marxist-Leninists do not support the r e a c t i o n a r y a l l i a n c e s o r c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y tendencies, w h e n t h e y exist w i t h i n t h e m . O n t h e contrary, they support the revolutionary spirit, progressive a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y alliances. N o t e v e r y s t r i k e m o v e m e n t i s i n t h e interest o f t h e w o r k i n g class, i n e v e r y s i t u a t i o n and in all conditions. However, w h e n the people and the w o r k i n g class t a k e p a r t i n t h e m , t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g p o s i t i v e w h i c h you must grasp in order to t u r n t h e m completely i n t o p o s i t i v e actions i n t h e interest o f t h e people, the w o r k i n g class a n d the r e v o l u t i o n . T h e a t t i t u d e s a n d assessments o f o u r P a r t y a b o u t t h e situation in Poland, about the strikes a n d claims of the P o l i s h w o r k i n g class h a v e b e e n c o n s i s t e n t l y M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t in each phase a n d at each stage of t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . It has seen a n d p o i n t e d out t h e m i s t a k e n p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f the strikes, a l t h o u g h e f f o r t s w e r e m a d e b y P o l i s h r e a c t i o n to conceal their true political aims by covering t h e m up w i t h simple economic claims. L e c h Walessa, the m a n of the V a t i c a n a n d t h e P o l i s h p r i m a t e , s h o u t e d t o a n y o n e who wanted to listen to and believe h i m that allegedly he w a s not a p o l i t i c a l m a n , t h a t h e w a s n o t e n g a g e d i n p o l i t i c s , t h a t S o l i d a r i t y w a s not a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . M a n y w e r e d e c e i v e d a n d , f i r s t o f a l l , t h e w o r k i n g class o f P o l a n d w a s m i s l e d . B u t is there a w a y out for the P o l i s h people a n d w o r k i n g class f r o m t h e c a t a s t r o p h i c s i t u a t i o n t h e y are i n , a n d i f any, w h a t i s i t ? W e A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t s s a y t h a t i t i s the r o a d o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h L e n i n teaches us, t h e r o a d o f a p p l y i n g his strategy of the revolution and genuine revo l u t i o n a r y tactics o n t h e basis o f concrete s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h a r e created i n any country.

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O n c e a g a i n t h e P o l i s h w o r k i n g class d i s p l a y e d its great vitality. It overthrew G o m u l k a and brought down Gierek. It, c a n a n d m u s t also defeat K a n i a a n d h i s associates, L e c h W a l e s s a a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the V a t i c a n , t h e y o k e o f the Soviet revisionists and of w o r l d capitalism, headed by American capitalism. T h e P o l a n d o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n has not d i e d a n d w i l l not die, it h a s o n l y lost its w a y . T h e y h a v e set it on a d a n gerous course. P o l a n d has t o f i n d its t r u e c o u r s e , t h e course of proletarian revolution, guided by the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t ideology. T h e P o l i s h w o r k i n g class, w h i c h has o u t s t a n d i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a d i t i o n s , m u s t create f r o m its o w n r a n k s a new, g e n u i n e l y M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t c o m m u n i s t p a r t y a n d , a f t e r c r e a t i n g it, test i t a n d t e m p e r i t i n t h e class s t r u g g l e f o r the r e v o l u t i o n . T h e t i m e f o r t h i s has come, i t c a n n o t t o l e r a t e delay and procrastination. O n l y its w o r k i n g class c a n save P o l a n d f r o m t h e profound crisis it is in and b r i n g it into the light. Neither K a n i a nor Walessa, neither the Soviet revisionists nor the A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s t s c a n d o this. T h e t r u e f r i e n d s a n d w e l l - w i s h e r s o f t h e P o l i s h people, o f t h e i r f r e e d o m a n d independence, m u s t t e l l t h e m t h e t r u t h o p e n l y a n d sincerely. T h i s i s t h e greatest a i d w h i c h c a n b e g i v e n t h e m a n d also complete support and solidarity w i t h them. T h e more q u i c k l y the P o l i s h w o r k i n g class c a n f r e e itself f r o m i l l u s i o n s a n d deceptions, t h e sooner i t w i l l f u l f i l its h i s t o r i c m i s s i o n i n t h e s e r v i c e o f its o w n h o m e l a n d a n d o f the r e v o l u t i o n .

Z r i i popullit

THE FORCE OF ALBANIAN PATRIOTISM

Article published in the newspaper Bashkimi


March 23, 1981

T h i s m o n t h m a r k s t h e 100th a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n i n the press o f the f a m o u s p o e m , O h A l b a n i a , S u f f e r i n g A l b a n i a b y P a s h k o V a s a , ( 1 ) one o f t h e most beautiful and powerful w o r k s of A l b a n i a n poetry. Its p a t r i o t i c pathos a n d f i e r y c a l l t o r e b e l l i o n h a v e i n s p i r e d g e n e r a t i o n s o f A l b a n i a n s i n t h e i r endless w a r s f o r the f r e e d o m a n d t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f the H o m e l a n d , f o r the defence o f the n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e , a n d f o r the u n i t y a n d progress o f the c o u n t r y . W r i t t e n i n t h e f o r m o f a n elegy, i n a n i n c i s i v e a n d p o w e r f u l r o m a n t i c s t y l e , Pashko Vasa's poem was a clear political manifesto a d dressed to t h e people a n d the w h o l e n a t i o n at one of t h e most d i f f i c u l t m o m e n t s f o r t h e A l b a n i a n l i b e r a t i o n m o v e m e n t , w h e n the C o n g r e s s o f B e r l i n ( 2 ) h a d d e c i d e d t o p a r t i t i o n t h e A l b a n i a n t e r r i t o r y , a n d w h e n its o p e n a n d secret enemies h a d gone o v e r to a g e n e r a l o f f e n s i v e to s m a s h t h e L e a g u e o f P r i z r e n . ( 3 ) A t those hours, c r i t i c a l t o the fate o f
_______________________________________________ 1 P a s h k o Vasa, 1825-1892, outstanding patriot and activist of the A l b a n i a n N a t i o n a l League, poet and publicist. 2 It held its proceedings f r o m J u n e 13-July 13, 1878. 3 On the eve of the Congress of B e r l i n , w h i c h w o u l d revise the decisions of the T r e a t y of Santo Stefano, delegates f r o m a l l A l b a n i a n regions gathered i n the t o w n o f P r i z r e n o n

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the c o u n t r y , P a s h k o V a s a u n d e r s t o o d t h a t the o n l y force a n d the o n l y w e a p o n w h i c h c o u l d cope w i t h the s i t u a t i o n a n d c a r r y t h e A l b a n i a n cause f o r w a r d w a s t h e u n i t y o f the people. H e k n e w h o w t o s u m u p t h e A l b a n i a n r e a l i t y o f that t i m e c o r r e c t l y a n d p r e c i s e l y a n d t o e x p r e s s i n a perfect poetic f o r m that, a b o v e a l l a n d f i r s t o f a l l , the A l b a n i a n s ' r e l i g i o n i s A l b a n i a . P r e c i s e l y because t h i s p o e m c a r r i e d t h i s s p i r i t o f t h e u n i t y o f t h e n a t i o n , because i t s u m m e d u p t h e s u p r e m e interests of the n a t i o n , the s p i r i t of resistance to the e n d against e n e m i e s a n d c o n f i d e n c e i n the f u t u r e o f t h e people, it has been a b a n n e r of s t r u g g l e against r e l i g i o u s splits a n d t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n s , against s u r r e n d e r a n d s u b m i s s i o n to f o r e i g n e r s . T o d a y we honour Pashko Vasa, his political and litera r y w o r k because, l i k e the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a l l t h e other o u t s t a n d i n g leaders o f the A l b a n i a n N a t i o n a l Renaissance, i t lies i n the f o u n d a t i o n s o f o u r free a n d i n d e p e n d e n t A l bania. S o c i a l i s t A l b a n i a i s f o r g i n g a h e a d a n d d e v e l o p i n g , its name i s r e s p e c t e d i n the w o r l d . D a y b y d a y its sons a n d d a u g h t e r s are r a i s i n g t h e i r H o m e l a n d t o n e w h e i g h t s a n d m a k i n g i t p r o s p e r . B u t i s has a r r i v e d a t the present d a y t h r o u g h b l o o d y battles, great s a c r i f i c e s a n d s e l f - d e n y i n g efforts f o r c e n t u r i e s on e n d . It has h a d to f i g h t against many p o w e r f u l and c u n n i n g enemies w h o have striven in every w a y t o t o t a l l y e l i m i n a t e the A l b a n i a n n a t i o n , t o w i p e the n a m e o f A l b a n i a f r o m the face o f the e a r t h . T h e i r arsenal o f w e a p o n s has i n c l u d e d r e l i g i o n , r e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n s and v a r i o u s l o c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s . B y s t r i v i n g t o i d e n t i f y r e l i gion w i t h the n a t i o n , the e n e m i e s w a n t e d not o n l y t o
_______________________________________________ June 10, 1878 and decided to set up a p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y union under the n a m e of the A l b a n i a n League of P r i z r e n , to conduct the struggle for self-government, national unity and the defence of the t e r r i t o r i a l integrity of A l b a n i a , w h i c h was threatened by the chauvinistic aims of the neighbouring nations.

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e n s l a v e o u r people s p i r i t u a l l y , b u t also t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e m , to eliminate their language and traditions, and to perpetuate t h e i r o w n d o m i n a t i o n a n d o p p r e s s i o n . T h e m e n o f o u r R e n a i s s a n c e opposed t h i s a g e - o l d c a m p a i g n o f d e s t r u c t i o n a n d e x t e r m i n a t i o n b y the e n e m i e s w i t h all their ardent spirit of patriotism and fought heroically in exceptionally difficult and complicated conditions in order to show that there is no l i n k between religion and the n a t i o n , t h a t the A l b a n i a n i s A l b a n i a n o n account o f h i s l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e , his g l o r i o u s h i s t o r y , o n a c c o u n t o f t h e l a n d s w h e r e h i s ancestors w e r e b o r n a n d d i e d , o n a c count of his specific and unique spiritual qualities. It w a s this correct u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i d e a of the n a t i o n , t h i s r e f u s a l to accept r e l i g i o n as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the n a t i o n a n d t h e e x p o s u r e o f the m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f enemies o n t h i s q u e s t i o n , w h i c h b e c a m e one o f t h e m o s t active and d y n a m i c factors in the fight for freedom a n d the t r i u m p h of independence. That was so in the time of the m e n of our Renaissance a n d i t i s s o t o t h i s d a y . R e l i g i o n has not f o r m e d n a t i o n s a n d c o u l d not d o so. T h e I t a l i a n people, f o r e x a m p l e , a r e o f t h e C a t h o l i c f a i t h , b u t t h e y f o r m the I t a l i a n n a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , t h e people o f I r a n are o f t h e M o s l e m f a i t h , b u t t h e y f o r m t h e I r a n i a n n a t i o n . W h e t h e r o r n o t a people profess a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o n has no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the nation. N a t i o n s cannot b e c r e a t e d b y s u b j e c t i v e factors o r b y decrees, o r t h r o u g h t h e desire o f g o v e r n m e n t s . T h e y a r e a r e s u l t of p r o t r a c t e d h i s t o r i c a l processes. T h e A l b a n i a n nation was created and defended stubbornly, w i t h bloodshed a n d w o r k b y its finest sons w h o t o i l e d a n d s a c r i f i c e d e v e r y t h i n g f o r it. T h e r e f o r e , a n y a t t e m p t w h i c h has been m a d e t o negate, i g n o r e o r r e p l a c e t h e A l b a n i a n n a t i o n a l i t y w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e r e l i g i o u s belief, h a s a l w a y s e n c o u n t e r e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f a l l A l b a n i a n s . E v e n i n those cases w h e n

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enemies have tried to break them up and drive t h e m into e m m i g r a t i o n , w h e r e v e r t h e y h a v e gone t h e y h a v e p r e s e r v e d u n d i m m e d their national identity a n d pride, their love for their language and country. A l b a n i a n p a t r i o t i s m , w h i c h has b e e n a great s p i r i t u a l force i n the past, t o w h i c h the o u t s t a n d i n g m e n o f t h i s country have appealed in order to defend the undeniable rights of our nation w i t h courage and bravery, always remains an insurmountable barrier to the evil aims of enemies and their a n t i - A l b a n i a n t r i c k e r y and intrigues

Bashkimi

WHY WERE POLICE VIOLENCE AND T A N K S USED AGAINST THE ALBANIANS OF KOSOVA?

Article published in the newspaper Zri i popullil


A p r i l 8, 1981

T h e Y u g o s l a v press, r a d i o a n d T V h a v e set u p a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y c l a m o u r o f m i s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e reasons w h i c h i m p e l l e d t h e w o r k i n g people a n d students o f K o s o v a t o c o m e out i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . W h a t i m m e d i a t e l y catches one's a t t e n t i o n i n the speeches o f t h e l e a d i n g f i g u r e s a n d the endless a r t i c l e s w h i c h f i l l the pages o f t h e Y u g o s l a v n e w s p a p e r s , e s p e c i a l l y those o f B e l g r a d e , i s t h e i r m a r k e d c h a u v i n i s t overtones a n d t h e t o t a l l a c k o f a n y r e a l i s t i c analysis or objective attitude towards the tragic events in K o s o v a . N o t o n l y the shades o f R a n k o v i , b u t also t h e old ghosts o f the K a r a g e o r g e v i e s h a v e been i n v o k e d . N o w t h e y are o p e r a t i n g w i t h c l u b s a n d t a n k s , h i t t i n g h a r d a t t h e A l b a n i a n population in Y u g o s l a v i a , to suppress and s u b j u gate t h e m a n d s t r a n g l e t h e i r voice. R e g a r d l e s s o f w h a t i s said a n d w r i t t e n i n Y u g o s l a v i a , the t r u e causes o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n K o s o v a , t h e i r content, t h e d e m a n d s w h i c h are r a i s e d i n t h e m c a n n o t b e covered over w i t h misleading phraseology, however noisy, a s t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s i n B e l g r a d e are t r y i n g t o do. A n y o b j e c t i v e p e r s o n , a n y u n b i a s e d o b s e r v e r , c a n see a n d i m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e basic causes o f t h e r e c e n t

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events i n K o s o v a a r e the great b a c k w a r d n e s s o f t h i s r e g i o n , the p o v e r t y a n d s u f f e r i n g o f its people, a n d t h e l a c k o f democratic freedoms and political rights. T h e demonstrations h a v e e r u p t e d a s t h e r e s u l t o f a n i n t o l e r a b l e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h has b e e n g o i n g o n f o r tens o f y e a r s a n d t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y g l o o m y prospects o f e v e r e m e r g i n g f r o m t h i s s i t u a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o f i g u r e s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Y u g o s l a v press, t h e per c a p i t a i n c o m e i n K o s o v a i s a b o u t 6 times less t h a n i n S l o v e n i a , a b o u t 5 t i m e s less t h a n in C r o a t i a , a n d 3.5 t i m e s less t h a n i n S e r b i a . I n recent y e a r s , the g r o w t h r a t e o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n i n K o s o v a has been a b o u t f o u r o r f i v e t i m e s less t h a t of S e r b i a . T h e l e v e l of u n e m p l o y m e n t is 20 times g r e a t e r t h a n i n S l o v e n i a , a n d t w o a n d a h a l f t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n i n S e r b i a . M o r e t h a n 110 t h o u s a n d w o r k e r s h a v e e m i g r a t e d outside K o s o v a a n d Y u g o s l a v i a i n s e a r c h o f w o r k , besides the 70 t h o u s a n d others, most of t h e m q u a l i f i e d w o r k e r s , w h o are u n e m p l o y e d i n K o s o v a . T h e leaders o f Y u g o s l a v i a a n d K o s o v a k n o w a n d a d m i t these facts. I n a speech d e l i v e r e d i n P r i s h t i n a , V . D j u r a novi, C h a i r m a n of the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l of Y u g o s l a v i a , s a i d : The d e v e l o p m e n t of K o s o v a is at a s t a n d s t i l l . . . It is clear that the p o l i c y of t h e a c c e l e r a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e r e g i o n i s not b e i n g r e a l i z e d t o t h e degree e n v i s a g e d i n t h e plans. O n the c o n t r a r y , t h e g a p b e t w e e n K o s o v a a n d other parts o f the c o u n t r y i s g r o w i n g w i d e r . . . E c o n o m i c i n v e s t ments i n K o s o v a a r e 4 3 p e r cent b e l o w the a v e r a g e o f Yugoslavia. In a speech d e l i v e r e d at t h e 15th m e e t i n g of t h e CC of the L e a g u e of C o m m u n i s t s of Y u g o s l a v i a ( D e c e m b e r 1980), M . B a k a l l i , C h a i r m a n o f t h e l e a d i n g b o d y o f the L e a g u e of C o m m u n i s t s of Kosova, said: The aims of reducing the differences i n t h e l e v e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f K o s o v a , c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e a v e r a g e o f t h e c o u n t r y , h a v e not been achieved. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s h a v e b e c o m e even m o r e p r o n o u n c e d . . . A s a result, i n s t e a d o f the r a t e

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of d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e r e g i o n b e i n g 60 p e r cent a b o v e t h a t of t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y , as p l a n n e d , t h e r a t e of d e v e l o p m e n t of K o s o v a has been 46.9 p e r cent b e l o w t h e a v e r a g e of t h e c o u n t r y . T h i s t e n d e n c y f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s t o increase, he said, has been g o i n g on since 1947. T h i s process of t h e w i d e n i n g o f the gap, s a i d M . B a k a l l i , has r e a c h e d its c r i t i c a l limits. F r o m t h i s s i t u a t i o n i t i s c l e a r w h y t h e people o f K o s o v a are d i s s a t i s f i e d a n d w h y t h e y c a m e out i n d e m o n s trations and expressed this dissatisfaction in w h a t they cons i d e r e d the best w a y a n d t h e f o r m w h i c h t h e y f o u n d most a p p r o p r i a t e . Belgrade is n o w f u m i n g a n d t h u n d e r i n g against the students o f K o s o v a , b u t w h a t d i d these s t u d e n t s d o a n d w h a t d i d they demand? The Y u g o s l a v leaders personally a n d the press c o m m u n i q u s h a v e a d m i t t e d p u b l i c l y a n d officially that in the demonstrations of M a r c h 11 in P r i s h t i n a t h e students e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o v e r t h e e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n , o v e r the b a d l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , o v e r t h e discrimination w h i c h they suffer in comparison w i t h the other students a t Y u g o s l a v u n i v e r s i t i e s . A s t h e Y u g o s l a v press has f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d , t h e y h a v e e x p r e s s e d t h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o n s e v e r a l occasions t o b o t h t h e l o c a l a n d c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . L i k e w i s e , the w o r k i n g people o f K o s o v a h a v e f r e q u e n t l y c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t the b a c k w a r d n e s s o f the r e g i o n a n d p o i n t e d out the n e e d f o r u r g e n t m e a s u r e s f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the c o u n t r y . B u t n o one has l i s t e n e d t o these just a n d essential d e m a n d s . N o n o t i c e has b e e n t a k e n a n d t h e people h a v e been left t o t h e i r fate. I f a n y interest h a d been t a k e n , K o s o v a , w i t h its endless m i n e r a l resources, its f e r t i l e p l a i n s , a n d its b r a v e a n d i n d u s t r i o u s people, w o u l d not h a v e b e e n i n t h e state i t is. O f course, these assets are e x p l o i t e d , m i l l i o n s of, tons of c o a l are m i n e d , the t h e r m a l - p o w e r stations generate b i l l i o n s o f k i l o w a t t s , the molten lead flows in rivers in Trepe, the chrome,

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n i c k e l , a n d m a g n e s i t e ores a r e s t a c k e d i n m o u n t a i n s , t r a i n l o a d s o f w h e a t are t r a n s p o r t e d f r o m K o s o v a a n d t h e fine flavoured meat of K o s o v a is sold on all the markets o f E u r o p e . W h y t h e n i s K o s o v a not p r o g r e s s i n g ? T h e s e are the q u e s t i o n s w h i c h the s t u d e n t s a n d people o f K o s o v a posed t o t h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s a n d t h e y r e c e i v e d b u l l e t s i n reply. T h e Y u g o s l a v leaders say t h a t i n Y u g o s l a v i a t h e nations a n d n a t i o n a l i t i e s , t h e w o r k e r s a n d v a r i o u s collectives are s e l f - g o v e r n i n g , t h a t t h e y decide f o r t h e m s e l v e s about the e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t of enterprises, v i l l a g e s , cities, r e p u b l i c s , etc. H e r e w e d o not w i s h t o enter i n t o i d e o l o g i c a l p o l e m i c s o v e r t h e i r theories a n d practices, b u t w e w o u l d l i k e t o ask a s i m p l e q u e s t i o n : I n t h a t so-called socialist s e l f - g o v e r n i n g c o u n t r y , t h e S o c i a l i s t F e d e r a t i v e R e p u b l i c of Y u g o s l a v i a , on the basis of those r i g h t s p r o v i d e d i n the Y u g o s l a v C o n s t i t u t i o n , d o t h e people a n d y o u t h o f K o s o v a h a v e t h e r i g h t , d o t h e y h a v e t h e f r e e d o m , t o ask the q u e s t i o n w h y the other r e g i o n s o f Y u g o s l a v i a a r e d e v e l o p i n g , w h i l e t h i s i s n o t o c c u r r i n g i n K o s o v a ? I t seems that someone i s h i n d e r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f K o s o v a , a n d the l e a d e r s h i p o f the F e d e r a t i o n m u s t k n o w w h o t h i s is, since i t a d m i t s t h a t K o s o v a i s p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h , b u t effect i v e l y poor. In the speeches of s e v e r a l K o s o v a leaders, as w e l l as i n m a n y a r t i c l e s i n the press, i t has been stated t h a t t h e students i n the d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n P r i s h t i n a , a p a r t f r o m p r o t e s t i n g a b o u t t h e i r d i f f i c u l t e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n , also demanded more freedoms and democratic rights and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the status of a F e d e r a t e d R e p u b l i c f o r K o s o v a . I n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , too, a q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : O n t h e basis of the so-called s e l f - g o v e r n i n g d e m o c r a c y , do t h e peoples of Y u g o s l a v i a have the right to demand such things? O n A p r i l 3 , D u a n D r a g o s a v a , S e c r e t a r y o f the P r e sidency o f t h e C C o f the L e a g u e o f C o m m u n i s t s o f Y u g o s l a -

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v i a , s a i d i n his speech a b o u t the e v e n t s o f K o s o v a : E x p e r i e n c e has s h o w n t h a t w e h a v e a l w a y s s u f f e r e d d a m a g e w h e n we have allowed moments of historic importance to u s t o s l i p by. T h i s v a l u a b l e a d v i c e w h i c h h e g i v e s i s n o t o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e S o c i a l i s t F e d e r a t i v e R e p u b l i c of Y u g o s l a v i a , b u t is also a r e m i n d e r to the P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a . It is a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n not o n l y f o r t h e S e r b i a n people, b u t also f o r t h e A l b a n i a n people w h o l i v e o n t h e i r o w n t e r r i t o r i e s i n Yugoslavia. H o w e v e r , w e w a n t t o p o i n t out o n t h i s occasion t h a t the Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p has n o t f o r g o t t e n a n y t h i n g a n d i s n o t w a n t i n g to l o o k at h i s t o r y as it o u g h t to be l o o k e d at i n o r d e r t o a v o i d r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e b i t t e r past. I n t h i s same speech, D u a n D r a g o s a v a s a y s : W e h a v e solved the problem of nationalities, of national republics a n d , i n the f r a m e w o r k o f t h e S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f S e r b i a , t h e p r o b l e m o f a u t o n o m o u s r e g i o n s i n t h e best p o s s i b l e way. Dobrivoje Vidi, C h a i r m a n of the Socialist Republic o f S e r b i a , also stresses t h e s a m e t h i n g w h e n , a f t e r v e n t i n g his spleen a n d p o u r i n g out h i s great r e s e n t m e n t o n K o s o v a , h e s a y s : The a u t o n o m o u s socialist r e g i o n s h a v e c o m p l e t e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d e q u a l i t y i n the f r a m e w o r k o f t h e S o c i a l ist R e p u b l i c of S e r b i a . T h a t is to say, complete i n d e p e n dence a n d e q u a l i t y , b u t u n d e r t h e w i n g o f S e r b i a ! T h e s e assertions b y Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s s h o w t h a t e v e n after the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r o f t h e peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a the past h i s t o r y w a s not f o r g o t t e n : K o s o v a r e m a i n e d a n autonomous r e g i o n o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f S e r b i a a n d t h e A l b a n i a n population, compact in both nationality a n d terr i t o r y , w a s split u p b e t w e e n t h r e e r e p u b l i c s o f t h e Y u g o slav Federation. W h y d i d this occur? It is up to Dragosava, V i d i and company to explain this ideologically, politically, geographically and economically. If such an analysis is made, t h e n i t w i l l e m e r g e h o w w o r t h l e s s are s u c h assertions

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as those of D r a g o s a v a , w h e n he s a y s : We have s o l v e d t h e p r o b l e m o f n a t i o n a l i t i e s a n d n a t i o n a l r e p u b l i c s . . . i n t h e best possible w a y . A f t e r claiming that the problems of nationalities have been s o l v e d j u s t l y i n Y u g o s l a v i a , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e P r e s i d e n c y o f t h e C C o f t h e L C Y says i n one p a r t o f h i s speech: N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t w o u l d b e a n i l l u s i o n t o t h i n k t h a t we have f o u n d a lasting a n d perfect solution to this and that there w i l l b e n o p r o b l e m s b e t w e e n n a t i o n a l i t i e s . C l e a r l y , he is a d m i t t i n g t h a t a l a s t i n g a n d p e r f e c t s o l u t i o n to this v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d p r o b l e m o f n a t i o n a l i t i e s has n o t been f o u n d . H e n c e t h e c o n c l u s i o n m u s t b e r e a c h e d t h a t the peoples w h o c o m p r i s e Y u g o s l a v i a m u s t m a k e e f f o r t s t o i m p r o v e t h e s o l u t i o n o f these p r o b l e m s . S o i t i s u p t o the peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a t o f i n d b e t t e r s o l u t i o n s t o these problems democratically w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of the S F R of Y u g o s l a v i a . N o w the A l b a n i a n inhabitants of Kosova, who make up the o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e , a r e d e m a n d i n g w i t h i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l n o r m s a n d also i n t h e streets, t h a t t h e r e g i o n o f K o s o v a s h o u l d b e l i b e r a t e d f r o m t h e t u t e l a g e o f S e r b i a , a n d t h a t i t b e g i v e n t h e status of a republic w i t h i n the S F R of Y u g o s l a v i a . W h a t c r i m e h a v e t h e people o f K o s o v a c o m m i t t e d w i t h this d e m a n d , w h i c h w a s t h u s d e s c r i b e d b y t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f the Y u g o s l a v F e d e r a t i o n a n d s e v e r a l m a i n l e a d e r s o f the r e g i o n o f K o s o v a ? T h e y h a v e n o t c o m m i t t e d a n y c r i m e . O n the c o n t r a r y , these l e g i t i m a t e d e m a n d s h a v e b e e n u n d e r rated, h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d hostile, a n d t h a t i s w h y t h e point w a s r e a c h e d t h a t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t o o k place. At no time have the A l b a n i a n people of K o s o v a and other p a r t s o f Y u g o s l a v i a b e e n a l l o w e d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r opinions f r e e l y a n d d e m o c r a t i c a l l y a b o u t t h e status w h i c h the r e g i o n i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e s h o u l d h a v e . O t h e r persons have decided this for them. A n d w h e n , after m a n y peaceful

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requests, t h e y d e m a n d e d i n l o u d voices, s o t h a t t h e f r a t e r n a l peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a c o u l d hear, t h a t K o s o v a b e g i v e n the status o f a r e p u b l i c w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e S F R o f Y u g o s l a v i a , those w h o t u r n e d a deaf e a r t o these r e quests d i d n o t hesitate t o o p e n f i r e o n t h e A l b a n i a n s a n d order the tanks on them. A n d that is not a l l they accused the brave K o s o v a students of allegedly acting l i k e the gangsters o f C h i c a g o a n d p u t t i n g l i t t l e c h i l d r e n i n f r o n t of the demonstrations. Others m a y have such despicable ways, but never the A l b a n i a n s w h o have always fought s w o r d i n h a n d . I n fact, w h a t t h e Y u g o s l a v press c l a i m s i n this d i r e c t i o n p r o v e s t h a t t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s w e r e p o p u l a r a n d p e a c e f u l ones. T h i s c l a i m i m p l i e s t h a t i f t h e r e h a d n o t b e e n a great c r o w d o f s c h o o l p u p i l s t h e S e r b i a n p o l i c e would have m o w e d the people d o w n w i t h machine-gun fire. T h e s e t h i n g s are not e a s i l y f o r g o t t e n . T h e y d o not i n d i c a t e strength but weakness, do not indicate prudence but stupefaction. W h y does t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n n o t s t u d y the d e m a n d s f o r a r e p u b l i c w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n i n a f a i r w a y , w h y does i t not i n t e r p r e t t h e m as demands w h i c h stem f r o m the Constitution of the S o c i a l i s t F e d e r a t i v e R e p u b l i c o f Y u g o s l a v i a itself, b u t r u s h t o d e s c r i b e t h e m a s hostile, c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e m a n d s w h i c h r u i n the stability of and destroy Yugoslavia? Do n o t the A l b a n i a n s o f K o s o v a h a v e a l l t h e f e a t u r e s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e a n a t i o n , do t h e y n o t l i v e i n a c o m p a c t t e r r i t o r y , d o t h e y not h a v e t h e i r c o m m o n language, c u l t u r e a n d s p i r i t u a l m a k e - u p , a r e t h e y n o t c a p a b l e o f g o v e r n i n g themselves, b u t n e e d t h e t u t e l a g e o f someone else, a r e t h e y s o f e w i n n u m b e r s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t w o r t h y of being raised to the r a n k of a republic, are there not o t h e r f e d e r a l r e p u b l i c s i n Y u g o s l a v i a s o t h a t t h e republic w h i c h the A l b a n i a n s of K o s o v a d e m a n d w o u l d make an exception?

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T h e problems must be judged objectively and fairly and the position should not be reached that a l l the leaders o f e v e r y r a n k a r e set i n m o t i o n t o a r o u s e f e e l i n g s o f r e s e n t ment a n d hostility towards the A l b a n i a n s among the peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a , t h a t a l l the forces a r e m o b i l i z e d t o attack, t o abuse, t o beat, t o k i l l , t o i n j u r e a n d i m p r i s o n the flower of the valiant A l b a n i a n youth of K o s o v a and other A l b a n i a n regions. It is jeopardizing the honour a n d interests of Y u g o slavia to pour into K o s o v a half the Serbian police and the m i l i t i a o f B e l g r a d e , a r m e d t o t h e teeth, t o s u r r o u n d t h e cities o f K o s o v a w i t h t a n k s , t o c l o u d t h e s k i e s w i t h a i r c r a f t and p a c k t h e a e r o d r o m e s w i t h p a r a t r o o p s . No, this should not have occurred. We sternly denounce this u n p r e c e d e n t e d v i o l e n c e i n K o s o v a . T h o s e w h o a r e really to blame for the situation must be found, but they are not I n K o s o v a , n o r i n t h e P S R o f A l b a n i a , a s i s b e i n g h i n t e d a n d i m p l i e d i n some q u a r t e r s . T o f i n d t h e m one must p r o b e d e e p e r i n t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e a n d o b j e c t i v e reasons and t h e p o l i c y p u r s u e d b y t h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p . The demonstrations and just demands of the A l b a n i a n students a n d p e o p l e o f K o s o v a h a v e b e e n seen a n d i n t e r preted f r o m a w r o n g s t a n d p o i n t , t h e y h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d in a hostile w a y a n d w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r y brutality. We t h i n k t h a t these m a t t e r s o u g h t t o b e t r e a t e d w i s e l y a n d w i t h cool heads, b e a r i n g i n m i n d e s p e c i a l l y t h a t i n j u s t i c e s have a l w a y s b e e n done t o t h e A l b a n i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n Y u g o s l a v i a , a n d t h a t t h e c h a u v i n i s t forces h a v e s t r i v e n t o t a k e savage v e n g e a n c e i n b o t h t h e m o r e d i s t a n t a n d the m o r e recent past. N o good p u r p o s e w i l l b e a c h i e v e d b y t r y i n g t o i n t i midate a people w i t h m o n s t r o u s e p i t h e t s a n d t a n k s , as i s b e i n g done w i t h t h e A l b a n i a n s i n Y u g o s l a v i a . W i t h the Albanians of Kosova, Macedonia and Montenegro, and w i t h those w h o h a v e e m i g r a t e d o n account o f p o v e r t y

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and unemployment, matters should be talked over c a l m l y a n d reasonably and not w i t h ill-intentioned prejudgments. T h e s e people o u g h t t o e n j o y f u l l r i g h t s a n d f u l l e q u a l i t y w i t h t h e other peoples w i t h i n t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f Y u g o s l a v i a . E v e r y proposal and just demand of the Albanians w h o l i v e i n Y u g o s l a v i a , w h i c h does n o t please a n d upsets t h e federal or the regional leadership, is unhesitatingly decribed as hostile, A l b a n i a n - c h a u v i n i s t , i r r e d e n t i s t , etc. L i k e w i s e , a n y protest against i n j u s t i c e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a n d a r e b e i n g d o n e t o t h e m , a n d these are n e i t h e r f e w n o r m i n o r ones, i s d e s c r i b e d i n these i n s u l t i n g t e r m s . W h a t does t h e e p i t h e t n a t i o n a l i s t o n t h e l i p s o f t h e Yugoslavs mean, w h e n it is applied to the Albanians? T h e w o r d n a t i o n a l i s t comes f r o m t h e w o r d natio, w h i c h means nation, nationality. A n y dictionary, large or small, e x p l a i n s this. B u t o n t h e l i p s o f t h e Y u g o s l a v s t h e e p i t h e t nationalist is a d e m a n d for submission towards the big nation, is a demand that people give up their love f o r their country, their Homeland and their nation. W h e n y o u t r y t o d e n y a n a t i o n its n a t i o n a l i t y , s o v ereignty and a l l the attributes w h i c h f l o w f r o m it, t h e n the words nation and nationality, w h i c h the Y u g o s l a v s are t a l k i n g a n d w r i t i n g a b o u t e v e r y d a y , a r e sheer d e m a g o g y . S u c h e f f o r t s cause f r i c t i o n w h i c h leads t o u n d e s i r a b l e and dangerous confrontations. If y o u t r y to suppress a n d w i p e out the traditions a n d national aspirations of a people, t h e n y o u w i l l c e r t a i n l y e n c o u n t e r a r e a c t i o n o f self-defence. O n l y M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , scientific socialism, the theory of M a r x , Engels, L e n i n and Stalin, provides a correct solution to national problems. In the Socialist Federative Republic of Y u g o s l a v i a t h i n g s h a v e gone s o f a r t h a t i n t h e R e p u b l i c o f B o s n j a H e r c e g o v i n a , i n K o s o v a a n d o t h e r places w h e r e A l b a n i a n s l i v e , a M o s l e m n a t i o n a l i t y has b e e n i n v e n t e d . It is s a i d

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that t h e M o s l e m n a t i o n a l i t y i s s o m e t h i n g s p e c i f i c t o Yugoslavia. Surprisingly, however, there is no Christian Orthodox nationality or Roman Catholic nationality in Yugoslavia. If y o u w a n t to f i n d the explanation for this y o u must read the m e m o r a n d u m of V. ubrilovi, f o r m e r political adviser to the monarchic regime, former minister of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia, and now an academician of Yugoslavia, addressed to the royal g o v e r n m e n t o f S t o j a d i n o v i i n 1937. I f one r e a d s t h i s m e m o r a n d u m , one c a n u n d e r s t a n d better w h y a n y a c t i o n o f t h e A l b a n i a n s o f K o s o v a , w i t h i n the f e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d l a w s , i s i m m e d i a t e l y d e s c r i b e d a s A l b a n i a n c h a u v i n i s m , w h y i t i s v e r y easy t o d e s c r i b e them as irredentist. In order to put t h e m into prisons and c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p s . T o h a v e t h e r i g h t t o accuse a s i r r e d e n t i s t a w h o l e p e o p l e a n d n a t i o n of m o r e t h a n 2 million inhabitants, l i k e the part of the A l b a n i a n nation w h i c h l i v e s o n its o w n l a n d s i n Y u g o s l a v i a , y o u y o u r s e l f must not b e a c h a u v i n i s t a n d m u s t h a v e w i p e d out a l l t h e causes a n d sources o f n a t i o n a l i n j u s t i c e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n spawned by imperialists a n d the old B a l k a n feudal bourgeoisie. If t h e p r i n c i p l e of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n of peoples has b e e n a p p l i e d a f t e r t h e N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r , a s i s claimed, w h y then should there by irredentism? B e f o r e t h e r e i s t a l k o f s o - c a l l e d i r r e d e n t i s m , t h e past history, t h e e c o n o m i c a n d c u l t u r a l b a c k w a r d n e s s , t h e mass unemployment and forced emigration of Albanians, w h i c h constitutes one o f t h e m o s t m a s s i v e e m i g r a t i o n s f r o m Yugoslavia to foreign countries, must be explained. T h e situation o f K o s o v a c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e w o r l d crisis, a s c e r t a i n Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s , a l l e g e d l y t h e o r e t i c i a n s o f the F e d e r a t i o n a n d K o s o v a , a r e t r y i n g t o do. In regard to the so-called A l b a n i a n chauvinism, it must b e s a i d t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e A l b a n i a n a n d h i s h i s t o r y t h r o u g h the c e n t u r i e s i n d i c a t e t h e opposite o f t h a t

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of w h i c h the A l b a n i a n s of Y u g o s l a v i a are accused. T h e A l b a n i a n s h a v e n e v e r oppressed o r e x p l o i t e d o t h e r p e o p l e s . N e v e r have they attacked and partitioned the territories o f other peoples. T h e s e t h i n g s h a v e b e e n d o n e t o t h e A l banians. T h e r e f o r e c h a u v i n i s m m u s t b e s o u g h t a n d f o u n d elsewhere, a n d not a m o n g the A l b a n i a n s o f K o s o v a o r those o f the People's S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a , w h o c o n s t i t u t e one people a n d one n a t i o n . C h a u v i n i s m m u s t b e s o u g h t p r e c i s e l y a m o n g those Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s w h o o r d e r e d t h e a t t a c k w i t h S e r b i a n t a n k s a n d police, w h o k i l l e d , i n j u r e d , t o r t u r e d a n d i m p r i s o n e d the A l b a n i a n students, w o r k e r s a n d peasants, t h e g r a n d s o n s a n d g r a n d - d a u g h t e r s o f t h e h e roes o f o u r people, Isa B o l e t i n i , B a j r a m C u r r i , A b d y l a n d Naim Frashri, Sulejman Vokshi, Y m e r Prizreni, A z e m and Shote Galica, eriz T o p u l l i and S e l a m Salaria, the brothers and cofighters of H a j d a r Dushi, H y s n i K a p o , M i l a d i n Popovi, E m i n D u r a k u , and thousands of heroic A l b a n i a n , Montenegrin, and Macedonian partisans who fought and s h e d t h e i r b l o o d together, a s b r o t h e r s i n Y u g o s l a v i a , f o r the f r e e d o m , i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e peoples of Y u g o s l a v i a . Does B e l g r a d e d e m a n d t h a t t h e A l b a n i a n s cease t o b e p a t r i o t s ? T h i s w i l l n e v e r o c c u r ! T h e A l b a n i a n has a l w a y s d e f e n d e d h i m s e l f h e r o i c a l l y a n d has t r i u m p h e d o v e r t h e enemies because h e has a l w a y s b e e n i n t h e r i g h t . W h e r e v e r h e lives, w o r k s a n d fights, h e a l w a y s d i s p l a y s m a t u r i t y a n d p a t i e n c e T h e r e f o r e don't a n g e r t h e A l b a n i a n people, t h e y are p a t i e n t , b u t w h e n t h e A l b a n i a n s b e c o m e a n g r y , even t h e stones a r e set a b l a z e . T h e history of the A l b a n i a n s through the centuries and that of the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r have s h o w n that the sons a n d d a u g h t e r s o f o u r people h a v e s h e d t h e i r b l o o d t o h e l p t h e f r a t e r n a l n e i g h b o u r i n g peoples. T h e l o f t y s p i r i t of sacrifice a n d profound internationalist feelings charact e r i z e o u r people. W e h a v e a l w a y s w a n t e d g o o d n e i g h b o u r l y

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relations w i t h Y u g o s l a v i a . O u r stand is unalterable. II anyone, i m p e r i a l i s m o r s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s m , a t t a c k s Y u g o s l a v i a , o u r people, socialist A l b a n i a w i l l f i g h t s h o u l d e r to: s h o u l d e r w i t h t h e peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a . T h i s i s w h a t w e h a v e s a i d a n d t h i s i s w h a t w e s h a l l do. O u r o p i n i o n a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l o p i n i o n c a n n o t accept a n d r e c o n c i l e i t s e l f t o t h e b a r b a r o u s actions b e i n g t a k e n against t h e A l b a n i a n s i n Y u g o s l a v i a . T h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r ship o u g h t t o b e p r u d e n t a n d s t u d y a n d s o l v e its i n t e r n a l problems justly, a n d not be a l w a y s t r y i n g to lecture others about m o d e r a t i o n , t h e p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n o f conflicts, a n d h u m a n r i g h t s a n d t h e r i g h t s o f peoples, etc. W e t h i n k t h a t t e m p e r s m u s t b e cooled a n d , f i r s t o f a l l , those o f t h e Y u g o s l a v leaders. T h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e A l banians w h o l i v e i n Y u g o s l a v i a s h o u l d b e s t u d i e d c a l m l y , w i s e l y a n d f a i r l y . I f t h i s i s n o t done, t h e w o u n d w i l l n o t b e healed, b u t w i l l b e c o m e m u c h deeper. W e d o n o t w a n t this t o occur, a n d w e are r e a d y t o g i v e sincere assistance w i t h a l l t h e forces o f o u r n o b l e h e a r t s a n d m i n d s t o preserve t h e f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e f r a t e r n a l peoples o f Yugoslavia, to safeguard the good neighbourly relations w h i c h h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , t o assist o u r A l b a n i a n b r o t h e r s in every direction as before, to develop c o m m e r c i a l relations and c u l t u r a l e x c h a n g e s w i t h t h e m , a s w e d o w i t h t h e other peoples of Y u g o s l a v i a , on t h e basis of a g r e e m e n t s concluded j o i n t l y b e t w e e n t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a and the Socialist Federative Republic of Y u g o slavia. T h i s i s r e q u i r e d i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o u r t w o states, o f our f r i e n d s h i p , o f o u r g o o d n e i g h b o u r l y r e l a t i o n s , w i t h o u t a t a n y t i m e i n t e r f e r i n g i n each other's i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s . A l b a n i a has n o t i n t e r f e r e d a n d i s n o t i n t e r f e r i n g i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of Y u g o s l a v i a . T h i s is a basic p r i n c i p l e o f our p o l i c y . I n e x p r e s s i n g o u r v i e w s a b o u t t h e recent events i n K o s o v a , w e a r e n o t i n t e r f e r i n g i n t h e i n t e r n a l

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affairs of Yugoslavia. B u t we are raising our voice, a n d we have the right to raise it w h e n injustices are done to our brothers, w h e n violence and repression are used against t h e m , w h e n s u c h slogans a s A l b a n i a n c h a u v i n i s m , i r r e d e n t i s m , etc. are u s e d t o d i s c r e d i t t h e A l b a n i a n y o u t h a n d people o f K o s o v a . W e h a v e t h i s r i g h t , j u s t a s Y u g o s l a v i a a n d a n y o t h e r state has t h e r i g h t t o d e f e n d a n d d e m a n d j u s t i c e f o r its o w n n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t i e s . T h e T r e a t y o f L o n don, the T r e a t y of Versailles, or a n y other imperialist treaty can no longer be imposed to the detriment of the A l b a n i a n people. E v e r y b o d y , f r i e n d s a n d enemies, states big and small, imperialist and revisionist, anti-communist o r pseudo-socialist, a s w e l l a s o u r c o m m u n i s t c o m r a d e s and brothers and progressive people should understand this c l e a r l y . Z r i i popullit

T H E COMMITTEE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE SHOULD E X E R T INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND ON THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF ITS ACHIEVEMENTS

From the contribution at the meeting of the Secretariat of the CC of the PLA (1)
M a y 6, 1981

At the start of the meeting, Comrade Enver Hoxha asked the comrades of the Committee of Science and Technique a number of questions in connection with the accomplishment of the targets of the 8th Plenum of the CC of the Party, inquired about the organization, functions and competences of the Committee of Science and Technique, about its relations and cooperation with the Academy of Sciences, with the University and with the other scientific institutions of the country, etc. After listening to the answers and the contributions of the comrades in connection with the question on the agenda Comrade Enver Hoxha said among other things: T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f science i n o u r c o u n t r y i s p l e a s i n g , but I a m o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t w e s h o u l d not e m p l o y s u p e r _____________________________________ 1 T h i s meeting e x a m i n e d the report On the w o r k done for the post-graduate q u a l i f i c a t i o n of cadres and the problems w h i c h emerge in this f i e l d to accomplish the targets set by the 8th P l e n u m of the CC of the P a r t y , presented by the C o m m i t tee of Science and T e c h n i q u e .

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l a t i v e s t o describe it. I n o u r c o u n t r y t h e f o u n d a t i o n s h a v e b e e n l a i d a n d successes h a v e b e e n a c h i e v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a n u m b e r of sciences a n d v i s t a s h a v e b e e n o p e n e d t o e v e n the most a d v a n c e d sciences a n d t h e i r b r a n c h e s . I n these c o n d i t i o n s i t i s o u r d u t y t o k n o w h o w t o m a n a g e a n d e m p l o y o u r m a t e r i a l , p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l forces, n o t g r o p i n g i n the d a r k a n d n o t o n o c c a s i o n a l p r o b l e m s o f t h e m o m e n t , b u t m e t h o d i c a l l y a n d w i t h f i r s t p r i o r i t y i n those branches of science a n d t e c h n i q u e w h i c h l e a d to a g r e a t e r p o s i t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a n d w h i c h , n a t u r a l l y , also r e q u i r e a higher level of technology, more profound k n o w l e d g e and more advanced methods in theoretical studies and application. B e s i d e s organs o f t h e state a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h i n fact r u n t h e w o r k , t h e r e a r e also s t u d y i n s t i t u t e s a s w e l l a s other o r g a n i s m s a t t h e c e n t r e a n d a t t h e base w h i c h employ m a n y forms and methods in scientific-research w o r k a n d a p p l i e d sciences. A m o n g these f o r m s a n d m e t h o d s some a r e a d v a n c e d (but a r e s t i l l b a c k w a r d c o m p a r e d w i t h the m o s t a d v a n c e d ones w h i c h w e h a v e t o achieve), s o m e are a r t i s a n f o r m s a n d m e t h o d s a n d , f i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e outdated forms and methods. We must recognize a n d acknowledge this uneveness of the situation. E a c h governement department, scientific institution a n d enterp r i s e m u s t n o t o n l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h i s uneveness, b u t m u s t also t a k e e f f e c t i v e m e a s u r e s a n d s t r i v e t o i m p r o v e the s i t u a t i o n t h r o u g h p e r s i s t e n t e f f o r t a n d i n p l a n n e d ways. Hence the need for recognition of the situation by the C o m m i t t e e o f S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n i q u e w h i c h w e set u p . I t m u s t set itself tasks a n d p r o v i d e o r i e n t a t i o n s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f science a n d f o r t h e s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f scientific achievements in practice. Science a n d t e c h n i q u e h a v e t h e i r s o u r c e i n t h e a c t i v i t y

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o f m a n , i n s o c i a l p r a c t i c e . T e c h n i q u e leads t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n science a n d science c a r r i e s t e c h n i q u e f o r w a r d . T h e y a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d together. T h i s i s a d i a l e c t i c a l process w h i c h w e m u s t u n d e r s t a n d a n d a p p l y . In t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h I a s k e d I w a n t e d to f i n d out h o w w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e i s s t u d i e d , because science h a s become a q u e s t i o n of a l l c o u n t r i e s a n d peoples. H e r e I am not r e f e r r i n g t o t h e secrets o f s p e c i a l technology, b u t t o the sciences, i n g e n e r a l , w h i c h h a v e b e c o m e necessary f o r all a n d f r o m w h i c h a l l can benefit, p r o v i d e d the knowledge and practical application of t h e m is organized properly. In this d i r e c t i o n w e face m a j o r tasks. I t h i n k a n u m b e r of concepts a n d tendencies e x i s t in our c o u n t r y w h i c h e x i s t e d a m o n g o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i n t h e past. T h e t e c h n i c a l - s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n is, in fact, a process w h i c h b r i n g s a b o u t p r o f o u n d changes i n t h e l i f e o f society, i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e c o n o m y a n d c u l t u r e . I t seems t o m e t h a t t h i s i s its m e a n i n g a n d p u r p o s e . A n d t h i s m e a n i n g and p u r p o s e m u s t b e m a t e r i a l i z e d t h r o u g h s o u n d p l a n n i n g and precise m e t h o d s . On t h i s issue t h e r e is o f t e n a n a i v e or primitive understanding w h i c h is unable to distinguish between p u r e science a n d a m i n o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l i m p r o v e ment. W e n e e d t h e t w o , b o t h p u r e science a n d t e c h n i c a l improvement, even if it is only a minor improvement. B u t pure science is n o t s o m e t h i n g o r d i n a r y , it is a h i g h - l e v e l synthesis o f p r o t r a c t e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , w h i c h opens u p broad f i e l d s o f k n o w l e d g e a n d a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , o u r people, w h e r e v e r t h e y w o r k a n d s t r u g gle, m u s t h a v e a c o r r e c t a p p r e c i a t i o n b o t h of t h e p u r e scientific w o r k a n d o f t h e w o r k f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f achievements o f science i n p r a c t i c e . T h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f science begins w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h i n o r o u t s i d e t h e laboratory, a n d i s t h e n e x t e n d e d t o l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n .

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T h e e x p e r i m e n t s i n t h e mines, i n a g r i c u l t u r e a n d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r i e s are t h e o r i g i n o f s c i e n t i f i c syntheses w h i c h c a r r y science a h e a d . It is important that we understand (and this is the line of the Party) that it should not be the apparatuses a n d those people w h o a r e s t u c k t o t h e i r d e s k s w h o d e c i d e t h e future of the development. T h e apparatuses w h i c h the P a r t y has set u p h a v e b e e n c r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o o u r M a r x ist-Leninist ideology. W i t h o u t t h e m there could be no state o f t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , w i t h o u t t h e m there w o u l d be anarchy, anarcho-syndicalism and revisionist s e l f - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . B u t o u r state a p p a r a tuses a n d t h e cadres w h o w o r k i n t h e m m u s t b e r e v o l u t i o n a r y apparatuses, s t a f f e d b y s k i l f u l , d e v o t e d , j u s t m e n , t h e y m u s t b e e n e m i e s o f sleep, o f b u r e a u c r a c y a n d routine and must be supporters of the new, the innovative a n d science. O u r i d e o l o g y i t s e l f i s science a n d i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s science w h i c h leads a l l t h e others a n d g u i d e s t h e m i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e c o m p l e t e c o n s t r u c tion of socialism. O u r M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t science i s n e i t h e r a d o g m a i n t h e o r y , n o r i s i t a d o g m a i n p r a c t i c e . T h e correct c o n c e p t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f a l l sciences a n d t h e i r m e t h o d s i n a l l fields of our life w i l l depend on the proper understanding, the p r o p e r a s s i m i l a t i o n o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . T h e C o m mittee of Science and Technique, in particular, must bear i n m i n d these questions w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e c a p i t a l p r o b l e m s f o r o u r c o u n t r y , f o r science a n d t e c h n i q u e . Science is a s o c i a l p h e n o m e n o n , as are art, l i t e r a t u r e , l a w , etc. Science does not s p r o u t f r o m c i v i l i z a t i o n a s a n isolated e p i p h e n o m e n o n , but, o n t h e c o n t r a r y , i s d e e p l y r o o t e d i n t h e social, p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d i d e o l o g i c a l t e r r a i n . I t has e m e r g e d i n a g i v e n h i s t o r i c a l e p o c h a n d its d e v e l o p m e n t a n d use a r e c o n d i t i o n e d b y t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e social o r d e r .

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W e observe, f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t t h e b i r t h o f r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g of the ancient G r e e k philosophers burst the confines of mythology and ushered in the era of cosmogony. T h i s i s l i n k e d w i t h t h e l a y a n d the l i b e r a l s p i r i t o f I o n i a n s , in the time of A n a x i m a n d e r , A n a x i m e n e s , X e n o p h o n f r o m Colophon, a n d especially, Thales f r o m Miletus, and later, of outstanding philosophers such as Democritus, Aristotle, E p i c u r u s and others. A s i m i l a r explanation can be g i v e n o f t h e C a r t e s i a n m e t h o d w h i c h t r i u m p h e d i n t h e 17th c e n t u r y , w h i c h w a s t h e p r o d u c t o f this h i s t o r i c a l stage w h i c h freed philosophical t h i n k i n g f r o m church authority. T h e theory and method of Descartes was an advance in astronomy, b i o l o g y a n d p h y s i c s f o r t h a t e p o c h . H i s m e t h o d w a s a rational method w h i c h was adapted to the progressive t h i n k i n g o f t h e t i m e . I n t h e same w a y , t h e w o r k o f p h y s i c i s t s l i k e A m p e r , a n d c h e m i s t s l i k e G a y - L u s s a c , a n d others, i s linked w i t h the genius of R o m a n t i c writers and w i t h t h e bourgeois r e v o l u t i o n . H e n c e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f science i s l i n k e d w i t h d i f ferent stages o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e a c h a i n . E a c h stage of science is p a r t of t h e stage of c i v i l i z a t i o n a n d develops t o g e t h e r w i t h it, w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g t h e bases o f a c h i e v e m e n t s in past stages. It is t h e e f f o r t s of t h e society w h i c h d e v e l o p t h e science. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f science i n o u r c o u n t r y i s l i n k e d w i t h t h e stage o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m , w i t h t h e d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t concepts, a n d n o t w i t h t h e determ i n i s t i c concepts o f 18th c e n t u r y E u r o p e . A s t h e h i s t o r y o f science s h o w s , m e c h a n i c s w a s b o r n and d e v e l o p e d o n t h e basis o f f o r m e r a c h i e v e m e n t s a n d , t h r o u g h its r a p i d progress, a r r i v e d a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f kinetics a n d t h e r m o d y n a m i c s . I n t h a t p e r i o d science w a s p e r v a d e d a n d d o m i n a t e d b y m e c h a n i c s . L a t e r o t h e r great q u a l i t a t i v e changes w e r e made i n science, w h i c h l e f t b e h i n d t h e stage o f m e c h a n i c i s m a n d f o r g e d a h e a d , d i f -

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f e r e n t i a t i n g a n d c o n f i r m i n g a t e v e r y step t h e d i a l e c t i c a l materialist development of the w o r l d . Rigorous discipline c h a r a c t e r i z e s p r e s e n t - d a y w o r l d science i n its a d v a n c e . W e m u s t n e v e r forget this. I h a v e p o i n t e d out at o t h e r t i m e s , too, t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s as a separate science is e x t r e m e l y r i g o r o u s , a v e r y e x a c t science. T h e r e c a n b e n o m a n o f l e a r n i n g w h o does n o t assert t h a t a n y science, e s p e c i a l l y t h e n a t u r a l sciences, must be expressed in mathematical f o r m in order to reach perfection. We have read that this applies even in biology, since t h e s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l i s e x p r e s s e d i n e q u a t i o n s . T h e economy, also, proceeds o n t h i s c o u r s e a n d uses t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l a p p a r a t u s i n o r d e r t o solve its p r o b l e m s . Electricity is the motor of the m o d e r n w o r l d a n d the m a i n characteristic of present-day civilization is the p r o d u c t i o n a n d use o f e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y . T h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f o u r d a i l y existence t a k e s p l a c e u n d e r t h e s t a n d a r d o f t h e power of Volta, Oersted, A m p e r and Faradey. The technique and technology of m o d e r n production are inconceivable w i t h o u t the d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t use o f e l e c t r i c p o w e r . T h e l e v e l o f t h e m a t e r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e society d e p e n d s directly on the amount of electrical energy w h i c h is cons u m e d i n a l l fields. W i t h o u t e l e c t r i c i t y t h e r e c a n b e n o progress. I h a v e s p o k e n m o r e e x t e n s i v e l y a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e n e r g y i n g e n e r a l o t h e r t i m e s , a n d i n a l l its Creative w o r k a n d a u x i l i a r y a c t i v i t i e s t h e C o m m i t t e e o f Science a n d T e c h n i q u e m u s t g i v e f i r s t - r a t e i m p o r t a n c e t o k n o w l e d g e a n d use o f m a t h e m a t i c a l m e t h o d s a n d t h e p r o b l e m s o f energy. S c i e n c e develops t h i n k i n g , l i b e r a t e s i t f r o m t h e s h a c k l e s of idealism, superstitions, a n d religious m y s t i c i s m . It d i s c o v e r s a n d elaborates t h e best a n d m o s t r a t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f t h i n k i n g a n d a c t i n g . B y d e v e l o p i n g science, b y t r a n s f o r m i n g n a t u r e a n d society, m a n also changes a n d d e v e l o p s h i m s e l f . T h e m o r e r a p i d l y a n d t h e f u r t h e r science advances,

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the more the fog and darkness of religion and mysticism w i l l b e left b e h i n d a n d b e d i s p e l l e d . T h e n a t u r a l a n d s o c i a l sciences c o m p r i s e t h a t s y s t e m o f k n o w l e d g e c r e a t e d h i s t o r i c a l l y b y d i f f e r e n t people a n d civilizations, the accuracy of w h i c h is confirmed by social practice. M a r x i s m teaches u s t h a t t h e sciences r e f l e c t t h e o b j e c t i v e l a w s o f n a t u r e a n d s o c i e t y i n the h u m a n m i n d . T h e t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e w h i c h science p r o v i d e s u s w i t h i s distinct f r o m the practical or e m p i r i c a l knowledge w h i c h people g a i n e v e r y d a y i n l i f e . S c i e n c e gives a conscious c h a r a c t e r t o t h e p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y o f people. I t not o n l y e x p l a i n s , b u t also forsees. S c i e n c e a n d t e c h n i q u e are closely l i n k e d w i t h each other, a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e t w o d i f f e r e n t fields. T h e r e are theories a n d discussions a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h i c h c a m e first a n d w h i c h second, t h a t is. d i d science g i v e b i r t h t o t e c h n i q u e o r w a s t e c h n i q u e t h e source o f science? I a m n o t g o i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n . O u r great classics m a d e i t clear l o n g ago. M a r x g i v e s tools, t e c h n i q u e a n d t e c h nology t h e i r p r o p e r v a l u e , b u t h e a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t t h e m a i n f o r c e w h i c h creates t h e m , w h i c h sets t h e m i n m o t i o n and makes t h e m more perfect every day is man. B o u r g e o i s t h e o r e t i c i a n s elevate t e c h n i q u e to a f e t i s h , and thus, d e v e l o p t e c h n i c i s m . T h e y separate t e c h n i q u e , m a k e it i n d e p e n d e n t of s o c i a l l i f e , m a k e it t h e p r o d u c t of a f e w i n v e n t o r s of genius, or an elite of scientists, t h e r e f o r e , w e s h o u l d b e c a r e f u l i n t h i s m a t t e r . I n fact, h o w e v e r , despite t h e great r o l e w h i c h o u t s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s p l a y , b o t h science a n d t e c h n i q u e a r e b o r n a n d d e v e l o p e d o n the basis of social p r a c t i c e , of t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e b r o a d masses o f w o r k i n g people. I stress these t h i n g s , comrades, because o u r people w h o are b u i l d i n g a n d p r o d u c i n g , m u s t b e e q u i p p e d w i t h science a n d s h o u l d d e v e l o p m o d e r n t e c h n i q u e , s h o u l d

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k n o w a n d u n d e r s t a n d these t h i n g s t h e o r e t i c a l l y f r o m t h e a n g l e o f o u r M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y , because o n l y i n t h i s w a y w i l l they avoid falling into capitalist-revisionist interpretations and deviations. N o w let m e c o m e c o n c r e t e l y t o t h e q u e s t i o n u n d e r discussion. F r o m the report presented to us on the p r o b l e m o f p o s t - g r a d u a t e q u a l i f i c a t i o n , i t e m e r g e s t h a t the w o r k done has n o t r e s p o n d e d to t h e needs of v a r i o u s sectors, etc., etc. I pointed out above why this occurs and that this work must be done better and in more organized ways. But I want to stress that it would be a mistake to think that the Committee of Science and Technique alone will carry out this work , w h i l e t h e o t h e r s w i l l f o l d t h e i r a r m s a n d , w i t h o u t m a k i n g t i m e l y studies o f t h e p r o b l e m s o n t h e basis o f sectors, o n t h e basis o f d e v e l o p m e n t , w i l l s i m p l y a s k f o r the n u m b e r o f people r e q u i r e d i n the g i v e n s p e c i a l i t y a n d name them, w h i c h w o u l d be quite inadequate. T h i s has occurred and is still occurring. The Committee of Science a n d T e c h n i q u e m u s t not b e a n a d j u n c t o f t h e S t a t e P l a n ning Commission, but must be a committee attached to the government. Despite the shortcomings that we have, the n u m b e r o f people w i t h s c h o o l i n g i n o u r c o u n t r y i s g o o d . T h e i n terest i n l e a r n i n g also i s g o o d a n d i t c a n n o t b e s a i d t h a t there is no rise in the level of knowledge in our country, b u t t h e c o n c l u s i o n stated i n t h e r e p o r t i s m e a n i n g f u l , t h e r e f o r e , f r o m n o w o n t h e n e g a t i v e causes w h i c h e x i s t must be examined more deeply and what is more important is that measures must be t a k e n to put this situation in order and to advance. T h e r e p o r t speaks a b o u t mass p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f h i g h e r cadres, etc. I n m y o p i n i o n t h i s m a s s f o r m can be effective only w h e n the control, management

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a n d requirements for qualification are extremely rigorous. The awareness, the complete conviction must be created in everyone that wherever he works, fights and produces, it is necessary to learn, to gain qualification and not just to raise his grading, but to become able to produce the maximum and of the best quality. I t h i n k we should struggle h a r d for quality, first of all, i n t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n courses. T h e r e p o r t speaks a b o u t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of a f i v e - y e a r p l a n a b o u t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , etc. T h i s i s r i g h t a n d s h o u l d b e done. B u t I w a n t to g i v e some a d v i c e : the plan made for this purpose should be realistic, and not exaggerated by desires beyond our possibilities. We s h o u l d n o t w e a k e n t h e h i g h e r schools a n d p r o d u c t i o n b y w i t h d r a w i n g cadres f r o m them allegedly to give t h e m post-graduate specialization. Well-considered and reasonable specialization can be successful a n d b e done s o u n d l y o n l y w h e n the base i s n o t w e a k e n e d . B o t h a r e i m p o r t a n t , b u t t h e base, p r o d u c t i o n , has p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s p l a n must be w o r k e d out v e r y rigorously. If the base does n o t w o r k s e r i o u s l y o n t h i s p r o b l e m , t h e w o r k f r o m above by the C o m m i t t e e of Science a n d Technique, the S t a t e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u cation and C u l t u r e w i l l be crippled. It has been decided that this plan shall be approved in June this year. However, I ask: is this time-limit w e l l based? H a v e t h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e d e p a r t m e n t s c o m p i l e d the p l a n s a n d p r o g r a m s , h a v e t h e cadres b e e n a l l o c a t e d , taking into account the w o r k load, the profile, their quantity and quality? I t seems t o m e t h a t f o r o u r c o n d i t i o n s , I a m r e f e r r i n g t o o u r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s , t a k i n g i n t o account t h e l e v e l o f science i n o u r c o u n t r y a n d its needs, a s w e l l a s o u r t e a c h i n g , t h e o r e t i c a l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l force, t h e t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d set f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n is too l o n g .

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T h e s e a r e t h e t h i n g s I h a d t o say. N o w I w o u l d l i k e y o u , l e a d i n g cadres o f the C o m m i t t e e o f S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n i q u e , t h e c o m r a d e s o f the g o v e r n m e n t , o n w h i c h t h i s C o m m i t t e e i s dependent, a n d the r e s p e c t i v e sectors o f t h e C e n t r a l C o m mittee, to bear in m i n d the observations a n d comments w h i c h were made here in the development of the activity of the Committee. Reports and Speeches 1980-1981

THE STATUS OF A REPUBLIC FOR KOSOVA IS A JUST DEMAND

Article published in the newspaper Zri i popullit


M a y 17, 1981

O n e a f t e r t h e other, t h e p o l i t i c a l staffs o f Y u g o s l a v i a , f r o m the l o w e s t t o t h e h i g h e s t instances, f r o m t h e r e g i o n s and r e p u b l i c s u p t o t h e F e d e r a t i o n , f r o m t h e basic o r g a n izations t o t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e L C Y , m e t a n d discussed t h e e v e n t s i n K o s o v a . E v e r y w h e r e t h e r e w e r e curses against t h e p e o p l e a n d y o u t h o f K o s o v a , threats, abuse, i n s u l t s ! A w a v e o f G r e a t - S e r b a n d a n t i - A l b a n i a n chauvinism is sweeping Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav leaders are c o m p e t i n g w i t h one a n o t h e r i n o r a t o r y t o c o v e r u p t h e real causes o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n d r e v o l t s o f t h e A l banian p o p u l a t i o n i n K o s o v a , t o c o n c e a l t h e m o n s t r o u s m a s sacres a n d b a r b a r i t i e s o f t h e S e r b a r m i e s , t o d e n i g r a t e t h e Albanians of K o s o v a . T h e y are a l l r u s h i n g to be the first to propose t h e m o s t d r a c o n i a n m e a s u r e s , to p r e s e n t t h e m o s t oppressive a n d i n h u m a n p l a n s a g a i n s t t h e A l b a n i a n s . In this article today, however, we do not intend to return to the explanation of the tragic events of K o s o v a , t o show w h e r e t h e y h a v e t h e i r s o u r c e a n d w h o c a u s e d them. W e h a v e e x p r e s s e d o u r v i e w a n d s t a n d o n these q u e s -

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t i o n s i n t h e a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d o n A p r i l 8 ( 1 ) a n d 23. ( 2 ) W e h a v e n o t h i n g t o delete f r o m t h e m o r a d d t o t h e m . W h a t w e h a d t o s a y w e s a i d o p e n l y , s t r a i g h t out, w i t h s i n c e r i t y a n d a h i g h sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . We thought that after the first shock a n d confusion, reason, level-headedness, r e a l i s t i c a n d o b j e c t i v e j u d g e m e n t o f the causes w h i c h l e d t o t h e n e w t r a g e d y i n K o s o v a w o u l d prevail among the Y u g o s l a v leadership, that the lofty interests o f t h e peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a , t h e f r i e n d s h i p a n d u n i t y o f the n a t i o n s a n d n a t i o n a l i t i e s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e i t w o u l d stand above nationalist prejudices, old a n d new. T h i s d i d not occur. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , a l l t h e g o v e r n m e n t organs a n d the o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d those o f t h e L e a g u e o f Communists were swept by a furious w a v e of chauvinism, n o t o n l y against the A l b a n i a n s o f K o s o v a , b u t also against the P a r t y of L a b o u r and the People's Socialist Republic of A l b a n i a against t h e i r correct l i n e a n d p o l i c y t o w a r d s Y u g o slavia. They are accusing A l b a n i a in so m a n y words of h a v i n g i n t e r f e r e d i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f Y u g o s l a v i a . W e are s a i d t o h a v e i n t e r f e r e d because w e p u b l i c l y c o n d e m n e d the massacres t h a t w e r e p e r p e t r a t e d i n K o s o v a , because w e t o l d the t r u t h a b o u t t h o u s a n d s o f p e o p l e b e i n g killed, wounded and arrested there! D i d the Y u g o s l a v leaders expect us to send t h e m our congratulations on these c r i m e s a n d a t r o c i t i e s ? W e are s a i d t o h a v e i n t e r f e r e d because w e s a i d i n o u r a r t i c l e s t h a t t h e people o f K o s o v a h a v e t h e r i g h t t o d e m a n d t h e status o f a F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c ! B u t t h i s is a l e g i t i m a t e d e m a n d , a d e m a n d of t h e p e o p l e of Kosova, w h i c h we have not invented.
__________________________________________ 1 T h e article W h y W e r e P o l i c e V i o l e n c e and T a n k s U s e d Against the A l b a n i a n s of Kosova (see p. 146 of this volume). 2 T h e article W h o Incites H o s t i l i t y A m o n g s t the Peoples of Yugoslavia?, p u b l i s h e d in the newspaper Z r i i p o p u l l i t , dated A p r i l 23, 1981. (See A b o u t the Events in K o s o v a , 8 N n tori P u b l i s h i n g House, T i r a n a 1981, p. 20, E n g . ed.)

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I n recent d a y s , t h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h a v e h a d a great d e a l t o say a b o u t t h i s q u e s t i o n , b u t n o b o d y has e x p l a i n e d w h y K o s o v a c a n n o t b e a r e p u b l i c . O n e a f t e r t h e other, t h e y m e r e l y repeat t h a t t h e d e m a n d of K o s o v a to b e c o m e a Federal Republic is allegedly reactionary, counter-revo l u t i o n a r y , c h a u v i n i s t i c , etc. T h i s s t a n d i s not o n l y u t t e r l y baseless b u t also i n c o m p l e t e a n d o p e n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the w a r t i m e p r o g r a m m a t i c stands o f t h e C P Y o n t h e n a tional q u e s t i o n a n d w i t h m a n y s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e t o p personalities o f t h e Y u g o s l a v p a r t y a n d state. B u t let u s refer t o d o c u m e n t s .

A F e w F a c t s of H i s t o r y about the T r e a t m e n t of the N a t i o n a l P r o b l e m of the A l b a n i a n s of Y u g o s l a v i a A t t h e L o n d o n C o n f e r e n c e o f A m b a s s a d o r s o f the Great P o w e r s , i n 1913. A l b a n i a w a s p a r t i t i o n e d . D e s p i t e t h e m a n y protests t h r o u g h d i p l o m a t i c c h a n n e l s a n d t h e a r m e d opposition of t h e A l b a n i a n people, a l a r g e p a r t of its n o r t h eastern t e r r i t o r y , K o s o v a a n d o t h e r A l b a n i a n - i n h a b i t e d regions, w a s a n n e x e d t o t h e K i n g d o m s o f S e r b i a a n d M o n tenegro. T h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e o f V e r s a i l l e s , i n 1919, i g n o r i n g the just d e m a n d s o f t h e A l b a n i a n people, r e c o n f i r m e d t h e partitioning of the A l b a n i a n territories, as was decided b y the i m p e r i a l i s t p o w e r s i n L o n d o n , a n d left t h e m t o the S e r b i a n - C r o a t i a n - S l o v e n i a n K i n g d o m , w h i c h i t c r e a t e d . F o r a long time the Communist P a r t y of Yugoslavia had condemned the national oppression of the A l b a n i a n s who were enslaved and e a r m a r k e d for extermination b y the n a t i o n a l i s t p o l i c y o f t h e G r e a t - S e r b hegemonists, a s T i t o w r o t e i n t h e n e w s p a p e r Proleter. F o r some t i m e i t h a d also u p h e l d the thesis that t h e peoples w h i c h m a d e

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up the K i n g d o m of Yugoslavia must be granted the right of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n up to secession. In the article Against the Danger of W a r , Against the Onslaught of Fascist Reaction! Let Us U n i t e A l l the D e m o cratic Forces in the M i l i t a n t P o p u l a r F r o n t in Yugoslavia, too! p u b l i s h e d i n Proleter, o r g a n o f t h e C C o f t h e C P Y , o n F e b r u a r y 2 , 1937, T i t o w r o t e : T h e a i m o f t h i s s t r u g g l e i n w h i c h the masses o f the people w i l l s t r i v e w i t h a l l t h e i r m i g h t a n d means, has t o b e t h e u r g e n t s o l u t i o n o f t h e national question in conformity w i t h the principle of the democratic right of self-determination... I n a n o t h e r a r t i c l e , also p u b l i s h e d i n Proleter a t the e n d o f D e c e m b e r 1942, u n d e r t h e t i t l e T h e N a t i o n a l Q u e s tion in Y u g o s l a v i a in the L i g h t of the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r , w h i c h is c o n s i d e r e d as a p r o g r a m m a t i c d o c u m e n t of t h e C P Y o n t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n , T i t o p o i n t e d out that, T h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f Y u g o s l a v i a has n o t r e n o u n c e d a n d n e v e r w i l l r e n o u n c e its p r i n c i p l e , w h i c h w a s e s t a b l i s h e d b y o u r great leaders a n d teachers L e n i n - S t a l i n , t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t e v e r y people h a v e t h e r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n u p to the right of secession... T h e question of Macedonia, the question of K o s o v a and M e t o h i a , the question of M o n t e negro, t h e q u e s t i o n o f S e r b i a , t h e q u e s t i o n o f C r o a t i a , t h e question of Slovenia, the question of Bosnia and Hercegovina w i l l be easily solved to everybody's satisfaction. O n l y in t h i s w a y w i l l t h e people t h e m s e l v e s s o l v e it, a n d e a c h people w i n t h i s r i g h t r i f l e i n h a n d , i n t h e p r e s e n t N a t i o n a l Liberation War. I n T h e Theses o n t h e N a t i o n a l Q u e s t i o n i n K o s o v a a n d M e t o h i a , p r e s e n t e d b y M o a P i j a d e , one o f t h e m a i n leaders o f t h e C P Y , a t t h e 5 t h N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n Z a g r e b i n O c t o b e r 1940, w e r e a d , T h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n h e r e (in K o s o v a ed.) c a n b e a c h i e v e d w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e f r e e w o r k e r s a n d peasants' r e p u b l i c o f Kosova through the revolutionary overthrow of the i m -

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perialist fascist regime of the ' G r e a t - S e r b ' bourgeoisie. F o r the A l b a n i a n s , T u r k s and the S l a v Moslems, this solution w i l l mean that they achieve complete freedom of ownership of their land, are liberated f r o m national oppression a n d secure t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e i r c o m p l e t e l y f r e e n a tional, political a n d c u l t u r a l development. (3) Thus the Communist P a r t y of Yugoslavia recognized t h e r i g h t o f t h e people o f K o s o v a , l i k e t h e o t h e r peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a , t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n u p t o secession, t h e right to have their o w n republic. T h e people of K o s o v a w o u l d w i n these r i g h t s b y t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e A n t i - f a s c i s t Liberation War. A n d the Albanians of K o s o v a took part in the war, m a k i n g their valuable contribution to the l i b e r a t i o n o f K o s o v a a n d t h e peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a . B y t h e e n d o f 1944, a s F a d i l H o x h a has r e c o r d e d , t h e r e w e r e m o r e t h a n 50,000 f i g h t e r s i n t h e p a r t i s a n b r i g a d e s and other detachments in K o s o v a . D u r i n g this war, thousands of A l b a n i a n partisans laid d o w n their lives for freedom and national rights. I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n t a k e n a t the 5 t h C o n ference o f t h e C P Y o f t h e y e a r 1940, d u r i n g t h e w h o l e p e riod of the National Liberation W a r , the Regional Committee of the CP for K o s o v a and M e t o h i a maintained direct l i n k s w i t h the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e of the C P Y . It was of the s a m e r a n k a n d h a d a l l t h e a t t r i b u t e s a n d competences w h i c h the highest party organs in Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina had. The M i l i t a r y H i g h C o m m a n d w h i c h w a s set u p i n K o s o v a d u r i n g t h e w a r w a s l i n k e d directly w i t h the S u p r e m e Headquarters of Y u g o slavia. Thus, d u r i n g the war, the Party, the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n A r m y , t h e C o u n c i l s , t h e F r o n t , etc., i n K o s o v a w e r e
_____________________________________ 3 A r h i v F.N.R.J. F o n d : C e n t r a l n i K o m i t e t K.P.J., B r o j 12-14, 1940. Teze o n a c i o n a l n o m p i t a n j u na K o s m e t u sa V Z e maljske K o n f e r e n c i j e K.P.J.

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not d e p e n d e n t o n S e r b i a a n d d i d n o t f u n c t i o n w i t h i n its f r a m e w o r k , but, l i k e those o f t h e o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s , w e r e l i n k e d directly w i t h the central forums of Yugoslavia. O n the basis o f t h e decisions a n d o r i e n t a t i o n s o f t h e C P Y on the self-determination of nations, in N o v e m b e r 1943 t h e R e g i o n a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C P Y f o r K o s o v a a n d Metohia decided to convene the F o u n d i n g Conference of the N a t i o n a l Liberation C o u n c i l for K o s o v a and M e t o h i a . T h i s conference was held in the village of B u j a n in the G j a k o v a H i g h l a n d s f r o m D e c e m b e r 31, 1943 t o J a n u a r y 1-2, 1944. F o r t y - n i n e delegates, of w h o m 43 w e r e A l b a n i a n s w h i l e 6 were Serbs and Montenegrins, took part in this conference. T h e y w e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n c o u n c i l s o f t h e m a i n centres a n d v i l l a g e s , o f t h e partisan units and communists f r o m all parts of K o s o v a . T h e conference w a s h e l d p r e c i s e l y a t t h e t i m e w h e n t h e other nations of Yugoslavia founded the supreme organs o f t h e state p o w e r t h a t e m e r g e d f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r , w h e n e v e r y n a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o its o w n d e s i r e a n d w i l l , w a s r e a l i z i n g its r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The principal document of the F o u n d i n g Conference of the N a t i o n a l Liberation C o u n c i l for K o s o v a a n d M e t o h i a i s t h e R e s o l u t i o n w h i c h expresses t h e s t a n d o f t h e w h o l e people i n r e g a r d t o t h e f u t u r e o f K o s o v a . T h i s R e s o l u t i o n says, K o s o v a a n d t h e D u k a g j i n P l a t e a u is a region inhabited, for the most part, by the A l b a n i a n people w h o t o d a y , a s a l w a y s , w a n t t o b e u n i t e d w i t h A l bania. Therefore, we deem it our duty to indicate the correct r o a d w h i c h the A l b a n i a n p e o p l e m u s t f o l l o w t o r e a l i z e their aspirations. The only w a y for the A l b a n i a n people of K o s o v a and the D u k a g j i n Plateau to be united w i t h A l b a n i a is through their joint struggle w i t h the other peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a a g a i n s t t h e b l o o d - t h i r s t y n a z i o c c u p i e r s a n d t h e i r h i r e l i n g s , because t h i s i s t h e o n l y w a y

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t o w i n t h e f r e e d o m , i n w h i c h a l l t h e peoples, hence, t h e A l b a n i a n people, too, w i l l b e a b l e t o d e c i d e t h e i r f a t e t h r o u g h t h e r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n u p t o secession. T h e guarantee for this is the National L i b e r a t i o n A r m y of Yugoslavia and the National Liberation A r m y of A l b a n i a w i t h w h i c h i t i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d . B e s i d e s these, o u r great allies, t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , B r i t a i n , A m e r i c a , also g u a r a n t e e t h i s (the A t l a n t i c C h a r t e r , t h e M o s c o w a n d T e h r a n C o n f e rences). ( 4 ) The Resolution of the National Liberation Council of the K o s o v a - M e t o h i a r e g i o n b e a r s t h e s i g n a t u r e s o f t h e people's heroes X h e v d e t D o d a a n d H a j d a r D u s h i , o f t h e m a r t y r s T e f i k a n g a , X h e l a d i n H a n a , a n d others, o f F a d i l Hoxha, Xhavit Nimani, Y m e r Pula, Milan Mikovi, L j u b o m i r C a n i , V e l i a M i k o v i a n d t h e o t h e r delegates w h o took p a r t i n t h e m e e t i n g . A l t h o u g h this decision was in accord w i t h the docum e n t s o f t h e C P Y a n d t h e d e c l a r a t i o n s o f T i t o o n t h e selfdetermination of nations, it w a s opposed by the leadership of the C P Y , in w h i c h the nationalist-chauvinist spirit was a l r e a d y p r e d o m i n a n t a n d t h e a n t i - M a r x i s t stands o n h o w matters w o u l d be arranged in post-war Yugoslavia had been o u t l i n e d . T h e l e t t e r o f t h e C C o f t h e C P Y o f M a r c h 28, 1944 t o the R e g i o n a l C o m m i t t e e f o r K o s c v a - M e t o h i a , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e decisions o f t h e B u j a n C o n f e r e n c e , s a i d , Y o u should n o t h a v e set u p t h e R e g i o n a l C o m m i t t e e , because y o u r r e g i o n i s n o t a separate c o m p a c t d i s t r i c t . . . T h e c h a r a c ter o f y o u r R e g i o n a l N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n C o u n c i l i s n o t c l e a r f r o m the Resolution. This Council can be only an initiator, a n o r g a n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t y o f t h e masses, b u t w e c a n n o t g i v e i t a state c h a r a c t e r , a l t h o u g h i t m u s t l e a d t h e l o w _______________________________ 4 T h e People's C o u n c i l of the A u t o n o m o u s R e g i o n of K o s o v a - M e t o h i a 1943-1953, P r i s h t i n a 1955, p. 10.

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r a n k i n g c o u n c i l s w h e r e t h e y exist. T h i s i s because y o u d o not have liberated t e r r i t o r i e s . . . . . . H e r e are o u r i n s t r u c t i o n s o f h o w t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s tion should be treated. First of all, y o u should understand a n d p o p u l a r i z e m o r e w i d e l y t h e decisions o f t h e 2 n d m e e t i n g o f t h e A V N O J ( 5 ) a n d t h e essence a n d p u r p o s e o f these d e c i sions. T h e s e decisions g u a r a n t e e e q u a l r i g h t s f o r a l l t h e peoples, m a k e p o s s i b l e t h e r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Today there must be no talk of 'unification' w i t h A l b a n i a , because at t h i s m o m e n t t h e r e is no q u e s t i o n of defining the borders between Y u g o s l a v i a and A l b a n i a , b o t h o f t h e m o c c u p i e d b y G e r m a n y , b u t these t w o c o u n tries should be liberated f r o m the nazi occupier t h r o u g h a r m e d struggle. ( 6 ) Nevertheless, the A l b a n i a n s of K o s o v a and all Y u g o slavia continued to fight the nazi occupiers w i t h determination, always hoping that through their fight they w o u l d w i n their national rights. I n t h e a u t u m n o f 1944 M i l a d i n P o p o v i r e t u r n e d t o K o s o v a f r o m A l b a n i a , and resumed the function of political s e c r e t a r y o f the R e g i o n a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C P Y f o r K o s o v a . I n 1943 h e h a d sent a letter t o t h e C C o f t h e C P Y i n w h i c h he sought a concrete d e f i n i t i o n of t h e c o n t e n t of t h e p r i n ciple of self-determination and how this principle w o u l d be applied to the A l b a n i a n s of Kosova. In this letter M. P o p o v i w r o t e , W e h a v e a l w a y s stressed t h e s l o g a n o f selfdetermination for the future. T h e A l b a n i a n people could not b e m o b i l i z e d against t h e ' l i b e r a t o r ' o c c u p i e r i n t h i s w a y . H e goes o n t o d e m a n d t h a t the C C o f t h e C P Y t a k e a concrete s t a n d a n d d e f i n e the f o r m o f t h e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n
5 T h e A n t i - f a s c i s t C o u n c i l of N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n of Y u g o slavia. 6 Z b o r n i k d o k u m e n t a i podataka o Narodno-oslobobila k o m R a t u jugoslovenskih naroda. T o m I, K n j i g a , 19. B o r b e na K o s o v u 1941-1944, Dok. 104, str. 462-464. B e o g r a d 1969.

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o f t h e A l b a n i a n s i n Y u g o s l a v i a . ( 7 ) B u t the Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p t u r n e d a deaf ear to t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t c o m m u n i s t , t h i s son o f M o n t e n e g r o , a n d p r o c e e d e d o n its course. W h e n Y u g o s l a v i a was liberated, the A l b a n i a n s o f K o sova a n d t h e o t h e r r e g i o n s e x p e c t e d that, i n r e t u r n f o r the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e y m a d e i n t h e w a r against the occupiers, for the blood of thousands of fighters w h o fell on the battlef i e l d s , a n d f o r t h e countless s a c r i f i c e s o f t h e w h o l e people, they w o u l d be given political freedoms and national rights o n a n e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a . B u t i n s t e a d o f this, i n F e b r u a r y 1945 a m i l i t a r y a d m i nistration was established in K o s o v a . At this time, while most of the K o s o v a brigades were fighting in Croatia and S l o v e n i a for the liberation of the whole of Yugoslavia, the S e r b - M o n t e n e g r i n 52nd a n d 46th Divisions, the Macedonian 50th D i v i s i o n a n d o t h e r s p o u r e d i n t o K o s o v a . T h o u s a n d s o f A l b a n i a n s accused o f v a r i o u s c r i m e s w e r e k i l l e d a n d m a s sacred. T h o u s a n d s o f o t h e r s w e r e sent t o t h e f r o n t u n d e r the p r e t e x t o f m i l i t a r y m o b i l i z a t i o n . W h i l e the m i l i t a r y administration r u l e d and made the l a w i n K o s o v a , t h e w h o l e o f K o s o v a h a d b e e n p u t o n the a u c t i o n b l o c k o f B e l g r a d e . T h e f i r s t v a r i a n t w h i c h the Y u g o s l a v leadership discussed w a s the d i v i s i o n of K o s o v a among three Republics Montenegro, Serbia a n d M a c e d o n i a . T h u s a f u r t h e r p a r t i t i o n i n g o f t h e A l b a n i a n regions, similar to that decided by the Yugoslav K i n g d o m , was being designed. At a meeting of the CC of the C P Y h e l d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1945, M i l a d i n P o p o v i s t r o n g l y opposed t h i s p r o p o s a l . H e d e c l a r e d t h a t t h i s p r o p o s a l w a s openly contrary to the aspirations and rights of the A l banians of Kosova, rights w h i c h they had w o n w i t h the blood they h a d shed a n d the contribution they had made d u r i n g the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r .
___________________________________ 7 C e n t r a l A r c h i v e s o f the P L A , f i l e M . Popovi.

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N e x t i t w a s discussed t h a t K o s o v a s h o u l d r e m a i n a n autonomous unit, neither separate n o r dependent on the F e d e r a t i o n , b u t a n n e x e d t o one o f t h r e e R e p u b l i c s : S e r b i a , Macedonia or Montenegro. F i n a l l y it was decided that K o sova should be annexed by the Republic of Serbia. (8) T h e solution w h i c h the Y u g o s l a v leadership gave the question of K o s o v a w a s not a just solution of the n a t i o n a l question. T h i s was an arbitrary stand, an open negation of the sovereign rights of the population of K o s o v a , a n d a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f the s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e peoples. O n l y one v a r i a n t w a s n o t discussed i n B e l g r a d e a t t h a t t i m e t h a t K o s o v a also c o u l d b e u n i t e d w i t h A l b a n i a . H a d t h e people o f K o s o v a n o t e x p r e s s e d t h i s w i s h a t t h e B u j a n Conference? W e r e not A l b a n i a a n d Y u g o s l a v i a t w o allied states t h a t h a d f o u g h t a n d shed b l o o d t o g e t h e r ? T h e status o f K o s o v a w a s d e c i d e d u n d e r t h e d i c t a t e o f the G r e a t - S e r b chauvinist ideology, w h i c h w a s inherited f r o m the Y u g o s l a v K i n g d o m and preserved i n post-war Y u g o s l a v i a . T h i s e m e r g e d also f r o m w h a t T i t o t o l d u s i n 1946, t h a t K o s o v a a n d t h e o t h e r r e g i o n s i n h a b i t e d b y Albanians belong to A l b a n i a and we shall return them to y o u , b u t n o t n o w , because t h e G r e a t - S e r b r e a c t i o n w o u l d n o t accept s u c h a thing. ( 9 ) Tito admitted that K o s o v a belonged to A l b a n i a , but h e w a s not sincere i n s a y i n g so, because t h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r ship had already decided that K o s o v a w o u l d r e m a i n under S e r b i a . I n fact, a y e a r e a r l i e r h e h a d d e c l a r e d t o t h e A l b a n i a n d e l e g a t i o n o f K o s o v a t h a t the peoples o f K o s o v a a n d M e t o h i a w i l l create s u c h a p r o f o u n d f r a t e r n i t y a n d u n i t y that it w i l l be all the same to the A l b a n i a n people
_____________________________________ 8 K o s o v a 2. 1973, pp. 76-78. 9 C e n t r a l A r c h i v e s o f the P L A , f i l e : V i s i t o f the A l b a n i a n delegation to Y u g o s l a v i a , 1946.

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whether they live w i t h i n the borders of A l b a n i a or Y u g o slavia. ( 10 ) W h a t T i t o concealed, t h e G r e a t - S e r b c h a u v i n i s t R a n k o v i d e c l a r e d o p e n l y , w i t h n o k i d gloves. S p e a k i n g a b o u t the question of the annexation of K o s o v a by Serbia at the extraordinary meeting of the Anti-fascist Convention of S e r b i a i n A p r i l 1945, h e stated t h a t t h i s a n n e x a t i o n is t h e best a n s w e r t o those w h o t r u m p e t a b o u t t h e d a n g e r o f the partitioning of the 'Serbian' territory, w h o m a k e the accusation that the National L i b e r a t i o n W a r w i l l w e a k e n t h e S e r b s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e C r o a t s a n d t h e others. ( 1 1 ) A n d t h e p r e s e n t Y u g o s l a v leaders, i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o r e j e c t t h e d e m a n d t h a t K o s o v a s h o u l d e n j o y t h e status o f a F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c , are t r y i n g t o p r o v e t h a t a l l e g e d l y t h e A l b a n i a n p e o p l e o f K o s o v a t h e m s e l v e s d e c i d e d of t h e i r o w n free w i l l that K o s o v a should be incorporated into the Republic of Serbia. T h e people of K o s o v a neither requested nor decided that K o s o v a should be annexed to the Republic of Serbia. T h i s decision w a s t a k e n by the top forums of Serbia in an a r b i t r a r y manner. T h i s emerges clearly f r o m the d o c u ments of that time. Duan Mugoa, w h o had replaced M i l a d i n Popovi, assassinated a m o n t h e a r l i e r b y the agents o f O Z N A ( 1 2 ) , also s p o k e a t t h e a b o v e - s a i d A p r i l 1945 m e e t i n g o f the A n t i fascist C o n v e n t i o n o f S e r b i a . D u a n M u g o a said, I e x p r e s s the d e s i r e o f t h e N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n C o u n c i l o f K o s o v a a n d M e t o h i a t h a t w e , t h e peoples o f K o s o v a a n d M e t o h i a , too, should be annexed to f r a t e r n a l F e d e r a l Serbia. (13) This declaration of D u a n M u g o a is considered as the expression o f t h e f r e e w i l l a n d s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e people o f
________________________________________ 10 R i l i n d j a , A p r i l 15, 1945. 11 Borba, A p r i l 8, 1945. 12 T h e Y u g o s l a v Secret Service. 13 B o r b a , A p r i l 8, 1945.

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K o s o v a . O n A p r i l 9 , 1945, t h e n e w s p a p e r B o r b a w i t h b i g h e a d l i n e s i n f o r m e d the p u b l i c t h a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e A n t i - f a s c i s t C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e l i b e r a t e d people o f S e r b i a acccepted t h e desire o f t h e peoples o f K o s o v a a n d M e tohia to be united w i t h Federal Serbia. B u t o n J u n e 30, 1945, f o r g e t t i n g w h a t i t has c e n s u r e d on A p r i l 8, t h e n e w s p a p e r Borba in one of its m a t e r i a l s p u b l i s h e d t h e last p a r t o f the speech o f D u a n M u g o a , i n w h i c h he revealed that K o s o v a had made no demand and taken no decision to be annexed to Serbia. D u a n M u g o a h a d s a i d : W e h a v e not t a k e n t h i s d e c i s i o n i n o u r C o n v e n t i o n yet, because m i l i t a r y r u l e i s s t i l l i n f o r c e i n K o s o v a a n d M e t o h i a . A t t h e f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y , a s soon a s t h e military rule in Kosova and Metohia is lifted, we w i l l take the d e c i s i o n i n o u r C o n v e n t i o n o n a n n e x a t i o n t o F e d e r a l Serbia. T h u s , w h a t h a d b e e n d e c i d e d p r e v i o u s l y i n B e l grade w o u l d be endorsed in Kosova. What, then did Kosova gain waged and all the blood it shed? w a s not e v e n g r a n t e d t h e r i g h t s a s w a s done w i t h V o j v o d i n a , b u t o f a n oblast* o f F e d e r a l S e r b i a . status u p t i l l 1968. f r o m a l l that struggle it In the n e w Y u g o s l a v i a it of an autonomous region, was reduced to the status K o s o v a remained in this

T h e people o f K o s o v a d i d not r e c o n c i l e t h e m s e l v e s t o this situation and persisted in demanding their rights. In 1968, on the occasion of t h e d i s c u s s i o n of a m e n d m e n t s to the C o n s t i t u t i o n , the A l b a n i a n s o f K o s o v a once a g a i n r a i s e d the question of their n a t i o n a l rights a n d put f o r w a r d t h e i r d e m a n d o f the status o f a r e p u b l i c f o r K o s o v a . T h i s d e m a n d was presented openly a n d publicly at the meetings of political activists held in the communes of P r i s h t i n a , G j i l a n , etc. T h e K o s o v a press of O c t o b e r 1968 s a i d t h a t in a n u m b e r of meetings in several communes demands for a republic,
________________________________ * P r o v i n c e (Serbian in the original).

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the r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , etc., h a v e b e e n expressed. ( 14 ) A delegation of the C o m m u n i s t League of K o s o v a M e t o h i a also p r e s e n t e d t h i s d e m a n d t o T i t o a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f N o v e m b e r 1968. T i t o o p p o s e d t h i s l a w f u l d e m a n d o f t h e A l b a n i a n s o f K o s o v a a n d r e f u s e d it, s a y i n g t h a t the r e p u b l i c i s n o t t h e o n l y f a c t o r w h i c h solves a l l t h e p r o blems. ( 1 5 ) I t w a s c l e a r t h a t t h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p d i d n o t i n tend t o g i v e t h e A l b a n i a n s o f K o s o v a t h e status o f a r e p u b l i c . That i s w h y massive demonstrations, i n w h i c h A l banian y o u t h a n d citizens took part, b r o k e out in N o v e m b e r 1968 i n v a r i o u s cities o f K o s o v a . T h e y d e m a n d e d t h a t t h e y be given the national rights for w h i c h they had fought and shed t h e i r b l o o d , s u c h a s t h e r i g h t t o k e e p t h e i r n a t i o n a l flag, t h e r i g h t o f t w o l a n g u a g e s ( A l b a n i a n a n d S e r b i a n ) , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n A l b a n i a n u n i v e r s i t y , t h e r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d t h e status o f a r e p u b l i c . T h e d e m onstrations w e r e v i o l e n t l y s u p p r e s s e d b y t h e p o l i c e forces. A f t e r the demonstrations the Y u g o s l a v leadership agreed t o t h e A l b a n i a n s ' d e m a n d f o r b i l i n g u a l i t y a n d t h e national flag, and established the U n i v e r s i t y of Prishtina. However, the d e m a n d for the republic was rejected. A l though the autonomous region was given certain w i d e r competences a f t e r t h e s a n c t i o n i n g o f t h e a m e n d m e n t s t o the C o n s t i t u t i o n , K o s o v a r e m a i n e d , a s a l w a y s , u n d e r t h e tutelage of S e r b i a . F r o m w h a t has b e e n s a i d , i t emerges t h a t t h e d e m a n d of t h e A l b a n i a n s of K o s o v a f o r t h e status of a F e d e r a l Republic, for the recognition of their national rights, is not a new p r o b l e m that emerged for the first time in the d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of P r i s h t i n a a n d o t h e r cities, a n d is n o t a p r o b l e m s t i r r e d u p b y socialist A l b a n i a . T h e p e o p l e o f K o s o v a h a v e a l w a y s f o u g h t f o r these r i g h t s . B u t t h e y
____________________________________ 14 R i l i n d j a , September 8, 1968 a n d October 6, 1968. 15 R i l i n d j a , N o v e m b e r 4, 1968.

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have been systematically denied them, starting f r o m the 2 n d m e e t i n g o f the A V N O J o f N o v e m b e r 29, 1943, w h i c h treated the A l b a n i a n s of K o s o v a a n d other regions of Yugoslavia as national minorities, destined to live under the umbrella of other republics, w h i l e the right to sove r e i g n t y a n d the f o r m a t i o n o f a r e p u b l i c w a s r e c o g n i z e d t o others, s u c h a s M o n t e n e g r o a n d M a c e d o n i a . A s i t t u r n s out f r o m t h e a b o v e - c i t e d d o c u m e n t s , t h e S e r b b o u r g e o i s i e a n d S e r b c h a u v i n i s m h a v e a l w a y s b e e n obstacles t o t h e f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l r i g h t s o f t h e people o f K o s o v a . P r e c i s e l y because the j u s t d e m a n d s o f t h e p e o p l e o f K o s o v a , such as the d e m a n d for the republic, are not to the l i k i n g o f t h i s bourgeoisie, t h e y a r e c a l l e d i r r e d e n t i s t , c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y , c h a u v i n i s t etc. T h e demonstrations in Prishtina, w h i c h began peacefully but w h i c h Belgrade turned into a blood bath, can b e e x p l a i n e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d o n l y i f one b e a r s i n m i n d this sinister development, this a n t i - M a r x i s t h a n d l i n g of t h e n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m o f K o s o v a a n d these c h a u v i n i s t s o l u t i o n s , w h i c h h a v e b e e n i m p o s e d o n i t w h e n i t has d e m a n d e d its c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s . W h y do the gentlemen of Belgrade keep this developm e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m o f K o s o v a secret? W h y a r e t h e y not m a k i n g this analysis at their current meetings? T h e y have a reason. A n d the reason is that any analysis of the constitutional problem of Kosova w i l l lead to the conclusion that the A l b a n i a n s have not been g i v e n the rights for w h i c h t h e y f o u g h t a n d s h e d t h e i r b l o o d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e other peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a , t h a t n a t i o n a l o p p r e s s i o n i s s t i l l a p p l i e d against t h e m u n r e l e n t i n g l y , t h a t i n Y u g o s l a v i a a c h a u vinist policy is pursued towards Kosova. The problem o f K o s o v a i s n o t s o l v e d e i t h e r b y s a y i n g t h a t these d e m o n s trations have been organized by irredentists, or by using terror and violence, or by accusing A l b a n i a of interfering in the internal affairs of Yugoslavia.

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T h e P o l i c y of the A l b a n i a n State Does N o t E n d a n g e r but Defends the S F R o f Y u g o s l a v i a T h e i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n socialist A l b a n i a and self-administrative Y u g o s l a v i a are w e l l k n o w n . The i d e o l o g i c a l p o l e m i c b e t w e e n us is n o t a d e v e l o p m e n t of recent t i m e s . W e A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t s h a v e felt, f e e l a n d w i l l feel it our permanent duty to defend M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . W e h a v e f o u g h t against r e v i s i o n i s t - o p p o r t u n i s t - r e f o r m ist t h e o r i e s a n d v i e w s o f w h a t e v e r h u e a n d w i l l c o n t i n u e to do so. T h i s is o u r r i g h t , j u s t as it is t h e r i g h t of a l l t h e anti-Marxists and the different parties of the bourgeoisie t o f i g h t us, a n d i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n t h e y d o n o t h a n g b a c k . We have the f u l l right to defend our system of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Others have the right to d e f e n d t h e i r systems. T h e i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e r e s u l t i n g from this is natural and inevitable. T h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s c l a i m t h a t t h e y d o not w a g e t h i s sort of s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t us. T h i s is n o t t r u e a n d n e v e r has been. W e w a g e t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e a n d w e s a y so, w h e r e a s t h e y w a g e it, b u t d o n ' t s a y so. They claim that such an ideological struggle weakens the state, c o m m e r c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n A l b a n i a a n d Y u g o s l a v i a . W e assert a n d o b s e r v e t h a t t h e y h a v e not b e e n w e a k e n e d . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y h a v e b e e n s t r e n g t h e n e d , a n d t h i s i s d u e n o t o n l y t o t h e i r w i l l , b u t also t o ours. N e i t h e r t h e Y u g o s l a v s n o r w e h a v e m a d e i d e o l o g i c a l concessions t o e a c h other, b u t w e h a v e a g r e e d o n m a t t e r s o f c o m m o n i n t e r e s t a n d h a v e d i s a g r e e d o v e r those q u e s t i o n s on w h i c h we can never be reconciled. O u r state r e l a t i o n s h a v e d e v e l o p e d o n t h e basis o f t h e recognized p r i n c i p l e s o f g o o d n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s . W e w a n t them to proceed in this w a y in the future. If the Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p does n o t w a n t s u c h a t h i n g , n o one w i l l h i n d e r

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i t f r o m a c t i n g o t h e r w i s e . W e s h a l l t r y t o f i n d a modus vivendi w i t h it, w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s . Y o u w h o have launched the n e w a n t i - A l b a n i a n c a m paign in Yugoslavia pretend that y o u have slackened y o u r v i g i l a n c e against t h e s o - c a l l e d h o s t i l e a c t i o n s o f t h e People's S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a t o t h e S o c i a l i s t F e d e r a t i v e R e p u b l i c o f Y u g o s l a v i a . T h i s i s n o t t r u e , because y o u have waged the ideological struggle openly. Y o u c l a i m that y o u have been big-hearted for the sake o f c o n t i n u i n g the g o o d r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n o u r t w o c o u n t r i e s . T h i s i s not t r u e , e i t h e r . Y o u d o n o t s u f f e r f r o m e n l a r g e m e n t o f the h e a r t a n d y o u h a v e w a g e d t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e against o u r basic d o c t r i n e , M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , a n d o u r regime of the dictatorship of the proletariat relentlessly. W h y do y o u conceal this? D e s p i t e this, h o w e v e r , a n o t h e r r e a l i t y exists, t h a t o f t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e g o o d n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s i n o u r state relations. We hope that this r e a l i t y endures a n d advances. I n recent t i m e s y o u g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t y o u w a n t t o r e s t r i c t these r e l a t i o n s . T h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s f a l l s o n you. I t seems t h a t y o u a r e g o i n g t o step u p t h e baseless and mistaken anti-Albanian campaign which you have l a u n c h e d i n recent t i m e s a n d w h i c h i s n e i t h e r n e w n o r w e a k , a n d r a i s e i t t o a m o r e s t r i d e n t p i t c h . G o a h e a d , w e are not a f r a i d . Y o u g o y o u r w a y , w e s h a l l g o o u r s . Y o u claim h y p o c r i t i c a l l y that y o u have not i n f o r m e d Y u g o s l a v o p i n i o n a n d y o u r y o u t h a b o u t the m i s e r y w h i c h prevails in A l b a n i a , about the A l b a n i a n people's lack of freedoms and rights, about the smashing of churches and mosques, about the closing of our doors to the hordes of tourists, a b o u t t h e c l o s i n g o f o u r p o r t s t o t h e S o v i e t n a v y , about t h e m a n y c a m p s a n d p r i s o n e r s , etc. F o r o u r p a r t , w e s h a l l speak e v e n m o r e t h a n w e h a v e done a b o u t t h e Yugoslav paradise. We have spoken about this econ-

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omic, s p i r i t u a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l p a r a d i s e a n d p r o s p e r i t y i n Yugoslavia, however we shall refresh the m e m o r y of our people a n d y o u t h a b o u t a l l t h e e v i l s t h a t t h e A l b a n i a n people h a v e seen a n d e x p e r i e n c e d a t y o u r h a n d s , b o t h before a n d a f t e r t h e N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r . T h i s i s i n t h e logic o f t h i n g s a n d t h e f i g h t y o u w a n t t o i n c i t e . C o n t r a r y to the facts of history, y o u have c l a i m e d that Y u g o s l a v i a a l l e g e d l y d e f e n d e d A l b a n i a . I n t h e last P l e n u m of the CC of the League of C o m m u n i s t of Y u g o s l a v i a w h i c h met solely to attack K o s o v a and assail the People's Socialist R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a , a m o n g s t others, m a n y a u t h o r i z e d voices w e r e h e a r d t o s a y t h a t F e d e r a t i v e Y u g o s l a v i a i s the d e f e n d e r o f t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a . T h i s is a p a t e r n a l i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n a n d a o n e - s i d e d s t a t e ment. N o t w i t h o u t p u r p o s e a n d f r o m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e great-state m e g a l o m a n i a , i t w a s o v e r l o o k e d t h a t socialist A l b a n i a also is a s t r o n g d e f e n d e r of t h e S o c i a l i s t F e d e r a t i v e Republic of Yugoslavia. W e oppose t h e p r e s e n t f o r e i g n a n d i n t e r n a l p o l i c y o f Y u g o s l a v i a , because w e t h i n k i t i s f r a u g h t w i t h m a n y dangers f o r Y u g o s l a v i a i t s e l f a n d f o r A l b a n i a , f o r t h e Balkans and Europe, regardless of the pretentious claims about s e l f - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t a l k a b o u t a n i n d e p e n d ent, n o n - a l i g n e d p o l i c y , etc. Every government and every individual who understands p o l i t i c s a n d f o l l o w s t h e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t d e v e l o p i n the w o r l d , c a n see t h e d a n g e r s o f t h i s c o u r s e o f t h e Y u g o s l a v p o l i c y . T h i s p o l i c y has e x p o s e d Y u g o s l a v i a t o t h e greedy a m b i t i o n s a n d p o s s i b l e aggressions o f A m e r i c a n imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism. This threat is the o u t c o m e o f t h i s s h o r t - s i g h t e d p o l i c y w h i c h also causes the i n s t a b i l i t y w i t h i n Y u g o s l a v i a . T h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s n o t o n l y a d v o c a t e t h e i r selfa d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m , b u t also r e c o m m e n d i t t o o t h e r s a s the most p e r f e c t f o r m o f socialist system. T h e y p r e s e n t

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their foreign policy as if it w i l l disarm and destroy the aggressive i m p e r i a l i s t p o w e r s , a s i f i t w i l l b r i n g peace a n d p r o s p e r i t y t o the w o r l d . T h i s m e g a l o m a n i a c p r e t e n t i o n i s not o n l y n a i v e b u t also a f r a u d w h i c h i s b e i n g e x p o s e d e v e r y d a y b y w o r l d events. Y u g o s l a v i a r e g a r d s t h e fact t h a t i t i s u p t o its n e c k in debt as a great m e r i t . It calls t h i s conomie i n d e p e n d e n ce. It calls the p o l i c y of n o n - a l i g n m e n t p r o t e c t i o n a n d defence o f its i n d e p e n d e n c e , w h e n , b y l a w , t h e i m p e r i a l i s t and Soviet multi-national companies are guaranteed 50 per cent o f t h e p r o f i t f r o m t h e j o i n t e c o n o m i c v e n t u r e s i n Y u g o s l a v i a . It describes as wise, open, a n d sincere t h e i n f l u x of foreign tourists and the emigration of Y u g o s l a v w o r k e r s to a l l t h e c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s of t h e w o r l d . It d e s c r i b e s as a gesture o f good c o n d u c t t h e p e r m i s s i o n i t g i v e s t h e S o v i e t w a r s h i p s t o enter, m a k e r e p a i r s a n d o b t a i n s u p p l i e s i n t h e Y u g o s l a v ports. I t calls t h e great e c o n o m i c c r i s i s w h i c h h a s a f f l i c t e d Y u g o s l a v i a , t h e great i n c r e a s e i n i n f l a t i o n , a n d t h e r i s i n g cost o f l i v i n g f o r t h e w o r k i n g masses, i n e v i t a b l e a n d almost normal. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p , a l l these t h i n g s h a v e n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h e i t h e r s e l f - a d m i n istration or the independent policy or the policy of n o n - a l i g n m e n t . These, s a y t h e Y u g o s l a v t h e o r e t i c i a n s , a r e t w o issues w h i c h d o n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h one a n o t h e r , t h e f o r m e r (the crisis) is n o t a consequence of t h e l a t t e r (the policy). The A l b a n i a n s l i v i n g in Y u g o s l a v i a and the People's S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a w h i c h incites t h e m w i t h its tatist. b u r e a u c r a t i c , S t a l i n i s t , n a t i o n a l i s t , i r r e d e n t i s t p o l icy, a r e t o b l a m e f o r these t h i n g s . N o , M e s s r s Y u g o s l a v leaders, d o not f e a r t h e t r u t h , be j u s t a l i t t l e r e a l i s t i c , f o r it is n o t as y o u c l a i m . D o y o u r e a l l y w a n t us, too, t o f o l l o w y o u r c o u r s e ? T h i s w i l l n e v e r h a p p e n . W e m a y e v e n l i v e poor, b u t w e want to live free and b u i l d our o w n well-being w h i c h is

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rising day b y day. A n d this w e are doing w i t h our o w n forces. W e a r e n o t i n d e b t t o a n y o n e a n d d o not s e l l o u r country to foreign capital of the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a , the S o v i e t U n i o n a n d o t h e r s . W e a r e n o t l o c k e d a w a y i n s e l f - i s o l a t i o n , b u t engage i n honest t r a d e w i t h m u t u a l benefit, j u s t a s w e d e v e l o p c u l t u r a l - e d u c a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e s . I t i s a fact t h a t w e h a v e s u c h r e l a t i o n s w i t h y o u , too, a n d trade between us is developing every year. I t i s n o t h a r d f o r a n y o n e t o guess w h a t w o u l d h a p p e n i f socialist A l b a n i a w e r e t o o p e n its d o o r s t o S o v i e t , A m e r ican and other capitalist countries' capital, to the hordes of h i p p y tourists, w h a t w o u l d happen if A l b a n i a were to open t h e p o r t s o f S a r a n d a , V l o r a , D u r r s a n d S h n g j i n t o the S o v i e t w a r s h i p s , a s Y u g o s l a v i a does w i t h its p o r t s . I f this w e r e done, n o t o n l y t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a , b u t also t h e S o c i a l i s t F e d e r a t i v e R e p u b l i c o f Y u g o s l a v i a , t h e R e p u b l i c o f G r e e c e , a n d t h e w h o l e o f the Balkans and Europe w o u l d be endangered. T h i s w e h a v e n o t done a n d n e v e r w i l l . N e i t h e r t h e S o v i e t s n o r a n y b o d y else w i l l see o u r ports, e v e n t h r o u g h b i n o c u l a r s . I n o r d e r t o e n t e r t h e A l b a n i a n ports, a n y e n e m y w i l l h a v e t o d o s o o v e r o u r d e a d bodies. B e c a u s e i t p u r s u e s a p r i n c i p l e d , correct a n d u n w a v e r i n g policy, because i t s t i c k s t o its c o u r s e c o n s i s t e n t l y a n d w i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n , A l b a n i a i s a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r o f peace, s t a b i l i t y , s e c u r i t y a n d defence i n t h e B a l k a n s a n d E u r o p e , a s has b e e n its t r a d i t i o n t h r o u g h o u t its l o n g h i s t o r y . T h e c a p i t a l i s t a n d i m p e r i a l i s t w o r l d has p e r p e t r a t e d m a n y e v i l s against t h e A l b a n i a n p e o p l e a t a l l t i m e s . N o w , too, i t i s t r y i n g t o d i s t o r t t h e t r u t h a b o u t A l b a n i a . I t h a s r o b b e d i t o f its assets a n d does n o t w a n t t o r e t u r n t h e m . I t refuses o r hesitates t o p a y t h e w a r r e p a r a t i o n s t o A l b a n i a a t a t i m e w h e n i t has p a i d t h e m t o a l l t h e others. A n d a l l t h i s i s because t h e A l b a n i a n people, a s m a l l p e o p l e

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w a n t t o l i v e free, i n d e p e n d e n t a n d s o v e r e i g n i n t h e i r o w n c o u n t r y . T h e A l b a n i a n p e o p l e h a v e d o n e n o one a n y h a r m , only good. B u t no force w i l l d e p r i v e t h e m of t h e i r legitimate rights. M e s s r s Y u g o s l a v leaders, f o r g e t y o u r m o r b i d passions for a moment and think w i t h cool heads: Does this policy o f the A l b a n i a n state e n d a n g e r o r d e f e n d t h e S o c i a l i s t Federative Republic of Yugoslavia? We have declared and we declare again officially a n d publicly that if the Socialist Federative Republic of Y u g o slavia is attacked, we A l b a n i a n s of the People's Socialist Republic of A l b a n i a w i l l fight shoulder to shoulder w i t h t h e peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a . D o e s t h i s u n d e r m i n e o r d e f e n d the Yugoslav Federation? D o y o u t h i n k that, a t t h e s u p r e m e m o m e n t w h e n t h e A l b a n i a n people of the People's Socialist Republic of A l b a n i a , u n i t e d w i t h t h e peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a , a r e f i g h t i n g shoulder to shoulder as they d i d d u r i n g the Second W o r l d W a r , against an enemy or enemies i n v a d i n g our t w o c o u n tries, t h e A l b a n i a n people l i v i n g o n t h e i r o w n t e r r i t o r i e s i n Y u g o s l a v i a w i l l t u r n t h e g u n a g a i n s t u s a n d oppose u s , t a k i n g t h e side o f t h e S o v i e t - B u l g a r i a n s o r some o t h e r a g gressor? W h y , M e s s r s Y u g o s l a v leaders, d o y o u d i s t o r t o u r d e clarations and t r y to put in our m o u t h things we have not said? We have declared and we declare again that we have not raised a n d are not raising t e r r i t o r i a l claims. W h y do y o u accuse u s o f b e i n g c h a u v i n i s t s , i n c i t e r s o f i r r e d e n t i s m , a n d n a t i o n a l i s t s ? O f course, b y l e v e l l i n g s u c h u n f o u n d e d a n d p r e p o s t e r o u s accusations a g a i n s t us, y o u w a n t t o c o n c e a l something grave and unjust on your part. W e d o not h a v e t h e slightest i n t e r e s t i n w e a k e n i n g t h e Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia. On the contrary, we w a n t it strengthened, but not at the expense of the Albanians of Kosova. T h e weakening of the Federation

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i s t o t h e l i k i n g o f t h e r e v i s i o n i s t aggressor S o v i e t U n i o n a n d the B u l g a r i a n r e v i s i o n i s t l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s t r u t h w e state openly, w h i l e y o u a r e a f r a i d t o d o so. M o r e o v e r , y o u a r e blowing your trumpets clamouring that the People's S o cialist R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a w a n t s t o u n d e r m i n e t h e Y u g o slav F e d e r a t i o n , t h a t t h e h e r o i c A l b a n i a n p e o p l e a n d y o u t h of K o s o v a , w h o a r e d e m a n d i n g t h e status of a R e p u b l i c , a r e counter-revolutionaries and seeking to destroy the F e deration. Three times y o u have inflicted heavy bloodshed on the m a r t y r e d A l b a n i a n p e o p l e l i v i n g i n Y u g o s l a v i a , 5 0 thousand of w h o m fought shoulder to shoulder w i t h the Yugoslav brothers and w i t h the f r a t e r n a l A l b a n i a n people w h o sent t h e i r o w n l i b e r a t i o n shock b r i g a d e s t o Y u g o s l a v i a t o f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e n a z i - f a s c i s t occupiers, t h e B a l l i s t s , t h e Cetnici and Ustae. Despite this w a r , y o u shed their blood i n 1945, i n 1968 a n d a g a i n c o v e r e d t h e m i n b l o o d i n 1981. C a n things go on in this way, Messrs Y u g o s l a v leaders? C a n t h i s b e c a l l e d a j u s t s o l u t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l question, a slogan y o u are t r u m p e t i n g e v e r y d a y ? W o u l d y o u t o l e r a t e such a t e r r o r a g a i n s t y o u r people, w o u l d y o u h a v e b e e n s o cool-headed a n d p a t i e n t , a s t h e K o s o v a p e o p l e h a v e s h o w n themselves t o b e i n t h e f a c e o f these a t r o c i t i e s ? D o e s t h e A l b a n i a n population l i v i n g in Y u g o s l a v i a not have the r i g h t t o l i v e i n peace a n d f r e e d o m ? H a s i t n o t t h e r i g h t t o stop t h e U D B - m e n f r o m b r e a k i n g i n t o its h o m e s a n d dishonouring the w i v e s a n d daughters, f r o m i m p r i s o n i n g and t o r t u r i n g innocent people? Does it not have the right t o d e f e n d i t s e l f a g a i n s t these i n h u m a n a c t i o n s ? T h e A l b a n i a n s o f Y u g o s l a v i a o u g h t t o h a v e a l l these rights a n d t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a w i l l d e f e n d t h e m w h e n these r i g h t s a r e d e n i e d t h e m , e s p e c i a l l y when they are d r o w n e d in blood, as occurred recently a l l over K o s o v a . Y o u c a l l these t r u t h s w e assert a n d these r i g h t s w e

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defend publicly interference in the internal affairs of Y u g o s l a v i a , s u b v e r s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f T i r a n a , etc. N o , g e n t l e m e n , i t i s n o t s o a n d n o one b e l i e v e s w h a t y o u a r e s a y i n g . T h e A l b a n i a n people w h o l i v e i n Y u g o s l a v i a h a v e their own brains and k n o w what they are doing. They do n o t n e e d us, t h e A l b a n i a n s o f t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c of Albania, to teach and incite them. T h e y are brave and loyal, they k n o w h o w to d e m a n d w h a t belongs to t h e m , just as they k n o w h o w to defend themselves. Messrs. Y u g o s l a v leaders, m a k e a correct assessment of t h e l o f t y v i r t u e s of this part of the A l b a n i a n nation w h i c h lives in Y u g o s l a v i a , don't m a k e t h e m e n e m i e s b y v i o l a t i n g t h e r i g h t s t h a t b e l o n g t o t h e m , because t h i s i s n o t good, e i t h e r f o r y o u or for them.

T h e A l b a n i a n N a t i o n Is O n e , It H a s the O n e H i s t o r y , C u l t u r e and L a n g u a g e In our opinion, the educational, c u l t u r a l and scientific relations w h i c h the People's Socialist Republic of A l b a n i a has d e v e l o p e d w i t h K o s o v a , i n t h e f i r s t place, b u t also w i t h the Socialist Republics of Macedonia and Montenegro to a lesser e x t e n t (and t h i s n o t f o r l a c k of g o o d w i l l on o u r p a r t ) , h a v e been q u i t e n o r m a l , f r u i t f u l , u s e f u l a n d c o r r e c t f o r b o t h sides. T h e s e r e l a t i o n s h a v e d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h j o i n t agreements and w i t h the a p p r o v a l of our t w o G o v e r n ments. We believe the G o v e r n m e n t of the Socialist Federative R e p u b l i c o f Y u g o s l a v i a has g i v e n its a p p r o v a l t o b o t h t h e A u t o n o m o u s Region of K o s o v a a n d the t w o Federative Republics where A l b a n i a n s live. However, this is a matter w h i c h i s n o t u p t o us. T h e fact t h a t these r e l a t i o n s w e r e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e p r o p e r w a y i s d u e t o b o t h sides. T h e s e relations h a d no political character, they stirred up neither

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n a t i o n a l i s m , c h a u v i n i s m n o r i r r e d e n t i s m . T h e r e has been n o c o m p l a i n t a b o u t l a c k o f correctness, v i o l a t i o n o f t h e l a w s o f e i t h e r R e p u b l i c b y t h e people w h o h a v e t r a v e l l e d t o a n d f r o m o u r c o u n t r i e s , a n d n o t e v e n t h e slightest i n c i d e n t has o c c u r r e d . W e a r e f u l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t these r e l a t i o n s , a s y o u f r e q u e n t l y l i k e to repeat, s e r v e d as a b r i d g e f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e A l b a n i a n people w i t h the peoples of Y u g o s l a v i a . The leadership of the Yugoslav Federation described these e c o n o m i c , c o m m e r c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l a n d c u l t u r a l r e l ations b e t w e e n t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a and the A u t o n o m o u s Region of K o s o v a , after the troubles that o c c u r r e d t h e r e , t h r o u g h n o f a u l t o f o u r s a n d w i t h o u t the slightest i n c i t e m e n t o r i n t e r f e r e n c e o n o u r p a r t , a s interference i n t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f Y u g o s l a v i a , i n c i t e ment o f g r e a t - A l b a n i a n c h a u v i n i s m , t e r r i t o r i a l c l a i m s a n d i r r e d e n t i s m . I t d e s c r i b e d these r e l a t i o n s , w h i c h h a d l o n g been d e v e l o p i n g i n b r o a d d a y l i g h t a n d n o t i n d a r k corners, a s the basic i n s p i r a t i o n o f A l b a n i a n n a t i o n a l i s m , i m p o r t e d f r o m T i r a n a b y o u r scientists, professors, a c a d e m i c i a n s , singers a n d dancers. T h i s s l a n d e r o u s a n d h o s t i l e o p i n i o n has n e v e r b e e n e x p r e s s e d b e f o r e , e i t h e r as c r i t i c i s m or as r e p r o o f b y t h e Y u g o s l a v side. On the contrary, we w a n t to emphasize that top personalities o f t h e A l b a n i a n l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n a n d the R e g i o n , w h o d i s p l a y e d t h e greatest f e r o c i t y against t h e demonstrators in P r i s h t i n a a n d elsewhere, have always taken our people of art and culture w h o went to K o ssva a s e x a m p l e s a n d h a v e p u b l i c l y p r a i s e d a n d t h a n k e d them for their behaviour. The Y u g o s l a v leadership forgets that the A l b a n i a n n a t i o n i s one, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e fact t h a t one p a r t l i v e s i n the P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a a n d t h e o t h e r i n t h r e e p a r t s o f t h e F e d e r a t i v e Y u g o s l a v i a . I t h a s t h e one

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h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e a n d l a n g u a g e , h a s i t s c o m m o n heroes, poets, p a i n t e r s , m u s i c i a n s a n d artists. T h i s i s its g r e a t h e r itage, w h i c h i t preserves, c u l t i v a t e s a n d develops. T h e s e are t h e m a i n f e a t u r e s of a n a t i o n . D o the Y u g o s l a v s t h i n k t h a t these f e a t u r e s o f t h e A l b a n i a n n a t i o n a l i t y s h o u l d d i e out, s h o u l d b e d e s c r i b e d a s signs a n d p h e n o m e n a o f a n o u t d a t e d r o m a n t i c n a t i o n a l i s m and a reprehensible chauvinism? C a n the exchange of opinions between people f r o m socialist A l b a n i a a n d t h e A l b a n i a n s l i v i n g i n Y u g o s l a v i a o n t h e e n r i c h m e n t o f t h e A l b a n i a n l a n g u a g e , t h e genesis o f t h e A l b a n i a n people, t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e i r ancestors, t h e s o c i a l a n d n a t u r a l sciences b e c o n s i d e r e d a n i n c i t e m e n t o f A l b a n i a n c h a u v i n i s m a n d i r r e d e n t i s m ? C a n o u r f o l k songs a n d dances p e r f o r m e d i n Y u g o s l a v i a b e c o n s i d e r e d i n c i t e ment of chauvinism and irredentism? This is our heritage, the heritage of a l l Albanians, and of the People's Socialist Republic of A l b a n i a in particular. We have beforehand submitted the plans of c u l t u r a l and educational collaboration and the programs of performances of artistic groups to y o u a n d y o u h a v e a p p r o v e d t h e m . T h e p u b l i c has l i k e d them very much and applauded them. Everybody likes what is beautiful and healthy. O u r a r t i s t i c e n s e m b l e s h a v e gone e v e r y w h e r e . T h e y have been w e l l received a n d applauded w i t h great a d m i r ation and enthusiasm by the G r e e k people and their leaders, b y t h e a r t - l o v e r s a n d t h e press o f t h a t c o u n t r y . L i k e w i s e , t h e T u r k i s h people a n d t h e i r l e a d e r s o f e v e r y r a n k h a v e l i k e d o u r f o l k songs a n d dances v e r y m u c h . T h e s a m e t h i n g h a s occurred i n France, i n Italy, i n A l g e r i a , i n Tunisia, i n the N o r d i c countries and everywhere. N o b o d y has accused us either of nationalism or of c h a u v i n i s m . T h e y have respected our feelings a n d we have respected theirs. We ask: W h y this stand of the Yugoslav leaders? W h a t is it in their heads a n d feelings that is w o r r y i n g t h e m ?

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W h y don't they h a v e a clear conscience? Or do they t h i n k t h a t m o r e p e o p l e o r g r o u p s o f p e o p l e h a v e gone f r o m A l b a n i a to Y u g o s l a v i a t h a n have come here f r o m Y u g o s l a v i a ? T h e statistics s h o w t h e o p p o s i t e a n d w e r e j o i c e o v e r it. Or do they w a n t to f i n d a groundless excuse to restrict these r e l a t i o n s , t o c u t d o w n o n s c i e n t i f i c , c u l t u r a l a n d a r t i s t i c e x c h a n g e s a n d t h e n u m b e r o f people c o m i n g a n d going? M r D u a n R i s t i , C h a i r m a n o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f K o s o v a , let t h e cat o u t o f t h e b a g w h e n h e s a i d t h a t a l l the p r o t o c o l s o n t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l - e d u cational and other institutions and organizations of K o s o v a with A l b a n i a should no longer be implemented. I f t h e y w a n t to, t h e F e d e r a t i o n a n d t h e o t h e r c o m p e t e n t organs c a n d o w h a t R i s t i asks. T h i s i s t h e i r r i g h t . W e d o not f o r c e t h e d o o r s o f t h e o t h e r s o p e n . F o r o u r p a r t , w e w i l l keep our doors open to a l l sincere friends, w h o e v e r they m a y be, a n d e s p e c i a l l y t o o u r A l b a n i a n b r o t h e r s w h o l i v e in Yugoslavia. T h i s w i l l help t h e m to become acquainted w i t h the A l b a n i a n hell, as the m a i n leaders of the Autonomous Region of K o s o v a and the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia call our country, and to compare i t w i t h t h e Y u g o s l a v p a r a d i s e , a s w e c a l l it. We are stating our opinion in advance: If the Y u g o slavs d o t a k e these n a t i o n a l i s t , c h a u v i n i s t m e a s u r e s , t h i s w i l l b e a great m i s t a k e o n t h e i r p a r t . T h e A l b a n i a n s o f Yugoslavia and the entire A l b a n i a n people w i l l condemn them a n d w i l l r i g h t l y say that the Y u g o s l a v s are a f r a i d o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f A l b a n i a n c u l t u r e , b u t n o t o f decadent culture! We tell the Yugoslavs in a friendly w a y that such measures w i l l n o t c a l m t h e A l b a n i a n p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n K o sova a n d t h e o t h e r r e g i o n s o f Y u g o s l a v i a . W e a r e c o n v i n c e d that the h e a l t h y Y u g o s l a v p u b l i c o p i n i o n a n d w o r l d o p i n i o n w i l l also c o n d e m n t h i s act. O n c e a g a i n i t i s o u r d u t y t o t e l l t h e Y u g o s l a v leaders

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t o k e e p c o o l i n t h e i r j u d g e m e n t a n d actions. T h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p s h o u l d l o o k i n t o t h e needs o f t h e A l b a n i a n s o f Y u g o s l a v i a w i t h most rigorous fairness, should not treat them badly and discriminate against them, should seriously a n d objectively consider the legitimate demands of the people o f K o s o v a a n d s h o u l d not h a r m a n d i l l - t r e a t t h e h e r oic A l b a n i a n y o u t h , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s t u d e n t y o u t h , t h e t e a c h ers, professors a n d a l l t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a o f K o s o v a a n d t h e other A l b a n i a n r e g i o n s o f Y u g o s l a v i a , s h o u l d n o t c o n s i d e r the U n i v e r s i t y of P r i s h t i n a and the A l b a n i a n elementary a n d s e c o n d a r y schools a s hotbeds o f enemies, c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , c h a u v i n i s t s , etc., s h o u l d n o t d i s m e m b e r the U n i v e r s i t y of P r i s h t i n a on the pretext that there is o v e r p r o d u c t i o n o f g r a d u a t e s a n d scatter t h e A l b a n i a n s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h o u t a l l t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s o f Y u g o s l a v i a . N o one i s d e c e i v e d a n d e v e r y b o d y u n d e r s t a n d s w h y t h i s i s done. T h e A l b a n i a n does not forget his n a t i v e p l a c e w h e r e h e i s h o n o u r e d . D o n o t a t t e m p t t o cut off t h e h e a d o f t h e y o u t h , t h e b e a u t i f u l A l b a n i a n f l o w e r o f K o s o v a , because the Albanians have never spared their blood for knowledge a n d freedom. There can never be overproduction of people w i t h schooling if production in Kosova, w h i c h is potentially rich a n d e f f e c t i v e l y poor, i s i n c r e a s e d . S e r i o u s m e a s u r e s m u s t b e t a k e n f o r t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t o f K o s o v a , a s f o r t h e rest y o u m a y shout a s l o u d a s y o u please t h a t i n t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a the p e o p l e h a v e n o t h i n g t o eat, n o f r e e d o m , t h e r e are n o c h u r c h e s a n d mosques. T h e A l b a n i a n w o r k e r o f K o s o v a , w h o w o r k s deep i n t h e m i n e s , does not accept t h a t t h e u n d e r g r o u n d w e a l t h s h o u l d be exploited w h i l e the w e a l t h on the surface be abandoned, that his brothers should be impoverished and killed by bullets. W e say these t h i n g s t o c e r t a i n Y u g o s l a v leaders, w h o a r e reasonable, s o t h a t t h e y w i l l b e a r these t r u t h s i n m i n d ,

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because c e r t a i n o t h e r i r a s c i b l e , despotic a n d a n t i - A l b a n i a n leaders h a v e b o l t e d off i n a desperate g a l l o p w h i c h m a y cause s t i l l m o r e d a n g e r o u s catastrophes, f o r w h i c h i t w i l l b e difficult to f i n d reasonable solutions later. We do not want to tell y o u how to r u n y o u r country, or to interfere in y o u r internal affairs, but we are telling y o u this f o r t h e c o m m o n g o o d o f o u r t w o c o u n t r i e s , b e c a u s e y o u h a v e m a d e m a t t e r s v e r y tense w i t h t h e K o s o v a people, w i t h the A l b a n i a n s of other regions and the A l b a n i a n economic e m i g r a n t s o u t s i d e Y u g o s l a v i a . Y o u a r e c r e a t i n g a d i v i sion a m o n g t h e l a t t e r . I t i s n o t t h e d i p l o m a t i c agencies o f the P S R A a b r o a d t h a t create t h i s d i v i s i o n , b u t y o u , M i s t e r Mini. We are f u l l y convinced that K o s o v a cannot be f o r undermining the Federation. B u t the Federation must study and f i n d a j u s t s o l u t i o n t o t h e great p r o b l e m o f t h e r i g h t s o f the A l b a n i a n s o f K o s o v a , w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s h a v e placed b e f o r e y o u a n d w h i c h T i t o , M o a P i j a d e a n d M i l a d i n P o p o v i h a v e dealt w i t h f r o m t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l aspects. C a l m must be restored in K o s o v a , but the r e m o v a l of a certain M a h m u t B a k a l l i * a n d the promotion of a M a h m u t akalli ** w i l l n o t c a l m it. K o s o v a w i l l r e t u r n t o c a l m i f t h e state o f siege i s l i f t e d , t h e S e r b i a n a r m y a n d p u n i t i v e p o l i c e are w i t h d r a w n , i f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s n o r m a l i z e d , t h e i n n o c e n t p r i s o n e r s w i t h w h o m t h e j a i l s a r e f u l l a r e released, a n d i f the b o d i e s o f those k i l l e d i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s are r e t u r n e d to t h e i r f a m i l i e s , because t h i s is a s a c r e d a n d h u m a n i t a r i a n matter. Y o u m u s t s t u d y t h e d e m a n d o f t h e p e o p l e o f K o s o v a for a R e p u b l i c c a r e f u l l y a n d f a i r l y , m u s t s o l v e its e c o n o m i c problems correctly. T h i s is the o n l y w a y to restore c a l m in Kosova, only in this w a y w i l l it be a friend of other
_______________________________________ * grocer. ** jackal.

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r e p u b l i c s , w i t h i n the S o c i a l i s t F e d e r a t i v e R e p u b l i c o f Y u g o slavia. K o s o v a seeks t h e status o f a R e p u b l i c w i t h i n t h e Y u g o s l a v F e d e r a t i o n . T h i s status r e p r e s e n t s t h e a s p i r a t i o n o f a great people, w h o r i g h t l y d e m a n d t h e status o f s o v e r e i g n t y a n d not t h a t o f a n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t y , w h i c h i t w a s u n j u s t l y allocated at Jajce. T h e enemy of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia, the Great-Serb M i l o v a n Gilas, in h i s w r i t i n g s h a s r e v e a l e d t h e reasons f o r t h i s i n j u s t i c e , w h i c h r e g r e t t a b l y t h e present Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p has n e v e r d i s avowed. T h e d e m a n d o f K o s o v a t o b e g r a n t e d t h e status o f a F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c is a j u s t one. It h a s d e s e r v e d it because o f t h e s t r u g g l e i t has w a g e d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e o t h e r p e o p l e s o f Y u g o s l a v i a against f a s c i s m . T h e G r e a t - S e r b c h a u v i n i s m has cost K o s o v a h e a v y b l o o d s h e d a n d c r e a t e d s u c h a s i t u a t i o n t h a t e x p e d i e n t s c a n h a r d l y c u r e it. M e s s r s . Y u g o s l a v leaders, d o y o u w a n t t h i s w o u n d t o t u r n to gangrene? Y o u must t h i n k it over yourselves. We d o n o t w i s h s u c h a t h i n g o n y o u . T h i s disease m u s t b e c u r e d a t once, j u s t l y a n d c o u r a g e o u s l y . T h e w o u n d cannot be healed w i t h manoeuvres, w i t h combinations, w i t h juggling, w i t h threats to force people say w h a t is dictated to them. F r a t e r n i t y is achieved w i t h o p e n hearts, w i t h s i n c e r i t y , w i t h p e o p l e w h o m t h e A l b a n i a n s o f K o s o v a l o v e a n d t r u s t . T h e y c a n a n d m u s t close t h e great g u l f w h i c h w a s o p e n e d t h r o u g h n o f a u l t o f t h e A l b a n i a n people o f K o s o v a . W e f e e l i t o u r d u t y t o t e l l y o u these t r u t h s i n a f r i e n d l y s p i r i t . R e j e c t t h e m i f y o u w i s h , a t t a c h a n y e p i t h e t y o u care t o use t o us. L e t t h e p r o g r e s s i v e w o r l d j u d g e b o t h u s a n d you. T h e peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a a n d t h e A l b a n i a n p e o p l e w a n t f r i e n d s h i p w i t h one another, b u t t h e f r i e n d s h i p m u s t be established on sound foundations.

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P u r e E t h n i c Entity, S m a l l A l b a n i a a n d Greater A l b a n i a T h e raising of swords a n d shields against us on the p a r t o f t h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p has c e r t a i n l y b e e n d o n e i n order to cover up something horrible and reprehensible w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e streets o f t h e cities a n d c o u n t r y roads o f K o s o v a , w h e r e t h e b l o o d o f t h e people f l o w e d i n t o r r e n t s . H o w many were killed and how were they killed? This i s k e p t secret, b u t t h e A l b a n i a n p e o p l e o f K o s o v a k n o w t h e i r sons a n d d a u g h t e r s w h o h a v e b e e n k i l l e d , t o r t u r e d and imprisoned, or have disappeared. T h e more the t r u t h i s h i d d e n , t h e m o r e d a n g e r o u s i t becomes. B l o o d i s t h i c k e r than w a t e r ! T h i s should not be forgotten. T h e complete t r u t h a b o u t t h e t r a g e d y o f K o s o v a w i l l c o m e out, i t w i l l b e t e r r i b l e a n d w i l l h a v e consequences. M r Stane Dolanc, i n the i n t e r v i e w h e gave foreign j o u r n a l i s t s a b o u t t h e e v e n t s i n K o s o v a , s a i d a m o n g other things, The P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a does not h a v e a f i n g e r i n these events. M r D o l a n c i s one o f the m a i n leaders, i f n o t t h e m a i n one, o f t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. W h a t he said w a s b a s e d o n facts. B u t w h o cooked up the lie? W h o distorted the t r u t h ? I n w h o s e i n t e r e s t w a s i t t o accuse t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t Republic of A l b a n i a of h a v i n g a finger in the disturbances in Kosova? Let the Y u g o s l a v leadership discover this, Mr M i n i a n d M r . V i d i , b u t w h a t w a s concocted w a s a monstrosity, an outburst of hatred w h i c h opened such a g u l f t h a t e v e r y p o l i t i c a l l y i m m a t u r e Y u g o s l a v c o u l d equate the n a m e A l b a n i a n w i t h t h e e n e m y o f t h e peoples o f Yugoslavia. Those w h o opened this gulf are answerable to t h e i r o w n peoples, i n c l u d i n g t h e A l b a n i a n s w h o l i v e i n Y u g o s l a v i a . T h e y are a n s w e r a b l e t o h i s t o r y .

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T h e entire Central Committee of the League of C o m munists of Yugoslavia unanimously and unjustly condemned t h e events i n K o s o v a , c o n d e m n e d t h e p e o p l e o f K o s o v a , condemned the A l b a n i a n s of Yugoslavia, condemned the People's Socialist R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a as aiders a n d abett o r s i n these d i s t u r b a n c e s . However, we k n o w h o w to make distinctions between those w h o s p o k e i n t h e t o p f o r u m o f t h e L e a g u e o f C o m munists of Yugoslavia. We observed that the m a i n leaders of the neighbouring Republics of Montenegro and Macedonia, a n d also o f C r o a t i a a n d S l o v e n i a , a l t h o u g h t h e y c o n d e m n e d t h e events, s h o w e d t h e m s e l v e s m o r e c o o l - h e a d e d , m o r e r e strained, more far-sighted about the situations that w o u l d develop later between the A l b a n i a n s and the Yugoslavs, between the Socialist Federative Republic of Y u g o s l a v i a a n d the People's Socialist R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a . W e c a n n o t m a k e t h e s a m e assessment o f t h e m a i n leaders o f S e r b i a , s u c h a s M e s s r s M i n i , V i d i , S t a m b o l i . T h e i r speeches a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y u n r e s t r a i n e d f e r o c i t y , b y G r e a t - S e r b c h a u v i n i s m against t h e A l b a n i a n people w h o live in Y u g o s l a v i a and against the People's Socialist R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a , in a v e i n never heard before. A s f o r those A l b a n i a n l e a d e r s w h o t o o k t h e f l o o r in this top f o r u m of the League of C o m m u n i s t s of Y u g o s l a v i a , o r outside it, i t m u s t b e s a i d t h a t t h e i r speeches w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y h y s t e r i a a s g r e a t a s i t w a s s e r v i l e , a n d desi g n e d t o serve t h e i r bosses V i d i , M i n i , S t a m b o l i a n d others. O b v i o u s l y , these people c a n n o t b r i n g c a l m t o K o s o v a . T h e people o f K o s o v a h a t e these k n a v i s h leaders. I n a l l t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h e h i g h state a n d p a r t y f o r u m s of the Socialist Federative R e p u b l i c of Y u g o s l a v i a and the League of C o m m u n i s t s of Y u g o s l a v i a voices w e r e raised saying: The relations w i t h A l b a n i a must be re-examined, etc., etc. T w i c e w i t h i n t h i r t y y e a r s y o u h a v e a g g r a v a t e d m a t t e r s t o b r e a k i n g p o i n t w i t h socialist A l b a n i a .

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Do you t h i n k y o u can frighten us? Do y o u imagine t h a t t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a owes its e x i s t e n c e t o y o u ? Y o u a r e w r o n g ! Y o u r eyes are b l i n d e d with Great-Yugoslav megalomania. W e h a v e c o o l heads a n d f i e r y hearts. W e s h a l l get b y even w i t h restrictions y o u intend to impose on the relations between our t w o countries. T h e smoke w i l l go straight up f r o m o u r c h i m n e y a s u s u a l e v e n i f y o u b r e a k o f f these relations altogether. F o r o u r p a r t , w e d o n o t w a n t a n y s u c h t h i n g , because it is not we w h o created the difficult situations in K o s o v a and the w h o l e of Yugoslavia. Y o u yourselves have created them. We have nothing at all to do w i t h them. Therefore, the a c c u s a t i o n s y o u m a k e against u s are o n l y a p r e t e x t w h i c h y o u raise artificially in order to cover up the ugly events. W e t e l l y o u once a g a i n , b e w a r e ! K e e p c o o l ! D o n o t turn y o u r faults into a conflict w i t h the People's Socialist R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a , because t h i s i s i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f o u r enemies. Mr M i n i committed a dangerous provocation in the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e L C Y w h e n h e s a i d t h a t the A l b a n i a n l e a d e r s h i p , t h r o u g h its s p o k e s m e n , its d i p l o m a c y , i n c l u d i n g its e m b a s s y i n B e l g r a d e , a n d its agencies, i n c i t e d the A l b a n i a n i r r e d e n t i s t g r o u p s w h o s e a i m w a s t o d e s t a b i l i z e and d i s i n t e g r a t e Y u g o s l a v i a . W e t h i n k t h a t t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i s not s p e a k i n g i n t h e n a m e o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e S F R Y , because, i f m a t t e r s stood a s M r M i n i c l a i m s , t h a t one or t w o persons, or a w h o l e e m b a s s y staff c a r r y out s u b v e r s i v e a c t i v i t y , t h e n t h e Y u g o s l a v G o v e r n m e n t has t h e right, j u s t a s t h e A l b a n i a n G o v e r n m e n t a n d a n y other g o v e r n m e n t has t h e r i g h t i n s u c h cases, t o d e c l a r e t h e m personae non gratae, a n d e v e n b r e a k off d i p l o m a t i c r e l a tions. Neither the Y u g o s l a v G o v e r n m e n t nor the A l b a n i a n

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G o v e r n m e n t h a v e done this, because s u c h a n a c t i v i t y d o e s not exist. M r M i n i k n o w s this practice. B u t the things h e says a r e i n v e n t e d in o r d e r to d e f e n d a lost cause. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a f t e r M r M i n i ' s speech w e d r e w t h e c o n clusion that he h a d apparently put a l l our embassies in diff e r e n t c o u n t r i e s , let a l o n e t h e A l b a n i a n e m b a s s y i n B e l g r a d e , under surveillance. T h i s was confirmed by the minister of internal affairs of Yugoslavia, Franjo Herlevi, w h o w h i l e a c c u s i n g the A l b a n i a n d i p l o m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n v a r i o u s countries and in Belgrade of h a v i n g incited the events in K o s o v a , r e v e a l e d t h a t o u r embassies e v e r y w h e r e h a d been p l a c e d u n d e r c o n t r o l o f t h e Y u g o s l a v secret p o l i c e . T h i s s h o w s t h a t t h e Y u g o s l a v secret s e r v i c e i s a c t i v e i n other c o u n t r i e s i n s h a d o w i n g t h e A l b a n i a n embassies, t h u s v i o l a t i n g t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f those c o u n t r i e s a n d t h e i n t e r national laws. This activity is impermissible and reprehensible. H e r l e v i ' s c l a i m s are concoctions o f t h e people i n h i s service, i l l - i n t e n t i o n e d s l a n d e r s w h i c h s u i t those r e a c t i o n a r y circles, a t h o m e a n d a b r o a d , w h i c h are i n t e r e s t e d i n c a u s i n g t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n a n d t h e b r e a k i n g off o f r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n the Socialist Federative Republic of Y u g o s l a v i a a n d the People's Socialist R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a . The Serb Peter Stamboli spoke like an incorrigible Great-Serb. He was defending the S e r b i a n interests to the detriment of the Albanians, w h e n he said, among other things, t h a t T h e a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e e t h n i c p u r i t y o b j e c t i v e l y leads t o n a t i o n a l i s m . H e d e s c r i b e d t h i s a t t e m p t a s fascist. W e ask M r S t a m b o l i : I s t h e S e r b i a n p e o p l e n o t a n e t h n i c e n t i t y ? Does h e n o t c o n s i d e r t h e A l b a n i a n p e o p l e also a n e t h n i c e n t i t y ? W i t h o u t doubt, these t w o peoples a r e t w o e t h n i c entities. I f M r S t a m b o l i does not c o n s i d e r t h e S e r b i a n p e o p l e a p u r e e t h n i c e n t i t y , because A l b a n i a n s , M o n t e n e g r i n s ,

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Bosnians a n d T u r k s l i v e together w i t h them, likewise the A l b a n i a n p e o p l e is n o t a p u r e e t h n i c e n t i t y , e i t h e r , because i n K o s o v a , w h e r e t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y i s of A l b a n i a n n a t i o n a l i t y , t h e r e is also a S e r b i a n , M o n t e n e g r i n and T u r k i s h m i n o r i t y l i v i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e m . I n these i d e n t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , M r S t a m b o l i e m p l o y s a sleight o f h a n d : t h e A l b a n i a n e t h n i c e n t i t y i s n a t i o n a l i s t and fascist, b u t n o t t h e S e r b i a n . H o w e v e r , h e can't get a w a y w i t h this sleight of h a n d : either both ethnic entities lead t o n a t i o n a l i s m a n d f a s c i s m , o r n e i t h e r o f t h e m d o so, b u t i n n o w a y c a n i t b e t h a t one does a n d t h e o t h e r does not. W h y does M r S t a m b o l i n o t s a y m o r e o p e n l y t h a t t h e greater e t h n i c e n t i t y m u s t d o m i n a t e t h e s m a l l e r one, t h a t the f o r m e r m u s t b e s o v e r e i g n i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d t h e latter m u s t not, because t h i s i s t o t h e l i k i n g o f t h e b o u r geoisie o f t h e g r e a t e r e t h n i c e n t i t y w h i c h w a n t s t o e x p l o i t the s m a l l e r ? In practical terms this Great-Serb theoritician, w h o follows t h e s a m e u l t r a - r e a c t i o n a r y l i n e a s t h e n o t o r i o u s a c a d e m i c i a n C u b r i l o v i , b y a d v o c a t i n g t h e thesis t h a t t h e pure e t h n i c e n t i t y leads t o f a s c i s m , n a t i o n a l i s m , m e a n s that the A l b a n i a n e t h n i c e n t i t y m u s t b e d e s t r o y e d , m u s t lose its n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d degenerate, because i t has become a t h o r n in o u r flesh. F o r M r Stamboli only the Serbian ethnic entity can live i n f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e o t h e r peoples, w h i c h h e c o n siders a s t h i r d - r a t e o r f o u r t h - r a t e peoples, w h e r e a s w e r e t h e Albanian ethnic entity to become sovereign in K o s o v a , it could not l i v e i n f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e S e r b i a n , M o n t e n e g r i n and T u r k i s h m i n o r i t i e s o f t h i s r e g i o n . The r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n A l b a n i a n s , S e r b s a n d T u r k s have been s e r i o u s l y upset, states M r S t a m b o l i . T h i s i s true, b u t these r e l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n upset o n l y b e t w e e n the Serbs a n d t h e A l b a n i a n s , a n d n o t b e t w e e n t h e A l b a n i a n s , Montenegrins a n d T u r k s .

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W h y have relations between the Serbs a n d the A l banians been upset? R e a d La Fontaine's fable, The W o l f a n d t h e L a m b , a n d y o u w i l l f i n d t h e reasons, M r S t a m boli. F r o m the meeting of the C e n t r a l Committee of the League of C o m m u n i s t s of Yugoslavia, the attacks against the P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a a n d t h e P a r t y of Labour of A l b a n i a were repeated at various public meetings in the Republic of Serbia, this time w i t h u n r i v a l l e d v i r u l e n c e . S o m e s p e a k e r , i n a r a b i d , G r e a t - S e r b a n d fascist s p i r i t , w e n t s o f a r a s t o say, W e s h o u l d d e s t r o y t h e S t a l i n i s t regime in Albania. D e l e n d a C a r t h a g o , shouts t h i s n e w C a t o i n t h e Serbian forums. B u t the People's Socialist R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a is not Carthage a n d a G r e a t - S e r b Scipio w h o w o u l d d e s t r o y A l b a n i a has n o t been b o r n yet. W e h a v e w o n e v e r y t h i n g w i t h o u r blood, s h o u t e d t h i s n e w C a t o . B u t w i t h w h a t has A l b a n i a w o n h e r f r e e d o m ? W i t h o u t b l o o d s h e d ? O n t h e c o n t r a r y , she has w o n i t w i t h b l o o d , h e r o w n b l o o d . S h e has s h e d h e r b l o o d also f o r t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e peoples o f Y u g o s l a v i a . W e h a v e n e v e r r e g r e t t e d this, n o r w i l l w e e v e r r e g r e t i t i n t h e f u t u r e . I f n e e d be, w e w i l l s h e d i t a g a i n . T h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a i s h e a l t h y a n d f u l l o f d y n a m i s m . S o m e b o d y else is the sick m a n of the Balkans. T h e n e w C a t o s o f S e r b i a accuse u s A l b a n i a n s o f h a t i n g t h e S e r b i a n people. T h i s i s a m o n s t r o u s s l a n d e r . W e h a v e l o v e d t h e S e r b i a n people a n d s t i l l do. W e hate o n l y S e r b i a n c h a u v i n i s m , A l b a n i a n c h a u v i n i s m , a n d a n y other c h a u v i n i s m , because w e are M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t s , because w e are i n t e r nationalists. I n o r d e r t o disguise t h e i r c h a u v i n i s m , t h e G r e a t - S e r b chauvinists label us G r e a t - A l b a n i a n chauvinists. T h e slogan o f greater A l b a n i a w a s c o i n e d b y t h e fascist I t a l y o f M u s s o l i n i , a n d e v e r y b o d y k n o w s the e x p a n s i o n i s t - a g g r e s -

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sive a i m s w h i c h h e a n d t h e B a l l i s t s h a d , j u s t a s t h e S e r b i a n C e t n i c i . O u r t w o peoples f o u g h t h e r o i c a l l y , s h o u l d e r t o shoulder, a g a i n s t these c o m m o n e n e m i e s a n d v a n q u i s h e d them. In the period after the w a r the relations between the A l b a n i a n a n d Y u g o s l a v friends and allies should have been put i n o r d e r . W e p e r f o r m e d o u r i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t d u t y . W e fought t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Y u g o s l a v p a r t i s a n s f o r t h e l i b e r ation o f Y u g o s l a v i a . I t w a s u p t o y o u t o s o l v e the p r o b l e m o f Kosova in the correct road, but y o u d i d not f u l f i l this duty. A s w e s a i d above, y o u t a l k e d a b o u t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e Albanians in Yugoslavia in principle, but in practice you did the opposite a n d y o u c o n t i n u e y o u r e x e r c i s e i n d e m a g o g y . T h e A l b a n i a n s o w e t h e i r o r i g i n n e i t h e r t o the R o m e o f the C a e s a r s n o r t o t h e S l a v s o f S t e f a n D u a n , n e i t h e r t o t h e Sultans o f t h e O t t o m a n s n o r t o M u s s o l i n i ' s fascist I t a l y . The A l b a n i a n p e o p l e h a v e t h e i r o w n h i s t o r y g o i n g b a c k to m a n y c e n t u r i e s , a h i s t o r y f u l l of s t r u g g l e s f o r f r e e d o m , for existence. T h e e n e m i e s t r i e d t o e x t e r m i n a t e t h e m , b u t failed. T h e A l b a n i a n people f o u g h t a n d l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e centuries. T h e y r e m a i n e d a c o m p a c t e t h n i c e n t i t y , a l t h o u g h d i v i d e d a n d f r a g m e n t e d . H e w h o denies t h i s r e a l i t y n o t o n l y makes h i m s e l f r i d i c u l o u s b u t also r e v e a l s h i s o w n s a v a g e l y chauvinist feelings. The A l b a n i a n s of the small A l b a n i a of nearly three m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s , o r o f greater A l b a n i a ( a t e r m u s e d b y the I t a l i a n o c c u p i e r a n d n o w u s e d also b y y o u i n o r d e r t o accuse u s o f b e i n g c h a u v i n i s t s ) o f m o r e t h a n f i v e m i l l i o n inhabitants, are a l l A l b a n i a n s . T h e r e is nothing y o u can do about it, M e s s r s S e r b i a n c h a u v i n i s t s . T h e r e a r e t w o G e r manies, one of t h e E a s t a n d one of t h e West, j u s t as t h e r e are t w o K o r e a s , one o f t h e N o r t h a n d one o f t h e S o u t h . H o w ever, n o b o d y d o u b t s t h a t t h e r e is a single G e r m a n p e o p l e and n a t i o n , j u s t as t h e r e is a single K o r e a n p e o p l e a n d nation.

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T h e A l b a n i a n s are one e t h n i c e n t i t y , one people, w h e t h e r y o u c a l l t h e m s m a l l A l b a n i a o r greater A l b a n i a . T h e s e A l b a n i a n s o f t h i s A l b a n i a , s m a l l o r greater, w h o r e p r e sent a c o m p a c t people w i t h a l l t h e f e a t u r e s of a t r u e n a t i o n , h a v e not o c c u p i e d t h e t e r r i t o r i e s o f others, n o r h a v e t h e y violated anybody's rights. T h e y have merely demanded their o w n rights, have defended t h e m a n d w i l l defend them. This you find unnatural, call it Great-Albanian chauvinism, nationalism, even fascism. W h e n K o s o v a seeks t h e status o f a r e p u b l i c w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n f o r w h i c h 50,000 p a r t i s a n s h a v e f o u g h t , y o u dare call this a counter-revolutionary demand, A l b a n i a n nationalism, a n d a p p l y m a n y such epithets to it. Y o u c o m e out i n o p e n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e d e c l a r e d p r i n ciples a n d w h a t y o u r m a i n leaders, t o w h o m y o u s i n g h y m n s day a n d night, have said. Y o u come out in opposition to the principles of international law, to the principles of good neighbourly relations, therefore y o u cannot have p r o g r e s s i v e a n d r e a s o n a b l e w o r l d o p i n i o n o n y o u r side. T h e w a y t h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p i s s e e k i n g t o solve t h e problem of Kosova and overcome the difficulties in w h i c h t h e c o u n t r y f i n d s itself s h o w s t h a t i t i s a c t i n g w i t h g r e a t haste a n d i n u t t e r c o n f u s i o n . T h e s t a n d s i t m a i n t a i n s a n d t h e actions i t i s u n d e r t a k i n g r e s p o n d n e i t h e r t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f Y u g o s l a v i a n o r t o those o f A l b a n i a , n e i t h e r t o B a l k a n n o r t o E u r o p e a n s e c u r i t y , a b o u t w h i c h t h e Y u g o s l a v leaders, posing as protagonists of the H e l s i n k i spirit, m a k e m u c h ado. W i t h s u c h actions t h e Y u g o s l a v l e a d e r s h i p does not s t r e n g t h e n the p o s i t i o n o f t h e S F R Y b u t w e a k e n s it.

Z r i i popullit

WHEN THE PARTY WAS BORN


Reminiscences (Excerpts)

T h e grave situation w h i c h was imposed on the H o m e l a n d b y fascist o c c u p a t i o n c h a r g e d u s c o m m u n i s t s w i t h great r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . W h e r e a s i n t h e d e c i s i v e d a y s b e f o r e A p r i l 7 t h e c o m m u n i s t groups, d i v i d e d a n d s t r u g g l i n g against one a n o t h e r , w e r e u n a b l e to create a s i n g l e l e a d e r ship a n d t o m o b i l i z e t h e p e o p l e f o r a r m e d actions against the aggressors, n o w t h e s i t u a t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n made o r g a n i z e d , u n i n t e r r u p t e d c o m m u n i s t w o r k e v e n m o r e essential. W e h a d t o act t o o r g a n i z e o u r s e l v e s f o r resistance and t o s h o w p e o p l e w h a t I t a l i a n f a s c i s m w a s a n d w h a t aims i t h a d ; w e h a d t o d e n o u n c e its d e m a g o g y , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the m e a s u r e s i t t o o k a n d t h e c u n n i n g m e t h o d s i t e m ployed, c l a i m i n g t h a t i t c a m e t o rescue t h e c o u n t r y f r o m Zog, t h a t A l b a n i a w o u l d h a v e its o w n g o v e r n m e n t , etc. W e had t o o r g a n i z e t h e r e s i s t a n c e a n d t h e p r o p a g a n d a against the q u i s l i n g g o v e r n m e n t o f V r l a c i , w h i c h c a r r i e d o u t t h e masquerade o f the u n i o n o f A l b a n i a w i t h the I t a l i a n E m p i r e , h e a d e d b y V i c t o r E m m a n u e l III, w h o a l i t t l e e a r l i e r had a s s u m e d t h e t i t l e o f E m p e r o r o f E t h i o p i a a n d n o w also a s s u m e d t h e t i t l e o f K i n g o f A l b a n i a . T o a c c o m p l i s h these t a s k s w a s u n d o u b t e d l y d i f f i c u l t , but not i m p o s s i b l e . T h e b i g d e m o n s t r a t i o n s w h i c h b u r s t out a l l over t h e c o u n t r y i n t h e f i r s t d a y s o f A p r i l against

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t h e I t a l i a n threat, t h e d e m a n d s f o r w e a p o n s w h i c h t h e b r o a d masses o f t h e people m a d e t o t h e t r e a c h e r o u s f e u d a l government of Zog, the general expression of readiness to fight, the attacks on the Italian troops d i s e m b a r k i n g at Durrs, Vlora, Saranda and Shngjin, were the signal for us communists that only by organizing and a r m i n g ourselves a n d b y f i g h t i n g w o u l d w e b e a b l e t o d r i v e o u t t h e enemy w h o n o w threatened the v e r y existence of o u r c o u n t r y a n d p e o p l e ; t h e y w e r e t h e best c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e fact t h a t o u r people w o u l d not t o l e r a t e t h e o c c u p a t i o n a n d that w i t h a reliable leadership they w o u l d rise to t h e i r feet a n d h u r l t h e aggressors i n t o t h e sea. Nevertheless, although we members of various c o m munist groups were aware of the need for struggle against the o c c u p i e r a n d e n g a g e d i n v a r i o u s p r a c t i c a l f o r m s o f i t , w e w e r e not m a n a g i n g t o f i n d a c o m m o n l a n g u a g e , t o i r o n out o u r i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s a n d u n i t e o u r forces a n d efforts. T h i s w a s v e r y d a m a g i n g t o t h e j o i n t s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the common enemy. E v e n as groups, the occupation f o u n d us not p r o p e r l y organized. T h e w o r k of the groups h a d n o t been e x t e n d e d t o t h e b r o a d masses o f t h e p e o p l e a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y , despite t h e c o r r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e Comintern, which Comrade A l i Kelmendi had brought in 1932, a n d , s u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e n e w d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e 7 t h C o n gress o f t h e C o m i n t e r n , w h i c h r e a c h e d A l b a n i a i n 1937, a n d r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t w e s h o u l d g o a m o n g t h e masses, w o r k w i t h them and there build and strengthen the n e w cells. T h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s , i n the s p i r i t a n d the l i g h t o f t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f the 7 t h C o n g r e s s o f t h e C o m i n t e r n , w e r e defined in M o s c o w at a meeting organized by the B a l k a n S e c t i o n o f t h e C o m i n t e r n , a t W h i c h the state o f t h e c o m munist movement in A l b a n i a and the tasks w h i c h faced it w e r e a n a l y s e d . T h e b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h these d i r e c t i v e s opened u p f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f the c o m m u n i s t

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m o v e m e n t i n A l b a n i a w e r e sabotaged b y t h e T r o t s k y i t e elements. T h e C o m m u n i s t G r o u p o f K o r a accepted a n d a d o p t e d the i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e C o m i n t e r n . T h i s g r o u p a c h i e v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e success i n its a c t i v i t y w i t h w o r k e r s , w i t h t h e youth, a n d the craftsmen a n d s m a l l shopkeepers. N e v e r theless, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e c o m r a d e s o f t h e K o r a group was sectarianism, w h i c h was expressed in closed w o r k w i t h i n t h e c i t y o f K o r a , w h i l e outside K o r a a n d i n other cities t h e g r o u p c a r r i e d out v e r y i n e f f e c t i v e w o r k , i f a n y a t a l l . C e r t a i n a n t i - M a r x i s t elements o f t h i s g r o u p t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s e c t a r i a n i s m a n d other w e a k n e s s e s w h i c h hindered the development a n d the extension of the c o m m u n i s t m o v e m e n t , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t some m e m b e r s o f o u r g r o u p i n T i r a n a s p l i t a w a y f r o m us. S o m e o f t h e m had formed a Trotskyite group, headed by A r i s t i d h Qendro, a s e a r l y a s i n 1936, w h i l e others, l e d b y A n a s t a s L u l a a n d S a d i k P r e m t e , w e r e s h o w i n g signs o f a n e w f a c t i o n , w h i c h later, a f t e r t h e o c c u p a t i o n of the c o u n t r y , e m e r g e d as a separate g r o u p k n o w n a s t h e Y o u t h G r o u p . I r e m e m b e r t h a t soon a f t e r the o c c u p a t i o n of t h e c o u n t r y the K o r a g r o u p sent t w o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o T i r a n a t o m a k e contact w i t h A n a s t a s L u l a a n d some o f h i s c o m r a d e s i n order t o m a k e c l e a r t o t h e m t h e n e w t a s k s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n of occupation a n d to persuade them to maintain their links w i t h the group. However, the envoys of the K o r a group were quite unable to persuade Anastas L u l a and company, w h i l e i n t h e ideas a n d l i f e o f t h i s g r o u p t h e y s a w v i l e a n t i c o m m u n i s t T r o t s k y i t e acts o f u t t e r i m m o r a l i t y . H o r r i f i e d , they p a r t e d f r o m A n a s t a s L u l a ' s g r o u p a n d w h e n t h e y r e p o r t e d t o us, t h e K o r a g r o u p q u i t e r i g h t l y d e c i d e d t o b e g i n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e against those T r o t s k y i t e s . That group h a d embraced a l l the theories and practices o f a n a r c h i s t T r o t s k y i t e g a n g s t e r s : r o b b e r y , lies, c o r r u p t i o n , w i f e s w a p p i n g . T h e y b r o u g h t o u t n e w theories w h i c h

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were causing great h a r m to our struggle. A c c o r d i n g to A n a s t a s L u l a , A n d r e a Z i s i a n d o t h e r T r o t s k y i t e s , the occ u p a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y h a d its b a d aspect, b u t also its g o o d aspect: i t w a s f a v o u r a b l e , because t h e b o u r g e o i s i e w o u l d become e s t a b l i s h e d , i n d u s t r y w o u l d b e b u i l t , t h e w o r k i n g class w o u l d b e c r e a t e d , a n d t h e n , i t w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e t o talk about the f o r m a t i o n of a genuine communist party, then it w o u l d be possible to talk about struggle against t h e occupiers. W e m u s t w a i t f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , w o r k w i t h t h e p e a s a n t r y does n o t b r i n g results, w a s t h e p r o p a g a n d a t h e y s p r e a d . O f c o u r s e t h e theories o f those c h i e f s w e r e n o t o n l y a n t i - c o m m u n i s t , but they served the occupiers and sabotaged the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e people's resistance a n d s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e m . T h e K o r a g r o u p w a g e d a m e r c i l e s s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t these t r a i t o r s a n d t h e i r theories a n d actions, w h i c h w e r e n o t o n l y T r o t s k y i t e , b u t w e r e also i d e n t i c a l w i t h those o f the A l b a n i a n fascist p a r t y , c r e a t e d b y t h e o c c u p i e r s . T h e K o r a g r o u p h a d a c o r r e c t l i n e o n these c a p i t a l p r o b l e m s , b u t i t has t o b e s a i d t h a t K o o T a s h k o ' s b a d influence interfered w i t h the broad development of this line. Outside K o r a , and especially in T i r a n a w h e r e the w o r k of the group h a d been left in the hands of K o o T a s h k o , t h e process h a d v i r t u a l l y m a r k e d t i m e . C l a i m i n g that it was he w h o had brought the instructions of the C o m i n t e r n f r o m M o s c o w , K o o T a s h k o posed a s a b i g shot, as the representative of the International in A l b a n i a , but the t r u t h was that he d i d not k n o w h o w to w o r k w i t h people and was as sectarian as he was opportunist. Zogite reaction h a d attacked the K o r a group, but, nevertheless, i t r e m a i n e d the biggest, m o s t i m p o r t a n t g r o u p , n o t o n l y because o f its n u m b e r s , b u t e s p e c i a l l y because t h e ideas o f t h i s g r o u p w e r e m o r e c o r r e c t t h a n those o f o t h e r groups. O u r K o r a g r o u p t o o k a correct v i e w o f t h e great d a n g e r o f t h e fascist o c c u p a t i o n a n d f o u g h t i n its o w n

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w a y s , b u t h a d i t a c t e d e n e r g e t i c a l l y a n d w i t h t h e necessary maturity, through sounder and more intelligent organizational w o r k to liquidate all that mountain of pers o n a l resentments, c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , s q u a b b l e s a n d a m b i t i o n s o r slanders, w h i c h w e r e n o t l a c k i n g a m o n g c o m m u n i s t groups, it w o u l d have exerted a greater influence t o b r i n g t h e c o m m u n i s t s t o g e t h e r a n d w o u l d h a v e speeded u p t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e P a r t y . F a c i n g t h e great d a n g e r o f fascism w h i c h h a d occupied the country, the road of M a r x ist-Leninist u n i t y was greatly neglected. Consequently, even after the occupation the groups not only r e m a i n e d in t h e i r o l d positions, b u t t h e i r s q u a b b l e s a n d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s were increased and exacerbated. K o o Tashko and Anastas L u l a w e r e a great h i n d r a n c e t o i m p r o v i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n i n this direction. Nevertheless, the fact is that in K o r a , where C o m r a d e M i h a L a k o led the group, i n general, the w o r k went w e l l . E s p e c i a l l y on the eve of the occupation a n d immediately after, the activity of the group became more vigorous t h a n e v e r . W e m e t r e g u l a r l y , d i s c u s s e d a n d d e t e r m i n e d t h e stands w h i c h we h a d to take to the great a n d difficult problems t h a t f a c e d us. I n t h e f i r s t place, w e h a d t o s a f e g u a r d a n d f u r t h e r strengthen the sound u n i t y w i t h i n our communist group, m u s t n o t p e r m i t a n y s p l i t s i n its r a n k s o r a n y s i g n o f f e a r o r p a n i c i n t h e face o f t h e t e r r o r a n d r e p r i s a l s o f t h e fascist r e g i m e . I r e m e m b e r t h a t i n t h e e a r l y d a y s o f A p r i l , w h e n t h e o c c u p y i n g forces h a d s t i l l n o t e n t e r e d t h e c i t y , s o m e o n e p r o p o s e d t h a t some o f o u r c o m r a d e s k n o w n t o the a u t h o r i t i e s a n d t h e fascist agents f o r t h e i r a n t i - f a s c i s t a c t i v i t y s h o u l d l e a v e K o r a i n o r d e r t o escape i n t e r n m e n t or prison. S t e r n objections burst out: A l l t h e p e o p l e o f K o r a , a l l t h e people o f A l b a n i a a r e anti-fascists, w e p o i n t e d out i n t h e m e e t i n g . T h o u s a n d s o f p e o p l e a r e d e m o n s t r a t i n g i n the streets s h o u t i n g ' D o w n

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w i t h fascism!' Then, h o w can the communists w i t h d r a w f r o m the p e o p l e ? T h e opposite i s w h a t m u s t b e done. W e m u s t b e t h e f i r s t i n actions a n d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , w e m u s t s h o w t h e people t h e t r u e r o a d o f t h e s t r u g g l e a n d l i b e r a t i o n , we must convince t h e m through our o w n example! A n d i n fact t h i s i s w h a t o c c u r r e d . T h e c o m m u n i s t s o f the K o r a group, of w h i c h the workers of the city made u p t h e m a i n core, w e r e n o t f r i g h t e n e d o r s t o p p e d b y a n y danger. T h e w o r k e r s h a d a great i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p u p i l s , w h o a t t h a t t i m e w e c a l l e d students. T h e L y c e o f K o r a w a s a n i m p o r t a n t s u p p o r t f o r the resistance a g a i n s t f a s c i s m . T h e p u p i l s o f t h i s L y c e , w i t h t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y teachers, intensified the spirit of the anti-fascist demonstrations of A p r i l 1939 d a y b y day, a n d later, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e founding of our Communist Party, they turned the Lyce i n t o a r e a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y h o t b e d , a source of cadres of t h e P a r t y and partisans of the N a t i o n a l Liberation A r m y . T h e i d e a o f m y g o i n g t o T i r a n a to b e c o m e a s h o p keeper was not accidental and d i d not arise s i m p l y f r o m m y d i s m i s s a l f r o m m y job. N o , t h i s w a s s o m e t h i n g c a r e f u l l y considered and calculated by our communist group. As I have already mentioned, especially after the fascist occupation of A l b a n i a , the C o m m u n i s t G r o u p of K o r a became m o r e t h a n e v e r a w a r e o f its o l d w e a k n e s s o f b e i n g closed w i t h i n t h e c i t y o f K o r a . T h i s i s o l a t i o n h a d n o t o n l y hindered the further extension of the ranks of the group a n d a l l the w o r k t h a t h a d t o b e done t o e x p l a i n the s i t u a t i o n t o the masses a n d m o b i l i z e t h e m , b u t i t h a d also l i m i t e d the possibilities to establish links of collaboration w i t h the other communist groups. K o o Tashko, w h o stayed m a i n l y i n T i r a n a , was not doing any good organized w o r k or even propaganda by w o r d o f m o u t h . K o o ' s w o r k consisted o f a f e w a c a d e m i c c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , b u t e v e n these w i t h

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h e s i t a t i o n a n d f e a r t h a t h e m i g h t b e detected b y t h e police. In g e n e r a l , I c a n say he w a s b o t h a m e g a l o m a n i a c a n d a c o w a r d . O f course w e d i d not a r r i v e a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a b o u t K o o i m m e d i a t e l y a n d a t t h a t p e r i o d , but o n l y l a t e r a n d g r a d u a l l y , because h i s w o r k s h o w e d w h a t h e w a s , w h i l e a t f i r s t w e d i d n o t k n o w h i m p r o p e r l y . W i t h some comrades of our group w h o were in T i r a n a at that time, such as w i t h Xhevdet Doda, and w i t h D e m i r Godelli in P e q i n a n d others, a l l h e d i d w a s h o l d s k i n - d e e p c o n v e r s a tions, t r y t o get t o k n o w t h e m i n d i v i d u a l l y , curse a n d s t r u g g l e against o t h e r c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e S h k o d r a group and Anastas Lula's faction, w h i c h was s t e a d i l y a s s u m i n g t h e f o r m o f a separate g r o u p . B u t K o o a b u s e d these g r o u p s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , w i t h o u t m a k i n g a n y d i s t i n c t i o n a m o n g s t t h e i r m e m b e r s , some o f w h o m w e r e resolute communists, and without t a k i n g any initiative to m a k e approaches to or talk w i t h them. Therefore, the need h a d a r i s e n f o r m o r e o r g a n i z e d a n d i n t e n s i v e w o r k outside K o r a , especially in T i r a n a , w h i c h was not only the centre o f fascist r e a c t i o n a t t h a t p e r i o d , b u t also t h e p l a c e w h e r e the m a i n representatives of the other communist groups w e r e l o c a t e d a n d o p e r a t i n g . P r e c i s e l y at these m o m e n t s I w a s dismissed f r o m my job a n d the centre of our c o m munist group took this opportunity to send first me and s u b s e q u e n t l y some o t h e r c o m r a d e s t o T i r a n a . T h e r e , o n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e centre, w e h a d t o set u p t h e T i r a n a b r a n c h o f t h e C o m m u n i s t G r o u p o f K o r a , t o e x t e n d the activity of the group on sound foundations and organize the a n t i - f a s c i s t m o v e m e n t i n t h e c a p i t a l a n d t h e other districts of the country. A f t e r w e discussed a n d reached agreement w i t h M i h a , P i l o a n d o t h e r c o m r a d e s a b o u t the m a i n d i r e c t i o n s o f o u r w o r k i n T i r a n a a n d o t h e r zones, t h e w a y h a d t o b e f o u n d t o e s t a b l i s h o u r s e l v e s t h e r e s o t h a t w e c o u l d act l e g a l l y u n d e r t h e eyes o f the people a n d t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . I n t h e

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c o u r s e o f these discussions t h e i d e a arose o f e m b a r k i n g on a c o m m e r c i a l v e n t u r e , t h a t is, of o p e n i n g a s h o p in Tirana, w h i c h we called Flora and w h i c h was v e r y q u i c k l y t o b e c o m e one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t bases o f t h e communist and anti-fascist m o v e m e n t . . . W e w e r e p r e o c c u p i e d b y t w o m a i n , basic o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e great i d e a l w h i c h w a s b u r n i n g i n o u r m i n d s a n d hearts: to increase the n u m b e r of members of the group w i t h resolute workers, w i t h craftsmen, w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y students a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e a n d i n a l l t h e cities, a n d t o m a k e a start i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e w h e r e o u r w o r k w a s , y o u m i g h t say, a l m o s t z e r o ; a n d t h e second objective, t o e l i m i n a t e o n a p r i n c i p l e d basis t h e q u a r r e l s a n d disagreements w i t h the other communist groups w h i c h were operating in Tirana, S h k o d r a and elsewhere a n d to a c h i e v e a t r u e u n i t y w i t h t h e m , because t h e q u e s t i o n v i t a l to our country, the formation of the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , d e p e n d e d o n this. The m a i n decisive t h i n g w a s extension of l i n k s w i t h the w o r k e r s , because t h e y w o u l d c o m p r i s e t h e steel b a s e of the P a r t y w h i c h we were going to f o r m . We understood t h a t i f w e w o u l d a c h i e v e this, t h e r e w a s n o f o r c e w h i c h c o u l d defeat us. O n t h i s q u e s t i o n w e h a d t a k e n g o o d i n i t i a l steps. W e h a d c r e a t e d contacts a n d h a d h e l d m e e t i n g s w i t h r e v o l u t i o n ary workers, but this activity had to be intensified. T h e n e w w o r k e r c o m r a d e s w e r e a d v i s e d t o create l i n k s a n d t o associate w i t h t h e y o u n g people o f o t h e r g r o u p s , t o get i n t o f r i e n d l y conversation w i t h them, to speak against the fascist e n e m y , against t h e q u i s l i n g s a n d s o o n , b u t c a u t i o u s ly and without exacerbating the situation, w h i l e preserving t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of o u r P a r t y . L i s t e n comrades, I stressed t o t h e m , this has great i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e f u t u r e . and A n t h i s i s w h a t w a s done. T h e y a l l w o r k e d t i r e l e s s l y considerably extended their circles w i t h courageous

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young workers. These active young workers were impatient, t h e y w a n t e d s t r u g g l e a n d actions against t h e e n e m y . T h e y c a m e a l l t h e t i m e t o t h e F l o r a shop w h e r e t h e y f o u n d m e o r P i l o , a n d a f t e r t h e y h a d r e p o r t e d t o us, a s k e d t h e usual question: What should we do today, w h a t should we do tomorrow? I n t h i s s a m e p e r i o d I w e n t t o G j i r o k a s t r a , too. E l e m e n t s of different communist groups h a d been active there for y e a r s . I m e t some o f these c o m r a d e s a n d w e t a l k e d a b o u t the p r o b l e m s f a c i n g t h e A l b a n i a n people, a n d f i r s t o f a l l , facing the A l b a n i a n communists. A m o n g other things I p o i n t e d o u t that, a l t h o u g h w e w e r e m e m b e r s o f d i f f e r e n t groups, w e o u g h t t o w o r k c l o s e l y together, because w e h a d t h e s a m e i d e a l s a n d w e r e f i g h t i n g f o r a c o m m o n cause. I t o l d t h e c o m r a d e s t h a t o u r f i g h t against t h e o c c u p i e r s cannot r e a l l y get g o i n g o r b e c r o w n e d w i t h success w i t h o u t rejecting the unhealthy views and spirit of groups, therefore w e o u g h t t o m a k e e v e r y e f f o r t t o f i n d a c o m m o n language a n d t o create t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h w i l l l e a d u s towards the f o u n d i n g of a single party, the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a . T h a t i s t h e t a s k w h i c h faces a l l t h e s o u n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y forces o f t h e c o u n t r y , w h i c h faces e v e r y comrade regardless of whether he is in the leadership of the g r o u p or a r a n k - a n d - f i l e m e m b e r , r e g a r d l e s s of w h e t h e r h e w o r k s a n d struggles i n T i r a n a , i n K o r a , i n S h k o d r a , i n G j i r o k a s t r a o r a n y w h e r e else. M e a n w h i l e our w o r k in the countryside was still weak, therefore i t e m e r g e d a s a n i m p o r t a n t t a s k t o create l i n k s with the peasantry. At that t i m e we fought especially against A n a s t a s L u l a ' s T r o t s k y i t e v i e w s a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m o f the c o u n t r y s i d e , v i e w s w h i c h a r o u s e d c o n f u s i o n a n d , i f they w e r e s p r e a d , w o u l d cause v e r y great d a m a g e , n o t only t o t h e w o r k o f t h e p a r t y w h i c h w e w e r e g o i n g t o f o r m , but also t o the o u t c o m e o f t h e w a r against t h e o c c u p i e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o Anastas L u l a and his followers, the A l -

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banian peasantry was backward, conservative and r e a c t i o n a r y a n d the c o m m u n i s t s c o u l d not w o r k o r create o r g a n i z e d l i n k s a n d bases w i t h i t ! I s h a l l h a v e some m o r e t o say a b o u t the r e a c t i o n a r y v i e w s o f A n a s t a s L u l a a n d h i s associates, b u t h e r e I w a n t t o p o i n t out t h a t t h e K o r a g r o u p not o n l y h a d correct v i e w s o n t h i s p r o b l e m , b u t also s t r u g g l e d t o d e f e n d its v i e w s . E s p e c i a l l y a f t e r w e came to T i r a n a , our interest a n d attention to the peasantry was further increased. This theme had interested and a t t r a c t e d m e p e r s o n a l l y f o r some t i m e , n o t o n l y because as a c o m m u n i s t I w a s a w a r e of a n d u n d e r s t o o d t h e n e e d f o r l i n k i n g t h e cause o f t h e w o r k i n g class w i t h t h a t o f t h e p e a s a n t r y , but also f o r a n o t h e r r e a s o n : I h a d b e e n a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a n d a d m i r e d t h e great r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d p a t r i o t i c t r a d i t i o n s o f the A l b a n i a n p e a s a n t r y s i n c e m y c h i l d h o o d a n d y o u t h , its ceaseless struggles f o r f r e e d o m a n d n a t i o n a l independence... W i t h o u t the peasantry our P a r t y w o u l d be unable to f u l f i l its m i s s i o n . C o m p a r i n g t h e v i e w s o f A n a s t a s L u l a a n d company on the character of our peasantry w i t h the distorted a n d denegrating views of the Esadists, the Zogites a n d the money-lending bourgeoisie on this problem, I saw c l e a r l y t h a t i n essence t h e y w e r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . T h e r e fore, w e h a d t o f i g h t h a r d against t h e T r o t s k y i t e a n d r e a c t i o n a r y v i e w s o n t h e p e a s a n t r y , because o n l y i n t h i s w a y w o u l d w e create a g e n u i n e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p a r t y . At first, however, this struggle was waged more f r o m t h e t h e o r e t i c a l angle, because c o n c r e t e l y t h e c o u n t r y s i d e w a s u n t o u c h e d t e r r i t o r y f o r us. I n t h i s d i r e c t i o n w e stressed t h e v i e w o f toilers, a s w e e x p r e s s e d it, w h e n w e e x plained to the comrades of the group f r o m the theoretical aspect t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e a l l i a n c e o f t h e w o r k i n g class w i t h the peasantry, w h i c h was v i t a l to the liberation of t h e H o m e l a n d . T h e w o r k e r c o m r a d e s u n d e r s t o o d t h i s need, a l t h o u g h i t m u s t b e a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e people o f K o r a

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w e r e s o m e w h a t s e c t a r i a n a b o u t it. T h r o u g h p a t i e n t p e r suasion w e w e r e s t r u g g l i n g t o g r a d u a l l y o v e r c o m e t h i s obstacle. F o r m y p a r t , I h a d b e g u n t h e w o r k t h r o u g h t h e contacts I h a d e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h M y s l i m P e z a . ( 1 ) A f t e r m y m e e t i n g w i t h t h e eta o f P e z a , w e i m m e d i a t e l y began t o s e n d o u r c o m r a d e s t h e r e . L i k e w i s e , o n the basis o f the a g r e e m e n t w h i c h w e a c h i e v e d w i t h t h e S h k o d r a group o n c o m m o n actions, s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p sent c o m r a d e s to t h a t eta. T h u s , t h e c o m r a d e s of t h i s g r o u p , too, w e r e f i g h t i n g a l o n g s i d e o u r c o m r a d e s a n d t h i s w a s a fine t h i n g w h i c h was to strengthen the belief that this group, too, w a s f o r struggle, a n d thus, one of t h e baseless accusations w h i c h some r a i s e d a b o u t t h e g r o u p w a s o v e r come. W e also e s t a b l i s h e d contact w i t h t h e peasants o f D a j t i and K r u j a , because w e h a d g o o d c o m r a d e s t h e r e . M e a n w h i l e , I c o n t i n u e d t o e x t e n d m y contacts w i t h m y f o r m e r colleagues, a n t i - Z o g i t e a n d a n t i - f a s c i s t teachers. O u r circles were b e i n g e x t e n d e d also w i t h o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l s some o f w h o m I k n e w a n d some K o o T a s h k o k n e w . K o o T a s h k o , as an older m a n and a former vice-consul in N e w Y o r k , (2) worked especially w i t h the elderly nationalists w h o had gone i n t o e x i l e i n t h e t i m e o f Z o g a n d h a d r e t u r n e d w i t h the wagons o f t h e I t a l i a n s . K o o e n j o y e d t a l k i n g a n d there w a s n o d a n g e r o f h i m c o m p r o m i s i n g h i m s e l f w i t h them. Besides our efforts to extend the w o r k of our group
__________________________________________ 1 M y s l i m P e z a (1897-1984). Democratic patriot a n d a n t i Zogite fighter. A f t e r the occupation of the country he became one of the most distinguished figures of the A n t i - f a s c i s t N a tional L i b e r a t i o n W a r . H e was vice-president o f the D e m o c r a tic F r o n t of A l b a n i a , vice-president of the P r e s i d i u m of the People's A s s e m b l y (1946-1982), People's H e r o and H e r o of S o c i a list L a b o u r . 2 F r o m 1922-1925 K o o T a s h k o was vice-consul of the A l b a n i a n government t o N e w Y o r k .

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a n d the anti-fascist p r o p a g a n d a a m o n g the people w e h a d also w o r k e d a n d a c h i e v e d some successes o n t h e other m a i n question, t h a t o f contacts w i t h t h e other c o m m u n i s t groups. First, however, I w a n t to say something, in general, about the s i t u a t i o n a n d m a i n v i e w s o f t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p a n d the Y o u t h G r o u p , a s I h a v e d o n e a b o u t t h e K o r a group. The t r u t h is that we created a complete idea about t h e s i t u a t i o n o f these t w o g r o u p s w h e n w e b e g a n o p e n discussions a n d m a d e s e l f - c r i t i c i s m o n b e h a l f o f t h e g r o u p s d u r i n g those h i s t o r i c d a y s a n d n i g h t s w h e n w e l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a . B e f o r e t h a t t i m e n o g r o u p h a d a correct a n d a c c u r a t e o p i n i o n about the other g r o u p . T h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e K o r a g r o u p about the other g r o u p s a n d t h e i r o p i n i o n s a b o u t o u r g r o u p w e r e i n f l a g r a n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r . I n o u r p e r s o n a l ideas t h e r e w e r e some n u a n c e s w h i c h s h o w e d t h a t s o m e t h i n g w a s c h a n g i n g , t h a t some r o a d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d r a p p r o c h e m e n t b e t w e e n u s w a s o p e n i n g u p , but, i n g e n e r a l , w e h a d t o obey t h e s a m e r i g o r o u s s t a n d o f t h e group and this k i n d of discipline kept us still divided, cold a n d r e s e n t f u l t o w a r d s one a n o t h e r . I t w a s p r e c i s e l y t h e m e e t i n g s i n the f i r s t d a y s o f N o v e m b e r 1941 t h a t s h e d f u l l light on the good points, the weaknesses a n d the shortcomings in the w o r k of groups, a n d on w h a t things l i n k e d us together a n d h o w we should unite, a n d on w h a t t h i n g s d i v i d e d u s a n d h o w w e s h o u l d get r i d o f t h e m once a n d f o r a l l . B u t t h i s t o o k place l a t e r . N o w let u s d w e l l o n t h e concrete s i t u a t i o n of t h e g r o u p s . I n g e n e r a l , the S h k o d r a g r o u p w a s m a d e u p o f g o o d comrades. T h e y i n c l u d e d w o r k e r s , s t u d e n t s a n d a f e w i n t e l l e c t u a l s , b u t f e w peasants, i f a n y a t a l l . O f course, l i k e every group, it had sympathizers f r o m various strata. T h e S h k o d r a g r o u p , too, h a d a closed c h a r a c t e r ; m o s t of its members were in Shkodra, but a n u m b e r of members of

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the g r o u p , w o r k e r s a n d e s p e c i a l l y students, w e r e i n T i r a n a . I n the S h k o d r a g r o u p t h a t i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d discipline w h i c h the K o r a group had created was lacking. T h e l i n k s o f its m e m b e r s w e r e loose; t h e i r actions w e r e not d i c t a t e d by a m o r e or less a f f i r m e d l e a d e r s h i p , a n d individual instructions a n d directives were issued acc o r d i n g t o t h e occasion. T h e S h k o d r a g r o u p c o u l d n o t b e c o n t r o l l e d , n o t because its m e m b e r s d i d n o t m e e t a n d d i d n o t r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s , b u t because t h e m e e t i n g s w h i c h they h e l d w e r e e x t r e m e l y secret a n d n o t h i n g w a s s a i d outside t h e m a b o u t actions. T h e S h k o d r a g r o u p h a d n o t accepted t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f the C o m i n t e r n t o d i s s o l v e t h e s e c t a r i a n cells, t o s e n d the c o m m u n i s t s a m o n g t h e masses o f w o r k e r s , peasants a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t o w o r k w i t h t h e m a n d t o create n e w , clean, p o w e r f u l cells r e a d y f o r t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e best of t h e m . These v i e w s of the leadership of the S h k o d r a group against t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e C o m i n t e r n w e r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the love w h i c h m a n y fine members of the S h k o d r a group n u r t u r e d for c o m m u n i s m , the Soviet U n i o n , Stalin and t h e C o m i n t e r n , a n d t h i s w a s t r a g i c . T h e s e m e m b e r s included V a s i l Shanto, Q e m a l Stafa, K r i s t o Themelko, T u k J a k o v a ( w h o s u b s e q u e n t l y b e t r a y e d the P a r t y a n d c o n s p i r e d w i t h t h e Y u g o s l a v T i t o i t e s against t h e P a r t y a n d t h e socialist H o m e l a n d ) , N e x h m i j e X h u g l i n i , A l i D e m i , N a z m i Rushiti, Q a m i l G a v o i and m a n y other comrades. T h e comrades of the S h k o d r a group were resolute a n t i Zogites a n d a n t i - f a s c i s t s a n d , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e o c c u p a tion, they, too, t h r e w t h e m s e l v e s i n t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y actions, d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , d i s t r i b u t i n g leaflets, etc. B u t t h i s g r o u p had a t its h e a d a c u n n i n g T r o t s k y i t e , Z e f M a l a , w h o w h e n h e w a s i m p r i s o n e d t o l d Zog's p o l i c e a l l h e k n e w a b o u t h i s o w n g r o u p a n d o t h e r c o m r a d e s . H e posed a s a n i n tellectualized proletarian, but was nothing but a petty

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demagogue and intriguer w h o carried on u n d e r m i n i n g work. He published two numbers of an allegedly theoretical b u l l e t i n o f the g r o u p ( w h i c h w a s c a l l e d t h e G r e e n B u l l e t i n f r o m the c o l o u r o f the cover) w i t h w h i c h t o n u r t u r e its m e m b e r s . B u t the ideas a n d o p i n i o n s w h i c h h e s p r e a d w e r e extracts f r o m Trotskyite manuals w h i c h w e r e published i n fascist I t a l y . ( T h e K o r a g r o u p , too, p u b l i s h e d a b u l l e t i n w h i c h l o o k e d a t t h r o u g h t o d a y ' s eye h a d n o great w e i g h t , a l t h o u g h m i s t a k e s o f t h e l i n e i n its a r t i c l e s w e r e rare.) F r o m the f i r s t m o m e n t s w h e n i t w a s f o r m e d a s a s e p a r a t e g r o u p the S h k o d r a g r o u p t r i e d t o l i n k u p w i t h t h e K o a g r o u p , but, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s w a s r e p l a c e d b y a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h a r m f u l consequences: a b o u t the e n d o f 1937, Zef M a l a c a m e i n t o contact w i t h N i k o X o x i , a v i l e , T r o t s k y i t e element, w h o b e t r a y e d t h e K o r a g r o u p a n d A l i Kelmendi. W h e n h e s a w h e w a s u n a b l e t o d o m i n a t e the K o r a g r o u p , N i k o X o x i , s t u f f e d w i t h a l l the a r c h e o - M a r x i s t diversionist rubbish of A n d r e a Zisi, went to S h k o d r a and T i r a n a and there very q u i c k l y he found a c o m m o n language w i t h Zef M a l a , a s y o u m i g h t say, t h e pot f o u n d the l i d t o f i t it. A f t e r e n g a g i n g in a series of i n t r i g u e s , s l a n d e r s a n d c a u s i n g c o n f u s i o n , these t w o renegades m a n a g e d t o t a k e over the r e i n s o f l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p . A f t e r t h i s a n t i - M a r x i s t l i n k - u p w e s a w a l l sorts o f theories a l i e n t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y m o v e m e n t i n A l b a n i a spring up in this group, w h i c h hindered it f r o m f i n d i n g and e m b r a c i n g a correct r e v o l u t i o n a r y l i n e . In the second h a l f of 1940 the leaders of the S h k o d r a g r o u p h a d m a d e deals w i t h the Y o u t h G r o u p , w h i c h w a s l e d b y A n a s t a s L u l a . E s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the l i n k - u p w i t h t h i s g r o u p , t h e p e n e t r a t i o n o f e r r o n e o u s ideas b e c a m e e v e n m o r e p r o n o u n c e d . U n l i k e the C o m m u n i s t G r o u p o f K o r a , w h i c h w a s based o n the w o r k e r s a n d w a s c o m p r i s e d m a i n l y o f w o r k e r s , the S h k o d r a and the Youth groups concentrated their atten-

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t i o n m o s t l y o n t h e school, o n t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . T h e t h e o r e t i c a l a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ideas i m p a r t e d t o these y o u n g people, e s p e c i a l l y by the leaders of the Y o u t h G r o u p , as well as by Zef M a l a and N i k o X o x i , had no sound M a r x i s t bases, nevertheless, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e fascist o c c u p a t i o n , these g r o u p s i n t e n s i f i e d t h e i r e f f o r t s t o w i n o v e r a s m a n y of the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l students as possible, e s p e c i a l l y in T i r a n a , S h k o d r a a n d V l o r a a n d , t o a lesser extent, i n t h e other cities o f the c o u n t r y . F o r a l l its s h o r t c o m i n g s , the c o m m u n i s t p r o p a g a n d a c a r r i e d out w i t h t h e s c h o o l y o u t h w a s t o play a positive role. T h e g r a v e m o m e n t s w h i c h the H o m e l a n d w a s e x p e r i e n c i n g u n d e r the fascist o c c u p a t i o n , the h a t r e d w h i c h the y o u t h n u r t u r e d f o r the occupiers, the d r i v e a n d e n t h u siasm seething i n t h e i r y o u t h f u l hearts, y o u m i g h t say, n a t u r a l l y w r o t e off t h e a i m s a n d d r e a m s o f a n t i - M a r x i s t leaders a b o u t t h e quiet p r e p a r a t i o n of pleiads f o r the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s o f the f u t u r e ! N o , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y y o u t h who came u n d e r the i n f l u e n c e of one or t h e other g r o u p , did not d o t h i s f o r the t o m o r r o w t h a t n e v e r comes, b u t d i d i t f o r t o d a y , f o r t h e m o m e n t , f o r the s t r u g g l e w h i c h w a s b o i l i n g u p a n d u p t o e r u p t . T h e y e n t e r e d the c o m m u n i s t m o v e m e n t a n d c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s c o m m u n i s t s w i t h the sacred i d e a t h a t t h e y m u s t t h r o w t h e m s e l v e s i m m e d i a t e l y into d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n d actions, t h a t is, t a k e up the cause of the w a r a n d the r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h w e r e p r o b l e m s o n the order o f t h e d a y . T h i s i s the m a i n r e a s o n w h y . despite the leaders' w o r k of sabotage, the r a n k - a n d - f i l e of these g r o u p s were f o r the w a r a n d f o r the P a r t y , a n d e x e r t e d t h e i r great influence i n s e t t l i n g the d i s a g r e e m e n t s w h i c h e x i s t e d b e tween g r o u p s . B o t h i n the S h k o d r a g r o u p a n d i n t h e K o r a g r o u p n o s m a l l role w a s p l a y e d b y h a r m f u l localist s o l i d a r i t y , w h i c h h a d n o s o u n d basis. B u t t h e m i s t a k e s w e r e m o r e pronounced i n the S h k o d r a g r o u p , because o f the T r o t s k y i t e

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influence of Zef Mala, N i k o X o x i and A n d r e a Zisi and others, w h i l e r e s o l u t e c o m m u n i s t s w i t h c l e a r ideas l i k e A l i K e l m e n d i , M i h a L a k o , P i l o Peristeri and other proletarians led the K o r a group. A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n these t w o g r o u p s w a s t h e stand adopted towards M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t literature and theory. T h e members of the S h k o d r a group w e r e more assiduous r e a d e r s t h a n those o f t h e K o r a g r o u p . T h e K o r a group was characterized more by practical action. H o w e v e r , i t m u s t b e s a i d that, w h i l e t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e S h k o d r a group and the Youth G r o u p d i d more reading, the literature w h i c h they used w h i c h came f r o m Greece or Italy, was uncontrolled a n d the interpretation of w h a t was read was erroneous; in the Youth G r o u p especially the interpretation was Trotskyite. E q u a l l y distorted and basically u n - M a r x i s t w a s the a i m f r o m w h i c h the leaders o f these g r o u p s p r o c e e d e d i n t h e p r o f o u n d s t u d y w h i c h t h e y a l l e g e d l y m a d e o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h came i n t o t h e i r hands. U n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Z e f M a l a a n d N i k o X o x i , b e f o r e t h e fascist o c c u p a t i o n , t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p e m b r a c e d the anti-Marxist theory of the training and the preservat i o n o f cadres, a t h e o r y b r o u g h t t o A l b a n i a b y t h e a r c h e o Marxist adventurer and trickster A n d r e a Zisi. According to t h i s theory, t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r a t r u e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e o f t h e masses d i d not e x i s t i n A l b a n i a , i n d e e d , n e i t h e r t h e w o r k i n g class a n d t h e bourgeoisie, n o r t h e class s t r u g g l e e x i s t e d ! C o n s e q u e n t l y , those w h o f o l l o w e d this v i e w had arrived at the conclusion that u n t i l the conditions for the revolution(!) h a d been created, the communists should not do anything, but prepare themselves theoretically, to acquaint themselves thoroughly w i t h the literature, a n d to protect themselves, t h a t is, to h i d e f r o m t h e r e a l s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e a i m that, w h e n t h e d r e a m e d of m o m e n t came, these learned m e n c o u l d p r o c l a i m t h e i r k n o w l e d g e i n the streets a n d t a k e p o w e r !

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R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a i m a n d o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e leaders on this problem, however, it must be said that the w o r k done o n s t u d y i n g t h a t p a r t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h w a s truly M a r x i s t was to play and did play a positive role in the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m i n g o f t h e s o u n d r a n k - a n d - f i l e o f the groups. Most of the members of the S h k o d r a group were brave, courageous people. D e s p i t e t h e i r T r o t s k y i t e leaders, Z e f M a l a a n d N i k o X o x i , t h e y w o r k e d t o o r g a n i z e the f i g h t against f a s c i s m . W e m u s t n o t forget t h a t t h e y w e r e u n d e r the s u r v e i l l a n c e n o t o n l y of t h e Z o g i t e police, b u t also of the police of t h e C a t h o l i c c l e r g y . T h i s w a s a great d a n g e r i n S h k o d r a w h i c h i n f e c t e d people l i k e a disease. Z e f M a l a , t h e l e a d e r o f the g r o u p , e n d e d u p a s a n agent o f the Z o g i t e police, w h o b e t r a y e d a l l t h e c o m r a d e s a n d the w o r k t h e g r o u p d i d . Z o g ' s p o l i c e a r r e s t e d the m a i n comrades o f the S h k o d r a g r o u p , t r i e d t h e m a n d c o n d e m n e d them to various terms of imprisonment. W h e n A l b a n i a was i n v a d e d , Q e m a l , V a s i l a n d others b r o k e out o f t h e p r i s o n and Q e m a l w a s w o u n d e d i n t h e a r m w h e n t h e g e n d a r m e s pursued him. W h a t s t a n d d i d the S h k o d r a g r o u p t a k e t o w a r d s t h e occupiers a n d t h e T r o t s k y i t e c h i e f s ? I t m u s t b e s a i d t h a t a l l its m e m b e r s , l i k e those o f t h e K o r a g r o u p a s w e l l a s the r a n k - a n d - f i l e of t h e Y o u t h G r o u p , w e r e as a w h o l e opposed t o t h e o c c u p i e r s a n d t h e q u i s l i n g s . T h e y h a t e d the fascist o c c u p i e r a n d w a n t e d t o fight, t h e r e f o r e , t h e y came out e n b l o c i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n d i n actions. O n the other h a n d , h o w e v e r , as I m e n t i o n e d above, t h e r e w a s c o n f u s i o n i n t h e i r r a n k s caused b y t h e p s e u d o - M a r x i s t theories w h i c h t h e T r o t s k y i t e s spread. T h i s c o n f u s i o n w a s e l i m i n a t e d i n stages i n t h e r a p i d f l o w o f events w h i c h followed. T h e s e w e r e t h e good a n d b a d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p . I t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t i n these c o n d i t i o n s

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there were quarrels and a struggle between it and the K o r a g r o u p f o r h e g e m o n y o v e r s u c h questions a s w h i c h i s the p a r t y , w h i c h has l i n k s w i t h t h e C o m i n t e r n , w h i c h has the correct line, w h a t r o l e the w o r k e r s w i l l p l a y a n d w h a t r o l e the p e a s a n t r y , w h a t v i e w s s h o u l d b e t a k e n o f the f a m i l y , m a r r i a g e , p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , a n d m a n y o t h e r things and, undoubtedly, the opposing v i e w s we h a d on these questions d i v i d e d u s f r o m one a n o t h e r a n d n e i t h e r side m a d e concessions. B u t a p a r t f r o m q u e s t i o n s o f p r i n c i p l e w h i c h d i v i d e d us, o u r l i n k s w e r e d a m a g e d also b y the p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s a r r o g a n c e o f K o o T a s h k o , w h o n u r t u r e d the i d e a t h a t it i s useless t o t r y t o t a l k t o t h e m o r m a k e approaches t o t h e m . A n d i t w a s e v e n m o r e r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t h e w a s r e f e r r i n g e v e n t o those c o m r a d e s o f the S h k o d r a group, like V a s i l Shanto and Q e m a l Stafa, w h o had proved t h e i r courage a n d c o m m u n i s t d e t e r m i n a t i o n b e f o r e Zog's courts. W h a t w a s the Y o u t h G r o u p ? H e r e I a m not g o i n g t o w r i t e its h i s t o r y because t h e P a r t y h a s done t h a t i n its analyses, b u t I w a n t to p o i n t out some t r u t h s . T h i s g r o u p h a d its c e n t r e i n T i r a n a . I t h a d b r a n c h e s i n o t h e r cities. especially in V l o r a . At the head of this group were t w o hot-headed a n a r c h i s t T r o t s k y i t e s , A n a s t a s L u l a (Qorri) * a n d S a d i k P r e m t e (Xhepi). ** I n t h e t i m e o f Z o g these t w o elements posed a s a n t i - Z o g i t e . w h i l e i n t h e t i m e of o c c u p a t i o n as a n t i - I t a l i a n . T h e y posed as c o m m u n i s t s , b u t the theories w h i c h t h e y s p r e a d h a d n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h c o m m u n i s m . T h e s e t w o elements s o w e d c o n f u s i o n among the youth. A f t e r a t t a c k i n g the t r e a c h e r o u s f a c t i o n a l w o r k o f A r i s t i d h Q e n d r o i n T i r a n a i n 1937, t h e K o r a g r o u p r e g a r d e d
___________________________________ * The Blind. ** X h e p i , short f o r m for Rexhep, meaning pocket.

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these t w o elements a s its m e m b e r s a n d p u t t h e m i n contact w i t h the c o m r a d e s o f the g r o u p w h o w e n t t o a t t e n d s c h o o l or to w o r k in Tirana. However, Anastas L u l a and Sadik Premte, by t a k i n g over f r o m A r i s t i d h Qendro all his a n t i M a r x i s t baggage a n d t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f t h e l o c a l i s m o f the K o r a g r o u p w h i c h d i d not c a r r y out its w o r k p r o p e r l y i n a l l those places w h e r e t h e r e w e r e y o u n g people, f o r m e d their o w n f a c t i o n i n the K o r a g r o u p . A s t i m e passed, t h i s f a c t i o n , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g some f o r m a l l i n k s w i t h the K o r a g r o u p , i n t e n s i f i e d its d i s r u p t i v e w o r k a n d at t h e b e g i n n i n g of 1940 e m e r g e d as a separate group. T h i s w a s the t i m e w h e n w e w e r e w o r k i n g a n d s t r u g g l i n g t o settle d i s a g r e e m e n t s w i t h the S h k o d r a g r o u p and, i n d e e d , h a d succeeded in c r e a t i n g a sort of j o i n t C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e b e t w e e n the K o r a g r o u p a n d the Shkodra group. I am n o t g o i n g to d w e l l on the essence of t h i s agreement, w h i c h a t the m e e t i n g t o f o u n d t h e P a r t y w e r i g h t l y described as an a g r e e m e n t f r o m above, a s o c i a l - d e m o c r a t i c g r a f t i n g , b u t I o n l y w a n t t o p o i n t out t h a t p r e c i s e l y w h e n the so-called j o i n t C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e w a s f o r m e d , i t w a s discovered t h a t t h e r e w a s s t i l l a n o t h e r g r o u p w h i c h h a d been c a m o u f l a g e d u p t i l l t h a t t i m e . T h a t w a s the Y o u t h G r o u p . Its open emergence, the a t t a c k w h i c h i t l a u n c h e d against t h e K o r a g r o u p a n d a l l its a n t i - M a r x i s t a r s e n a l made t h e w o r k s t a r t e d f o r the s e t t l i n g o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s even m o r e d i f f i c u l t . In Tirana Anastas L u l a and Sadik Premte maintained contact w i t h m a n y y o u n g people w h o m t h e y h a d t u r n e d into e n t h u s i a s t s f i l l e d w i t h i m m o r a l . T r o t s k y i t e , gangster theories. T h e y d i r e c t e d t h e c o u r a g e a n d a n t i - Z o g i t e a n d later a n t i - f a s c i s t a n d a n t i - I t a l i a n d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f these young people i n t o a n a r c h i s t a n d gangster actions. T h e s e were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of o n l y some of the young people of this group a n d o n l y i n T i r a n a , those w h o h a d become a n d

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remained later the lieutenants of Q o r r i and X h e p i in their ideas a n d actions. B u t a l l t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e Y o u t h G r o u p i n T i r a n a , i n K o r a and especially i n V l o r a , were not l i k e this. W i t h t h e i r T r o t s k y i t e slogans, A n a s t a s L u l a a n d S a d i k P r e m t e w e r e a b l e o n l y t o w a g e a f a c t i o n a l s t r u g g l e against the K o r a g r o u p b y m a k i n g t h e a c c u s a t i o n t h a t i t w a s not a communist group, but they were quite unable to extinguish o r e v e n t o w e a k e n its s t r u g g l e against Z o g a n d t h e o c c u p i e r s . T h i s w a s t h e i r A c h i l l e s ' heel. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r a n k - a n d - f i l e of the Youth G r o u p were pure, extremely patriotic, courageous. a n t i - Z o g i t e a n d a n t i - I t a l i a n a n d t h e y l o v e d c o m m u n i s m . I n V l o r a , i n p a r t i c u l a r , despite t h e fact t h a t X h e p i w a s f r o m those parts, h e c o u l d not a n d d a r e d n o t r e s t r a i n t h e a n t i - f a s c i s t a c t i v i t y against t h e I t a l i a n occupiers, b e cause h e w a s f a c e d w i t h H y s n i K a p o , ( 3 ) a r e s o l u t e c o m m u n ist, a n t i - Z o g i t e a n d anti-fascist, a c o m r a d e w i t h great d e c i s i v e i n f l u e n c e i n V l o r a , w h o stood a t t h e h e a d o f m a n y young comrades of the city, the C o m m e r c i a l School and the v i l l a g e s . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e f o u n d i n g o f the P a r t y , H y s n i K a p o became the pillar of the new organization of the Communist P a r t y w h i c h was being built in V l o r a and, under the leadership of the Party, fought together w i t h h i s c o m r a d e s t o t o t a l l y w i p e out t h e h o s t i l e i n f l u e n c e o f X h e p i a n d Q o r r i i n V l o r a , w h e r e t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o create t h e i r h o s t i l e f a c t i o n . H y s n i K a p o ' s s t r u g g l e against t h e m i n defence o f the n e w P a r t y w a s t h e s i g n a l f o r t h e f i n a l l i q u i d a t i o n o f the T r o t s k y i t e v i e w s a n d p r a c t i c e s o f t h e heads o f t h e f o r m e r Y o u t h G r o u p a n d some o f t h e i r
_______________________ 3 H y s n i K a p o (1915-1979). One of the most distinguished leaders of our P a r t y and the A l b a n i a n state. He w a s member of the P o l i t i c a l B u r e a u of the CC of the P L A since 1946, secretary of the CC of the P L A (1956-1979), People's H e r o and H e r o of Socialist L a b o u r .

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f o l l o w e r s , w h o d i d n o t c o m e t o t h e i r senses e v e n after the f o r m i n g o f t h e P a r t y . I a m not g o i n g t o speak about t h e Z j a r r i * G r o u p o r a n y other, because t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g M a r x i s t a b o u t them and their leaders w e r e open provocateurs. T h e founding of the P a r t y smashed them completely. This then, in general, was the situation of the m a i n c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s i n A l b a n i a a t the t i m e w h e n w e , w h i l e w o r k i n g legally in Flora, w e r e increasing our efforts t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t w i t h o u r opponents w i t h w h o m , i n fact, w e o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n c o m r a d e s f i g h t i n g f o r t h e one i d e a l . A t the m o m e n t s w h e n w e h a d i n t e n s i f i e d o u r e f f o r t s more t h a n e v e r a n d w e r e m o v i n g t o w a r d s f i n d i n g a common language for the final rapprochement between groups, a n i m p o r t a n t event w a s t o e x e r t its r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g i n f l u e n c e o n t h e e n t i r e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the w o r l d , a s w e l l a s o n the c o m m u n i s t a n d a n t i - f a s c i s t m o v e ment i n A l b a n i a : o n J u n e 22, 1941, t h e H i t l e r i t e h o r d e s launched their perfidious attack on the Soviet U n i o n . T h e H i t l e r i t e a t t a c k o n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n w a s a great shock f o r a l l t h e A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l communists. B e f o r e t h i s a t t a c k took place w e h a d h a d t o wage a s t e r n s t r u g g l e against t h e p r o p a g a n d a of t h e fascist and p s e u d o - d e m o c r a t s w h o , m i s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e n o n - a g g r e s sion pact b e t w e e n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d G e r m a n y , s l a n d e r e d that the S o v i e t U n i o n h a d f o r m e d a n a l l i a n c e w i t h H i t l e r i t e G e r m a n y , t h a t t h e A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t s s h o u l d not fight t h e fascist occupiers, because I t a l y w a s t h e a l l y o f Hitlerite G e r m a n y w i t h w h i c h the Soviet U n i o n was l i n k e d in the n o n - a g g r e s s i o n pact. The d u t y devolved on us communists to combat the
_________________________________ * Fire.

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fascist p r o p a g a n d a a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , t o m a k e c l e a r t o e v e r y b o d y a n d not o n l y t o o u r r e l a t i o n s , because t h e r e w e r e e v e n c o m r a d e s o f t h e g r o u p s w h o d i d not u n d e r s t a n d the s i t u a t i o n , w h y t h e S o v i e t U n i o n h a d s i g n e d t h e n o n aggression pact w i t h H i t l e r i t e G e r m a n y . The barbarous Hitlerite attack on the Soviet U n i o n not o n l y s h o c k e d us, b u t s h o w e d c l e a r l y t h a t w e a n d n o t the enemies w e r e r i g h t , t h a t S t a l i n h a d n e v e r b e t r a y e d c o m m u n i s m and the Soviet U n i o n . W i t h the Soviet Union's e n t r y i n t o t h e w a r o u r great hope a n d c o n f i d e n c e i n o u r v i c t o r y w a s s t r e n g t h e n e d . N o w t h e A l b a n i a n people's f i g h t against f a s c i s m w o u l d h a v e a n o t h e r great s u p p o r t : t h e w a r o f the S o v i e t peoples l e d b y S t a l i n against G e r m a n n a z i s m . N o w t h e A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t s a n d o u r people, w h o h a d not sat w i t h f o l d e d a r m s , w o u l d step u p t h e i r efforts a n d f i g h t a l l o v e r the c o u n t r y . A l l o f u s h a d t o f i g h t t h e o c c u p i e r s a n d the q u i s l i n g s . T h e c o m m u n i s t s a n d the g r o u p s h a d t o p u t aside t h e i r squables a n d r e s e n t m e n t s once a n d f o r a l l . . . B e s i d e s disagreements, a t t h a t t i m e t h e r e w a s also strict secrecy b e t w e e n c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s . E a c h g r o u p f a n a t i c a l l y a n d j e a l o u s l y p r o t e c t e d its o w n m e m b e r s a n d d i d not r e a d i l y a l l o w a m e m b e r o f one g r o u p t o m a k e contact w i t h t h e m e m b e r s o f a n o t h e r g r o u p . T h e f e a r e x i s t e d e s p e c i a l l y a m o n g t h e leaders t h a t one g r o u p m i g h t take the m e m b e r s o f t h e o t h e r ! T h i s fear w a s n o t without foundation. Trotskyite a n d factionalist elements such as A r i s t i d h Qendro. N i k o X o x i , Zef M a l a . Anastas L u l a , S a d i k P r e m t e a n d others h a d m a d e i t a l i n e o f t h e i r a c t i v i t y t o c a r r y out d i s r u p t i v e w o r k i n o t h e r g r o u p s w i t h the a i m o f s p l i t t i n g t h e others f r o m a n t i - M a r x i s t p o s i t i o n s and taking members from them. T h e sound communist elements of the K o r a group a n d such c o m r a d e s o f the S h k o d r a g r o u p , a s Q e m a l , V a s i l a n d others, t h o u g h t a n d acted q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y o n t h i s

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p r o b l e m . I n w a n t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h l i n k s w i t h one a n o t h e r w e h a d n e v e r p r o c e e d e d f r o m the separatist a i m o f w i n n i n g over t h i s o r t h a t m e m b e r o f t h e other g r o u p . N o , w e proceeded f r o m t h e correct p r i n c i p l e t h a t w e w e r e a l l c o m m u n i s t s , c o m r a d e s o f c o m m o n ideals, t h a t w e w e r e f i g h t i n g f o r a c o m m o n cause, hence w e o u g h t t o t a l k a n d unite f o r t h e sake o f these l o f t y ideals a n d n o t f o r the selfish, s e c t a r i a n a i m s of g r o u p s or f a c t i o n s . It w a s p r e c i s e l y f r o m these m o t i v e s t h a t I p r o c e e d e d w h e n I i n s i s t e d to K o o T a s h k o t h a t I s h o u l d meet V a s i l S h a n t o a n d Q e m a l S t a f a a n d t h e y p r o c e e d e d f r o m the same m o t i v e s w h e n t h e y took the i n i t i a t i v e a n d m e t me. F o r t u n a t e l y , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e fascist o c c u p a t i o n of the country, the r a n k - a n d - f i l e c o m m u n i s t s o f d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s began t o l i n k u p a n d t a l k together o n t h e j o b , a t school, etc., l i k e r e a l c o m m u n i s t s a n d t o t a k e p a r t i n j o i n t actions, i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , s t r i k e s a n d protests, r e g a r d l e s s o f w h a t the f a c t i o n a l i s t a n d T r o t s k y i t e leaders s a i d a n d the o r d e r s they issued. A s t i m e passed t h i s l i n k i n g u p o f t h e c o m m u n ists f r o m b e l o w g r e w s t e a d i l y s t r o n g e r a n d m o r e w i d e s p r e a d , a t h i n g w h i c h w a s c e r t a i n l y a n i m p o r t a n t factor i n the creation o f t h e P a r t y itself. T h e n I met V a s i l S h a n t o a n d Q e m a l S t a f a t i m e after time. A t these m e e t i n g s the m a i n d i s a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n our g r o u p s w e r e b e i n g i r o n e d out m o r e a n d m o r e , w h i l e gradually we reached agreement in principle that in the near f u t u r e o u r g r o u p s s h o u l d b e d i s s o l v e d a n d w e s h o u l d decide t o f o u n d the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a . A s I have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out, t h e f i r s t steps t o w a r d s this h i s t o r i c u n i f i c a t i o n w e r e t a k e n t h r o u g h the j o i n t actions a n d a c t i v ities w h i c h w e r e s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m A u g u s t to N o v e m b e r 8, 1941. A m o n g these, the a g r e e m e n t to send members f r o m t h e t w o g r o u p s to the eta of P e z a h a d special i m p o r t a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , m u c h s t i l l r e m a i n e d t o be done, b o t h to w i n t h e a g r e e m e n t of the other g r o u p s

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t o o u r a i m a n d t o f u r t h e r i r o n out the f o r m e r d i s a g r e e m e n t s o r n e w ones w h i c h e m e r g e d . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s p e r i o d o u r meetings w i t h V a s i l b e c a m e m o r e f r e q u e n t . . . F o r o u r p a r t we, as a g r o u p , h e l d a n u m b e r of w o r k i n g meetings a n d p r e p a r e d o u r s e l v e s w e l l f o r t h e b i g m e e t i n g w h i c h w a s t o b e h e l d b e t w e e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the three communist groups in w h i c h comrades M i l a d i n [Popovi] a n d D u a n [Mugoa] w o u l d t a k e p a r t , too. We decided that we should put forward, in the first place and above all, the question that the first day of the meeting should be considered the historic day of the dissolution of groups and the founding of the Communist Party of Albania , w h i l e t h e d i s c u s s i o n , p r o c e e d i n g f r o m this basis, c o u l d a n d s h o u l d c o n t i n u e as l o n g as n e c e s s a r y t o clear u p a l l t h e p r o b l e m s a n d d i s a g r e e m e n t s w h i c h e x i s t e d . I i n s i s t e d f i r m l y on t h i s m a t t e r , because I w a s c o n vinced that we should not go to a joint meeting w i t h o u t b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d f o r t h e great a i m o f the d i s s o l u t i o n o f g r o u p s a n d the f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y . W e m u s t not a l l o w o u r s e l v e s o r t h e o t h e r s t o g o t o this meeting s i m p l y to m a k e accusations a n d to q u a r r e l , I t o l d the comrades, b u t w e m u s t g o t h e r e i n o r d e r t o achieve our objective. I p r o p o s e d t h a t w e s h o u l d ask M i l a d i n t o get t h e a p p r o v a l o f the others o n t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t r i g h t f r o m the outset the m e e t i n g s h o u l d t a k e t h e d e c i s i o n i n p r i n c i p l e t o found the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of A l b a n i a , so that we could t h e n c o n t i n u e t h e d i s c u s s i o n a n d debate as m e m b e r s of a f o r m e d p a r t y . T h i s d e c i s i o n w a s necessary because f r o m t h e o t h e r g r o u p s t h e r e w o u l d b e elements, e s p e c i a l l y s u c h people a s A n a s t a s L u l a a n d S a d i k P r e m t e , a n d p e r h a p s others, too, w h o d i d not w a n t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e P a r t y . As Trotskyites they were against this organization, therefore, i t w a s t o t h e i r a d v a n t a g e t o c o n t i n u e t o d e e p e n t h e split. A l l the c o m r a d e s a g r e e d t o m y p r o p o s a l .

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T h e second q u e s t i o n w h i c h w e d e c i d e d i n o u r g r o u p w a s the w a y i n w h i c h the p r o b l e m s s h o u l d b e p r e s e n t e d . W e discussed t h a t w e s h o u l d d e f e n d t h e correct i d e o l o g i c a l p o l i t i c a l a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n e o f the K o r a g r o u p , n o t in a f a c t i o n a l s p i r i t , b u t in a t r u e c o m m u n i s t s p i r i t , s h o u l d a c k n o w l e d g e the w e a k n e s s e s i n o u r w o r k a n d accept t h e just c r i t i c i s m w h i c h t h e o t h e r s w o u l d m a k e o f u s a n d accept t h e m w i t h o u t heat o r r a n c o u r . W e w o u l d c o n s u l t w i t h one a n o t h e r a n d a d o p t a s t a n d a b o u t e a c h c r i t i c i s m w h i c h w o u l d b e m a d e o f us. W e h a d t o c r i t i c i z e s t r o n g l y a n d unhesitatingly a l l the anti-Marxist, Trotskyite and l i q u i d a t i onist v i e w s o f a l l t h e g r o u p s a n d leaders, w h i c h h a d p l a y e d an i n i m i c a l role in the A l b a n i a n communist m o v e m e n t . . . A l l of us were preparing for this day w h i c h would m a r k t h e greatest h i s t o r i c e v e n t f o r o u r people. M a n y o f u s h a d gone u n d e r g r o u n d , because r a b i d r e a c t i o n w a s operating everywhere, but we continued the w o r k we h a d started w i t h a n e w o p t i m i s m , w i t h great hope, w h i c h g a v e u s m u c h g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h . E v e n t h o u g h the t e r r o r w a s b e c o m i n g e v e r m o r e savage, o u r people's w a r w a s e x t e n d i n g . Demonstrations, strikes, distribution of leaflets and a r m e d attacks o n t h e o c c u p i e r s a n d q u i s l i n g s h a d become m o r e widespread. O c t o b e r 28, the date of the M a r c h on R o m e a n d , at the same t i m e , the f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e a t t a c k w h i c h t h e I t a l i a n fascists l a u n c h e d o n t h e G r e e k people i n 1940, a n attack w h i c h w e h a d d e n o u n c e d a y e a r b e f o r e b y p u t t i n g u p leaflets i n the streets, w a s a p p r o a c h i n g . W e d e c i d e d t h a t o n O c t o b e r 2 8 o f t h e y e a r 1941 w e should o r g a n i z e a b i g d e m o n s t r a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e o c c u p i e r s and the V r l a c i q u i s l i n g g o v e r n m e n t . O u r g r o u p p r o p o s e d that w e s h o u l d c a r r y o u t a l a r g e - s c a l e j o i n t a c t i o n w i t h t h e other groups, i n w h i c h the p e o p l e a n d the y o u t h w o u l d participate w i d e l y , w i t h m e m b e r s o f a l l t h e c o m m u n i s t groups a t t h e h e a d o f t h e m . T h e c o m r a d e s o f o u r g r o u p

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a u t h o r i z e d m e t o meet V a s i l S h a n t o a n d A n a s t a s L u l a a n d t o c a l l together the c o m m i s s i o n o f a c t i o n ( w h i c h w e h a d established i n p r i n c i p l e , b u t w h i c h h a d n e v e r met). W h e n I spoke about t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n w h i c h w e i n t e n d e d t o o r ganize, V a s i l gave h i s a p p r o v a l w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n , w h i l e Q o r r i , stammering, said we should call the commission together a n d discuss it t h e r e . T h e c o m m i s s i o n met. V a s i l S h a n t o , A n a s t a s L u l a , M u stafa G j i n i s h i , M u s t a f a K a a i , H a s a n R e i a n d I w e r e present. I m a d e the p r o p o s a l a n d the d i s c u s s i o n b e g a n . V a s i l and Mustafa K a a i immediately approved the proposal f o r c a r r y i n g out t h e a c t i o n . M u s t a f a G j i n i s h i w a s i n f a v o u r , b u t h e a d d e d t h a t w e m u s t t a k e care because t h e y m i g h t open f i r e o n us, etc. F a t a n d lazy, H a s a n R e i was unable to make up his m i n d , w h i l e Anastas hesitated. H e w a s c e r t a i n l y against it, b u t c o u l d not say so. W e d e c i d e d t h a t the d e m o n s t r a t i o n s h o u l d b e h e l d a n d s h o u l d b e g i n f r o m the R e x c i n e m a , ( 4 ) w h e r e t h e fascists w e r e g o i n g t o h o l d a c o m m e m o r a t i v e c e r e m o n y . W e w e r e t o p a c k the c i n e m a w i t h o u r people w h o , a s soon a s the m e e t i n g o p e n e d , w o u l d b e g i n t o shout the s l o g a n s : D o w n w i t h f a s c i s m ! , etc., s m a s h the seats a n d p o u r out i n t h e streets s h o u t i n g anti-fascist slogans a n d s i n g i n g p a t r i o t i c songs. O u t s i d e other c o m r a d e s a n d p a t r i o t s w o u l d b e w a i t i n g f o r t h e m . I t w a s d e c i d e d t h a t each g r o u p s h o u l d d o its o w n w o r k i n o r d e r to go to the d e m o n s t r a t i o n in a b o d y , a n d we p a r t e d . A s w e h e a r d l a t e r , a s soon a s w e c a m e out f r o m t h e commission, Anastas L u l a h a d met X h e p i w h o was w a i t i n g for h i m , and told h i m : T e l l the c o m r a d e s t h a t i t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s h a l l not be held. was decided that the

B u t t h e y w e r e u n a b l e t o stop the d e m o n s t r a t i o n o r t o stop m e m b e r s o f t h e i r g r o u p f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g . T h i s was a continuation of the disruptive w o r k of


_____________________________________ 4 Today the 17 N n t o r i cinema.

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sabotage o f these c a m o u f l a g e d e n e m y elements w h o , b o t h a t t h i s p e r i o d a n d b e f o r e a n d a f t e r the f o u n d i n g o f t h e P a r t y , r a i s e d countless serious obstacles a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r us. T h e fact i s t h a t a t t h i s p e r i o d t h e y s e e m e d t o s u p p o r t the i d e a o f c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n g r o u p s a n d a g r e e d t o t a k e part i n t h e F o u n d i n g M e e t i n g a n d i n the j o i n t actions t h a t w e r e c a r r i e d out o n t h e eve o f t h i s event. T h e reasons f o r this are n u m e r o u s a n d w e l l k n o w n , b u t I w a n t t o stress one t h i n g : A n a s t a s L u l a a n d S a d i k P r e m t e u n i t e d w i t h u s not because t h e y h a d a n y t r a c e o f c o m m u n i s m i n t h e i r m i n d , not because t h e y w e r e g r i e v e d f o r t h e H o m e l a n d w h i c h w a s l a n g u i s h i n g i n s l a v e r y , o r because t h e y w e r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t the cause o f o u r people's w a r , o n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y a v o i d e d these c a r d i n a l p r o b l e m s . H o w e v e r , the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e s i t u a t i o n c o m p e l l e d t h e m to act as they d i d . F i r s t o f a l l , i t w a s t h e base o f t h e i r g r o u p , the sound c o m m u n i s t s a n d a l l t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y y o u n g people l i n k e d w i t h t h e m , w h o consciously, u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f events a n d o f c o m m u n i s t s a n d s y m p a t h i z e r s o f o t h e r groups, u n i t e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f j o i n t actions a n d w i t h the i d e a o f f o r m i n g t h e P a r t y a s q u i c k l y a s possible. A t that p e r i o d A n a s t a s L u l a a n d S a d i k P r e m t e w e r e a w a r e that t h e y w o u l d b e r e j e c t e d b y the r a n k a n d f i l e o f t h e i r group i f t h e y d i d n o t s w i m w i t h t h e c u r r e n t . So, t h e y j o i n e d u p . B u t , r e g r e t t a b l y t h e y j o i n e d u p a s saboteurs. This was to be proved v e r y quickly. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c o m r a d e s o f the S h k o d r a g r o u p played a m a j o r r o l e i n w i n n i n g t h e m t o the i d e a o f j o i n t actions a n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f the P a r t y . A s i s k n o w n these two groups, t h a t o f S h k o d r a a n d t h e Y o u t h G r o u p , h a d reached a n agreement, b u t w h e r e a s a t f i r s t c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e tween t h e m w a s o n a d i s t o r t e d a n t i - M a r x i s t basis, later, a n d especially f r o m the second h a l f o f 1941, t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p , besides i m p r o v i n g its o w n i n t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n , also e x e r t e d

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an i n f l u e n c e on the base of the Y o u t h G r o u p so t h a t it s a w the p e r s p e c t i v e m o r e c l e a r l y . In the a u t u m n of 1941 a n d i n O c t o b e r , especially, e v e n A n a s t a s L u l a a n d S a d i k P r e m t e s a w t h e y c o u l d n o t r e m a i n aloof f r o m t h i s w o r k . The w o r k of our comrade, M i l a d i n Popovi, w h o frequently met c o m r a d e s o f t h e Y o u t h G r o u p , i n c l u d i n g A n a s t a s L u l a a n d S a d i k P r e m t e a t t h a t p e r i o d , p l a y e d its r o l e i n this. T h u s , these t w o elements came r o u n d t o t h e c o m m o n idea o f f o r m i n g the P a r t y , b u t t h e y c a m e t o i t r e l u c t a n t l y , because t h e y h a d n o a l t e r n a t i v e , a n d w i t h d a r k a i m s o f sabotage. T h e i r a t t e m p t to sabotage the b i g d e m o n s t r a t i o n of 28 O c t o b e r 1941 w a s p a r t of these aims, b u t t h e i r e f f o r t s w e r e u n s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s case, too. It was a big, p o w e r f u l and furious demonstration just a s w e h a d foreseen. W e f o u g h t w i t h t h e c a r a b i n i e r i a n d fascist m i l i t i a a n d b l o o d f l o w e d . T h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n h a d a n e x t r e m e l y great echo. I t b e c a m e t h e t o u c h s t o n e f o r t h e unity of A l b a n i a n communists and showed the inexhaustible s t r e n g t h o f o u r people, t h e i r h a t r e d f o r a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o f i g h t against f a s c i s m a n d the q u i s l i n g s . A l l t h i s resistance w h i c h w a s b u i l d i n g u p u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e c o m m u n i s t s , the e x p o s u r e w h i c h w a s b e i n g m a d e o f t h e o c c u p i n g p o w e r a n d its tools h a d s h o w n u p the q u i s l i n g g o v e r n m e n t o f V r l a c i i n its t r u e c o l o u r s . N o w fascist I t a l y n e e d e d a n i r o n h a n d , a t r i e d a n d h a r d e n e d c r i m i n a l t o s u p p r e s s t h e people, i n o r d e r t o e x t e r m i n a t e the c o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e p a t r i o t s e n masse, t o c a r r y out demagogy no longer f r o m the feudal and anti-peasant positions t h r o u g h t h e f i g u r e o f V r l a c i , b u t f r o m t h e n a t i o n a l i s t a n d d e m o c r a t i c positions. A n d fascist I t a l y f o u n d this c r i m i n a l h a n d i n the p e r s o n o f M u s t a f a M e r l i k a ( K r u j a ) , w h o one m o n t h l a t e r w a s a p p o i n t e d p r i m e m i n i s t e r i n place of the deposed V r l a c i . This barbarous quisling, as a fascist senator, had

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d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f f o r h i s r a b i d h a t r e d a n d s t a n d against c o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e people, a s w e l l a s f o r h i s s p e c u l a t i o n w i t h the patriotic feelings of the A l b a n i a n s of K o s o v a in o r d e r t o p l u n d e r t h e w e a l t h o f the p e o p l e o f K o s o v a i n f a v o u r o f t h e A l b a n i a n fascist m e r c h a n t b o u r g e o i s i e w h i c h w a s b e i n g c r e a t e d , a n d t o s t r e n g t h e n the e x p l o i t a t i o n b y plundering Italian companies w h i c h speculated to the d e t r i m e n t o f t h e w h o l e A l b a n i a n people. I n u n d e c l a r e d talks and in meetings in the cinemas M u s t a f a K r u j a threatened the communists w i t h bullets and called for collaboration w i t h democratic nationalists of the type o f A l i K l c y r a a n d c o m p a n y , w h o h a d l o n g been f e e d i n g from the Italian trough. As prime minister Mustafa K r u j a was t o f i l l t h e p r i s o n s w i t h o u r c o m r a d e s a n d w i t h p a triots, w a s t o h a n g a n d k i l l , t o i n c r e a s e t h e A l b a n i a n fascist m i l i t i a a n d m a k e i t a t o o l o f t h e I t a l i a n fascist m i l i t i a . B u t o u r resistance a n d s t r u g g l e w e r e ablaze. T h e p o w e r f u l d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f O c t o b e r 28, 1941, w h i c h the A l b a n i a n communists organized and led, proved this. On the following day I was obliged to go underground. T h i s , too, has its o w n h i s t o r y . On the m o r n i n g of October 29 the carabinieri appeared s u d d e n l y a t F l o r a . T w o o f t h e m , w i t h t h e i r chests c r i s s crossed w i t h s h i n y l e a t h e r belts a n d t h e i r r e v o l v e r holsters open, c a m e i n s i d e , w h i l e t h e others stood outside. O n l y at that m o m e n t d i d we realize w h a t a great mistake we had made. We h a d thought that in the great confusion of the p r e v i o u s d a y ' s c l a s h , t h e fascists c o u l d n o t h a v e i d e n t i f i e d u s a m o n g those h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f d e m o n s t r a tors w h o s h o o k T i r a n a . B u t n o w h e r e w e r e a l l o f u s w o r k e r s o f t h e F l o r a s h o p f a c i n g the t e r r i b l e t r a p . E n v e r H o x h a ! s h o u t e d one o f t h e c a r a b i n i e r i , Dove * E n v e r H o x h a ? !
___________________________________ * W h e r e is? (Italian in the original).

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P i l o [Peristeri] a n d Ilo D u r d h a stood f r o z e n a t the c o u n ter w i t h n a p k i n s i n t h e i r hands. A m o m e n t ' s silence f o l l o w e d , but I p u l l e d m y s e l f together, l o o k e d u p f r o m b e h i n d the t i l l w h e r e I w a s s i t t i n g as o w n e r - p a r t n e r a n d v e r y p o l i t e l y t r i e d the o n l y p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c o u l d h a v e b e e n t r i e d : H e is here, i n s i d e , w a i t a m o m e n t , please, a n d I ' l l i n f o r m him, I s a i d i n a c a l m voice a n d w i t h e x e m p l a r y readiness, as if I c o u l d h a r d l y w a i t to do these I t a l i a n s a valuable service! I h a d h i t the target. T h e y b e l i e v e d me. I w e n t i n t o the i n n e r r o o m of the shop, c a l l i n g in a l o u d voice, E n v e r , y o u are wanted, q u i c k l y o p e n i n g the s m a l l b a c k d o o r w h i c h h a d b e e n p u t i n e s p e c i a l l y f o r s u c h a n occasion, I j u m p e d i n t o a n a r r o w lane, crossed t h e y a r d o f a n o l d w o m a n ' s house a n d f r o m t h e r e , t h r o u g h t h e V l a c h q u a r t e r , I r e a c h e d the great b o u l e v a r d , w h i c h I crossed quietly, but k e e p i n g m y eyes s k i n n e d f o r a n y m o v e m e n t . A f e w m o m e n t s later, w h e n I h a d e n t e r e d t h e people's q u a r t e r across the b o u l e v a r d , I w a s c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e fascists w e r e left w i t h n o t h i n g b u t m y n a m e . I s a i d g o o d - b y e to o u r d e a r F l o r a , the modest shop, w h e r e f o r t w o y e a r s o n e n d w e h a d s o l d cigarettes a n d sausage l e g a l l y , w h i l e i l l e g a l l y w e p r e p a r e d f o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n . F l o r a w a s a s m a l l shop w i t h w a l l s o f m u d a n d b r i c k , b u t w i t h i n those w a l l s w e , a h a n d f u l of the sons of the people, g a t h e r e d tte tte a n d a r d e n t l y d i s c u s s e d our communist work, reported on w h a t we h a d achieved a n d w o r k e d out p l a n s f o r g r e a t e r a n d m o r e f r u i t f u l w o r k ; t h e r e we i r o n e d out a series of d i s a g r e e m e n t s w i t h the c o m r a d e s o f other c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s ; f r o m t h e r e w e set out w i t h l e a f l e t s a n d o n m i s s o n s t o e v e r y c o r n e r o f t h e c a p i t a l a n d to other cities of t h e c o u n t r y . T h e r e I h a d m e t m y u n f o r g e t t a b l e comrades, p a t r i o t s a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , V a s i l Shanto, Qemal, Misto, M i h a l , D u l l K e t a and w i t h scores of other sons a n d d a u g h t e r s of the people.

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A n d n o w I w a s o b l i g e d t o p a r t w i t h it, o b l i g e d t o p u t a n e n d t o m y l e g a l w o r k . B u t I d i d not r e g r e t t h i s p a r t i n g . I t w a s b o u n d t o h a p p e n v e r y soon i n one w a y o r a n o t h e r , because i t w a s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e t i d e o f the p o p u l a r i n s u r r e c t i o n w a s r i s i n g a n d the h o u r o f t h e great d e c i s i o n w a s a p p r o a c h i n g . T h e o n l y t h i n g that k e p t m e a n x i o u s l y w o r r i e d a l l o f t h a t d a y w a s the fate o f the rest o f m y c o m r a d e s . H o w e v e r , l a t e t h a t e v e n i n g I s p r a n g t o m y feet f u l l o f j o y w h e n I s a w P i l o enter t h e i l l e g a l base w h e r e I w a s e s t a blished. He w a s in h i g h spirits. Y o u p u l l e d it off b e a u t i f u l l y , he s a i d . W h a t a slip! A n d he told me in detail about the confusion and anger of the carabinieri w h e n they realized what had occurred. F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y h a d done n o t h i n g t o o u r c o m r a d e s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e i r n a m e s h a d not y e t b e e n e n t e r e d o n the lists of the fascist police. W e got d o w n t o w o r k i m m e d i a t e l y . T h e r e w a s n o t i m e to lose, the 8th of N o v e m b e r w a s a h e a d of us. In the d a r k n e s s of the n i g h t b e f o r e the d a w n of 8 N o v e m b e r , w e set o u t f o r t h e s m a l l h o u s e w h i c h w a s a w a i t i n g us. In these r e m i n i s c e n c e s I s h a l l not d e s c r i b e it, because the house w h e r e the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a was f o u n d e d has n o w b e c o m e a n o u t s t a n d i n g m o n u m e n t of our country, k n o w n to y o u n g and old in A l b a n i a , as w e l l as to t h o u s a n d s a n d t h o u s a n d s of f o r e i g n f r i e n d s , c o m r a d e s a n d v i s i t o r s . A l l the s u r r o u n d i n g lanes a n d a l l e y s w e r e g u a r d e d b y c a l m a n d resolute a r m e d c o m r a d e s . E a r l i e r , c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a d been m a d e o f a l l t h e f a m i l i e s a r o u n d t h e house. T h e y w e r e f a m i l i e s o f p o o r w o r k e r s , apprentices a n d p a t r i o t s . In the d a r k n e s s of the n i g h t we e n t e r e d t h e s m a l l house one b y one, i n o r d e r a n d i n silence. A l l the w i n d o w s h a d b e e n sealed f r o m i n s i d e w i t h b l a n k e t s . N o l i g h t c o u l d b e seen. N o s o u n d c o u l d b e h e a r d . C o m p l e t e i l l e g a l i t y . W e

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e n t e r e d t h a t s m a l l house w i t h great hopes, w i t h i n d e s c r i b a b l e j o y a n d confidence, b u t I t e l l y o u f r a n k l y , o v e r r i d i n g a l l t h i s we f e l t a c e r t a i n a n x i e t y . U n d o u b t e d l y e a c h of us, c o m i n g t h e r e w i t h t h e great desire f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the P a r t y , a s k e d h i m s e l f : H o w w i l l t h i n g s go? W i l l w e achieve our sacred aim? There I f o u n d M i l a d i n , Duan, V a s i l a n d Q e m a l . I e m b r a c e d w i t h the Y u g o s l a v c o m r a d e s a n d t h e others. B u t t o t e l l t h e t r u t h , t h e c o m r a d e s o f t h e Shkodra group and I embraced w i t h more than usual w a r m t h . W h e n t h e leaders o f t h e Y o u t h G r o u p c a m e o u r m e e t i n g w a s cool, b u t w i t h n o s i g n o f h o s t i l i t y . W e h a d a l l g a t h e r e d . F r o m o u r g r o u p , those a l l o c a t e d to take part in the meeting were K o o Tashko, P i l o P e risteri, Enver H o x h a , K o i X o x e and Sotir V u l l k a n i . W e h a d a l l a r r i v e d w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f K o i X o x e , w h o m we had dispatched to K o r a a few days earlier to i n f o r m M i h a a n d the c o m r a d e s t h e r e a b o u t t h e p o l i c y w e h a d decided to pursue at the F o u n d i n g Meeting, as w e l l as to g i v e t h e f i n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s a b o u t a b i g d e m o n s t r a t i o n w h i c h we had decided should be organized in K o r a on N o v e m b e r 8 . T h o s e present f r o m t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p w e r e Q e m a l Stafa, V a s i l Shanto, K r i s t o T h e m e l k o and T u k J a kova, w h i l e f r o m the Youth G r o u p , R a m a d a n i t a k u , Anastas Lula, Sadik Premte and a comrade f r o m Kosova were present... On N o v e m b e r 8, 1941 t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g of r e p r e s e n t a tives of the three communist groups commenced. A s t h e longest e s t a b l i s h e d a n d biggest g r o u p i n t h e communist movement of Albania up till that time, the honour of opening the F o u n d i n g M e e t i n g belonged to the K o r a group. As I have noted earlier, the group had charged me to speak. I rose to my f e e t : Comrades, I b e g a n . It is a great j o y and honour

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for our K o r a group, and for me personally, that we have been g i v e n t h e r i g h t t o speak first. I w a s v e r y m o v e d , but g r a d u a l l y the m o t o r got started. First, I said, I i n v i t e t h e m e e t i n g to h o n o u r t h e m e m o r y o f a l l those c o m m u n i s t c o m r a d e s a n d o t h e r b r a v e fighters, A l b a n i a n s a n d foreigners, w h o have fallen and are f a l l i n g o n t h e b a t t l e f i e l d f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t f a s c i s m f o r t h e peoples' f r e e d o m ; t o h o n o u r t h e m e m o r y o f A l i K e l m e n d i , M u j o U l q i n a k u a n d t h e o r d i n a r y sons o f o u r people w h o resisted t h e fascist i n v a d e r s w i t h r i f l e s ; t o h o n o u r t h e m e m o r y o f heroes o f the S p a n i s h W a r , o f heroes o f t h e great S o v i e t U n i o n w h o are g i v i n g t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e w a r f o r f r e e d o m against t h e n a z i beast; t o h o n o u r o u r b r o t h e r s , the Y u g o s l a v c o m m u n i s t heroes w h o h a v e f a l l e n o n t h e f i e l d o f battle. W e a l l stood i n silence f o r one m i n u t e . T h e n , I e x pressed o u r h e a r t f e l t t h a n k s t o the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f Y u g o s l a v i a a n d its C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e f o r the assistance they w e r e g i v i n g u s t h r o u g h c o m r a d e s M i l a d i n a n d D u a n w h o , t o g e t h e r w i t h us, s t r o v e a n d m a d e t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the a c h i e v e m e n t of t h i s d a y ' s m e e t i n g . A f t e r t h i s I p r e s e n t e d t h e p r o p o s a l o f the K o r a g r o u p about f o u n d i n g t h e P a r t y o n t h e f i r s t day, a s w e h a d d e c i d e d i n o u r g r o u p , f o r the reasons w h i c h I h a v e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d w h e n w e h a d discussed t h e m a t t e r i n the g r o u p a n d a b o u t w h i c h t h e d o c u m e n t s o f the P a r t y speak. I h a v e s p o k e n a b o u t some of these reasons p r e v i o u s l y a n d they h a v e been p r e s e n t e d i n o t h e r d o c u m e n t s , b u t h e r e I w a n t to m e n t i o n some t h i n g s as I r e m e m b e r t h e m : Comrades, I s a i d as soon as I h a d b e g u n my speech, on b e h a l f of the K o r a g r o u p I w i s h to w e l c o m e the f i r s t j o i n t m e e t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e t h r e e c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s a n d the c o m r a d e s present. W e hope t h a t the p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h i s m e e t i n g w i l l a c h i e v e c o m p l e t e

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success. F o r o u r p a r t w e are c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h w i l l take place i n this meeting w i l l b e f r u i t f u l , but t h i s depends o n a l l o f us. W e o f t h e K o r a g r o u p are c o n v i n c e d also t h a t y o u , too, h a v e come h e r e n o t s o t h a t w e w i l l q u a r r e l l i k e enemies, b u t i n o r d e r t o discuss m a t t e r s f i e r c e l y i f n e e d be, b u t a s c o m m u n i s t s . A b o v e all it is the principles w h i c h w i l l guide our w o r k w h i c h h a v e a n d m u s t h a v e p r i o r i t y f o r us. T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s m u s t b e u n s u l l i e d , a l w a y s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e precepts o f o u r great teachers M a r x . E n g e l s , L e n i n a n d S t a l i n . T h e s e are t h e principles w h i c h must foster and guide our political, ideological, organizational and m i l i t a r y opinions and actions, f i r s t o f a l l , a n d t h e n those o f a l l A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t s . I s t h i s w h a t has o c c u r r e d u p t i l l n o w ? W e o f t h e K o r a g r o u p w a n t t o s a y a t t h e outset t h a t w e b e l i e v e these p r i n c i p l e s h a v e b e e n u n d e r s t o o d a n d a p p l i e d i n various ways by the communist groups: sometimes they h a v e been a p p l i e d w e l l , s o m e t i m e s t h e y h a v e b e e n h a l f a p p l i e d , a n d i n m a n y cases t h e y h a v e b e e n b a d l y d i s t o r t e d . W e h a v e g a t h e r e d here p r e c i s e l y t o p u t o u r M a r x i s t L e n i n i s t p r i n c i p l e s i n order, w h i l e w e m u s t reject, f i g h t a n d k i c k out t h e d i s g u i s e d T r o t s k y i t e , a n a r c h i s t a n d fascist v i e w s . W e s h a l l discuss a l l these t h i n g s a n d w e are of the opinion that we should keep nothing back in the corners of our minds, but should honestly l a y on the table e v e r y t h i n g t h a t w e h a v e i n o u r m i n d s a n d hearts, because o n l y i n this w a y w i l l w e b e a b l e t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t a n d t o serve o u r great cause w h i c h has t o d o w i t h the p r e s e n t and the future of the people and the H o m e l a n d . We c o m m u n i s t s , especially, m u s t p l a c e the cause o f t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e people a n d t h e H o m e l a n d a b o v e e v e r y t h i n g . The purpose of our lives is and w i l l r e m a i n the struggle f o r t h e h a p p i n e s s o f t h e people. T h e r e f o r e , c o m r a d e s , f i r s t let u s c o n s i d e r the present, t h e n w e can c o n s i d e r t h e

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past a n d t o g e t h e r a r r i v e a t c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t h o w t o organize a n d l e a d t h e s t r u g g l e i n t h e f u t u r e . It is c l e a r to e a c h of us t h a t o u r H o m e l a n d is s u f f e r i n g greatly. F o r m o r e t h a n t w o y e a r s o u r people h a v e been l a n g u i s h i n g u n d e r t h e h e e l o f detested I t a l i a n f a s c i s m a n d the t r e a c h e r y o f the q u i s l i n g s . T h e s a t r a p A h m e t Z o g , the b i g l a n d o w n e r s a n d t h e l o c a l b o u r g e o i s i e p r e p a r e d this u n e n d u r a b l e s l a v e r y f o r o u r c o u n t r y a n d o u r people. O u r people h a v e n e v e r b o w e d i n s u b m i s s i o n t o f o r e i g n e r s and l o c a l despots. A l w a y s t h e y h a v e t a k e n u p a r m s , through the centuries they have fought for freedom and have w o n , h a v e b e e n s u p p r e s s e d a g a i n a n d a g a i n h a v e risen i n r e b e l l i o n a n d h a v e shed t h e i r b l o o d d e m o n s t r a t i n g that t h e A l b a n i a n s c a n n o t l i v e w i t h o u t f r e e d o m . T h e o c c u p a t i o n of t h e c o u n t r y w a s a great shock to a l l of us. T h e i d e a of t h e l i b e r a t i o n of t h e H o m e l a n d f i l l e d o u r h e a r t s a n d e n g a g e d o u r energies, b u t t h e occupiers f o u n d us c o m m u n i s t s d i v i d e d a n d q u a r r e l l i n g , at a time w h e n w e o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n m o r e u n i t e d t h a n ever. The w h o l e c o u n t r y w a s s e e t h i n g l i k e a v o l c a n o a b o u t t o erupt. P o w e r f u l people's d e m o n s t r a t i o n s b u r s t o u r e v e r y where. It i s t r u e t h a t t h e great d u t y a n d h o n o u r d e v o l v e d on us, t h e c o m m u n i s t s of v a r i o u s g r o u p s , to o r g a n i z e these demonstrations a n d s t a n d i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e m , b u t w e d i d n o t p e r f o r m o u r t a s k a s w e s h o u l d h a v e done. Together w i t h t h e people w e , too, s h o u t e d : ' W e a p o n s , weapons, w e w a n t w e a p o n s ! ' , b u t f r o m w h o m were w e d e m a n d i n g these w e a p o n s ? F r o m A h m e t Z o g , t h e treacherous b a n d i t c h i e f w h o s o l d out the H o m e l a n d and w h o , t o escape t h e people's anger, f l e d w i t h h i s suitcases f i l l e d w i t h g o l d ? O r d i d w e d e m a n d t h e m f r o m the Z o g i t e o f f i c i a l s , s e n i o r o f f i c e r s a n d o t h e r t r a i t o r s w h o were g e t t i n g r e a d y t o w e l c o m e t h e o c c u p i e r s w i t h f l o w e r s ? This was a mistake which we communists made.

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W e s h o u l d not h a v e a s k e d f o r w e a p o n s , because those w h o held them, the feudal landowners and the bourgeoisie, w e r e o u r enemies, enemies o f the people. T h e s e e n e m i e s c o u l d n o t h a v e g i v e n u s w e a p o n s , because t h e y n e e d e d t h e m t h e m s e l v e s t o d r o w n t h e people's resistance i n blood and to support the occupier. We should have attacked the depots, seized the w e a p o n s b y force, a r m e d the people and organized them in guerrilla u n i t s a n d eta a n d a t t a c k e d the e n e m y e v e r y w h e r e . W e d i d not p u t u p this resistance a t f i r s t . W h y ? B e c a u s e , i n t h e f i r s t place, w e communists ourselves were divided and unorganized, because w e d i d n o t a l l c o n c e i v e t h e s t r u g g l e against the o c c u p i e r i n the s a m e w a y . T h i s state o f a f f a i r s a m o n g s t u s w a s g r e a t l y i n t h e interests o f the a r c h e o - M a r x i s t s , T r o t s k y i t e s a n d agents o f the b o u r g e o i s i e a n d f a s c i s m , w h o t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f i t t o s p r e a d t h e i r hostile, a n t i - c o m m u n i s t a n d a n t i - A l banian theories more easily w i t h the a i m of keeping us s p l i t a n d d i v i d e d a s t h e y h a d d o n e d u r i n g the Z o g i t e r e g i m e . F o r m o r e t h a n t w o y e a r s the I t a l i a n occupiers, the q u i s l i n g s a n d t h e p s e u d o - d e m o c r a t i c t r a i t o r s h a v e been e x e r t i n g a l l t h e i r s t r e n g t h t o c r u s h the s t e a d i l y m o u n t i n g resistance o f t h e people. W e , t h e c o m m u n i s t s , e n t e r e d the f i g h t against t h e o c c u p i e r s , b u t t h i s w a s m o r e a 'bloodless' w a r : t o p r e v e n t people e n r o l l i n g i n t h e A l b a n i a n fascist p a r t y , t o b o y c o t t t h e ' d o p o l a v o r o ' ( 5 ) a n d ' D a n t e A l i g h i e r i , ' ( 6 ) t o r e f u s e t o g i v e t h e fascist salute a n d s o o n . O f course w e d i d n o t f a i l t o c a r r y out p r o p a g a n d a against the occupiers, m i n o r acts of sabotage or to dist r i b u t e some leaflets. B u t , w i t h o u t w a n t i n g t o g o i n t o d e t a i l . I h a v e to a d d t h a t t h e t h r e e g r o u p s d i d n o t w a g e
______________________________________ 5 A f t e r W o r k (It), fascist organizations to mislead the workers and the youth. 6 Association to disseminate the Italian language and the fascist culture in A l b a n i a .

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e v e n this s t r u g g l e i n t h e s a m e w a y a n d a s w e s h o u l d h a v e done. T h e r e w e r e g r o u p s t h a t w a g e d t h i s s t r u g g l e u n d e r the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e v i e w s o f t h e i r a r c h e o - M a r x i s t a n d Trotskyite leaders such as N i k o X o x i , A r i s t i d h Qendro, A n d r e a Z i s i , D h i m i t r F a l l o , Z e f M a l a a n d others, w h o w e r e a n d are p r o v o c a t e u r s a n d d i s g u i s e d fascist agents. Consequently, our communist groups rather than think about organizing and beginning the w a r properly, tried o n l y t o r e a c h s o c i a l - d e m o c r a t i c agreements w i t h one another. N a t u r a l l y , w e h a d f i r s t t o create u n i t y a n d get r i d of factionalism, but this could not be achieved w i t h such a c o m p r o m i s e w h i c h b r o u g h t n o t h i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e , because i t e x t e n d e d t h e f i e l d s f o r t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f defeatist ideas: ' w e c a n n o t b e g i n t h e w a r , ' ' w e h a v e n o p r o l e t a r i a t , ' 'we cannot f o r m a c o m m u n i s t p a r t y yet,' ' f i r s t w e m u s t prepare the cadres,' a n d o t h e r T r o t s k y i t e slogans l i k e these, w h i c h s t a n k of t h e fascist occupiers, at w h o s e w o r k s h o p s they h a d t h e i r source. A t t h i s m o m e n t t h e p r o f o u n d silence w h i c h h a d p r e v a i l e d a m o n g t h e a u d i e n c e w a s b r o k e n a s someone shifted i r r i t a b l y i n h i s c h a i r . A n a s t a s L u l a c o u l d h a r d l y keep his seat. I p a u s e d in my speech f o r a m o m e n t a n d s a w that h e w a s w i p i n g h i s glasses w i t h the c o r n e r o f h i s jacket. T h e n , t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e of the b r i e f pause I m a d e , Anastas i n t e r j e c t e d : Excuse me, h e s a i d w i t h r e s e n t m e n t a n d s a r c a s m , but I t h i n k we s h o u l d respect some r u l e s . We gave t h e representative o f K o r a t h e h o n o u r o f o p e n i n g t h e m e e t i n g and the r i g h t t o speak. B u t d o y o u h e a r w h a t h e i s s a y i n g ? ! H e i s not s p e a k i n g f o r the K o r a g r o u p , h e i s s p e a k i n g f o r all, on b e h a l f of a l l of us. W h a t is t h i s ? ! No, I s a i d k e e p i n g my t e m p e r . I h a v e not u n d e r taken t o speak o n b e h a l f o f a l l . B u t . o n b e h a l f o f t h e comrades o f t h e K o r a g r o u p a n d o n t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s ,

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f i r s t , I w a n t to present to t h e m e e t i n g a p r o p o s a l w h i c h seems to us v e r y i m p o r t a n t a n d a m a t t e r of p r i n c i p l e . What is this proposal! Sadik P r e m t e came to the a i d o f A n a s t a s . W e h a v e n o t yet b e g u n t h e analysis. H a v e a l i t t l e patience, c o m r a d e s A n a s t a s a n d S a d i k , because w e h a v e j u s t b e g u n t o speak a n d a l l o f u s w i l l speak, a n d I w e n t o n w i t h m y speech a g a i n . The past of the c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s m u s t be m a d e a lesson f o r us. T o d a y w e h a v e great hopes. O p p r e s s i o n a n d d i r e p o v e r t y are h u r t i n g the people d e e p l y . T h e y are r e a d y t o t a k e u p w e a p o n s a n d f i g h t . T h e y o u t h are b u r n i n g t o f i g h t . W e c o m m u n i s t s are c o n v i n c e d t h a t w e w i l l w i n , t h a t t h e v i c t o r y w i l l g o t o t h e people. H i t l e r i t e G e r m a n y has a t t a c k e d the g l o r i o u s S o v i e t U n i o n , b u t w i t h o u t a n y d o u b t i t w i l l b e s m a s h e d b y the S o v i e t peoples a n d the Red A r m y organized and tempered in revolution by L e n i n and Stalin. We must organize the armed struggle as q u i c k l y as possible. It is up to us c o m m u n i s t s to p r e p a r e , o r g a n i z e a n d l e a d the g e n e r a l u p r i s i n g . B u t h o w c a n w e organize and lead it? Split into groups, divided w i t h all k i n d s o f o p i n i o n s a s w e are, w h e n t h e r e i s n o c o - o r d i n a t i o n of o u r actions? C o m r a d e s , are w e g o i n g t o c o n t i n u e e v e n i n t h i s u n d e r g r o u n d m e e t i n g , w h i c h w e are h o l d i n g u n d e r t h e t h r e a t o f t h e savage o c c u p i e r t h a t has c a p t u r e d o u r c o u n t r y , to q u a r r e l a n d f a i l to f i n d a c o m m o n l a n g u a g e as c o m m u n i s t s i n t h e face o f t h e s t o r m ? W e o f the K o r a g r o u p think we should go on l i k e this no longer. W h y . is this the w a y M a r x teaches u s ? I s t h i s t h e w a y L e n i n a n d S t a l i n teach u s ? N o . t h e y t e a c h u s t h e opposite. W e m u s t b e u n i t e d l i k e a f i s t against the e n e m y , m u s t be o r g a n i z e d and fight the enemies mercilessly u n t i l we w i n our total victory. W e m u s t f i g h t a s o u r people h a v e a l w a y s f o u g h t f r o m the t i m e o f S k a n d e r b e g a n d e v e n before, a l l t h r o u g h

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their h i s t o r y . L i k e o u r people w h o h a v e n e v e r sat w i t h folded a r m s , we, too, m u s t f i g h t f o r a free, d e m o c r a t i c A l b a n i a w i t h o u t occupiers, w i t h o u t t r a i t o r s , w i t h o u t o p pression a n d e x p l o i t a t i o n . A n d f o r t h i s w e m u s t u n i t e l i k e communist brothers, l i n k e d together for a single aim. We can m a k e no progress by going on as we have done up till now, we cannot and must not continue any longer w i t h c o m p r o m i s e s l i k e t h e p r e v i o u s ones. E v e r y t h i n g m u s t b e done i n a n o r g a n i z e d w a y . W e m u s t j u d g e e v e r y t h i n g and act i n e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e w a y o u r M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t ideology s h o w s us, f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e B o l s h e v i k Party. T h i s ideology must guide our meeting today, w h i c h , I t h i n k , c a n n o t a c h i e v e t h e r e s u l t s we are a i m i n g at if it is g u i d e d by t h e u n h e a l t h y s p i r i t of g r o u p s . In o r d e r t o p u t a n e n d t o t h i s g r o u p s p i r i t , f i r s t o f all w e m u s t decide t o d i s s o l v e t h e g r o u p s a n d f o r m the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a . A r e w e o r are w e n o t Albanian communists? Do we or do we not want to form and h a v e o u r o w n C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , w h i c h w i l l l e a d our people i n t h e f i g h t a n d a c c o m p l i s h the m i n i m u m a n d m a x i m u m p r o g r a m w h i c h w e w i l l d e f i n e ? L e t us, f i r s t , answer these m a i n q u e s t i o n s a n d , i f w e are c o m m u n i s t s , let us discuss m a t t e r s as s u c h , w i t h a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w i t h clear m i n d s a n d open hearts. I p a u s e d f o r a m o m e n t , t o o k a deep b r e a t h , in o r d e r to g a i n c o n t r o l of my f e e l i n g s a n d , in a s o m e w h a t l o u d e r voice, I s a i d : C o m r a d e s , the p r o p o s a l o f t h e K o r a g r o u p i s : Let us form the Communist Party of Albania on the basis of the mandates which the comrades of the groups gave us before we came to this meeting and, after first deciding solemnly and unanimously to found the Communist Party of Albania, let us continue the debate and discussion. Our decisive a i m is the f o r m a t i o n of the P a r t y .

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T h e o b j e c t i v e needs d e m a n d this, t h e w o r k i n g class, t h e c o m m u n i s t s , the h i s t o r i c m o m e n t s t h r o u g h w h i c h o u r c o u n t r y i s p a s s i n g a n d the people w h o are c a l l i n g o n u s t o t h r o w ourselves i n t o the f i g h t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e m d e m a n d this. C o m r a d e s , w e c a n n o t p u t o f f t h i s m a i n objective another m o m e n t longer. The time and the situation demand the immediate formation of our C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of the new L e n i n - S t a l i n type, as the v a n g u a r d of the n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n m o v e m e n t a n d t h e s t r u g g l e f o r a people's d e m o c r a t i c A l b a n i a . The party w h i c h we shall found w i l l give correct s o l u t i o n s t o a l l t h e p r o b l e m s a n d q u e s t i o n s w e s h a l l discuss. T h i s t i m e w e c o m m u n i s t s w i l l t h i n k , discuss, decide a n d act w i t h a n e w s p i r i t , w i t h a n o t h e r s t y l e a n d m e t h o d , because f r o m n o w o n w e a n d a l l o u r c o m r a d e s w i l l h a v e o u r Communist Party. T h a t is a l l I h a d to s a y at t h e start, comrades, I s a i d a n d sat d o w n . 1 w a s c a r e f u l l y w a t c h i n g e v e r y m o v e m e n t of the c a l m , silent, t h o u g h t f u l faces o f t h e c o m r a d e s , w h o l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y t o m y speech. U n l i k e the others, A n a s t a s a n d X h e p i were a little fidgety w h i l e I was speaking and, when I h a d f i n i s h e d , t h e i r faces w e r e f r o w n i n g a n d g l u m . W e h a d a b r e a k a n d s m o k e d one c i g a r e t t e a f t e r t h e other. F o r my p a r t , I w a s pleased, b u t also w o r r i e d . I was concerned especially about the stand of the S h k o d r a g r o u p a n d some o f A n a s t a s a n d X h e p i ' s c o m r a d e s . I f t h e y u n i t e d w i t h us, I w o u l d n o t m i n d w h a t Q o r r i a n d X h e p i did. The Party would overwhelm them. D u r i n g the b r e a k I n o t i c e d t h a t M i l a d i n w a s t a l k i n g w i t h Q e m a l and Vasil, while Duan talked w i t h Anastas and Baca. T h e t w o g r o u p s t a l k e d q u i e t l y . A n a s t a s sat w i t h h i s head hanging but f r o m time to t i m e raised it to put in a w o r d , w h i l e X h e p i listened to w h a t D u a n and Q o r r i were saying. Qemal and Vasil were cheerful, talking

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freely w i t h M i l a d i n . I h a d n o d o u b t that they w e r e t a l k ing a b o u t t h e t h i n g s I h a d p r e s e n t e d . W e r e t u r n e d t o the m e e t i n g a g a i n . Q e m a l S t a f a t o o k the f l o o r . W e l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y . I r e m e m b e r o n l y t h e essence of the m a i n ideas of h i s contribution. He made a correct introduction about the struggle w h i c h w e c o m m u n i s t s s h o u l d w a g e against f a s c ism a n d t h e n w e n t o n t o p r o v e w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l a r g u ments a n d w i t h e x a m p l e s f r o m l i f e w h a t f a s c i s m w a s a n d the d a n g e r i t posed. H e s a i d t h a t f a s c i s m w a s t h e s w o r n enemy o f the peoples, the c o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e r e v o l u tion. H e q u o t e d some e x c e r p t s f r o m D i m i t r o v ' s f a m o u s report. H o w e v e r , we, c o n t i n u e d Q e m a l , to a g r e a t e r or lesser extent, d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d o r p r o p e r l y a p p l y the instructions, a d v i c e a n d d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e C o m i n t e r n a n d D i m i t r o v . T h a t w a s a great m i s t a k e o n o u r p a r t a n d w e o f the S h k o d r a g r o u p m a k e s e l f - c r i t i c i s m f o r this. W e have some c r i t i c i s m t o m a k e o f the K o r a g r o u p , too, b u t I am not g o i n g to raise it n o w , because I agree w i t h E n v e r that w e s h o u l d r e t u r n t o these m a t t e r s later. T h i s w a s v e r y p l e a s i n g a n d h e a r t - w a r m i n g t o me, because I r e a l i z e d t h a t Q e m a l a n d h i s c o m r a d e s m u s t agree w i t h m e a n d o u r p r o p o s a l f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the Communist Party of Albania. Then, Qemal continued: Of course, since w e a r e c o m m u n i s t s , w e m u s t l o o k things r i g h t i n the eye a n d t r y t o j u d g e t h e m c o r r e c t l y and r e a l i s t i c a l l y , because, to t e l l t h e t r u t h , to one e x t e n t or another, we h a v e not l o o k e d at t h e issues as t r u e communists. A n d f o r t h i s t h e r e are m a n y reasons, w h i c h it is our d u t y to a n a l y s e so as to d i s p e l the c o n f u s i o n a n d darkness f r o m o u r m i n d s . W e m u s t e l i m i n a t e the conceit and i n t r i g u e w h i c h h a v e t a k e n r o o t i n some a n d w h i c h , i n our o p i n i o n , h a v e c r e a t e d the g r a v e state o f r i v a l r y ,

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because e v e r y g r o u p c o n s i d e r e d itself a p a r t y a n d e a c h p r e t e n d e d t h a t i t w a s l i n k e d w i t h the C o m i n t e r n . E v e n those groups w h i c h h a d n o c o n n e c t i o n s w e r e s e e k i n g l i n k s w i t h i t i n a l l directions. T h e y w e r e s e e k i n g seals o f a p p r o v a l . J u s t let u s ensure a n y seal l i k e t h a t o f the r o t t e n Z i s i a n d t h e ' p a r t y ' is formed! interjected P i l o w i t h a laugh. T h a t ' s p r e c i s e l y w h a t happened, Q e m a l a g r e e d . B u t w e f o r g o t t h a t n o seal c o u l d m a k e t h e p a r t y , because the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y i s not m a d e b y a n y seals w h i c h are secured, b u t b y t h e efforts, b y t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e i t wages a t t h e h e a d o f the masses. T h a t w a s the situation, he c o n t i n u e d , but n o n e of us m a d e a s o u n d , p r i n c i p l e d a n a l y s i s o f o u r w o r k . A s w e k n o w these u n h e althy sentiments brought about the outbreak of the u n p r i n c i p l e d s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n us. T h e e n e m y o c c u p i e d t h e c o u n t r y a n d w e q u a r r e l l e d w i t h one a n o t h e r i n s t e a d o f attacking the enemy. We of the S h k o d r a group t h i n k that an end must be put to such a situation. W h y must it be ended? C o n t i n u i n g his speech, Q e m a l l i n k e d the issue w i t h the w o r l d w a r a n d w i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f o u r c o u n t r y , w i t h the a b s o l u t e n e e d t o o r g a n i z e t h e a r m e d s t r u g g l e . T h u s , he, too, a r r i v e d a t o u r c o n c l u s i o n a n d h e e n d e d h i s speech b y e x p r e s s i n g f i r m l y : W e a p p r o v e the p r o p o s a l o f the K o r a g r o u p w h i c h Comrade E n v e r H o x h a presented, to found the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of A l b a n i a immediately. A n y subsequent discussion a n d c o n c l u s i o n w i l l b e p u t off t i l l t h e p a r t y i s f o r m ed. M y h e a r t w a s f i l l e d w i t h i n d e s c r i b a b l e j o y . I t seemed t o m e t h a t Q e m a l h a d been m y c o m r a d e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e o f m y life, f r o m c h i l d h o o d u p t o t h a t m o m e n t w h e n , i n t h a t s m a l l r o o m , w e w e r e d i s c u s s i n g one o f the greatest issues i n a l l t h e a g e - l o n g h i s t o r y o f o u r

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people. I w a n t e d t o e m b r a c e h i m a n d h i s c o m r a d e s s t r o n g l y . I t seemed t o m e t h a t a l l t h e obstacles w e r e w i p e d out, t h e party w o u l d c e r t a i n l y b e b o r n . I w a i t e d i m p a t i e n t l y f o r a b r e a k in t h e p r o c e e d ings. O n c e w e e m e r g e d f r o m t h e r o o m I a p p r o a c h e d Qemal, g a v e h i m m y h a n d , p u l l e d h i m t o m e a n d e m b r a c e d h i m s t r o n g l y . W e k i s s e d a n d s a i d t o one a n o t h e r , Long l i v e o u r C o m m u n i s t P a r t y t h r o u g h t h e c e n t u r i e s ! Then, I e m b r a c e d V a s i l a n d T u k , w h i l e A n a s t a s s t o o d apart, s m o k i n g f u r i o u s l y a n d t u r n i n g o v e r h i s c u n n i n g plans i n h i s h e a d . A l l o u r g r o u p s h o o k h a n d s w i t h Qemal. M e a n w h i l e Q o r r i a n d X h e p i , w h o w e r e g r e e n w i t h anger, m a d e n o m o v e t o w a r d s Q e m a l , j u s t a s t h e y m a d e n o move t o w a r d s m e w h e n t h e c o m r a d e s w e r e c o n g r a t u l a t i n g m e after I s p o k e . H o w e v e r , R a m a d a n i t a k u a p p r o a c h e d Qemal and shook hands w i t h h i m just as he h a d done with m e . . . The break passed q u i c k l y and we returned to the room w h e r e t h e t a l k s w e r e t a k i n g place. B y n o w i t w a s dark, because i n N o v e m b e r t h e d a y s g r o w s h o r t e r a n d nights f a l l q u i c k l y . . . S o o n w e w e r e b a c k i n o u r places. T h e m e e t i n g recommenced. T h e s m a l l k e r o s e n e l a m p o n t h e t a b l e threw a p a l e l i g h t o v e r o u r faces. It w a s assisted a l i t t l e b y the f l a m e s o f t h e f i r e b u r n i n g o n t h e h e a r t h , o n w h i c h V a s i l o r t h e c o m r a d e s s i t t i n g closest t o i t t h r e w a little w o o d f r o m t i m e to t i m e . A pot of beans, f o r s u p p e r was s i m m e r i n g o n t h e f i r e a n d t h e i r b u b b l i n g a c c o m p a n i e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e u n h a p p y A n a s t a s L u l a . As far as I remember he began his contribution differently f r o m u s : W e h a v e gathered, s a i d A n a s t a s , to discuss t h e w o r k w h i c h the d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s h a v e done and t o j u d g e t h e l i n e w h i c h each o f t h e m has f o l l o w e d , t o decide w h i c h g r o u p s h a d a c o r r e c t Une a n d w h i c h

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a w r o n g l i n e . N a t u r a l l y , o u r g r o u p has a l o t t o s a y i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y against t h e K o r a g r o u p a n d against its leader, K o o T a s h k o , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w h o w a s one o f t h e m a i n c u l p r i t s f o r t h e s p l i t . H o w e v e r , w e o f the ' Y o u t h ' G r o u p have noticed that for a long period he had not been alone. He a n d a n u m b e r of o t h e r c o m r a d e s of h i s g r o u p h a v e d a m a g e d t h e cause, h a v e a l w a y s p o s e d a s the l a w - m a k e r s of communism, have pretended that their group alone was the party, and that only they h a d links w i t h the Comintern. Anastas was commencing w i t h attacks in order to sabotage t h e m e e t i n g . I t w a s a p p a r e n t t h a t h e h a d n o t m a d e e v e n the slightest f o r m a l c o r r e c t i o n t o his course. H i s s t a n d w a s t r u l y r e v o l t i n g , b u t w e h a d t o m a i n t a i n o u r a p l o m b , because w e k n e w v e r y w e l l that h e w a s a d i r t y p r o v o c a t e u r . K o o ' s face f l u s h e d w i t h anger and he figeted in his chair. Anastas continued: Whenever any comrade returned f r o m political exile abroad, the leadership of the K o r a group immediately claimed that directives of the C o m i n t e r n had arrived (obviously he was referring to the directives w h i c h reached the A l b a n i a n communist movement in 1937), but we were aware that other comrades not of the K o r a group and w h o had l i n k s w i t h the C o m i n t e r n came and t h e y b r o u g h t d i r e c t i v e s (he w a s r e f e r r i n g t o A n d r e a Z i s i the a r c h e o - M a r x i s t , w h o c a m e f r o m G r e e c e b r i n g i n g his seal m a d e i n A t h e n s , w h i c h r e a d s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h i s : ' A C P , S e c t i o n o f the C o m i n t e r n ' ) . W h o Were w e t o b e l i e v e ? A t that t i m e w e b e l i e v e d those w h o o u r c o m m u n i s t consciousness told us were right, so we began to w i t h d r a w gradually f r o m t h e K o r a g r o u p u n t i l i n 1940 w e e m e r g e d a s a s e p a r a t e g r o u p . T h e K o r a g r o u p has accused a n d s t i l l accuses us of b e i n g splitters, f a c t i o n a l i s t s , T r o t s k y i t e s , a r c h e o - M a r x i s t s a n d w h a t e v e r else i t l i k e s . W e a r e n o n e o f these t h i n g s , b u t w e a r e g e n u i n e r e v o l u t i o n a r y M a r x i s t s .

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Koo could stand this no more and said to Q o r r i : Trotskyites is just w h a t y o u are! A n d the worst T r o t s k y i t e s at t h a t ! T h i s w a s j u s t w h a t A n a s t a s w a n t e d , because h e w a s ready f o r that, a n d h e r e p l i e d : Don't y o u i n t e r r u p t m y speech, K o o T a s h k o , because that i s w h a t y o u ' v e a l w a y s done, y o u ' v e a l w a y s b e e n arrogant. While y o u have been a 'lamb' Anastas Lula, I interposed, a n d w h a t ' s m o r e , i d e o l o g i c a l l y w e c a n describe y o u as an 'angel'. I s h a l l speak a b o u t t h e i d e o l o g i c a l issues later, said A n a s t a s , because w e h a v e g a t h e r e d h e r e p r e c i s e l y t o consider o u r w o r k f r o m t h e i d e o l o g i c a l aspect. W e must t h r a s h out these m a t t e r s f i r s t a n d t h e n c o m e t o t h e conclusion a b o u t w h o i s o n the r i g h t course, y o u o f t h e K o r a g r o u p , o r we. A t that m o m e n t Q e m a l joined i n s a y i n g : Define that 'we' better! W h a t do y o u mean by 'we'? This made it clear that Q e m a l Stafa d i v i d e d the S h k o d ra group f r o m the Youth G r o u p . A n a s t a s w a s s h a k e n because h e w a s left o n h i s own w i t h o u t allies, b u t w i t h t h e coldness of a s n a k e he replied t o Q e m a l ' s i n t e r j e c t i o n : Of c o u r s e I a m s p e a k i n g f o r o u r ' Y o u t h ' G r o u p , but I cannot u n d e r s t a n d , C o m r a d e Q e m a l , w h y y o u o f the S h k o d r a g r o u p h a v e n o w c h a n g e d y o u r o p i n i o n s , because o u r t w o g r o u p s h a v e b e e n i n u n i t y o f t h o u g h t s a n d actions. W e w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t o u r i d e o l o g i c a l a n d p o litical stands w e r e correct c o m m u n i s t stands. W e o f t h e ' Y o u t h ' G r o u p are s t i l l o f t h a t o p i n i o n . This was Qorri's second provocation, this time aimed a t the S h k o d r a g r o u p , m a d e d e l i b e r a t e l y b o t h t o insult a n d t o t h r e a t e n t h a t g r o u p lest i t b r o k e a w a y from his g r o u p .

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Q e m a l gave h i m a n instant, f i r m r e p l y : O u r t w o g r o u p s h a v e h a d s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s o n a lot o f things, but h a v e also h a d d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e t h i n g t h a t united us was the spirit of factional w o r k w h i c h had b l i n d e d o u r eyes a n d d i d n o t a l l o w u s t o see t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n o u r t w o g r o u p s , because w e h a d d i r e c t e d the edge o f o u r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e K o r a g r o u p . H o w e v e r , c o m m u n i s t s a r e people w h o r e f l e c t , because n e w h o r i z o n s are b e i n g o p e n e d t o us, a n d t h e y h e l p u s t o j u d g e m o r e p r o f o u n d l y a b o u t the s i t u a t i o n a n d m a j o r e v e n t s w h i c h a r e t a k i n g place. T h i s c h a n g e i n o u r o p i n i o n s is not j u s t a bourgeois change, as y o u t h i n k , A n a s t a s L u l a , b u t a c o m m u n i s t change, s a i d Q e m a l . Y o u a r e q u i t e r i g h t , C o m r a d e Q e m a l , I s a i d , that i s w h a t w e c o m m u n i s t s o f t h e K o r a g r o u p t h i n k , too. Anastas was being pinned w i t h his back to the w a l l . B u t as t h e people say, a s n a k e has s e v e n l i v e s , h e doesn't d i e e v e n i f y o u cut off a b i t o f h i s t a i l . Anastas L u l a continued: Of course y o u h a v e t h e r i g h t t o c h a n g e y o u r o p i n i o n s (this w a s f u r t h e r p r o v o c a t i o n , e v e r y t h i n g h e s a i d d u r i n g t h e w h o l e p e r i o d o f the m e e t i n g w a s p r o v o c a t i o n ) , b u t w e h a v e the r i g h t t o d e f e n d o u r o p i n i o n s . A n d t h e opinion of our group is contrary to the procedure of the action w h i c h y o u proposed, C o m r a d e E n v e r . Y o u put t h e issue i n a d i s t o r t e d w a y ; i n s t e a d o f f i r s t d i s c u s s i n g t h e issue a n d t h e n seeing w h e t h e r o r n o t o u r o p i n i o n s a r e i n a c c o r d , w h e t h e r o r n o t the t i m e has c o m e t o decide o n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the p a r t y , y o u o f t h e K o r a g r o u p propose t h a t w e s h o u l d f o r m t h e p a r t y f i r s t a n d then discuss t h e issue. That was another cunning manoeuvre of Anastas L u l a a n d S a d i k P r e m t e i n o r d e r t o sabotage t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the p a r t y . A f i r m r e p l y h a d t o b e g i v e n t o h i m . b u t care h a d

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to be t a k e n to a v o i d exacerbating the situation to the extreme b e f o r e f o u n d i n g t h e p a r t y . T h i s h a d t o b e b o r n e i n m i n d , n o t o n a c c o u n t o f those t w o i n c o r r i g i b l e T r o t s k y i tes, b u t o n a c c o u n t o f t h e r a n k - a n d - f i l e m e m b e r s o f t h e Youth G r o u p , w h o w e r e m i s l e d a n d w h o w o u l d c e r t a i n l y become g o o d m e m b e r s o f t h e p a r t y w e w e r e g o i n g t o form. A n i m m e d i a t e f l a r e - u p m i g h t cause t h e i r w i t h d r a w a l from the meeting, a t h i n g w h i c h could enable t h e m to h a v e an argument to say to their group : We undertook no comitment. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , w e h a d t o b e v e r y c a r e f u l t o wards t h e m a n d succeed i n f o u n d i n g t h e p a r t y w h i c h w a s the u n c h a n g e a b l e d e s i r e o f a l l t h e c o m m u n i s t s o f t h i s group, too, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e o p i n i o n s a n d desires of their chiefs. O n c e t h e p a r t y w a s f o r m e d , t h e d i s c u s s i o n could d e v e l o p i n t o h e a t e d a r g u m e n t s , because t h e n t h e y would t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e p a r t y , w i t h i n its M a r x i s t Leninist n o r m s . Therefore, without allowing Anastas to go any f u r ther w i t h h i s w o r k of sabotage, I i n t e r v e n e d : Comrade Anastas, the proposal of the K o r a group is not w r o n g at a l l . It is L e n i n i s t , it is n o t in t h e least in contradiction w i t h the theory and norms that guide the activity o f t h e B o l s h e v i k P a r t y w h i c h L e n i n f o u n d e d . Were L e n i n s t i l l a l i v e o r i f w e h a d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o a s k Stalin, t h e y w o u l d c e r t a i n l y a d v i s e u s : ' F i r s t f o r m y o u r communist p a r t y , because y o u h a v e d r a g g e d m a t t e r s u p long e n o u g h , t h e n m a k e B o l s h e v i k s e l f - c r i t i c i s m , set n e w tasks, a n d g o f o r w a r d i n t o b a t t l e a n d t o v i c t o r y a s t h e v a n g u a r d of t h e w o r k i n g class.' Therefore, i t i s n o t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h w e ' v e h a d up till now, but the lofty task w h i c h the situation imposes on us that must determine our decision to f o u n d the p a r t y . O u r differences m u s t b e settled, m u s t b e i r o n e d out t h r o u g h discussion a n d debates, b u t not a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n o f 'whether o r not w e s h o u l d f o r m t h e p a r t y ' . T h e s i t u a -

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t i o n i s r i p e t o create t h e p a r t y w i t h s u c h a u n i t y t h a t i t w i l l b e u p t o the task o f t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e H o m e l a n d . This is what we think. W h o d o y o u m e a n b y 'we'?, i n t e r j e c t e d S a d i k P r e m t e immediately. A r e you referring to yourself and your f o u r comrades, o r y o u i n c l u d e a l l o f u s w i t h t h a t ' w e ' ? ! W h e n I s a y 'we' I r e p l i e d to X h e p i , of c o u r s e I have in m i n d m u c h more than myself and the four c o m r a d e s o f the K o r a g r o u p . W e h a v e n ' t c o m e h e r e b y accident, w e h a v e b e e n sent here. O u r c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s h a v e sent us, a n d w h e n I s a y ' w e ' I h a v e i n m i n d a l l t h e conscious r a n k - a n d - f i l e c o m m u n i s t c o m r a d e s w h o are d e m a n d i n g t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e p a r t y a t a l l costs. A n d b e l i e v e me, S a d i k , t h a t ' w e ' i n c l u d e s t h e soundest p a r t of the members of y o u r group, w h e t h e r or not y o u a n d A n a s t a s l i k e it. It's not t r u e . A n d w e don't a l l o w y o u t o s p e a k o n behalf of our comrades! Anastas L u l a sprang up a n g r i ly. T o a v o i d g i v i n g cause f o r f u r t h e r h e a t i n g o f t e m p e r s , I t u r n e d q u i e t l y t o A n a s t a s a n d S a d i k a n d once a g a i n explained to t h e m the reason f r o m w h i c h we proceeded in the proposal w h i c h we made. Q e m a l S t a f a stood s h o u l d e r t o s h o u l d e r w i t h m e : Comrades, h e s a i d , this m a j o r q u e s t i o n w h i c h C o m r a d e E n v e r presented should not be t a k e n as if here we have to do only w i t h the desire a n d w i l l of the comrades of the K o r a group. No, this is the w i l l o f a l l o f us, o f a l l c o m m u n i s t s a n d a l l r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e m o c r a t s . I e x p r e s s e d my o p i n i o n , b u t I w a n t to stress t h a t t h e people a r e d e m a n d i n g t h a t w e l e a d t h e m i n the struggle w h i c h they have begun, but the communist g r o u p s d i v i d e d b y a l l k i n d s o f ideas c a n n o t p l a y t h i s l e a d i n g role. O n l y a p a r t y w i t h u n b r e a k a b l e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t

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unity c a n l e a d t h e s t r u g g l e . T h e r e f o r e , A n a s t a s , w e a r e m a k i n g n o m i s t a k e i f w e f o r m the p a r t y f i r s t , a n d t h e n discuss o u r differences. H a v i n g said this a n d t u r n i n g to me, Q e m a l added in a v e r y f r i e n d l y f a s h i o n : Excuse me for interrupting you, Comrade E n v e r . . . I , w h o r e m a i n e d o n m y feet a l l t h i s t i m e , c o n t i n u ed: C o m r a d e s , w e , t h e g r o u p s , h a v e s c o r e d some successes, but w e ' v e also m a d e m i s t a k e s . N o t o n l y y o u A n a s t a s , but w e o f t h e K o r a g r o u p a n d those o f t h e S h k o d r a group, a l l of us, to a g r e a t e r or lesser extent, h a v e made m i s t a k e s . W e a r e n o t g o i n g t o c o n c e a l t h e m , b u t o n the c o n t r a r y , a r e g o i n g t o c o n d e m n t h e m a l l f r o m whatever side t h e y h a v e b e e n m a d e . A t t h i s m e e t i n g , w h i c h I c o n s i d e r h i s t o r i c , it is n o t t h e w i l l of a n y one group t h a t s h o u l d p r e d o m i n a t e , b u t t h e s o u n d w i l l o f Marxist-Leninists, the i r o n w i l l of A l b a n i a n communists who h a v e d e c i d e d t o f o r m t h e i r p a r t y a n d f i g h t v a l i a n t l y , ready t o m a k e t h e u l t i m a t e s a c r i f i c e f o r t h e i r people, u n t i l the p e o p l e are l i b e r a t e d once a n d f o r a l l f r o m t h e bondage o f occupiers, l a n d o w n e r s a n d t h e l o c a l b o u r g e o i sie. T h e w i l l o f those c o m m u n i s t s s h o u l d p r e v a i l w h o h a v e decided t o c a r r y o u t t h e r e v o l u t i o n a n d t o b r i n g t h e w o r k i n g class t o p o w e r i n o r d e r t o b u i l d s o c i a l i s m . C o m r a d e s , a l l o f u s k n o w w h a t sort o f p a r t y w e want, w h a t sort o f p a r t y w e s h o u l d f o r m a n d w i t h w h a t features we m u s t t e m p e r it. I s a i d at t h e outset, b u t I stress it once a g a i n , t h a t we a r e g o i n g to create a p a r t y o f the L e n i n - S t a l i n t y p e , i n w h i c h f a c t i o n s a n d t h e group s p i r i t , s u c h a s t h e y h a v e b e e n a m o n g s t u s u p t i l l now, c a n n o t e x i s t . T h i s s i t u a t i o n m u s t b e e n d e d ! I n our n e w p a r t y w h i c h w e ' r e g o i n g t o f o u n d w e m u s t e s t a blish u n i t y o f t h o u g h t a n d a c t i o n a n d n o t i m p o s e t h e w i l l o f one o r t h e other. O u r p a r t y w i l l b e g u i d e d b y

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one t h e o r y , b y t h e t h e o r y o f M a r x a n d L e n i n ; a n y d e v i a tion f r o m it and the bearers of the deviations w i l l be punished mercilessly. In our party there w i l l be democracy i n the e x p r e s s i o n o f o p i n i o n s , b u t t h e r e w i l l also b e d i s c i p l i n e a n d c e n t r a l i s m . W e w i l l discuss a n d d e c i d e o n these m a t t e r s one b y one a n d w i l l also decide o n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p a r t y , w h a t f o r m s its cells a n d c o m m i t t e e s w i l l h a v e . I n this d i s c u s s i o n w e w i l l also h a v e t h e a s sistance o f C o m r a d e M i l a d i n . T h e r e f o r e , I t u r n e d t o A n a s tas a g a i n , I t h i n k t h e r e i s n o s o u n d r e a s o n w h y y o u s h o u l d n o t associate y o u r s e l f l i k e t h e o t h e r t w o g r o u p s w i t h the proposal that first we should found the p a r t y and then develop our discussion as members of the party and no longer as members of groups, should discuss t h e issues i n t h e s p i r i t a n d o n t h e basis o f a c o m munist party and not in the spirit of communist groups. A t t h i s p o i n t I w o u n d u p a n d sat d o w n . T h e c o m r a d e s proposed we should take a break. A f t e r the b r e a k , R a m a d a n i t a k u spoke. I m e t B a c a f o r the f i r s t t i m e a t t h i s m e e t i n g . H e m a d e a g o o d impression on me, and my heart w a r m e d to h i m i m m e d i a t e l y . H e s p o k e l i t t l e , w a s r e s t r a i n e d i n h i s gestures a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n , a n d s m o k e d cigarettes i n h a l i n g t h e smoke deeply. He was y o u n g although he looked older because o f h i s moustaches, a n d f o r t h i s r e a s o n w e n i c k n a m e d h i m Baca. B a c a , w h o s p o k e i n a deep voice, d i d n o t g o o n f o r l o n g . I n substance h e s a i d : We have gathered here to solve our problems, because w e c a n n o l o n g e r g o o n i n t h e w a y w e h a v e done. I w a n t u s t o f o r m t h e p a r t y a n d I agree w i t h w h a t C o m r a d e E n v e r proposed. I am in the same group w i t h Anastas and Sadik, but I cannot understand Anastas' reasoning. I am convinced that m a n y comrades of our

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g r o u p w i l l t h i n k t h e s a m e w a y a s I do. W h a t i s w r o n g w i t h f o u n d i n g the party as q u i c k l y as possible? We have criticism a n d self-criticism to make, but f r o m n o w on I want the p a r t y a n d not the groups. Therefore, I am for t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e p a r t y . A f t e r these f e w w o r d s B a c a sat d o w n . H i s w o r d s were another b l o w to Q o r r i and X h e p i , but this time to their s u r p r i s e , f r o m a c o m r a d e o f t h e i r o w n g r o u p . F o l l o w i n g Baca, M i l a d i n spoke. Duan translated w i t h occasional corrections f r o m Baca. He spoke for about an hour. First, he t h a n k e d us for rescuing h i m f r o m the internment camp a n d for the great trust a l l of us displayed towards h i m . He said that this trust is due to the C o m munist P a r t y of Yugoslavia. I am a m e m b e r of that P a r t y and, on the proposal o f the A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t s , I h a v e b e e n i n s t r u c t e d b y i t t o g i v e m y modest a i d a n d w h a t s m a l l e x p e r i e n c e I have, p l a c i n g t h e m a s a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t i n t h e s e r v i c e o f the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a w h i c h y o u a r e g o i n g to form, he continued. A m o n g a l l the A l b a n i a n c o m munist comrades I have found a communist affection and s i n c e r i t y t o w a r d s m e . Y o u o p e n e d y o u r h e a r t s t o m e and so d i d I. We have been acquainted for o n l y a short time, b u t i t seems a s i f w e h a v e k n o w n e a c h o t h e r l o n g since. T h i s s i t u a t i o n has been c r e a t e d because w e are internationalist communists. A f t e r s p e a k i n g a b o u t h i s l o v e f o r t h e A l b a n i a n people, about h i s respect f o r t h e m , f o r t h e i r courage, t h e i r m a n liness, t h e i r t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s a n d t h e i r w i s d o m , w i t h w h i c h I am w e l l - a c q u a i n t e d , he said, because I h a v e l i v e d among A l b a n i a n s i n K o s o v a a n d M o n t e n e g r o , M i l a d i n continued: Y o u have told me about the A l b a n i a n communist movement, a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f groups, w i t h v a r i o u s opposing v i e w s , a b o u t the g o o d r e s u l t s a n d t h e s h o r t -

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comings and mistakes that have shown up in their w o r k . W e h a v e discussed t h i n g s t o g e t h e r f r a n k l y . A s a c o m r a d e , as a c o m m u n i s t , I h a v e o p e n l y e x p r e s s e d some ideas o f m i n e w h i c h m a y o r m a y n o t b e correct, b e c a u s e I cannot c l a i m t o k n o w t h e s i t u a t i o n i n y o u r c o u n t r y a n d y o u r w o r k a s w e l l a s y o u do. Y o u y o u r s e l v e s are i n a p o s i tion to k n o w and do k n o w the situation of the country, the people a n d y o u r c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s , n o t o n l y i n gen e r a l , l i k e t h e i d e a I h a v e b e e n a b l e to get of it, b u t in depth and in an analytical way. It is up to y o u to analyse a n d decide. I a m c o n v i n c e d t h a t y o u w i l l decide c o r r e c t l y . W h e n y o u consider it reasonable I w o u l d l i k e y o u to a l l o w me to speak, to e x p r e s s my o p i n i o n on a series of problems of principle w h i c h I am sure y o u w i l l raise, to give y o u the experience of my P a r t y on h o w it has s o l v e d some analogous p r o b l e m s . Y o u y o u r s e l v e s w i l l j u d g e whether or not w h a t I have to say is reasonable. T h e decisions w h i c h y o u w i l l t a k e a r e u p t o y o u a n d t o n o b o d y else. W e l i s t e n e d t o t h i s f i n e c o m r a d e , t o t h i s sincere c o m m u n i s t w i t h great a t t e n t i o n . M i l a d i n g a v e a b r i e f b u t clear o u t l i n e o f t h e i n t e r national situation. He spoke about the decisive role of the S o v i e t U n i o n a n d t h e g r e a t S t a l i n , a n d a b o u t t h e partisan w a r in Yugoslavia led by the Communist P a r t y of Yugoslavia. A f t e r speaking about the importance w h i c h the f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y i n o u r c o u n t r y w o u l d h a v e , M i l a d i n concluded: I f u l l y associate m y s e l f w i t h C o m r a d e E n v e r H o x h a ' s p r o p o s a l t h a t b e f o r e a n y t h i n g else t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a s h o u l d b e f o r m e d a s q u i c k l y a s possible. S u c h a great h i s t o r i c act is correct p o l i t i c a l l y , i d e o l o g i c a l l y a n d organizationally. T h e situation w h i c h has matured requires this. O u r faces b e a m e d w i t h j o y . T h i s Y u g o s l a v i n t e r n a -

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tionalist c o m m u n i s t , o u r c o m r a d e , w a s o f t h e s a m e o p i n i o n a s w e . W e a d j o u r n e d f o r a b r e a k . A l l o f us, i n c l u d i n g Q o r r i a n d X h e p i , e m b r a c e d M i l a d i n . T h e signs were g o o d . W e sat d o w n t o s u p p e r w i t h a n e x c e l l e n t appetite a n d g r e a t j o y i n o u r hearts. L i k e t h e o t h e r c o m r a d e s I no l o n g e r f e l t t h a t b u r d e n of a n x i e t y I h a d f e l t a t t h e start. T h e s k y w a s a l m o s t clear. A f t e r supper we went straight back to the meeting. K o o T a s h k o a s k e d f o r t h e f l o o r . N a t u r a l l y , a t the outset he supported the proposal about founding the party, tried to give a theoretical outline about just a n d unjust w a r s a n d w e t h o u g h t t h a t h e w a s g o i n g t o close h i s c o n t r i b u tion quietly a n d gently w i t h this. B u t K o o T a s h k o forgot what we had decided a n d began to make insinuations about other g r o u p s , p r e c i s e l y o n t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h w e h a d t o discuss a f t e r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y . I t was j u s t a s w e l l t h a t h e d i d n o t g o o n f o r l o n g a n d sat d o w n q u i c k l y because I w o u l d h a v e b e e n o b l i g e d t o interevene. N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s professorial, embrouill* tone a n d h i s i n s i n u a t i o n s d i d n o t f a i l to cause a coldness which was q u i c k l y cleared a w a y by P i l o Peristeri a n d Vasil Shanto, w h o spoke to the point and briefly in favour o f the i m m e d i a t e f o u n d i n g o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f Albania. K o i X o x e , T u k J a k o v a and other comrades e x pressed s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s . T h e last t o speak w e r e A n a s t a s . f o l l o w e d b y S a d i k P r e m t e . W e l i s t e n e d i n silence. T h i s time A n a s t a s s p o k e b r i e f l y . I w i t h d r a w w h a t I s a i d b e f o r e a n d associate m y s e l f with the proposal that we should f o r m the C o m m u n i s t Party of Albania. S a d i k P r e m t e also e x p r e s s e d s o l i d a r i t y w i t h t h e rest. F o r a m o m e n t silence f e l l . F o r m a n y o f u s t h e s o l i d a r i t y o f A n a s t a s a n d S a d i k w a s a l w a y s suspect.
_________________________________ * Involved (French in the original).

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Let us put it to the vote. E v e r y o n e has expressed his opinion, said K o o Tashko. L e t u s p u t it, b u t w h o i s t o d o so? H e r e w e a r e a l l e q u a l . . . , put i n Anastas L u l a not w i t h o u t malicious i n tent. This t r u l y w a s something that h a d not occurred to u s before. B u t M i l a d i n rose t o t h e occasion. T h e issue here, c o m r a d e s , is n o t one of l e a d e r s or presidiums, he said. The problem is quite simple: the p r o p o s a l c a n b e p u t t o t h e v o t e b y t h e one w h o p r e s e n t e d it. T h e n , v e r y e x c i t e d I rose t o m y feet a n d s a i d : Comrades, on the basis of the proposal of the C o m munist Group of Kora and the opinions expressed by all present, I am putting the following resolution to the vote: 'Today on November 8, 1941, the representatives of three communist groups, of Kora, Shkodra and the 'Youth', meeting in plenary session and after constructive discussion in the communist spirit, basing themselves on the mandate given them by the comrades of their groups, founded the Communist Party of Albania.' A l l in f a v o u r r a i s e t h e i r hands. A l l present raised their hands. T h e r e w a s no vote against o r a b s t e n t i o n . A l l o f u s w e r e f i l l e d w i t h i n d e s c r i b a b l e j o y . T h e m a i n step, t h e d e c i s i v e task w h i c h w e h a d set ourselves w h e n w e set out f o r t h i s h i s t o r i c m e e t i n g , h a d b e e n c r o w n e d w i t h success! Then, I declared: The Communist Party of Albania has been founded unanimously. Long live the Communist Party of A l b a n i a ! H a p p y a n d d e e p l y m o v e d a l l o f u s rose t o o u r feet, r a i s e d o u r c l e n c h e d fists i n s a l u t e a n d u n d e r t h e l i g h t of the k e r o s e n e l a m p s a n g The Internationale, k e e p i n g o u r vioces l o w , a n d t h e n cheered a n d c h e e r e d f o r t h e C o m munist Party of Albania, but always in an undertone:

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Long live the Bolshevik Party!, Long live Stalin!, Glory to M a r x , Engels, Lenin!, Long l i v e the C o m m u nist P a r t y o f Y u g o s l a v i a ! , D o w n w i t h f a s c i s m ! , L o n g live o u r h e r o i c p e o p l e ! A n d s o o n . . .

T h u s , o n t h e n i g h t o f N o v e m b e r 8 , 1941, o u r P a r t y was b o r n , t h e P a r t y w h i c h w a s t o l e a d t h e A l b a n i a n p e o p l e i n t h e greatest b a t t l e s o f t h e i r w h o l e h i s t o r y . I t w a s b o r n f r o m t h e b o s o m o f t h e people, f r o m t h e i r r e v o l u tionary fire and ardour u n d i m m e d through the centuries, it e m e r g e d l i k e a s u n s h i n i n g t h r o u g h the h i d e o u s darkness o f t h e fascist e n s l a v e m e n t a n d t e r r o r w h i c h h a d engulfed t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e H o m e l a n d .

T h e n e x t d a y a n d u p t i l l N o v e m b e r 14, t h e debates continued. A l l the c o m r a d e s w h o t o o k p a r t i n t h e m e e t ing spoke. T h e debates w e r e tense a n d f r e q u e n t l y fierce. It was o f t e n f o r g o t t e n t h a t since N o v e m b e r 8, we o u g h t to have s p o k e n f r o m t h e basis o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d P a r t y , i n the s p i r i t o f t h i s P a r t y , a n d m a n y c o n t i n u e d t o a r g u e f r o m g r o u p positions. K o o T a s h k o took the floor. He tried to back up his statement w i t h q u o t a t i o n s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e f r o m o u r classics, w h i c h h e c l a i m e d t o h a v e l e a r n e d i n M o s c o w . K o o naturally defended the line of the K o r a group, a t h i n g that w a s correct. W e a l l d i d t h i s w h e n w e spoke, b u t i n his e n t h u s i a s m t o d e f e n d t h i s l i n e , K o o T a s h k o a t t r i buted a l l t h e g o o d a n d p o s i t i v e aspects o f t h e w o r k o f the K o r a g r o u p t o h i s leadership. O f course h e w a s not o b j e c t i v e i n d o i n g this. M e a n w h i l e , h e forgot t o point out t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s a n d m i s t a k e s i n the w o r k o f that g r o u p . H i s s e l f - c r i t i c i s m o f t h e w o r k o f t h e group w a s feeble a n d n o n - e x i s t e n t i n r e g a r d t o h i m s e l f .

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directives. T h e K o r a group, h e s a i d a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , w a s t h e o n l y A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t g r o u p w h i c h accepted a n d p u t t h e m i n t o practice, w h i l e t h e o t h e r g r o u p s n o t o n l y r e f u s e d t o accept t h e m , b u t also c o m b a t e d t h e m f i e r c e l y a n d in the most condemnable f o r m of factionalism. At this point K o o opened the chapter of his criticisms and attacks on the S h k o d r a group and the Youth G r o u p , c r i t i c i s m s w h i c h w e r e correct i n p r i n c i p l e . H e b e g a n f r o m the enemy of communism, the archeo-Marxist N i k o X o x i who, after he was condemned by the K o r a group, took r e f u g e i n the S h k o d r a g r o u p , w h e r e h e b e c a m e one o f its leaders, a n d t o g e t h e r w i t h Z e f M a l a o r g a n i z e d t h e s t r u g g l e n o t j u s t against t h e K o r a g r o u p , b u t a g a i n s t M a r x i s m , against t h e C o m i n t e r n a n d , n a t u r a l l y , a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d S t a l i n . I t w a s l o g i c a l t h a t these elements w o u l d f o l l o w t h e c o u r s e o f T r o t s k y a n d s o they did, w h i l e the Green B u l l e t i n w h i c h they put out was nothing but a T r o t s k y i t e rag. K o o T a s h k o d i d not overlook A r i s t i d h Qendro, Anastas L u l a a n d Sadik P r e m t e . H e accused A n a s t a s L u l a n o t o n l y o f b e i n g a close associate o f A r i s t i d h a n d S a d i k , o f c r e a t i n g t h e f a c t i o n s u b s e q u e n t l y c a l l e d t h e Y o u t h G r o u p w i t h i n the r a n k s o f t h e K o r a g r o u p , b u t also o f i n v o l v i n g t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p a n d s e t t i n g i t o n a w r o n g course. T h e discussion w e n t o n i n t h i s e l e c t r i f i e d w a y a l l d a y w i t h one c o m r a d e a f t e r a n o t h e r t a k i n g t h e f l o o r a n d o f t e n i n t e r r u p t i n g one a n o t h e r not p o l i t e l y , b u t s o m e t i m e s w i t h a fierceness t h a t w e n t b e y o n d a c c e p t a b l e b o u n d s . A n a s t a s L u l a s p o k e after K o o . H e t r i e d t o a t t a c k a l l the w o r k o f t h e K o r a g r o u p w i t h v i n d i c t i v e , baseless s l a n d e r s a n d allegations. H e w e n t s o f a r a s t o a t t a c k A l i K e l m e n d i , saying that he was hasty and u n f a i r in the

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c r i t i c i s m s a n d c o n d e m n a t i o n s h e h a d m a d e against N i k o X o x i and Aristidh Qendro. W e c o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e a c c u s a t i o n s against A l i K e l m e n di and forgot that we were meeting under conditions of complete i l l e g a l i t y . W a t c h y o u r step, A n a s t a s L u l a , I s h o u t e d at h i m , because y o u a r e s p e a k i n g f r o m a T r o t s k y i t e p o s i t i o n a n d we cannot a l l o w anyone to attack the unsullied figure of the m o s t o u t s t a n d i n g m i l i t a n t o f t h e A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t m o v e m e n t a n d a c o m r a d e of t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i s t movement. We do no permit y o u to sully the figure of our veteran communist comrade w h o taught us h o w we must f i g h t Z o g , t h e f e u d a l l a n d o w n e r s a n d t h e b o u r g e o i sie, t o i m p u g n t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f the m a n w h o b r o u g h t u s D i m i t r o v ' s speech ( 7 ) a n d f o u g h t u n t i l h i s d e a t h , a l w a y s honoured by the international communist movement. Are y o u Anastas L u l a t r y i n g to compare the figure of this great A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t w i t h t w o d i r t y a r c h e o M a r x i s t s sent t o A l b a n i a b y t h e b l a c k e s t G r e e k r e a c t i o n to f i g h t c o m m u n i s m ? P i l o P e r i s t e r i j u m p e d t o h i s feet i n f u r y a n d a t t a c k e d Anastas L u l a w i t h c l e a r facts a b o u t t h e i m m o r a l a c t i vities o f h i m a n d S a d i k P r e m t e , w h o h a d e l e v a t e d these activities t o p s e u d o - M a r x i s t theories. S u c h t h e o r i e s a n d v i e w s are d i a b o l i c a l a n d vile, roared P i l o . T o accept t h e m m e a n s t o d e m o r a l i z e o u r p u r e youth, t o set t h e m o n t h e r o a d o f c o r r u p t i o n . A r e y o u , Anastas, s e e k i n g t o b r e a k u p t h e f a m i l y a n d its code of honour w i t h your Trotskyite theories?! We c o m m u nists o f t h e K o r a g r o u p , c o n t i n u e d P i l o , k n o w a l l about the u n d e r m i n i n g a c t i v i t y o f N i k o X o x i a n d h i s v i l e intrigues t o s p l i t us, b u t w i t h A l i , M i h a a n d other c o m r a _______________________________________ 7 In 1932 A l i K e l m e n d i brought to A l b a n i a George D i m i trov's instructions on the creation of the communist movement on a sounder p o l i t i c a l and organization p l a t f o r m in A l b a n i a .

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des w e d e f e a t e d N i k o X o x i a n d h e w e n t a w a y a n d m a d e up w i t h you. Well, y o u are welcome to h i m . He showed w h a t h e was, a n agent o f Z o g , w h o b e t r a y e d t h e c o m r a des present here, Q e m a l S t a f a , V a s i l S h a n t o a n d o t h e r s to t h e enemy. Q e m a l Stafa took the floor and m a d e a correct and m a t u r e c o n t r i b u t i o n . I t w a s a p p a r e n t t h a t he, V a s i l a n d h i s other comrades w e r e more realistic in their judgement of situations, saw the events and the activities of the S h k o d r a g r o u p i n t h e past a s w e l l a s t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e Youth G r o u p f r o m a different stand-point. In substance, Qemal said: W e reject the i r r e s p o n s i b l e s t a t e m e n t s o f K o o T a shko and of the K o r a group, generally, that we of the S h k o d r a g r o u p are n o t c o m m u n i s t s , b u t T r o t s k y i t e s . N o , c o n t i n u e d Q e m a l , w e a r e conscious a n d r e s o l u t e c o m m u nists, w e h a v e f o u g h t w i t h c o n v i c t i o n i n o r d e r t o d i s s e m i n a t e c o m m u n i s m i n A l b a n i a t o t h e best o f o u r a b i lity. There have been mistakes in our w o r k , we k n o w a n d a d m i t this, b u t t h e y c a m e a b o u t because e v i l , a n t i c o m m u n i s t people l i k e Z e f M a l a a n d N i k o X o x i got i n t o the S h k o d r a group and w e r e able to take advantage of o u r i m m a t u r i t y to spread wrong, h a r m f u l , Trotskyite o p i n i o n s a n d ideas a m o n g s t us. ( Q e m a l w i t h c o m m u n i s t h o n e s t y l i s t e d t h e m one b y one). B u t w h a t a b o u t t h e K o r a group and K o o Tashko, personally, didn't they m a k e mistakes? He d i d not speak about t h e m , b u t I a m g o i n g t o d o so, because t h i s i s m y r i g h t . A n d Qemal began as follows: I condemn Anastas L u l a for that judgement he made about comrade A l i K e l m e n d i . I believe now, and t h i s w a s m y o p i n i o n p r e v i o u s l y , too, t h a t A l i K e l m e n d i was a communist fighter and, although I never met h i m , I respected a n d s t i l l respect h i m a s a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t c o m m u n i s t w h o came f r o m t h e S o v i e t U n i o n .

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W h y , t h e n , d i d the S h k o d r a g r o u p n o t accept t h e d i r e c tives o f t h e C o m i n t e r n ? W e m a d e a m i s t a k e . E v e r y b o d y k n o w s y o u made a mistake, K o o Tashko interrupted h i m . But w h y did y o u m a k e a mistake?! Tell us that! Yes, r e p l i e d Q e m a l , I w i l l d o that, s o l i s t e n t o me, c o m r a d e K o o . A n d h e w e n t o n : W e m a d e a m i s take because y o u m a d e a m i s t a k e , too. W i t h y o u r g r o u p spirit y o u w a n t e d t o e x p l o i t these d i r e c t i v e s t o r a i s e y o u r group a b o v e t h e others. O b v i o u s l y , w e o f t h e S h k o d r a group, too, w e r e i n f e c t e d a n d h e a v i l y i n f e c t e d w i t h this s p i r i t a n d s o i t c a m e a b o u t t h a t w e d i d n o t accept the d i r e c t i v e s . W e t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h contact, b u t w e f e l l among p r o v o c a t e u r s . B u t y o u , K o o T a s h k o , c o n t i n u e d Qemal, did y o u , in particular, m a k e any attempt to persuade us, t o c o m e a n d discuss w i t h u s ? N o , r i g h t t o the e n d y o u d i d not. A l l y o u k n e w w a s t o pose a s ' a great m a n ' , ' w i t h great k n o w l e d g e ' , ' w i t h great theories.' Only E n v e r approached us and talked w i t h us as a comrade, w h i l e y o u n e v e r did. Please, son, d o n ' t d e n y m y w o r k , K o o o b j e c t e d angrily. In t h e discussions a y e a r o r t w o ago, w h e n w e reached a g r e e m e n t w i t h y o u , w a s I n o t p r e s e n t a n d d i d I not m a k e m y c o n t r i b u t i o n ? ! A r e y o u referring to the compromise? Q e m a l asked K o o w i t h bitterness. D u r i n g t h e t w o d a y s t h a t w e h a v e been here, w e h a v e c o n d e m n e d t h a t sort o f ' a g r e e m e n t ' as a d i r t y c o m p r o m i s e w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n s . A s a s o c i a l - d e m o c r a t i c c o m p r o m i s e . L i f e i t s e l f destroyed it b e f o r e it c a m e i n t o o p e r a t i o n , I i n t e r j e c t e d . T h a t i s true, c o n t i n u e d Q e m a l . So, c o m r a d e K o o , it is u n f i t t i n g f o r y o u , w h o say that y o u have h a d links w i t h t h e C o m i n t e r n , t o o . . . I h a v e so! s h o u t e d K o o . T h e n , t r y t o m a i n t a i n its r e p u t a t i o n . I m e a n t i t

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w a s u n f i t t i n g f o r y o u t o boast t o u s a b o u t past a c t i o n s w h i c h w e r e w r o n g . W e , too, w e r e i n v o l v e d i n t h o s e actions s u c h a s t h e c o m p r o m i s e w e m e n t i o n e d , b u t n o w w e condemn the stand we took at that time. Therefore, I appeal to y o u to reflect on y o u r stands a n d to recognize y o u r m i s t a k e s a n d f a u l t s a n d those o f t h e K o r a g r o u p . As for the ' Y o u t h ' Group, continued Qemal, I am of the o p i n i o n , a n d I speak o n b e h a l f o f t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p , that the r a n k and file of this group are sound l i k e ours and that of the K o r a group. B u t anti-communist, T r o t s k y i t e ideas h a v e p e n e t r a t e d i n t o o u r g r o u p a n d i n t o t h e others, ideas w h i c h i n t h i s n e w l i g h t w e c a n n o w see more clearly. However, you, Anastas L u l a , and you, S a dik, w h o spoke in the same language as Anastas, are not s h o w i n g yourselves to be sincere communists in a n y w a y . Y o u are d o d g i n g t h e issues. I n o u r v i e w y o u h a v e m a d e a n d are c o n t i n u i n g t o m a k e g r a v e m i s t a k e s , b u t the worst of it is that y o u are not m a k i n g the slightest a t t e m p t t o r e c o g n i z e them. Qemal ended his contribution by calling on t h e m to change their ways. T h e debate a n d d i s c u s s i o n w e n t o n i n t h i s w a y e v e r y day. A l l of us w e r e a d v a n c i n g in our analyses. T h e c r i ticisms w e r e t a k i n g the correct course a n d being backed w i t h more solid arguments, the self-criticisms were becoming more and more p r o f o u n d and the c o m m o n m i s t a k e s a n d m i s t a k e s o f each separate g r o u p w e r e g r a d u a l l y being acknowledged. Thus, day by day the t e r r a i n w a s being cleared of impediments. The days w e r e passing f i l l e d w i t h debates. T h i s w a s a great s c h o o l f o r us, a s c h o o l w h i c h we h a d never h a d before. In the contributions to discussion everyone expressed his opinion w i t h o u t hesitat i o n a b o u t h o w w e s h o u l d j u d g e a n d act o n t h i s o r t h a t p r o b l e m i n t h e f u t u r e . I can't r e m e m b e r h o w m a n y t i m e s all the comrades spoke or intervened in the discussion.

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For my part I spoke m a n y times, sometimes to interject a short r e p l y , s o m e t i m e s a t some l e n g t h . T h e o t h e r c o m r a des a c t e d i n t h e s a m e w a y . I remember that I spoke after Q e m a l and supported his v i e w s o n a n u m b e r o f m a t t e r s . T h e s u b s t a n c e o f w h a t I said w a s t h i s : I associate m y s e l f w i t h t h e c r i t i c i s m C o m r a d e Q e m a l made o f o u r K o r a g r o u p f o r s e c t a r i a n i s m a n d t h e l a c k of a h e a l t h i e r c o m r a d e l y s p i r i t a n d g r e a t e r p a t i e n c e in the debates w e h a v e h e l d i n t h e past w i t h c o m r a d e s o f o t h e r groups. C o m r a d e K o o d i d n o t p o i n t out t h i s w r o n g s t a n d , but I a m s t r e s s i n g i t a n d w e h a v e t o a c k n o w l e d g e it, b e cause i t has c a u s e d great h a r m i n t h e past. W e m u s t n o t allow s u c h m a n i f e s t a t i o n s t o pass i n t o t h e P a r t y a n d m u s t free o u r s e l v e s f r o m t h e m , b u t w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g them w e c a n n o t c o m b a t t h e m . T h e s e c t a r i a n i s m o f t h e K o r a g r o u p has b e e n expressed also i n its a c k n o w l e d g e d p a r o c h i a l i s m , w h i c h has d a m a g e d t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e w o r k o f t h e g r o u p and p r e v e n t e d i t f r o m m a k i n g contacts o n a m o r e e x t e n sive scale w i t h t h e c o m m u n i s t a n d d e m o c r a t i c m o v e m e n t all o v e r t h e c o u n t r y . T h e c o m r a d e s i n K o r a also h a v e exerted a n i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e c o m r a d e s o f t h e K o r a group, w h o a r e n o t i n K o r a , t o w o r k i n a m o r e o r less closed a n d p a r o c h i a l w a y . S u c h v i e w s a n d stands n a r r o w t h e h o r i z o n s o f w o r k a n d v i s i o n , create a f e e l i n g o f s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d e g o t i s m a n d f o s t e r t h e conceit, especially a m o n g s t those w h o h a v e s u c h t e n d e n c i e s i n their c h a r a c t e r . In s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , c o m r a d e K o o (I t u r n e d t o w a r d s him), o u r K o r a g r o u p let t h e w a y o p e n t o t h e T r o t s k y ites N i k o X o x i , A r i s t i d h Q e n d r o a n d o t h e r s t o l e a v e K o r a and m a k e c o n t a c t w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y y o u n g people i n different cities o f o u r c o u n t r y , t h u s d e s t r o y i n g t h a t n e cessary r e v o l u t i o n a r y w o r k w h i c h t h e g r o u p i t s e l f s h o u l d

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h a v e done w i t h t h e m i n o r g a n i z e d w a y s . W h a t d i d those o f o u r g r o u p d o f o r those i n T i r a n a a n d i n S h k o d r a ? W h a t d i d you do in Tirana, comrade K o o ? H o w did the ' Y o u t h ' G r o u p emerge as a faction f r o m our K o r a group? D o n ' t w e , too, h a v e o u r s h a r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r these m i s takes, these d e v i a t i o n s a n d t h i s s t e r i l e s t r u g g l e w h i c h went on amongst groups? I t h i n k we have, if we analyse our w o r k somewhat more profoundly. Naturally, I do n o t accept t h e m i s t a k e s a n d f a u l t s o f o t h e r g r o u p s a n d their members, either for our group or for us as i n d i v i d u a l s . B u t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t w e are t o b l a m e f o r those mistakes and faults, we have to acknowledge t h e m and not w a s h o u r h a n d s o f them. Then, I went on to examine another question: Comrade V a s i l and y o u Anastas Lula, I said t u r n i n g towards them, you a n d y o u r groups made a great mistake that y o u d i d not adopt the C o m i n t e r n directives. T h i s gravely damaged the advance of the communist m o v e ment in A l b a n i a , permitted the penetration of T r o t s k y i s m i n t o o u r r a n k s a n d h i n d e r e d t h e o r g a n i z e d mass s t r u g g l e against Z o g a n d h i s r e g i m e . Y o u m u s t a c k n o w l e d g e these mistakes. For our part we have no reason to acknowledge them, o b j e c t e d A n a s t a s . T h a t w a s t h e t y p e h e w a s . H e made vindictive hints, but said nothing to back t h e m up. H o w come y o u don't acknowledge y o u r mistakes? demanded Sotir V u l l k a n i . Tell us why. F i r s t , t e l l m e w h e n those i n s t r u c t i o n s a r r i v e d i n A l b a n i a ? said Anastas in a tone of gloating t r i u m p h . I r e a l i z e d w h a t t h e o l d f o x w a s g e t t i n g at. so I replied calmly: In 1937. B u t i n 1937 w e w e r e n o t e v e n a f a c t i o n , let a l o n e a group, s a i d A n a s t a s g r a v e l y . W e b e g a n to create o u r g r o u p i n 1938 a n d e m e r g e d a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t g r o u p i n

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1940. W h y , t h e n , s h o u l d w e b e a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o m e thing that happened before we were 'born'? H e g a v e t h e c o m r a d e s a t r i u m p h a n t l o o k a n d sat d o w n c o n v i n c e d t h a t h e h a d s t r u c k us. B u t I d i d n o t l e a v e h i m long to savour his triumph. A n a s t a s L u l a , I s a i d , y o u s h o u l d p u t aside t h e sophisms a n d c u n n i n g ' a r g u m e n t s ' o f a b a d j u g g l e r w i t h figures, a n d j u d g e m a t t e r s c o r r e c t l y ! T r u e , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f the C o m i n t e r n a r r i v e d i n A l b a n i a i n 1937, b u t t h e y w e r e not j u s t f o r t h a t y e a r , b u t f o r t h e w h o l e p e r i o d a h e a d o f us, t h a t is, f o r t h e t i m e w h e n y o u b e g a n t o f o r m your faction and the t i m e w h e n y o u came out openly as a g r o u p . M o r e o v e r , t h e essence of t h e m t h e necessity f o r t h e l i n k i n g o f t h e c o m m u n i s t s w i t h t h e masses, the w o r k w i t h t h e masses, t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a b r o a d a n t i fascist f r o n t i s v a l i d f o r t o d a y , f o r t o m o r r o w a n d w i l l b e v a i l d f o r t h e f u t u r e , too. W i t h o u t w i n n i n g o v e r t h e masses, w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g s t r o n g l i n k s w i t h t h e w h o l e p e o ple, w i t h a l l t h e f o r c e s a r o u n d t h e P a r t y , o u r cause w i l l not a d v a n c e . T h e g r e a t l e a d e r s o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t t e a c h u s this, t h i s i s t h e s p i r i t o f t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e C o m i n t e r n . Therefore, A n a s t a s L u l a , I r e - e m p h a s i z e t h a t y o u s h o u l d acknowledge the grave mistakes w h i c h y o u have made up t i l l n o w a n d m u s t n o t a l l o w t h e m t o b e repeated. O n l y t h e K o r a g r o u p accepted a n d a d o p t e d them, said K o o b o a s t f u l l y . It i s true, I c o n t i n u e d , t h a t t h e K o r a g r o u p m a d e n o m i s t a k e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n a n d f o r t h i s w e are i n d e b t e d , first o f a l l , t o A l i K e l m e n d i f o r t h e c o r r e c t o r i e n t a t i o n s he had given our group when he was in Albania. We accepted t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e C o m i n t e r n a n d t r i e d t o p u t them i n t o p r a c t i c e . B u t w e m u s t j u d g e t h e m a t t e r c o r r e c t l y : H o w d i d w e a p p l y these d i r e c t i v e s ? D i d w e c o m p l e tely l i q u i d a t e t h e o l d closed s e c t a r i a n cells a n d d i d w e g o a m o n g t h e b r o a d masses o f t h e p e o p l e ? D i d w e set t o

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w o r k t o create s o u n d m i l i t a n t n e w cells f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t h e people a n d t o b u i l d a t r u l y o r g a n i z e d d e t a c h m e n t not only of w o r k e r s of K o r a but of the w h o l e c o u n t r y ? C o m r a d e Koo, I turned to h i m , we must recognize openly that we d i d not f u l f i l the tasks we undertook. T r u e , w e d i s b a n d e d t h e cells, b u t those w e f o r m e d a l i t t l e l a t e r w e r e j u s t a b o u t t h e s a m e as t h e f o r m e r ones, w i t h a small difference in their numbers and principles. It is true that the influence of the group was felt a bit more amongst the masses, b u t o n l y i n t h e c i t y o f K o r a , I t i s t r u e that the y o u t h of K o r a were organized better and w e r e under the influence of the group, but outside the city, in the countryside and outside the district the question w a s left t o s p o n t a n e i t y . W i t h t h e f e w s m a l l n u c l e i t h a t w e c r e a t e d t h e r e w e c a n n o t p r e t e n d t h a t o u r g r o u p ser i o u s l y took i n h a n d a n d a p p l i e d t h e g r e a t i d e a s o f the C o m i n t e r n properly. We cannot avoid o u r great r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d c a n n o t f a i l t o a c k n o w l e d g e these d e fects a n d s h o r t c o m i n g s . T h e o t h e r g r o u p s acted c o m p l e t e l y in opposition to the directives of the C o m i n t e r n and, of course, t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s g r e a t e r . I p e r s o n a l l y s t i l l p u t g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e o n these questions, I stressed, because t h e y h a v e h a d h a r m f u l consequences f o r o u r w o r k i n t h e past, a n d i f w e d o not m a k e a c l e a n sweep o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s a n d m i s t a k e s w h i c h the groups have had, our n e w l y f o r m e d P a r t y w i l l suffer greatly. A r e we going to go on m a i n t a i n i n g the group spirit in our C o m m u n i s t P a r t y ? In no w a y ! W e m u s t b u r y t h i s s p i r i t once a n d f o r a l l h e r e t o d a y . B u t we w o u l d be naive to t h i n k that w h e n we emerge f r o m this meeting everything w i l l go smoothly. No, we w i l l have to wage a merciless struggle against the spirit and the unhealthy methods of the group w o r k and w i l l fight factions and factionalists w i t h o u t hesitation. W e m u s t emerge f r o m t h i s m e e t i n g f r e e d f r o m t h e f e e l i n g

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of the superiority or i n f a l l i b i l i t y of any group and armed w i t h t h e f e e l i n g o f t h e steel M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t u n i t y o f the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a w h i c h w e h a v e f o r m e d . W h e n we were discussing the political, ideological and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a n d s w e h a d t a k e n a g a i n s t t h e fascist occupiers a n d t h e q u i s l i n g g o v e r n m e n t , I m a d e a n o t h e r short i n t e r p o l a t i o n a m o n g s t those o f c o m r a d e s o f v a r i o u s groups: W e o f t h e K o r a g r o u p , I p o i n t e d out, h a v e s a i d and say that we have not been w r o n g either in line or the stand w h i c h we have m a i n t a i n e d and continue to m a i n t a i n a g a i n s t t h e fascist o c c u p i e r s . I n r e g a r d t o t h e t w o other g r o u p s , a n d m o r e p r e c i s e l y t h e i r l e a d e r s , t h r o u g h their w r o n g views, they have t r i e d a n d up to a point have managed to hinder the anti-fascist activity of the r a n k a n d - f i l e c o m m u n i s t s , t h e y o u t h a n d others. T h a t m e a n s t o say, o b j e c t e d S a d i k P r e m t e , that y o u , too, a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e S h k o d r a g r o u p a n d our ' Y o u t h ' G r o u p h a v e n o t b e e n o p p o s e d t o t h e I t a l i a n fascist o c c u p a t i o n . T h i s i s a n a c c u s a t i o n . . . I d i d n ' t s a y a n y s u c h t h i n g , I r e p l i e d . K o o T a s h k o said it openly, but that's w h a t y o u r r e m a r k i s g e t t i n g at, c o n t i n u e d S a d i k . It i s n ' t at a l l as S a d i k P r e m t e says, I p o i n t e d out to t h e m e e t i n g . T h e issues I am g e t t i n g at are t h e s e : If K o o T a s h k o w i t h h i s i l l - c o n t r o l l e d a n d i r r i t a b l e remarks has i m p l i e d that the t w o other groups have not taken a stand against the occupiers, I dissociate myself f r o m t h i s o p i n i o n o f h i s . A l l o f us, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p e o ple, rose a g a i n s t t h e o c c u p i e r s a n d t h e t r a i t o r s , a l l o f u s came o u t i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n d d e m a n d e d w e a p o n s t o fight, b u t w e h a v e t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t w e w e r e n o t i n a position to organize the struggle and attack the enemy in the first days. L a t e r we recovered, organized our resistance a n d p r o p a g a n d a a g a i n s t t h e o c c u p i e r b e t t e r a n d

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thought more seriously about the war, but even then we d i d not manage to have all the groups do this w o r k i n t h e same w a y . M y o p i n i o n i s t h a t the K o r a g r o u p took a m o r e c o r r e c t v i e w o f t h e p r o b l e m s a n d t h e tasks a h e a d o f us. T h e S h k o d r a g r o u p w a s r e s o l u t e l y opposed to t h e o c c u p i e r , w a s a n t i - f a s c i s t , b u t , as I p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , its l e a d e r s w e r e n o t c l e a r o n a n u m b e r o f m a j o r issues o f p r i n c i p l e . M e a n w h i l e , t h e l e a d e r s of the ' Y o u t h ' G r o u p and precisely the t w o comrades w h o a r e here, A n a s t a s L u l a a n d S a d i k P r e m t e , w e r e n o t a t a l l c l e a r o n these issues a n d , m o r e o v e r , t h e r e was an anti-communist and Trotskyite tinge to their views. W e protest a g a i n ! Y o u are m a k i n g a g r a v e a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t S a d i k a n d me, s a i d A n a s t a s , s p r i n g i n g t o h i s feet. W h a t i s t h e basis f o r w h a t y o u s a y ? ! I base w h a t I s a i d on a series of v i e w s a n d s l o g a n s w h i c h y o u have adopted and propagated, I said a n d I e x p l a i n e d the defeatist c o n t e n t o f t h e i r s l o g a n , the t i m e t o f i g h t h a s n o t c o m e yet, because w e h a v e n e i t h e r organization n o r weapons, a n d I w e n t on to denounce a n d condemn the views of such leaders as A r i s t i d h Qendro, A n d r e a Z i s i and others that we should i n f i l t r a t e t h e A l b a n i a n fascist p a r t y a n d t h e p o l i c e i n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t w h a t i s b e i n g d o n e there, t h a t it s h o u l d n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d w r o n g t o b e t r a y secrets t o t h e police, etc. I n fact, t h e r a n k a n d f i l e o f t h e g r o u p s d i d n o t accept these slogans, b u t t h e a n t i - M a r x i s t l e a d e r s w h o m I m e n t i o n e d , w h o w e r e agents o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e a n d t h e o c c u p i e r , managed to impose themselves in a thousand w a y s on and keep the rank-and-file comrades under restraint. We had to e x p l a i n the S o v i e t - G e r m a n Non-aggression Pact to the comrades of the K o r a group, I continued. W e d i d t h i s a m o n g t h e people, too, because t h i s w a s a very delicate question w h i c h the enemy w a s e x p l o i t i n g

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t o the m a x i m u m , s o w e h a d t o e x p l a i n t h e c o n t e n t a n d aim o f t h a t p a c t t o t h e c o m r a d e s , t o m a k e c l e a r t o them and convince t h e m that the Soviet U n i o n w a s and remained w h a t it h a d been, the glorious h o m e l a n d of Lenin and Stalin. C o n t i n u i n g to explain this problem, I underlined that while the S h k o d r a group was not as active as it should have been, t h e Y o u t h G r o u p w a s t o t a l l y i n a c t i v e i n this d i r e c t i o n , i n d e e d , i t u s e d t h e n o n - a g g r e s s i o n p a c t to serve t h e T r o t s k y i t e t h e o r i e s of its l e a d e r s . Y o u see, Anastas s a i d , it i s p r o v e d t h a t y o u w e r e w r o n g a n d w e were r i g h t w h e n w e s a i d t h a t t h e t i m e t o f i g h t has n o t come, and h e c o n t i n u e d , w e are r i g h t t o c o n s i d e r t h a t w e m u s t wait u n t i l t h e c o u n t r y i s i n d u s t r i a l i z e d a n d t h e p r o l e t a r i a t created a n d t h e n f o r m t h e p a r t y , that w e m u s t t r a i n t h e cadres b e f o r e w e h u r l o u r s e l v e s i n t o t h e struggle, w e m u s t protect a n d n o t s a c r i f i c e t h e cadres, a n d o t h e r s u c h rubbish n o w w e l l - k n o w n t o a l l . H o w e v e r , t h i s h o s t i l e w o r k b y the T r o t s k y i t e l e a d e r s o f g r o u p s i m p e d e d t h e r a l l y i n g o f c o m m u n i s t energies i n r e s i s t a n c e a n d s t r u g g l e . T h e s e Trotskyite chiefs continued their defeatist a c t i v i t y even when the S o v i e t U n i o n w a s a t t a c k e d . T h e y t r i e d t o sabotage the s t r i k e s a n d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s w h i c h , i n t h e e n d , t h e Kora group and S h k o d r a group managed to organize jointly. I c o n t i n u e d to speak also a b o u t t h e close c o l l a b o r a t i o n w e had m a n a g e d t o e s t a b l i s h w i t h t h e o u t s t a n d i n g p a t r i o t , M y s l i m P e z a , a n d w i t h o t h e r p a t r i o t s . I s p e c i a l l y stressed the q u e s t i o n of the peasantry, pointing out c l e a r l y its great role i n o u r l i b e r a t i o n w a r a n d s a y i n g t h a t t h e K o r a group h a d t a k e n a c o r r e c t v i e w o f t h i s v i t a l q u e s t i o n in principle, but h a d done v e r y little about it in practice. The others h a d u n d e r r a t e d i t b o t h i n t h e o r y a n d i n p r a c tice, w h i l e A n a s t a s L u l a a n d c o m p a n y , w i t h their anti-

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Leninist theory, had abandoned the peasantry to the bourgeoisie a n d f a s c i s m . I d e m a n d e d t h a t w e s h o u l d a p p r e c i a t e a l l these m a j o r q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t l y , because w e h a d t o m a k e u p f o r t h e t i m e w e h a d lost. F i e r y debates t o o k p l a c e a b o u t these p r o b l e m s j u s t a s a b o u t the p r e v i o u s ones. A n a s t a s ' g r o u p c a p i t u l a t e d . H e w a s o b l i g e d t o a d m i t r e l u c t a n t l y t h a t some o f h i s ideas h a d b e e n w r o n g , b u t . . . t h a t i t w a s n ' t p r e c i s e l y like t h a t . . . , that in practice, it w a s so b u t . . . , a h u n d r e d buts. A l l h i s a d m i s s i o n s w e r e j u s t t o t h r o w dust i n o u r eyes, a n d , a s l i f e i t s e l f s h o w e d , t h e y w e r e rocks above and below the water, were mines laid in t h e r o a d o f o u r resistance a n d f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e o c c u p i e r s . T h i s r o a d h a d t o b e c l e a r e d f o r t h e P a r t y a n d t h e people, the visible and invisible mines had to be defused. Ther e f o r e , d u r i n g those days, a t those f i e r y m o m e n t s w h e n t h e f a t e o f t h e people a n d t h e H o m e l a n d w a s d e c i d e d , t h e A l b a n i a n communists waged a great fierce battle and triumphed. T h e communists of the groups w h o w e r e present at this meeting were freed f r o m a lot of h a r m f u l v i e w s w i t h w h i c h t h e y h a d c r a m m e d t h e i r heads. T h e y b r o u g h t t h e m out i n the open, d i s c u s s e d t h e m f r e e l y a n d c o n d e m n e d t h e m , m a d e f i e r c e c r i t i c i s m s o f one a n o t h e r a n d gained immensely f r o m this great school. In praticular, our whole new P a r t y w h i c h we had formed was to gain a great d e a l . W h a t w o u l d this P a r t y be like, h o w w o u l d it be o r g a n i z e d , w h a t w o u l d b e its m i n i m u m p r o g r a m f o r the times we were passing through? A l l the comrades of t h e g r o u p s w h o t o o k p a r t i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f these v i t a l questions gave their opinions w h i c h were in general i n a c c o r d . I , too, dealt w i t h t h i s p r o b l e m a t l e n g t h i n m y c o n t r i b u t i o n , s a y i n g i n essence:

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C o m r a d e s , w e h a v e d e c i d e d t h e m a j o r issue, t h e main thing, we have founded the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of A l b a n i a o n a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t basis. L i k e w i s e , w e h a v e f r a n k l y d i s c u s s e d t h e g o o d a n d b a d aspects o f t h e c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s . It's t r u e w e h a v e a t t a c k e d t h e e v i l s , but w e m u s t c o n t i n u e t o s t r u g g l e a n d , f r o m n o w o n , w e must n o t a l l o w these o r s i m i l a r m i s t a k e s dressed u p in other forms to occur again in the n e w circumstances w h i c h t h e N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r w i l l create f o r us. W e m u s t p u t t h e g o o d aspects o f t h e g r o u p s , e s p e c i a l l y the p o s i t i v e aspects o f t h e w o r k t h e y h a v e done, i n t h e service o f t h e P a r t y a n d t h e w a r , b u t w e m u s t n o t content o u r s e l v e s w i t h those f e w r e s u l t s w h i c h h a v e been a c h i e v e d . I n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e u n i t y i n t h e Party, f r o m n o w on we must not permit any d i s c r i m i n a tion i n t h e r a n k s o f m e m b e r s o f t h e P a r t y i r r e s p e c t i v e from w h a t group they have come. T h e r e must not be any g r o u p p r e j u d i c e s r e t a i n e d i n t h e b a c k o f a n y o n e ' s minds. That's right, interjected V a s i l Shanto, and I propose t h a t f r o m n o w o n w e s h o u l d n o t h e a r a n y o n e s a y : 'I am a m e m b e r of this or that group.' F r o m n o w on there are o n l y m e m b e r s o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a . I agree c o m p l e t e l y , I s a i d a n d c o n t i n u e d . T h e r e are n o l o n g e r m e m b e r s o r l e a d e r s o f g r o u p s , t h e y d o n ' t exist a n y m o r e . F r o m n o w o n t h e r e w i l l b e t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f the P a r t y , t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e a n d t h e r e g i o n a l committees. T h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e P a r t y l i q u i d a t e d t h e groups f o r ever, h e n c e t h e s p i r i t a n d p r a c t i c e o f t h e i r w o r k m u s t b e e l i m i n a t e d , too. W i t h t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e b y t h i s m e e t i n g w e l i q u i d a t e 'the p o w e r and i n f l u e n c e ' of l e a d e r s of c o m m u n i s t g r o u p s . I repeat once m o r e w h a t V a s i l s a i d : t h e r e are n o l o n g e r m e m b e r s o f groups. F r o m n o w o n t h e r e are o n l y m e m b e r s o f the Communist P a r t y of A l b a n i a .

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W h o w i l l b e t h e s o l d i e r s o f t h e P a r t y , t h a t is, its first members? T h e comrades here discussed this a n d t h e others w i l l discuss i t l a t t e r . I associate m y s e l f w i t h the idea that the soldiers of our P a r t y w i l l be the o r g a nized members of the f o r m e r communist groups of S h k o d r a , K o r a a n d t h e ' Y o u t h ' a f t e r t h e y h a v e b e e n screened, therefore, we should take the decision that i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h i s m e e t i n g w e s h o u l d p r e p a r e e x a c t lists o f t h e m e m b e r s of g r o u p s as q u i c k l y as possible. I s a y e x a c t m e a n i n g t h a t t h e lists s h o u l d n o t b e e n l a r g e d w i t h p e o p l e w h o h a v e n o t b e e n a c t i v e o r w h o a r e suspect, i n o r d e r t o increase t h e n u m b e r s o t h a t one o r t h e o t h e r g r o u p w i l l dominate in the Party. B u t neither should we present s h o r t lists i n o r d e r t o c o n c e a l a n d r e t a i n a c t i v i s t s f o r eventual factional w o r k outside the P a r t y . These lists must be handed over as q u i c k l y as possible to the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e w h i c h w i l l b e elected. T h e r e has b e e n a great d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n on t h e foundations on w h i c h the P a r t y must be built. My opin i o n is that our P a r t y should be built f o l l o w i n g t h e example of the Bolshevik Party, b o t h organizationally and ideologically. A c c o r d i n g to this experience, as far as I k n o w , its basic u n i t m u s t b e t h e c e l l , i n w h i c h t h e communists w i l l militate. The members of the cell w i l l elect its s e c r e t a r y a n d t h e c o m m u n i s t s o f t h e r e g i o n o r t h e i r delegates w i l l elect t h e r e g i o n a l c o m m i t t e e o f the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of A l b a n i a . F o r the t i m e being, I think that the Central Committee should appoint the m a i n cadres o f t h e r e g i o n a l c o m m i t t e e s a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d organizational secretary u n t i l the conditions are created for their election to be done by the regional organ i z a t i o n s o f t h e P a r t y . W h e n w e create s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e w h o l e P a r t y w i l l s e n d delegates t o t h e N a t i o n a l C o n ference w h i c h w i l l p l a y t h e r o l e o f t h e P a r t y C o n g r e s s a n d i n these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a s s u c h , w i l l b e t h e h i g h e s t

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instance of the leadership of the P a r t y , w h i c h w i l l det e r m i n e its l i n e a n d elect t h e D e f i n i t i v e C e n t r a l C o m mittee. In the meeting there w e r e vigorous a n d concrete discussions, v a l u a b l e debates a n d p r o p o s a l s a b o u t t h e f u n c t i o n i n g , n o r m s a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f the n e w P a r t y . A l m o s t all t h e c o m r a d e s rose a n d s p o k e one a f t e r t h e other, o r expressed t h e i r o p i n i o n s i n v a r i o u s i n t e r p o l a t i o n s . W i t h these d i s c u s s i o n s a n d debates t h e p r o g r a m m a t i c l i n e o f the P a r t y , t h e f o u n d a t i o n s a n d n o r m s o n w h i c h i t w o u l d b e b u i l t , w e r e b e i n g w o r k e d out. T h u s , a m o n g s t o t h e r things, w e s t r e s s e d : In our P a r t y there w i l l be democratic centralism, open a n d s i n c e r e b o l s h e v i k c r i t i c i s m a n d s e l f - c r i t i c i s m w i l l p r e v a i l . I n a l l its a c t i v i t y o u r P a r t y w i l l base itself on and be guided by the theory of M a r x , Engels, L e n i n and S t a l i n . O u r P a r t y i s a g a i n s t f a c t i o n s a n d g r o u p s , which i t w i l l fight mercilessly. O u r P a r t y w i l l encourage the e x p r e s s i o n o f o p i n i o n s , b u t t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y w i l l predominate over that of the minority, w h i c h must obey t h e m a j o r i t y . O u r P a r t y m u s t h a v e steel d i s c i p l i n e , must h a v e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t u n i t y o f t h o u g h t a n d a c t i o n . W i t h o u t i n t e r n a l steel d i s c i p l i n e a n d u n i t y o u r P a r t y , w h i c h w i l l d o b a t t l e w i t h a l a r g e n u m b e r o f enemies, cannot l e a d t h e f i g h t s u c c e s s f u l l y . The P a r t y w i l l combat a l l a n t i - M a r x i s t ideologies and c u r r e n t s . I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y , however, w e m u s t i n s i s t e n e r g e t i c a l l y o n r a i s i n g t h e t h e o retical, p o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f t h e cadres a n d members o f t h e P a r t y b y s t u d y i n g t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t theory. Our P a r t y must be the organized v a n g u a r d of the w o r k i n g class, w h i l e it c o n s i d e r s t h e p e a s a n t r y as a f r i e n d l y class, a n a l l y o f t h e w o r k i n g class, a n d w i l l r e l y h e a v i l y o n i t because o u r p e a s a n t r y w i l l p l a y a m a j o r role,

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d u r i n g the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n W a r a n d after. This was an important problem w h i c h had to be stressed a n d a l l the c o m m u n i s t s h a d t o b e c l e a r a b o u t i t . O u r P a r t y h a d been f o u n d e d a s a P a r t y o f t h e w o r k i n g class, w h i c h w o u l d b e g u i d e d b y t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t i d e o l o g y r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e fact t h a t i n o u r c o u n t r y t h i s class w a s v e r y s m a l l , m a d e u p o f a n u m b e r o f w a g e labourers, apprentices and craftsmen, and w e r e scarcely tested i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s t r i k e s a n d clashes, o r t r a d e u n i o n a n d class struggles. T h e r e h a d b e e n w o r k e r s ' s t r i k e s i n t h e past i n v a r i o u s cities o f o u r c o u n t r y , b u t t h e y w e r e o n a s m a l l scale a n d not c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h one a n o t h e r , b o t h because t h e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s w a s s m a l l a n d because t h e r e w a s n o organization in trade-unions and no developed industrial b o u r g e o i s i e . T h e w o r k e r s ' s t r i k e s l i k e those i n K o r a , K u o v a a n d S h k o d r a , n a t u r a l l y , h a v e h a d a n e c o n o m i c class c h a r acter, b u t t h e y h a d also a s s u m e d a n a n t i - s t a t e c h a r a c t e r a gainst the g o v e r n m e n t a n d its o p p r e s s i v e m e a s u r e s . T h e s t r i k e w i t h t h e m o s t m a r k e d class c h a r a c t e r w a s t h a t o f t h e K u o v a workers, w h i c h was directed at the same time against c a p i t a l i s t e x p l o i t e r s , w h o w e r e t h e I t a l i a n concession holders. W h i l e the Puna association in K o r a had the i n i t i a l forms of the rally of w o r k e r s and craftsmen of the city to defend their economic rights against the e m p l o y e r s . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n h a d also s t r u g g l e d f o r d e m o c r a t i c a n d p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s u p t o t h e p o i n t t h a t its m e m b e r s a n d s y m p a t h i z e r s c a m e o u t i n t h e streets d e m a n d i n g bread a n d f i g h t i n g w i t h Z o g ' s g e n d a r m e r i e . O f course, I am not going to d w e l l at length on this p r o b l e m here, because t h e P a r t y h a s m a d e a g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s o f t h i s c a p i t a l q u e s t i o n a n d o u r h i s t o r i a n s a n d sociologists w i l l c e r t a i n l y deepen i t w i t h f u r t h e r studies, b u t I w a n t t o p o i n t out that, w h e n w e f o u n d e d t h e P a r t y , w e r e c o g nized the political, ideological and organizational short-

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c o m i n g s a n d w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e w o r k i n g class, b u t also r e c o g n i z e d its f i g h t i n g t r a d i t i o n s , r e v o l u t i o n a r y s p i r i t a n d historic mission, therefore at the F o u n d i n g M e e t i n g of the Party we u n d e r l i n e d that our P a r t y w o u l d be the o r g a n i zed v a n g u a r d d e t a c h m e n t o f t h e w o r k i n g class. But, w h i l e bearing this in m i n d , the P a r t y never underestimated the role a n d great weight of the peasantry i n the w a r a n d r e v o l u t i o n . F r o m its e a r l i e s t d a y s t h e P a r t y took i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t i n t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e o c c u p i e r s , i t a n d t h e class w h i c h i t r e p r e s e n t e d h a d t o r e l y o n t h e peasantry. T h e p e a s a n t s w e r e oppressed t o t h e l i m i t , h a d little o r n o l a n d , l i v e d i n m e d i a e v a l f e u d a l i g n o r a n c e a n d unheard of w a n t . A d d e d to the misery of the peasantry over t h e c e n t u r i e s caused b y t h e beys, t h e f e u d a l l o r d s , the u s u r i o u s g r a n d a n d p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e , b y t h e aghas and b i g l a n d o w n e r s , w a s t h e o p p r e s s i o n i m p o s e d b y t h e Italian o c c u p i e r s , t h e p l u n d e r e r s o f t h e f r e e d o m a n d i n dependence o f t h e H o m e l a n d , w h o w e r e b r i n g i n g i n t h e i r own c o l o n i s t s a n d d r i v i n g t h e peasants f r o m t h e i r l a n d . O u r peasants h a d great r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a d i t i o n s . T h e y had f o u g h t m o r e t h a n t h e c i t y - d w e l l e r s a g a i n s t a series o f occupiers, a g a i n s t t h e i r e n s l a v i n g l a w s , a g a i n s t t a x e s and s o o n . T h e m o u n t a i n s a n d t h e v i l l a g e s , f r o m w h i c h our peasants p o u r e d d o w n u p o n t h e enemies, h a v e a l w a y s been t h e centres o f r e s i s t a n c e a n d l i b e r a t i o n s t r u g g l e s . The p r o g r e s s i v e e l e m e n t s o f t h e c i t y , w h e t h e r f i g h t e r s with the pen or the rifle, h a d the peasantry as t h e i r m a i n base. I n r e g a r d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e k n o w l e d g e , the l a n g u a g e a n d s c h o o l i n g i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t t h i s b e g a n i n the cities, b u t w h e n i t c a m e t o f i g h t i n g , t h e p r o g r e s s i v e and r e v o l u t i o n a r y e l e m e n t s o f t h e cities h a d t h e p e a s a n t r y a s t h e i r allies. N a t u r a l l y , i n those t i m e s w h e n t h e w o r k ing class d i d n o t e x i s t , t h e p e a s a n t r y w a s s u b j e c t e d t o various i n f l u e n c e s . T h e n , too, a s t r u g g l e w a s w a g e d o v e r who w o u l d w i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e p e a s a n t r y , t h e e m e r g -

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i n g b o u r g e o i s i e o r t h e beys, t h e f e u d a l l o r d s a n d t h e b i g landowners. T h e beys and the f e u d a l lords supported by the O t t o m a n and other occupiers maintained their d o m i n a t i o n o v e r t h e p e a s a n t r y b y m e a n s o f force, a l t h o u g h often enough they could not restrain the outbursts of the a n g e r o f t h e p e a s a n t r y against o c c u p i e r s a n d f e u d a l l o r d s . T h e f o l k songs, t h e g l o r i o u s h i s t o r y o f each e p o c h handed d o w n by w o r d of mouth, tell of this. However, the progressive elements w h o were emergi n g f r o m the u r b a n bourgeoisie and the progressive patr i o t i c elements w i t h i n f l u e n c e , w h o b r o k e a w a y f r o m t h e i r class o f beys a n d f e u d a l l o r d s , s t r u g g l e d t o a w a k e n t h e p e a s a n t r y a n d b e c a m e c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h t h e f e u d a l class i n o r d e r t o u n d e r m i n e its i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . O f course, t h e r e w e r e o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h c o m p e t e d i n t h e struggle, w h i c h I h a v e b r i e f l y m e n t i o n e d , s u c h a s t h e v a r i o u s r e l i g i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e heads o f w h i c h a s s i s t e d b o t h t h e f o r e i g n e r s a n d t h e e x p l o i t i n g class o f feudal lords and the bourgeois speculators. Nevertheless, a m o n g t h e believers, a m o n g p e o p l e o f a l l r e l i g i o n s , especially the Moslems and the O r t h o d o x Christians, there w e r e l i b e r a l c u r r e n t s w h i c h stressed t h e s i d i n g o f t h e peasantry w i t h the progressive bourgeoisie. T h e patriotic r e v o l u t i o n a r y s p i r i t , t h e s t r u g g l e against p o v e r t y a n d o p pression impelled our p r o u d peasantry not towards athei s m , a s w e c o m m u n i s t s u n d e r s t a n d it, b u t o n t h e c o u r s e of t h i n k i n g : I h a v e a r e l i g i o n , because t h a t ' s t h e w a y i t is, because I w a s b o r n o f t h a t r e l i g i o n a n d t h a t ' s h o w I w i l l die. I n t h e g r e a t s t r u g g l e w h i c h a w a i t e d u s w e w e r e g o i n g t o r e l y p r e c i s e l y o n these masses, o n these traditions, therefore in my contribution I pointed out: The P a r t y must combat sectarianism and opportunism, both in thought and action. We must increase the ranks of the Party, first of all, w i t h sound w o r k e r elements, b u t also w i t h peasants a n d o t h e r r e v o l u -

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t i o n a r y f i g h t e r s . A l l those w h o a r e a d m i t t e d t o t h e P a r t y must b e tested i n s t r u g g l e f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f its aims. W e m u s t close t h e d o o r s o f t h e P a r t y t o spies a n d p r o v o c a t e u r s , t o gossips a n d c o w a r d s , t o f a c t i o n a l i s t s , a n a r c h i s t s a n d i n t r i g u e r s w h o w i l l t r y t o p e n e t r a t e its r a n k s i n o r d e r t o cause c o n f u s i o n a n d t o create t h e terrain for anti-Party Trotskyite work. T h e m e r c i l e s s o r g a n i z e d s t r u g g l e against the o c c u p i e r s and traitors must occupy the m a i n place in the p r o g r a m of our Party. O u r a i m is the general armed uprising, in w h i c h the w h o l e people must be mobilized, but in order t o r e a c h t h i s stage t h e s i m p l e r f o r m s o f s t r u g g l e , d e m o n s t r a tions, acts of sabotage, e x e c u t i o n s of e n e m i e s a n d r e p e a t e d actions m u s t b e c a r r i e d out. I n t h e cities t h e P a r t y m u s t o r g a n i z e t h e g u e r r i l l a u n i t s , w h i l e i n the v i l l a g e s i t m u s t f o r m p a r t i s a n eta a n d u n i t s o f f r e e d o m f i g h t e r s f r o m w h i c h , i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e w a r , i t w i l l o r g a n i z e the b i g units w h i c h w i l l f o r m t h e people's a r m y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e P a r t y m u s t e x t e n d its w o r k a m o n g t h e masses a n d c a r r y out w i d e - r a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y e v e r y w h e r e i n o r d e r t o m o b i l i z e t h e people, a l l honest i n d i v i d u a l s , a l l t h e p a t r i o t i c a n d a n t i - f a s c i s t forces i n t h e great s t r u g g l e . T h e w h o l e people m u s t b e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e o n l y w a y t o escape f r o m s l a v e r y i s t o f i g h t a r m s i n h a n d a n d that they w i l l t r i u m p h i n t h i s f i g h t . T h e people m u s t b e c o n vinced about the strength and the correct line of the Party. O u r new P a r t y must be in the forefront of the f i g h t ; w h e r e v e r t h e d a n g e r i s greatest, w h e r e v e r t h e sacrifices are greatest, t h a t i s w h e r e t h e c o m m u n i s t s must be. The P a r t y must tell the people that it is fighting so they t h e m s e l v e s w i l l t a k e p o w e r a n d , w h e n t h i s i s a c h i e v e d , the P a r t y w o u l d c a r r y o u t m a j o r economic, c u l t u r a l a n d social r e f o r m s . T h e P a r t y w i l l t e l l the people that, ' f r e e d o m must b e w o n , i t i s n o t d o n a t e d . ' T h e r e f o r e , t h e C o m m u n i s t

280

ENVER HOXHA

P a r t y of A l b a n i a w h i c h has been f o r m e d w i l l lead the N a t i o n a l Liberation W a r and the people to victory. T h i s m u s t b e the great m i s s i o n o f t h e P a r t y i n g e n e r a l o u t l i n e . A f t e r these o p i n i o n s h a d b e e n e x p r e s s e d a n d a l l t h e c o m r a d e s h a d d i s c u s s e d these i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s , f i n a l l y w e d e c i d e d u n a n i m o u s l y t h a t these p r i n c i p l e s a n d t h e conclusions and decisions of this historic meeting, w h i c h founded the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of A l b a n i a , should be summed up in the Resolution of the M e e t i n g of the M a i n Communist Groups of A l b a n i a on the F o r m a t i o n of the Party. A f t e r a l l t h i s w e came t o t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n : t h e election of the C e n t r a l Committee. First, the comrades agreed t o t h e p r o p o s a l t h a t t h i s C o m m i t t e e w h i c h w e w o u l d elect w o u l d b e p r o v i s i o n a l u n t i l t h e c a l l i n g o f a N a t i o n a l Conference of the P a r t y . B u t w h o w o u l d be elected? T h i s w a s n o t a s i m p l e p r o b l e m , b e a r i n g i n m i n d t h a t chiefs o f t h e f o r m e r g r o u p s , those w h o h a d a l w a y s pretended to be at the head of everything, were t a k i n g part in the meeting, and they w o u l d certainly have l i k e d to be in the leadership of the n e w P a r t y . A n d then, w h i c h f o r m e r h e a d o f a g r o u p w o u l d b e the c h i e f a t t h e head of the C e n t r a l Committee? The C o m m u n i s t P a r t y of A l b a n i a h a d been founded, but the confusion of the f o r m e r groups h a d not been and could not be eliminated so q u i c k l y f r o m t h e m i n d s a n d consciousness o f t h e i r m e m b e r s . Therefore, m a n y comrades i n c l u d i n g me w e r e of the opinion that the f o r m e r chiefs of the groups should be l e f t out o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p a l t o g e t h e r . T h i s d e c i s i o n w o u l d have exceptional importance for unity of leadership of the n e w l y formed Party, and consequently for the w h o l e Party. Because we judged matters in this way, we had to f i n d a w a y a t a l l costs t o l e a v e out t h e c h i e f s . A n d the possibilities for this existed. Besides the period before the

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meeting, t h e s i x o r s e v e n d a y s o f debates a t t h e m e e t i n g , especially, h a d s h o w n u p t h e c h i e f s i n t h e i r t r u e c o l o u r s . T h e y h a d b e e n a t t a c k e d m o r e h e a v i l y t h a n a n y o n e else and b l a m e d f o r t h e f o r m e r w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e c o m m u n i s t movement of A l b a n i a . At this point M i l a d i n , in his role of arbitre a m o n g the groups, i n t e r v e n e d t o m a k e a w i s e i n t e r p o l a t i o n . H e s a i d : Comrades, here I am t a k i n g account of an opinion or a proposal w h i c h comrade Tashko made sometimes ago. He p r o p o s e d t h a t as one of t h e h e a d s of t h e f o r m e r groups h e s h o u l d n o t b e elected t o t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e . I think that the proposal is valid, not only for h i m , but also f o r t h e others. T h e r e f o r e , l o o k i n g a t K o o ' s p e r s o n a l proposal in a g e n e r a l c o n t e x t , I suggest to t h e m e e t i n g t h a t none o f t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e f o r m e r g r o u p s , n e i t h e r c h a i r m e n nor v i c e - c h a i r m e n , s h o u l d b e elected t o t h e P r o v i s i o n a l Central Committee. Immediately I remembered that during a conversation before t h e m e e t i n g , a t w h i c h some o f o u r c o m r a d e s a n d M i l a d i n P o p o v i w e r e present, w h e n w e w e r e t a l k i n g about h o w t h e c h i e f s o f t h e g r o u p s h a d h i n d e r e d o u r u n i t y i n t h e past a n d w e r e s t i l l a h i n d r a n c e t o it, K o o Tashko's face h a d f l u s h e d w i t h a n g e r a n d o n t h e s p u r o f the m o m e n t h e h a d s a i d : If I h a v e b e e n a h i n d r a n c e t h e n r e m o v e me. T h o u g h it is n o t I w h o h a v e h i n d e r e d u n i t y , b u t those of t h e Shkodra and 'Youth' groups... I was convinced that K o o did this simply for demagogy, in o r d e r to a p p e a r generous, p r i n c i p l e d , d e v o t e d t o the cause, etc. M o r e o v e r , K o o h a d r e p e a t e d t h i s statement i n p a s s i n g i n o n e o f h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n s d u r i n g the meeting. W h e n M i l a d i n s a i d this, K o o T a s h k o seemed s t u n n e d and he s a i d :

282

ENVER HOXHA Just h a n g on a m i n u t e . . . , don't misunderstand m e . . .

W h a t I meant w a s . . . Y o u w e r e q u i t e right, s a i d P i l o i n a s e r i o u s tone, b u t not without a t o u c h of i r o n y . I agree t h a t t h e c h i e f s s h o u l d n o t be elected. Anastas L u l a and Sadik Premte kept their tempers in check. T h e y d i d n o t k n o w w h o t o t a k e i t o u t o n , K o o o r t h e m s e l v e s . O n l y V a s i l S h a n t o took t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e meeting calmly and w i t h the generosity of a true and devoted communist. I don't remember who proposed the

c o m p r o m i s e , w h i c h w a s accepted, t h a t t h e l i s t o f c a n didates t o t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e s h o u l d b e p r e p a r e d a n d presented by a commission the groups and were of three in people made up of the meeting. So, t h e c o m r a d e s w h o h a d b e e n m o r e o r less a t t h e h e a d o f taking part Koo Tashko, V a s i l Shanto and Anastas L u l a were appointed to the commission. B u t this commission did not operate a p a r t f r o m c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m r a d e s present a t t h e m e e t i n g a n d n o t j u s t each w i t h t h e c o m r a d e s o f h i s o w n g r o u p , b u t also i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h others. T h e l i s t w a s d r a w n u p t a k i n g i n t o account t h e past o f the c a n d i d a t e s , w h i c h w a s t h e i r r o l e i n t h e m e e t i n g , also b e a r i n g i n m i n d their class origin and establishing a correct proportion b e t w e e n those w i t h w o r k e r o r i g i n o r status a n d i n t e l l e c tuals. I t w a s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t that, w i t h i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s , a certain balance should be maintained in i n c l u d i n g the f r o m the former groups in the Committee. of the elected candidates the which were Central presented, Committee the of for soundest r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Central

T h u s , a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n o f these q u e s t i o n s a n d t h e c h a r acteristics meeting Provisional

seven persons. In order to ensure u n i t y there was no election

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chairman or secretary of the C e n t r a l Committee. (8) Complete parity was made the foundation of the w h o l e w o r k as it had been for the preparation and the conduct of the proceedings o f t h e M e e t i n g f o r t h e F o u n d i n g o f t h e P a r t y , N o t h i n g s h o u l d b e d o n e w h i c h w o u l d create t h e i m p r e s s i o n that one g r o u p h a d m o r e r i g h t s a n d a d v a n t a g e s t h a n the other. T h u s , a f t e r s e v e n d a y s o f i n t e n s i v e w o r k the m e e t i n g came t o a n e n d w i t h a great v i c t o r y , t h e f o u n d i n g o f the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f A l b a n i a , w i t h a correct l i n e a n d a clear p r o g r a m . W i t h j o y i n o u r h e a r t s a n d f u l l o f e n t h u s i a s m w e set t o w o r k w i t h zeal a n d o p t i m i s m .

T a k e n f r o m When the Party Was Born, 3rd A l b . ed., Tirana 1983

___________________________________________ 8 K n o w n h i s t o r i c a l facts and o f f i c i a l documents of the Party show that C o m r a d e E n v e r H o x h a led the (Provisional) Central Committee. He was elected G e n e r a l Secretary of the C P A at the 1st N a t i o n a l Conference, h e l d on 17-22 M a r c h 1943 in L a b i n o t (Elbasan). T h e Conference, also, elected the Definitive C e n t r a l Committee, comprised of 15 members and 5 alternate members, a n d the P o l i t i c a l B u r e a u .

REFLECTIONS

July 15, 1981

W e A l b a n i a n s , a s a people, a P a r t y a n d state h a v e a l w a y s been a n d a r e a g a i n s t i m p e r i a l i s t w a r s , a g a i n s t a n y unjust w a r w h i c h is aimed at the enslavement, slaughter a n d e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the peoples. T h i s h a s its o w n c o n c r e t e h i s t o r i c a l reasons. T h r o u g h o u t t h e i r e x i s t e n c e t h e A l b a n i a n people h a v e s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y as a r e s u l t of s u c h wars w h i c h have been directly detrimental to their freedom, territorial integrity and national independence. A l l these w a r s w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n h a v e b r o u g h t o u r p e o p l e bloodshed, exploitation and the fragmentation of t h e i r territory. This is an undeniable reality. O u r p e o p l e h a v e f a c e d u p t o these and have fought w i t h unflinching wars heroically determination against

savage enemies i n defence o f t h e i r f r e e d o m , i n d e p e n d e n c e , integrity, culture and their v e r y existence, in defence of w h a t has fight been a n d have is theirs. At the same our people have experience gained time, in t h e how them to to course o f these w a r s better, learned enabling

u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t f a c e d t h e m , t h e aims, tactics, plans and plots of external a n d i n t e r n a l enemies and, on t h i s basis, t h e y h a v e b e e n a b l e t o build the tactics of

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their resistance in order to w i t h s t a n d the evil-doing of the e n e m i e s . T h i s , too, is a r e a l i t y . To be a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h f r i e n d s f r o m foes, f a l s e f r i e n d s f r o m t r u e f r i e n d s , i s a q u e s t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e . M i s t a k e s a r e o f t e n t h e best teachers, o u r p e o p l e say. T h e y also s a y : T h e w a t e r s m a y sleep b u t n o t t h e e n e m y . T h e s e t w o s a y i n g s , these two great teachings, have emerged f r o m the p r o f o u n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g o f t h e people, f r o m o u r people's great e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e , a n d h a v e g u i d e d t h e m t h r o u g h o u t the ages of t h e i r h i s t o r y . The struggle of a people for national existence does not and cannot depend on the combinations and diplomatic intrigues of other states, be they big or small. It depends on the consciousness of the people themselves, when they attain understanding of what their rights and true interests are, have confidence in their own strength at any moment and in any situation, and know how to defend these rights and interests with iron will, sound logic, and revolutionary struggle. Only then the strength of the people becomes invincible, is multiplied a hundredfold and bursts out like an irresistible hurricane. We A l b a n i a n s have proceeded on such a course. H i s t o r y proves this, otherwise we w o u l d not exist today, the i n v a d e r s w o u l d h a v e a s s i m i l a t e d u s o r t h e e n e m i e s would have w i p e d us out; otherwise we w o u l d not have succeeded i n b u i l d i n g a m o r e a d v a n c e d society, socialist society, i n w h i c h t h e p e o p l e a r e i n p o w e r . U n d e r t h e leadership of the P a r t y and w i t h this r i c h experience of struggles a n d w a r s for freedom, our people fought, a c h i e v e d v i c t o r y a n d succeeded i n b u i l d i n g t h e n e w society. M o r e o v e r , t h e y a r e d e t e r m i n e d t o d e v e l o p t h i s society s t i l l f u r t h e r a n d w i l l n e v e r a l l o w t h e i r f r e e d o m , independence and the victories attained to slip f r o m t h e i r h a n d s o r b e s t o l e n f r o m t h e m b y a n y e n e m y , great or small, old or new.

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W e k n o w t h a t t h e r e are i n d i v i d u a l s a n d a l i e n forces w h o c a n n o t s t a n d A l b a n i a a n d its people a n d d o n o t w a n t t h e m t o exist, w h o d o n o t w a n t t h e A l b a n i a n p e o p l e t o b u i l d t h e i r l i f e i n the w a y t h e y t h e m s e l v e s h a v e d e c i d e d , w h o are displeased t h a t s m a l l A l b a n i a exists as a socialist state a m i d s t a n ocean o f c a p i t a l i s t states w i t h v a r i o u s labels. B u t t h e y c a n d o n o t h i n g t o socialist A l b a n i a . T h e t i m e s a n d t h e r a t i o o f forces h a v e c h a n g e d g r e a t l y i n f a v o u r o f o u r people a n d A l b a n i a . Y e s , t h e y m a y a t t a c k t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a f r o m outside, a n d w e n e v e r forget o r neglect t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , b u t w e shall defend ourselves and we k n o w h o w to defend ourselves a n d w i n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e i r h i s t o r y t h e A l b a n i a n people h a v e k n o w n h o w t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s . O u r P a r t y o f L a b o u r has f u r t h e r e n r i c h e d a n d t e m p e r e d t h e u n i t y o f o u r people i n t h e w a r f o r defence. M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m teaches u s t h a t t h e peoples w h o f i g h t t o d e f e n d t h e i r f r e e d o m a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e w a g e a j u s t w a r , hence t h e y are i n v i n c i b l e . A n d t h e A l b a n i a n people a r e i n v i n c i b l e . T h e y m a y t r y t o d i v i d e us, t o t a k e t h e f o r t r e s s f r o m w i t h i n , but this w i l l not occur as long as the P a r t y of L a b o u r of A l b a n i a , a genuine M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t Party, remains at the h e a d o f the A l b a n i a n people. O u r f o r t r e s s i s n o t l i k e t h e fortresses o f t h e i r d r e a m s . W e h a v e b u i l t i t w i t h o u r o w n hands on our o w n soil, through the bloodshed and toil o f t h e sons o f t h i s l a n d . T h e r e are n o c r a c k s o r b r e a c h e s i n its w a l l s a n d i t has n o t been b u i l t w i t h r o t t e n m a t e r i a l s . It is able to w i t h s t a n d all the waves of w a r just as it has w i t h s t o o d those t h a t h a v e c r u s h e d u p o n i t i n t h e past. T h e i m p e r i a l i s t , s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s t a n d o t h e r enemies m a y t r y t o m a k e o u r P a r t y d e v i a t e a s t h e y succeeded i n d o i n g w i t h o t h e r parties, but t h i s w i l l n e v e r o c c u r w i t h u s because n e v e r f o r one m o m e n t w i l l t h e P a r t y o f L a b o u r of A l b a n i a deviate f r o m the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t theory and the Leninist norms of the life of the p a r t y at any time

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or on any question. It is precisely this resolute stand, t h i s steadfast l o y a l t y t o M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m t h a t keeps our P a r t y pure and makes it strong. The P a r t y is closely l i n k e d w i t h t h e people, i t exists, l i v e s a n d f i g h t s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e people w h o g a v e b i r t h t o it, w h o a r e t h e d a i l y w i t n e s s e s o f t h e great l e a d i n g r o l e o f t h e P a r t y in the progress of the c o u n t r y a n d the raising of their economic well-being, and social and cultural level. So, i t i s c l e a r w h y t h e A l b a n i a n people are against predatory imperialist wars. T h e y have suffered the terr i b l e g r a v e consequences o f s u c h w a r s o n t h e i r o w n b a c k s . T h a t i s w h y o u r people a n d t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a are f o r peace b e t w e e n n a t i o n s . T h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e A l b a n i a n people o v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s a n d o u r M a r x i s t Leninist ideology w h i c h guides the P a r t y of L a b o u r of A l b a n i a i n e v e r y a c t i o n are e v i d e n t p r o o f o f t h e i r correct s t a n d o n t h i s great p r o b l e m , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f w h a t those w h o , i n fact, are o p p o n e n t s o f peace b e t w e e n n a t i o n s say. O u r people h a v e n e v e r a t t a c k e d o t h e r peoples, t h e y h a v e n e v e r c o v e t e d o r l a i d e v e n a f i n g e r o n w h a t belongs t o others, o n t h e c o n t r a r y , a l t h o u g h t h e A l b a n i a n s h a v e been the victims of the evil and predatory aims and a m b i t i o n s o f some states, t h e y h a v e gone t o t h e i r a i d . T h i s , too, i s a r e a l i t y w h i c h c a n n o t b e concealed b y a n y k i n d o f p r o p a g a n d a o r d e m a g o g y . S o m e m a y present h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s i n b o o k s a n d i n t h e press t h e o t h e r w a y r o u n d , b u t t h e y c a n n o t d o s o w i t h r e a l h i s t o r y , because i t i s p e r p e t u a t e d i n t h e b o s o m o f t h e peoples t h e m s e l v e s , b y t h e peoples t h e m s e l v e s w h o h a n d i t d o w n f r o m one generation to another. H o w e v e r w e a r e v e r y c l e a r a b o u t t h e fact t h a t peace b e t w e e n peoples c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t t h e j u s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e o f t h e peoples t h e m s e l v e s against those w h o d o n o t w a n t t h i s peace, w h o d o n o t w a n t t h e f r e e d o m a n d s o v e r e i g n t y o f peoples, d o n o t w a n t

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t h e peoples t o f r e e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e h e a v y c h a i n s o f e n s l a v e m e n t a n d savage e x p l o i t a t i o n w i t h w h i c h the capitalist powers have shackled t h e m for centuries. T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y w h e r e t h e peoples w h o w a n t c o m p l e t e f r e e d o m and their imperialist oppressors and plunderers reach the p a r t i n g o f t h e i r w a y s . T h i s i s a class s t r u g g l e b o t h i n ternal and on an international plane. In this struggle the enemies o f t h e peoples, t h e c a p i t a l i s t s o f a l l hues a n d calibres, s t r i v e t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r p l u n d e r a n d d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e peoples, w h i l e t h e l a t t e r f i g h t t o w i n t h e i r r i g h t s a n d p u t a n e n d t o t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f m a n b y m a n once and for all. I n t h e i r u n j u s t p r e d a t o r y w a r a g a i n s t t h e peoples, t h e c a p i t a l i s t s are g u i d e d b y t h e i r o w n i d e o l o g y , b u t t h e peoples, too, h a v e t h e i r i d e o l o g y , M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , t h e i m m o r t a l ideas o f M a r x , E n g e l s , L e n i n a n d S t a l i n , w h i c h guide them towards liberation f r o m capital. This is the source of the contradictions and s t r u g gle b e t w e e n t w o s y s t e m s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t w o d i f f e r e n t societies, c a p i t a l i s t a n d socialist, w h i c h h a v e c o m p l e t e l y opposite a i m s a n d interests, i n s t r u g g l e w i t h a n d d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o e a c h o t h e r i n r e g a r d t o t h e w a y s of the development of m a n k i n d in the future. T h i s is also t h e s o u r c e o f t h e p o l i c y o f states w i t h d i f f e r e n t systems i n t h e w o r l d . T h e p o l i c y o f c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t b o u r g e o i s states serves t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e b o u r g e o i s class w h i c h r u l e s i n those c o u n t r i e s . I t e x e r c i s e s t h i s r u l e t h r o u g h a s t r u c t u r e a n d s u p e r s t r u c t u r e w h i c h oppresses a n d e x p l o i t s t h e w o r k i n g class, t h e p e a s a n t r y a n d t h e o t h e r w o r k i n g masses o f t h e c o u n t r y . T h i s r u l e i s e x e r c i s e d also t h r o u g h a l l k i n d s o f a l l i a n c e s w h i c h t h e c a p i t a l i s t revisionist bourgeoisie forms w i t h that of the b i g capitalist, i m p e r i a l i s t a n d s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s t states. T h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f v a r i o u s states w i t h c a p i t a l i s t systems a n d w i t h n u a n c e s i n t h e f o r m o f

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t h e state a n d w h a t i t i s c a l l e d v a r i e s d e p e n d i n g o n t h e i r different levels of socio-economic potential to w h i c h their u n e q u a l development gives rise. The efforts to eliminate these d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s a n d t h e i r consequences cause c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s class i n power, different strata and representatives of w h i c h , through demagogic political manoeuvres strive to ensure t h a t state p o w e r n e v e r s l i p s f r o m t h e h a n d s o f t h e i r class. T h e y d i s g u i s e these d e c e p t i v e m a n o e u v r e s , w h i c h a r e v e r y d a n g e r o u s f o r t h e peoples, w i t h t h e s o - c a l l e d democratic freedoms of the capitalist system, w i t h the s t r u g g l e e a c h o f t h e i r p a r t i e s w a g e s f r o m its o w n p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e r i g h t s o f electors, t h e w o r k i n g masses, w i t h t h e struggle w h i c h parties of various descriptions wage even i n p a r l i a m e n t , etc. B u t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g d e m o c r a t i c a b o u t these p a r t i e s a n d w h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t . T h e struggle between t h e m is a struggle between financial-political clans, a s t r u g g l e of w o r d s , a s t r u g g l e c o n d u c t e d in c o r r i d o r s a n d d r a w i n g - r o o m s in the interests neither of the w o r k i n g masses n o r o f t h e electors. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , a s s o o n a s t h e y get i n t o p a r l i a m e n t , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f these p a r t i e s , t h e d e p u t i e s elected t h r o u g h free, d e m o c r a t i c ballot approve laws w h i c h are completely in favour of t h e b o u r g e o i s i e , t o p r o t e c t its i m m e n s e c a p i t a l , i.e., t o prolong the existence of the rule of the bourgeoisie over t h e w o r k i n g masses. In capitalist society the opposition between political currents and the economic reforms proclaimed by the various bourgeois parties serve o n l y to ensure their p o w e r o r t o s h a r e i t a n d t h e colossal p r o f i t s a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s , a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e masses. O n l y t h e i l l u s i o n i s c r e a t e d that they are allegedly f i g h t i n g in the interests of the masses, w h e r e a s i n f a c t a n d i n essence t h e y a r e f i g h t i n g f o r t h e r e l e n t l e s s i m p o v e r i s h m e n t o f t h e masses, f o r t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e i r b l o o d a n d sweat.

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T h u s i n c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t b o u r g e o i s society, t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n i n t o oppressors a n d oppressed, i n t o e x p l o i t e r s a n d e x p l o i t e d , i s d e e p e n e d . S i m i l a r class r e l a t i o n s e x i s t also a m o n g c a p i t a l i s t a n d r e v i s i o n i s t states. T h e biggest states, those w i t h t h e greatest e c o n o m i c a n d m i l i t a r y p o w e r , impose their l a w in various w a y s on the smaller capitalist a n d r e v i s i o n i s t states. T h e e c o n o m i c d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h i s i m p o s e d o n t h e s m a l l states b y t h e b i g ones u n d o u b t e d l y brings all-round political dependence a n d submission. The i n d e p e n d e n c e of these states is f i c t i t i o u s a n d serves o n l y t o e m b e l l i s h t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n s a n d d e c e i v e t h e peoples. It is an i r r e f u t a b l e fact t h a t t o d a y a n u m b e r of c a p i l a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t states are d e p e n d e n t o n a n d a l i g n e d w i t h the imperialist superpowers and their policies t h r o u g h a thousand interconnecting threads, and not only t h r o u g h such m i l i t a r y organisms as N A T O and the W a r s a w Treaty, or monopoly economic communities such as the E u r o pean C o m m o n M a r k e t and Comecon. E v e n the other capit a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t states, w h i c h are n o t m e m b e r s o f these blocs, are b y n o m e a n s i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m o r n o n - a l i g n e d w i t h the big powers and the imperialist and social-imperi a l i s t s u p e r p o w e r s . T h e s e s o - c a l l e d i n d e p e n d e n t states h a v e got i n t o p e r m a n e n t d e b t t o t h e b i g c a p i t a l i s t p o w e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a n d t h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t a b o u t this, t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e has n o s o l i d basis, because e v e r y one k n o w s t h a t t h e r e c a n b e n o p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e w i t h o u t economic independence. Past and present international practice confirms this. If this u n w r i t t e n capitalist l a w d i d n o t o p e r a t e i n a n i n f l e x i b l e w a y i n t h e r e l a tions of subjection between the provider and the receiver o f m o n e y o r c o m m o d i t i e s o n c r e d i t s o r loans, t h e a l l r o u n d pressure of the bigger on the smaller, of the v e r y r i c h and the rich on the poor and the v e r y poor w o u l d h o t exist, t h e i n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e p o l i c y o f states w o u l d n o t exist, t h e s t r u g g l e f o r m a r k e t s , n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m , t h e

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i n t e r f e r e n c e o f one state i n t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f a n o t h e r state, w h i c h has b e c o m e a c o m m o n o c c u r r e n c e a l l over the w o r l d and even develops into bloody local armed c o n f l i c t s , w o u l d n o t e x i s t . T h e g e n e r a l c r i s i s itself d e t e r m ines t h e c h a i n o f e c o n o m i c - p o l i t i c a l d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t states on one a n o t h e r . To conceal this situation of economic-political subj e c t i o n f r o m t h e peoples, t o f a i l t o s h o w t h e m t h e reasons f o r a n d t h e sources o f t h i s g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e w o r l d , t o f a i l t o m a k e c l e a r t o t h e m w h o oppresses a n d e x p l o i t s t h e m , t o use a l l sorts o f a n t i - s o c i a l a n d a n t i - r e v olutionary political formulas, to conceal the great a n d u n i n terrupted a r m i n g of the superpowers and the imperialist powers as w e l l as their frenzied preparations for war, is a great a n d unpardonable crime against m a n k i n d . T h e r e are p l e n t y o f w o r d m o n g e r s w h o create p a c i f i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w h o g a t h e r a n d shout a b o u t p r o b l e m s o f d i s a r m a m e n t a n d peace, w h o d i v i d e t h e n a t i o n s i n t o non-aligned, into m a n y worlds or undeveloped c o u n t r i e s , b u t n o n e o f these t h i n g s p r e v e n t s t h e i m p e rialists and social-imperialists, w h o defy every internat i o n a l f o r u m or conference, f r o m going ahead w i t h their hegemonic and expansionist policy. They continue to rule o v e r o t h e r peoples a n d c o u n t r i e s , t o d i v i d e t h e i r s p h e r e s of political, economic and military-strategic influence, t o m a k e colossal p r o f i t s f r o m t h e i m p o s e d sale o f s t o c k p i l e s of goods a n d w e a p o n s of a l l k i n d s a n d to t h r o w a f e w c r u m b s o f these p r o f i t s , a s c r e d i t s a n d i n v e s t m e n t s , t o c e r t a i n states a n d s u p p o r t those g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h are m o r e i n c l i n e d t o obey t h e i r i m p e r i a l i s t p o l i c y , k e e p t h e peoples o f t h e i r o w n c o u n t r i e s i n b o n d a g e a n d g i v e t h e s u p e r p o w e r s a n d t h e d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s t states t h e m a x i m u m concessions f o r t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l wealth. Thus they are totally dependent on the credits w h i c h the imperialist powers give them.

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I n t h e w o r l d t o d a y m a n y c o n t r a d i c t i o n s are d e v e l o p i n g , b e c o m i n g m o r e p r o f o u n d a n d i n c r e a s i n g i n scope a n d i n t e n s i t y . T h e r e a r e p r o f o u n d a n d acute c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n the s u p e r p o w e r s , b e t w e e n t h e s u p e r p o w e r s a n d the industrialized capitalist countries, between t h e m and other countries of the w o r l d w i t h different systems a n d strange d e s c r i p t i o n s s u c h a s d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , u n d e v e l o p e d countries, b a c k w a r d c o u n t r i e s , poor c o u n tries, etc. A l l these t h i n g s m a k e t h e g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n more dangerous. At the same time, the entire capitalistrevisionist w o r l d is w a l l o w i n g in an unprecedented economic, p o l i t i c a l a n d m o r a l crisis. T h e capitalist and revisionist bourgeoisie are m a k i n g a l l - r o u n d e f f o r t s t o u n l o a d t h e c a t a s t r o p h i c consequences o f t h i s c r i s i s o n t o t h e b a c k s o f t h e w o r k i n g masses a n d peoples o f t h e i r o w n o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s a n d t o k e e p t h e i r profits intact. Therefore the b u r d e n of crisis falls, first o f a l l , o n t h e w o r k i n g masses, w h o , a l t h o u g h i t i s t h e y w h o p r o d u c e t h e m a t e r i a l blessings, a r e o p p r e s s e d b y the e x p l o i t i n g class. T h i s t e n d e n c y o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e m a k e s its class c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h t h e p r o l e t a r i a t a n d t h e w o r k i n g masses e v e n deeper, w i d e n s t h e g u l f b e t w e e n r i c h a n d poor, a g g r a v a t e s t h e i n t e r - i m p e r i a l i s t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , those b e t w e e n the allies i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t a n d r e v i s i o n i s t g r o u p ings, a n d b e t w e e n t h e m e t r o p o l i s a n d t h e c o l o n i a l a n d neo-colonial countries. T o d a y t h e biggest a n d m o s t acute c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s t h a t b e t w e e n w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m a n d t h e w o r k i n g class a n d w o r k i n g masses o f a l l the c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d . T h i s contradiction cannot be resolved in the capitalist-revisionist r e g i m e s . I n t h i s f i e l d c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s a r e b e i n g waged for national liberation, for social liberation and f o r r e f o r m s , a n d t h e r e are s t r i k e s a n d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f a p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r . A l l these t h i n g s h a v e

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shaken the foundations of the w o r l d capitalist bourgeoisie a n d a r e s h a k i n g t h e m m o r e a n d m o r e e a c h day, b u i l d i n g up to revolutionary situations and the outburst of revolutions. In the international arena, different forms of struggle a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d b y t h e t w o sides. T h e use o f violence, the baton a n d the capitalist-revizionist d e m a g o g y has i n c r e a s e d i n f r e q u e n c y a n d b r u t a l i t y . F r o m its arsenal of weapons, the capitalist bourgeoisie, frightened b y t h e r i s i n g t i d e o f r e v o l u t i o n s , h a s m a d e e x t e n s i v e use o f t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f c l i q u e s , b o t h secret a n d i n p o w e r , while spreading intellectual and moral degeneration w i t h a l l t h e m e a n s o f p r o p a g a n d a . T h e b o u r g e o i s i e i s also u s i n g its f a v o u r i t e w e a p o n i n t i m e s o f crisis, t e r r o r i s m , b y means o f w h i c h i t t r i e s t o a r o u s e r e v u l s i o n a m o n g the people a g a i n s t t h e b u r n i n g d e s i r e f o r l i b e r a t i o n f r o m the shackles o f c a p i t a l , a n d b y i d e n t i f y i n g t e r r o r i s m w i t h the a c t i v i t y o f t h e g e n u i n e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , t o f r i g h t e n the masses, t o t u r n t h e m against t h e r e v o l u t i o n , t o p r e serve its o r d e r o f o p p r e s s i o n a n d t o e m e r g e w i t h o u t great p a i n f r o m t h e g r a v e l e t h a l crisis. The w o r l d of labour, the w o r l d w h i c h demands social a n d n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n , i s f i g h t i n g w i t h its o w n means a g a i n s t these savage m e a s u r e s of s t r u g g l e a n d violence of the capitalist bourgeoisie. A m i d s t t h i s chaos c r e a t e d b y t h e i r e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l a n d m o r a l crisis, t h e i m p e r i a l i s t a n d r e v i s i o n i s t e n e m i e s are m a k i n g a great ado a b o u t t h e isolated p o s i t i o n a n d situation o f o u r c o u n t r y . B u t i s A l b a n i a i s o l a t e d f r o m the f o r e i g n w o r l d , a s t h e r e v i s i o n i s t s o f a l l hues a n d t h e various imperialist enemies c l a i m and w a n t it to be? T h e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n d e p e n d s o n t h e class a n d p o l i t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t f r o m w h i c h one v i e w s t h i s q u e s t i o n . F r o m o u r state, i d e o l o g i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t ,

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t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a has n e v e r b e e n , i s not, a n d w i l l n o t b e i s o l a t e d . W e h a v e d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e states ( 1 ) o f t h e w o r l d , a n d there is nothing to prevent us f r o m h a v i n g such relations w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g ones. W i t h t h e U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a a n d the S o v i e t U n i o n , h o w e v e r , w e d o n o t w a n t s u c h relations, whereas G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d the F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f G e r m a n y h a v e u n p a i d debts t o t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l ist R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a , the f o r m e r f o r t h e s t o l e n g o l d and the latter for w a r reparations. T h i s i s h o w t h i n g s s t a n d , also, i n r e g a r d t o o u r m u tual trade relations w i t h m a n y capitalist-revisionist countries. T h e t r a d e b e t w e e n u s a n d these c o u n t r i e s i s c o n d u c t e d w i t h c l e a r i n g o r cash* I n t h i s f i e l d , too, t h e r e i s n o isolation. W h e n it is politically advantageous and w h e n the other p a r t y agrees, w e also e s t a b l i s h a n d d e v e l o p c u l t u r a l r e l a tions w i t h m a n y capitalist countries, exchange experience in the fields of education, culture and technology. F o r o u r p a r t , t h e e x t e n s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i n these f i e l d s d e pends o n l y o n t h e m a t e r i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . H e n c e , i n t h i s f i e l d , too, t h e r e i s n o i s o l a t i o n . In regard to the development of tourism, we do not d o t h i s o n t h a t scale o r i n those f o r m s t h a t t h e c a p i t a l i s t a n d r e v i s i o n i s t c o u n t r i e s do, o r w i t h t h e i r a i m s o f m a k ing profits and spreading degeneration. We permit touri s m f o r f r i e n d s a n d w e l l - w i s h e r s o f socialist A l b a n i a , f o r honest people f r o m c o u n t r i e s a n d states w h i c h m a i n t a i n f r i e n d l y a n d correct s t a n d s t o w a r d s o u r c o u n t r y . T o u r i s m in A l b a n i a is not an industry and a means of corr u p t i o n o r h o o l i g a n i s m . A n d because t o u r i s m o f t h a t k i n d i s n o t p e r m i t t e d i n o u r c o u n t r y , t h e e n e m i e s say t h a t t h e
_______________________________________ 1 In 1986 A l b a n i a h a d d i p l o m a t i c relations w i t h 105 states. * English in the original.

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P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a is a closed, i s o l ated c o u n t r y . B u t w h e n , i f ever, h a v e o u r i m p e r i a l i s t and revisionist enemies spoken w e l l of the A l b a n i a n people and of A l b a n i a ? W h e n have they not slandered o u r policy, o u r a n c i e n t a n d m o d e r n h i s t o r y a n d o u r v i c t o r i e s ? H o w e v e r this has done A l b a n i a and the A l b a n i a n people n o h a r m . O n t h e c o n t r a r y t h e i r prestige a n d a u t h o r i t y h a v e b e e n r a i s e d h i g h e r a n d h i g h e r . H e n c e , f r o m our s t a n d p o i n t a n d t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e t r u t h w e are not and never w i l l be isolated. We have told the imperialists and r e v i s i o n i s t s a n d w e t e l l t h e m once a g a i n t h a t A l b a n i a i s n o t a n i n n w i t h i t s d o o r s w i d e o p e n f o r pigs a n d sows t o enter. I n t h e cities, t h e m o u n t a i n s , t h e p l a i n s a n d the shores o f o u r s o c i a l i s t H o m e l a n d t h e r e i s a n d w i l l be no r o o m for their ugly, degenerate w a y of life and thinking. W e k n o w t h a t t h e r e v i s i o n i s t states ( Y u g o s l a v i a , t h e Soviet U n i o n , etc.) a n d t h e c a p i t a l i s t states c a l l o u r c o u n t r y i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e w o r l d because i t has n o t e n t e r e d and w i l l n o t e n t e r t h e i r o r b i t , because i t i s n o t e c o n o m i c ally d e p e n d e n t o n t h e m , does n o t accept c r e d i t s f r o m o r get i n t o d e b t t o t h e m , because i t i s n o t p o l i t i c a l l y d e p e n d ent o n t h e m , does n o t a l l o w its i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d s o v e reignty t o b e v i o l a t e d a n d alters n e i t h e r its state o r d e r nor its M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t i d e o l o g y . T h i s i s h o w i t has b e e n and h o w i t w i l l b e i n t h e f u t u r e , too. I n t h e o p i n i o n o f some o f these states, t h e i n d e p e n d ent p o l i c y w h i c h t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l bania p u r s u e s i n a l l f i e l d s a n d i n a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s something of an anachronism. We can understand w h y they h a v e t h i s o p i n i o n . F o r t h e m i t i s a n a n a c h r o n i s m that o u r state of t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p of t h e p r o l e t a r i a t is n o t i n a crisis, t h a t i t i s n o t i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e great w o r l d crisis, t h a t o u r state h a s p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y , t h a t o u r e c o n omy i s d e v e l o p i n g y e a r b y y e a r , t h a t t h e r e a r e a b s o l u -

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t e l y n o p r i c e rises f o r a n y goods, t h a t t h e r e i s n o u n e m ployment, economic and political emigration, economic strikes or political demonstrations, as there are in the capitalist-revisionist countries all over the w o r l d . B u t we can say that A l b a n i a , w i t h the social order it is b u i l d i n g , is a case i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e v a r i o u s states w h i c h are i n a p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d m o r a l c r i s i s . O n t h i s c o u n t a n d because o f t h e v e r y good, s o u n d s i t u a t i o n i n o u r c o u n t r y , yes, t h e y are r i g h t t o s a y t h a t w e are isolated f r o m t h e m a n d the e v i l s o f t h e i r s o c i a l o r d e r a n d p o l i c y . T h e r e f o r e , w i t h its p r i n c i p l e d a n d i n d e p e n d e n t p o l i c y , w i t h its c o u r a g e a n d t h e t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s i t has a c h i e v e d , s m a l l a s i t is, A l b a n i a p l a y s a d u a l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r o l e i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a o n t h e one h a n d i t e x poses t h e c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t o r d e r a n d its p o l i c y , o n the other h a n d it plays a constructive r e v o l u t i o n a r y role, e n c o u r a g i n g the peoples o f t h e w o r l d w h o are f i g h t i n g f o r t h e i r l i b e r a t i o n f r o m the y o k e o f c a p i t a l . I t i s f r o m t h e p r i s m o f t h i s great r o l e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t socialist A l b a n i a i s i s o l a t e d m u s t be judged. Socialist A l b a n i a and the P a r t y of L a b o u r of A l b a n i a w h i c h leads it, love, respect a n d d e f e n d a l l t h e peoples o f t h e w o r l d , w h i l e t h e y , o n t h e i r p a r t , are i n u n i t y w i t h us. L i t t l e socialist. A l b a n i a has b e c o m e a g r e a t e x a m p l e i n w h i c h t h e w o r k i n g masses p l a c e t h e i r hopes. I n these conditions and circumstances, then, there can be no talk of isolation of A l b a n i a . It is the capitalists, the revisionists, t h e i m p e r i a l i s t s a n d s o c i a l - i m p e r i a l i s t s t h a t are isol a t e d , d i s c r e d i t e d a n d h a t e d b y t h e peoples. A n d i t i s precisely they w h o t r y to present the People's Socialist R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a a s i s o l a t e d , w h o s t r i v e , w i t h o u t success, t o d i s t o r t its c o r r e c t o p i n i o n s a n d its v i c t o r i e s , a n d i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h i s i s p a r t o f t h e i r e f f o r t s t o isolate t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y itself, t o c a l l i t o u t d a t e d and

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anachronistic. In this context they try to prove that socialism can be built guided by any k i n d of reformist, o p p o r t u n i s t o r e v e n fascist i d e o l o g y . I n t h e strict sense, t h e c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t states are n o t w o r r i e d b y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s m a l l c o u n t r y a n d people l i k e ours, b u t i n a b r o a d e r sense t h e i d e o l o g y w h i c h g u i d e s o u r people, t h e g e n u i n e socialist s o c i e t y w h i c h is being built successfully in our country, where there are no political or economic troubles and a sound c u l t u r e i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d , w o r r y t h e m a great d e a l . T h a t i s w h y t h e e n e m i e s o f t h e peoples t r y t o p r e s e n t t h e s o u n d m o r a l - p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f o u r people i n a d i s t o r t e d w a y and to belittle the great and u n i n t e r r u p t e d socio-economic progress of o u r country. T h e s t r u g g l e o f a l l e n e m i e s o f t h e peoples a g a i n s t o u r socialist c o u n t r y proceeds f r o m t h e s a m e class p o s i tions b u t w i t h v a r i a t i o n s i n i n t e n s i t y . T h i s comes a b o u t because, w h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e i s u n i t y b e t w e e n capitalists a n d r e v i s i o n i s t s as e n e m i e s of s o c i a l i s m , t h e r e are also d i f f e r e n c e s , s t r u g g l e s a n d f e u d s b e t w e e n t h e m . T h e r e a r e s t r u g g l e s a n d f e u d s also b e t w e e n b i g a n d s m a l l states, b e t w e e n h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d , less d e v e l o p e d , a n d totally undeveloped countries. In the present epoch of the great crisis of capitalism, t h e c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t states a r e p o l i t i c a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y d e p e n d e n t o n one a n o t h e r . O f course the strongest a n d t h e biggest are less d e p e n d e n t o n t h e w e a k est a n d t h e s m a l l e s t , b u t a l l o f t h e m are s e n s i t i v e t o a n d affected b y t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m w h i c h are b e c o m i n g m o r e a n d m o r e acute. T h e s e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s have t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c effect a n d are e x p r e s sed i n t h e s t a n d s o f e v e r y state, i n t e r n a l l y a n d i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n v a r i o u s states. The present epoch can be called the epoch of the total d e s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m , o f i n s t a b i l i t y i n p o l -

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itics, o f g e n e r a l i n s e c u r i t y a n d g l o o m y a n d u n c l e a r p r o s pects f o r t h e f u t u r e . T h e i d e a o f w a r p r e d o m i n a t e s , because t h e w o r l d i s b e i n g i m p e l l e d i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n through the unjust imperialist wars, although still localized, w h i c h are i n s t i g a t e d b y t h e i m p e r i a l i s t s a n d s o c i a l imperialists. T h e y t h i n k that the p r o f o u n d and acute c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i c h are e r o d i n g t h e m w i l l b e r e s o l v e d by means of w a r . T h e peoples c a n n o t a n d m u s t n o t p u t a n y t r u s t i n t h e p o l i c y o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t states a n d i n t h e d e m a g o g y o f t h i s p o l i c y . W h a t t h e peoples m u s t c l e a r l y d i s c e r n f r o m t h e c o n c r e t e facts, t h r o u g h t h e dense f o g w i t h w h i c h the superstructure of the capitalist-revisionist r e g i m e obscures t h e i r v i s i o n , d i s t o r t s t h e r e a l i t y , d e ceives t h e p e o p l e a n d t r i e s t o b l a c k e n t h e r o a d o f t h e revolution, is not the external forms of the structure of c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t states, b u t t h e content, t h e essence of this structure, whose hands w i e l d this w e a p o n and w h i c h class i t serves. T h i s i s a great, serious p r o b l e m w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d solve, b u t i t i s n o t i n s u r m o u n t a b l e . T h e forces w h i c h oppose t h e c a p i t a l i s t a t t a c k are l a r g e r a n d more powerful. B u t they must be fully awakened, their consciousness t e m p e r e d . T h e s e forces m u s t b e o r g a n i z e d o n a n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l scale. T h e d e v i c e o n w h i c h t h e s t r e n g t h o f c a p i t a l i s m i s b a s e d i s its d i v i d e a n d r u l e policy. By this means capitalism crushes the weakest and m a k e s h i m u n a b l e t o object, b i n d s h i m w i t h a t h o u s a n d threads so that he w i l l a l w a y s be a slave as an i n d i v i d u a l , a people or a state, e x p l o i t s h i m to t h e m a x i m u m a n d creates t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t h e i s l i v i n g i n a f r e e d e m o c r a t i c w o r l d i n w h i c h h e o u g h t t o b e content w i t h t h e m i s e r a b l e l i f e h e leads, f o r w h i c h h e s h o u l d b e g r a t e f u l t o his o v e r l o r d . T h e peoples m u s t oppose t h i s d e v i c e w i t h the g l o r i o u s slogan o f M a r x : W o r k e r s o f a l l c o u n t r i e s , u n -

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ite!, a s l o g a n w h i c h has t e r r i f i e d t h e c a p i t a l i s t b o u r g e o i s i e at all times. I n t h i s c h a o t i c a n d u n e q u a l d e v e l o p m e n t n o progress can be made w i t h o u t all k i n d s of efforts and w i t h o u t s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n oppressors a n d oppressed, b e t w e e n e x p l o i t e r s a n d e x p l o i t e d . T h e c a p i t a l i s t states v i e w i t h one a n o t h e r f o r s u p r e m a c y . I n m o s t cases, because o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n t interests, t h i s contest b e t w e e n t h e m d e v e l o p s i n t o d i s c o r d . W h o e v e r comes out o n top, h e w h o m a n a g e s t o t r i p h i s r i v a l a n d m a k e h i m f a l l , h e w h o succeeds i n m a k i n g the l a w and in i m p o s i n g his policy of domination, i s p r e s e n t e d a s t h e cleverest, t h e m o s t s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i cian. H o w e v e r his r u l i n g position is not everlasting, because h e creates t w o k i n d s o f o p p o n e n t s : i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m his o w n class w h o a r e r i v a l s f o r r u l i n g p o s i t i o n s a n d c a p i t alist p r o f i t s , a n d t h e g r e a t o p p o n e n t , t h e w o r k i n g class a n d t h e b r o a d w o r k i n g masses w h o , t h r o u g h v a r i o u s f o r m s o f class s t r u g g l e , e r o d e t h e c a p i t a l i s t o r d e r f r o m w i t h i n , c a u s i n g s p l i t s a n d b r i n g i n g defeat a f t e r defeat u p o n it. I m p e l l e d b y t h e l u r e o f i l l e g a l gains, its t e n d e n c y t o e n s l a v e peoples a n d engage i n u n s c r u p u l o u s s p e c u l a t i o n a t t h e cost o f t h e i r b l o o d a n d sweat, t h e c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d w i l l never f i n d stability in any field of life. A l t h o u g h t h e g r e a t a d v a n c e s a c h i e v e d are t h e r e s u l t o f t h e t o i l a n d s w e a t o f t h e w o r k i n g masses, t h e y are e x c l u d e d f r o m a n y b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e m . T h e masses h a v e been p o l a r i z e d o n one side, a n d a s s u c h , a r e p e r m a n e n t o p ponents o f t h e i n h u m a n e x p l o i t a t i o n b y t h e c a p i t a l i s t bourgeoisie. I n t h i s e r o d i n g r e a l i t y o f defeat a n d p o l i t i c a l - e c o n omic i n s t a b i l i t y , t h e c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t states a r e t r y i n g t o f i n d a t e m p o r a r y s o l u t i o n f o r t h e m o s t acute a n d dangerous problems. H o w e v e r the solutions they offer cannot b e s a t i s f a c t o r y , because t h e y a r e o n e - s i d e d i n their a i m and applied in a t e r r a i n w h i c h is q u a k i n g as a

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r e s u l t o f t h e p o p u l a r u p h e a v a l s . T h e great a n t a g o n i s m s w i t h i n t h e r a n k s o f c a p i t a l a n d those b e t w e e n t h e b o u r geoisie a n d t h e w o r k i n g class a n d masses o f w o r k i n g p e o p l e m a k e these a n t i - p o p u l a r s o l u t i o n s i n e f f e c t i v e . S e e n f r o m t h i s class angle, t h e p r e s e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d leads t o a m o r e r e a l i s t i c u n d e r standing of the policy w h i c h capital follows to prolong i t s existence, o f t h e m e t h o d s a n d t a c t i c s o f its s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e peoples. T h e v a r i o u s states, o f t h e w o r l d , w h a t e v e r t h e i r s o c i a l order, h a v e t h e i r o w n f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s . T h i s i s b a s e d o n c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h h a v e a class c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a n d serve t h e class i n p o w e r a n d are a d a p t e d to the political circumstances existing w i t h i n the country a n d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r states, i.e., i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . A m o n g these states t h e r e are some w h i c h , at certain moments and in certain circumstances, come o u t w i t h a p o l i c y i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m others, d i f f e r i n g t e m p o r a r i l y i n c e r t a i n aspects o r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w i t h the a i m of getting certain political, economic and m i l i t a r y concessions. T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r m a n d s o m e t i m e s e v e n i n content r e f l e c t t h e s t r e n g t h o r t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s class i n p o w e r i n a g i v e n state a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f one state o v e r t h e other, a n i n f l u e n c e w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e decrease o r i n c r e a s e o f t h e i r e c o n o m i c and military potential. The principle of gain and domin a t i o n , t h e s t a b i l i t y or i n s t a b i l i t y of t h e s i t u a t i o n of a c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t c o u n t r y , m a k e t h e p o l i c y o f these states u n s t a b l e a n d i n c l i n e d t o w a r d s t h e strongest, t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l . T h i s leads t o e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l d e p e n d e n c e o f one b o u r g e o i s state o n a n o t h e r b o u r g e o i s state, or to the g r o u p i n g of a n u m b e r of states against t h e g r o u p i n g o f o t h e r r i v a l states. I r r e s p e c t i v e o f the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t h e y h a v e w i t h one a n o t h e r , these b o u r -

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geois states h a v e c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t o r s w h i c h c o m p e l t h e m t o s u p p o r t one a n o t h e r , a l t h o u g h t h e y also h a v e o t h e r o p p o s i n g f a c t o r s w h i c h erode t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m f r o m w i t h i n , w h i c h cause d i s t u r b a n c e s , e c o n omic instability and political revolts, w h i c h consequently w e a k e n t h e i r g e n e r a l a n d b i l a t e r a l l i n k s . A t p r e s e n t these inter-state phenomena in the capitalist countries have assumed an irrestrainable development, and it is very difficult to co-ordinate, harmonize or stabilize them. Hence, the great crisis in the capitalist order is not only economic b u t also p o l i t i c a l . T h e relations of production and the policy w h i c h s u p p o r t s these r e l a t i o n s i n a l l c a p i t a l i s t states, t a k e n s e p a r a t e l y o r i n t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m , are u n d e r going continual catastrophic transformations. Whatever h a p p e n s i n a n y o f these states i n e v i t a b l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e o t h e r states. T h e m e t a m o r p h o s e s , t h e changes, t h e e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l crises w h i c h o c c u r i n a p o w e r f u l c a p i t a l i s t state c a n n o t f a i l t o h a v e r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n a l l t h e o t h e r states w h i c h are d e p e n d e n t o n t h a t p o w e r , e v e n though they present themselves as allegedly independent o f it. T o j u s t i f y these p h e n o m e n a , t h i s c h a o t i c d e v e l o p ment, a specious l a n g u a g e has b e e n f o u n d , u s i n g a l l k i n d s of different theories w h i c h v a r y according to the c i r c u m stances, c o u n t r i e s a n d tendencies. A l l these t h e o r i e s a r e labelled democratic or revolutionary and, in practice, are a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e c r e a t i o n o f a l l k i n d s o f o r g a n izations to g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a s t r u g g l e is b e i n g w a g e d against t h e e v i l s o f t h e t i m e . H o w e v e r , t h e w o r l d today i s f a c e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e v i l are f i g h t i n g the e v i l a n d r i v a l l i n g w i t h one a n o t h e r . T h u s , a l l a r e a r m i n g a n d , a t the s a m e t i m e , a l l a r e f i g h t i n g a l l e g e d l y f o r d i s a r m a m e n t , a l l s a y t h e y are a g a i n s t w a r , b u t each of t h e m is struggling w i t h his o w n means and in his o w n w a y , a n d f r e q u e n t l y w i t h j o i n t means, t o u n d e r m i n e

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peace; a l l o f t h e m s p e a k o f n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f others, b u t i n one w a y o r t h e o t h e r t h e y all interfere b r u t a l l y in the internal affairs of others by means of weapons, politics, diplomacy and the i n f l u x o f d o l l a r s a n d a l l k i n d s o f credits. T h e b o u r g e o i s i e h a s also c r e a t e d its o w n m e t h o d o f p r e s e n t i n g a l l these c r i m i n a l a n d r e p r e h e n s i b l e acts, a p e c u l i a r e t h i c a b o u t t h e expression of opinions and open and hidden aims in p o l i tics and in practice. W h o e v e r deviates f r o m the f o r m a n d content of t h i s e t h i c is a heretic, is u n d e s i r a b l e , is an enemy of the civilized w o r l d ! E v e r y i n d i v i d u a l , p e r s o n , people, state o r class n o t in power must w i l l y - n i l l y proceed on the road determined by the all-powerful capitalist oligarchy, w h i c h alone i s c a p a b l e o f f i n d i n g a correct s o l u t i o n t o e v e r y p r o b l e m v i t a l t o states a n d peoples. I m p e r i a l i s m , s o c i a l - i m p e rialism and w o r l d monopoly capitalism are t r y i n g to preserve this absolute hegemony and to m a k e it permanent in theory and practice. We think that this hegemony should be combated and destroyed mercilessly. The w o r l d must break out of this vicious circle of modern spiritual, economic and p o l i tical enslavement. T h i s m o d e r n enslavement is a cruel deed o f t h e b o u r g e o i s c a p i t a l i s t class a n d t h e e c o n o m i c and political order w h i c h it has created. T h e w o r k i n g class o f e v e r y c o u n t r y , t h e b r o a d masses o f t h e w o r k i n g people w h o a r e o p p r e s s e d a n d e x p l o i t e d , a r e t h e d e s t r o y ers o f t h i s c a p i t a l i s t h e g e m o n y . M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m m u s t g u i d e a l l these masses i n t h e r e v o l u t i o n f o r t h e n e w , g e n u i n e socialist l i f e w i t h o u t e x p l o i t e r s a n d e x p l o i t e d . Socialist A l b a n i a is the offspring of the proletarian r e v o l u t i o n . G u i d e d b y t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y i t has b u i l t t h e n e w society, socialist society. T h e P a r t y o f L a b o u r o f A l b a n i a has a l w a y s b a s e d i t s e l f o n t h e t h e o r y

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o f M a r x , E n g e l s , L e n i n a n d S t a l i n , has a p p l i e d t h i s t h e o r y without vacillations or deviations, fearlessly and in opposition to and u n c o m p r o m i s i n g struggle w i t h the capitalistrevisionist ideologies. T h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f o u r state o f t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p of t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , too, is a p o l i c y g u i d e d by t h e p r i n c i p l e s of M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m and proletarian internationalism. It i s p r i n c i p l e d a n d u n c h a n g i n g i n its s t r a t e g y . T h i s p o l i c y s u p p o r t s t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y m o v e m e n t o f t h e w o r k i n g class and w o r l d p r o l e t a r i a t f o r l i b e r a t i o n f r o m c a p i t a l , h e n c e it is a g a i n s t t h e l a t t e r , against its p o l i c y of o p p r e s s i o n a n d e x p l o i t a t i o n , a g a i n s t its s t r u c t u r e a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , i t supports t h e s t r u g g l e o f t h e peoples f o r f r e e d o m , i n dependence, s o c i a l p r o g r e s s a n d s o c i a l i s m a n d r e l i e s o n their solidarity. It is against any f o r m of aggression and m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n o f one state against a n o ther, a g a i n s t c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n , a g a i n s t a n y f o r m o f tutelage, d i c t a t e and hegemony, national oppression and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . I t u p h o l d s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f peoples, t h e e x e r c i s e o f c o m p l e t e national sovereignty and the equality of all countries in international relations. Hence the crucial orientations of the foreign policy of the People's Socialist R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a are: support f o r t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f peoples f r o m a n y b o n d a g e a n d exploitation by reactionary i n t e r n a l or external forces, struggle a g a i n s t i m p e r i a l i s t w a r s a n d a n y o t h e r u n j u s t w a r , struggle f o r g e n u i n e d i s a r m a m e n t a n d peace, s t r u g g l e f o r f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n peoples a n d t h e d e n u n c i a t i o n o f a l l enemies a n d e v e r y m e a n s t h e y use t o sabotage t h i s f r i e n d ship a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g a m o n g peoples. The reactionary capitalist and revisionist bourgeoisie and its states a r e a c t i n g against t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a , b u t A l b a n i a acts a g a i n s t t h e m , too. T h e b o u r g e o i s - c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t states c o n s i d e r t h e c o r -

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rect, r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i c y f r o m t h e f i r m p o s i t i o n s o f o u r theory as interference in their internal affairs, w h i l e their o w n p o l i c y o f p l o t s a n d sabotage a g a i n s t peoples t h e y consider not interference in our i n t e r n a l affairs, but a correct a n d n o r m a l policy already accepted by w o r l d opinion. B u t this is not true. W o r l d opinion, the broad masses of t h e peoples, do n o t accept t h e b o u r g e o i s r e v i s i o n ist w o r l d o u t l o o k w h i c h covers u p t h e d e c e p t i o n , o p p r e s s i o n a n d e x p l o i t a t i o n . T h e masses w h o h e a r a b o u t a n d understand our political stands on m a n y international p r o b l e m s , reflect, m a k e c o m p a r i s o n s a b o u t t h e state o f things presented, w e i g h up our arguments a n d those of o u r opponents, a n d a p p r o v e , s u p p o r t a n d a d o p t o u r stands. This is precisely the real m a j o r reason w h y the a n t i M a r x i s t s and the m o d e r n revisionists of all hues are so w o r r i e d . O t h e r w i s e t h e y w o u l d n o t concoct s l a n d e r s a g a i n s t t h e correct p o l i t i c a l s t a n d s o f t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c of A l b a n i a and the P a r t y of L a b o u r of A l b a n i a . T h e y d o s o because o u r p o l i c y , p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e w o r k i n g class a n d b a s e d o n M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , exposes t h e i r p s e u d o - M a r x i s t p o l i c y w h i c h p r o c e e d s f r o m capitalist positions. A l s o t h a n k s to this exposure, t h e b r o a d w o r k i n g masses r e a l i z e t h a t , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f e x t e r n a l appearances, t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d s u p e r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e r e v i s i o n i s t states a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h those o f o t h e r c a p i t a l i s t states. I n p r a c t i c e , t h e i r content, essence a n d results are i n u n i t y . P r e c i s e l y because t h e P a r t y o f L a b o u r o f A l b a n i a a n d o u r state expose a n d f i g h t t h e e x p l o i t i n g o r d e r ( u n d e r b o t h names, capitalist and revisionist), b o t h politically a n d t h r o u g h the positive example of the successful construction of socialism in Albania, they have an honoured name in the w o r l d , not only among the ranks of the w o r k i n g class, b u t also a m o n g p r o g r e s s i v e e l e m e n t s o f t h e bourgeoisie, t h e y o u t h a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s .

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T h e m o d e r n revisionists are greatly w o r r i e d by the p o w e r f u l v o i c e o f t h e P a r t y o f L a b o u r o f A l b a n i a , because b o t h i n p o l i c y a n d i n t h e o r y i t i s opposed t o t h e i r e f f o r t s t o pass r e v i s i o n i s m f o r r e n o v a t e d M a r x i s m a n d s u i t a b l e for o u r time, w h e n , according to them, capitalist society must be rescued f r o m destruction, private ownership of the means of production must be preserved, and the prol e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n , i.e., t h e s e i z u r e o f p o w e r b y t h e w o r k i n g class, m u s t b e a v o i d e d . T h e m o d e r n r e v i s i o n i s t s d o not w a n t t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t s t o expose t h e i r w o r k o f sabotage. T h e r e f o r e t h e m o d e r n r e v i s i o n i s t s c a l l t h e e x posure w h i c h our P a r t y of L a b o u r makes of their antiM a r x i s t theories, o f t h e s t a t e - e c o n o m i c o r d e r s o f t h e modern revisionists, and of their pro-capitalist interna! and external policy interference in their internal affairs. B u t w e are n o t c o n c e r n e d a b o u t w h a t t h e y s a y a b o u t us. N o t j u s t t o d a y , n o t o n l y n o w , b u t e v e r since t h e y w e r e f o u n d e d , o u r P a r t y a n d p r o l e t a r i a n state h a v e d e clared p u b l i c l y that they w i l l a p p l y an open, p r i n c i p l e d foreign policy, a policy of good neighbourliness and relat i o n s w i t h a l l states o n t h e basis o f e q u a l i t y , respect f o r sovereignty, non-interference in internal affairs and m u tual benefit. A n d they have adhered to this policy without t h e slightest d e v i a t i o n . H o w e v e r t h e y h a v e also m a d e i t c l e a r t o a n y b o d y w h o cares t o l i s t e n t h a t s u c h a p o l i c y does n o t m e a n concessions t o o r g i v i n g u p t h e r e s o l u t e struggle for the defence of our g u i d i n g ideology, M a r x i s m L e n i n i s m , the struggle against greedy i m p e r i a l i s m and capitalism, or support f o r the just struggles of the w o r l d proletariat for social liberation and the national libera t i o n s t r u g g l e s o f t h e peoples a g a i n s t c o l o n i a l i s m a n d n e o colonialism. N o one a n d n o f o r c e c a n stop t h e P a r t y o f L a b o u r of A l b a n i a and the G o v e r n m e n t of the People's Socialist

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Republic of A l b a n i a f r o m voicing their own opinion, not only on the problems and political events in w h i c h o u r socialist H o m e l a n d , t h e P e o p l e ' s S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f A l b a n i a , is directly interested or w h i c h have to do w i t h its s u p r e m e interests, b u t also o n o t h e r g e n e r a l w o r l d p r o b l e m s a n d events, because these, too, a r e t h e c o n c e r n of a l l a n d n o t j u s t of some. In persistently following this policy, our P a r t y and state d o n o t p r o c e e d f r o m i n t e r e s t s o f t h e m o m e n t , t o please o r t o serve t h i s o r t h a t f o r e i g n p o w e r , b i g o r s m a l l . T h e y are n o t u r g e d t o t h i s p o l i c y b y a n y o f these p o w e r s , but t h e y n e v e r lose sight o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e b a s i c s t r a t e g y o f defence o f t h e f r e e d o m a n d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e peoples, o f t h e cause o f t h e w o r l d p r o l e t a r i a t a n d its r e v olution. T h e y do not alter their strategy according to the changing circumstances. The stability of our policy and t h e correctness o f o u r stands r e s u l t f r o m t h i s . We do not impose our foreign policy on anybody. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e m a n y people a r o u n d t h e w o r l d , e v e n v a r i o u s d i p l o m a t i c c h a n c e l l e r i e s , t h a t seek i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t o u r p o l i c y a n d stands, because i n t h e m t h e y see s o m e t h i n g o r i g i n a l w h i c h does n o t e x i s t i n t h e p o l i c y a n d stands o f other states (either c a p i t a l i s t o r r e v i sionist): truthfulness, m a t u r i t y and the courage to voice one's o p i n i o n s o p e n l y . N o c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t state c a n follow such an open, correct a n d well-considered policy, because o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c dependence, r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e s a n d t h e class c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e y are subject. S o c i a l i s t A l b a n i a does n o t suffer f r o m any such complex of restrictive and i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s a n d p r e c i s e l y t h i s i s t h e basis f o r t h e s t r e n g t h o f its i n f l u e n c e . T h e r e are o t h e r s w h o f i n d i t v e r y d i f ficult to understand our policy and position, w h o w o n d e r h o w such a s m a l l country as A l b a n i a can f o l l o w such a policy which, according to their judgement and in their

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o w n words, contains good points and truths w h i c h only t h e A l b a n i a n s , b u t n o n e o f t h e others, c a n p r o c l a i m . T h e P a r t y of L a b o u r of A l b a n i a is a strong party n o t b e c a u s e o f t h e n u m b e r o f its m e m b e r s , b u t because of the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t ideology w h i c h inspires and guides it. L i k e w i s e the People's Socialist Republic of A l b a n i a is a p o w e r f u l state n o t because of t h e size of its t e r r i t o r y o r p o p u l a t i o n , b u t because i t l i v e s i n , f i g h t s f o r a n d b u i l d s t h e n e w s o c i a l i s t society, because t h e P a r t y a n d t h e p e o p l e are i n c o m p l e t e u n i t y , conscious o f t h e i r actions, w h e r e t h e y a r e g o i n g a n d h o w t h e y w i l l get t h e r e . T h e m a i n , c a r d i n a l p r o b l e m s o f l i f e are c l e a r t o t h e m : t h e y m u s t b u i l d a secure present, w i t h o u t f o r g e t t i n g the past a n d f o r e s e e i n g a n d p r e p a r i n g t h e f u t u r e . S o m e o n e m i g h t t h i n k t h a t p u r s u i n g s u c h a course o f development is something temporary, abnormal, unorthod o x , l i n k e d w i t h the life a n d activity of certain leaders and t h a t there c a n b e n o d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e l i n e o f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h b o u r g e o i s c a p i t a l i s t society a n d its sousfifres*, the m o d e r n revisionists, have established. On this issue, too, t h e y a r e g r a v e l y m i s t a k e n because t h e y c a n n o t see a n d do n o t w a n t to see t h e g r e a t s t r e n g t h of socialism and our triumphant doctrine, M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , w h i c h d e s t r o y s t h e o l d society a n d b u i l d s t h e n e w one, do not k n o w either the P a r t y of L a b o u r or the A l b a n i a n p e o p l e , d o n o t r e c o g n i z e a n d c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e steel intellectual, spiritual and material unity between them. T h e g r e a t i n s t a b i l i t y o f c a p i t a l i s t society f o u n d e r i n g in a l l - r o u n d c r i s i s is a r e s u l t of t h e s t r u g g l e of t h e d i s c o n t e n t e d peoples a g a i n s t t h e e n s l a v i n g s y s t e m , a n d u n doubtedly, of the inspiration they gain f r o m the revolu t i o n a r y ideology, M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , to f i n d the genuine right road in the darkness of the m o d e r n epoch.
___________________________________ * U n d e r l i n g s (French in the original).

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W e A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t s are conscious o f t h e d i f ficulties we encounter a n d w i l l encounter on our road, b u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e w e are f u l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t w e s h a l l o v e r c o m e t h e m , because w e are o n the r i g h t r o a d . W e t a k e each c a u t i o u s step w i t h c o n f i d e n c e , a f t e r w e i g h i n g u p t h e issues a n d m a k i n g c a r e f u l c a l c u l a t i o n s , w e a r e clear a b o u t t h e p e r i o d w e l i v e i n , w a t c h t h e changes a n d developments in the w o r l d w i t h a critical M a r x i s t - L e n i n ist eye, a n d t r y , n o t w i t h o u t success, to assess these developments correctly, d e f i n i n g their positive a n d nega t i v e aspects, a n d b e n e f i t i n g f r o m t h e f o r m e r w h i l e c o m b a t i n g t h e l a t t e r . W e b u i l d o u r tactics, w h i c h are n e i ther unprincipled nor momentary, in conformity w i t h and to strengthen our u n w a v e r i n g revolutionary strategy. W e A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t s , sons a n d d a u g h t e r s o f t h i s people, w h o s e j o y s a n d s o r r o w s w e k n o w v e r y w e l l , a r e t h e m a i n basis o f a l l t h e v i c t o r i e s w h i c h t h e p e o p l e a n d the P a r t y of L a b o u r of A l b a n i a have w o n together. T h i s is where the solid foundations of our political, economic and c u l t u r a l achievements lie. Socialist society in our country has been built by a people w h o have ancient traditions, but at the same time, have plenty of w i l l , w i s dom, courage and the v i g o u r of youth. H i s t o r y has taught them to fight for their freedom, for a good life, for justice. H i s t o r y has t a u g h t t h e m t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e peoples f r o m their evil, oppressing and c u n n i n g leaders; it has t a u g h t t h e A l b a n i a n p e o p l e t o l o v e t h e o t h e r peoples, never to h a r m them but only help them, never to become t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f a n y o n e t o oppress others, b u t t o f i g h t f o r their o w n rights and the rights of others. T h e P a r t y w i t h its M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t i d e o l o g y i m p l a n t e d these l o f t y v i r t u e s m o r e d e e p l y i n t h e i r consciousness, s t r e n g t h e n e d them, made t h e m even clearer and more understandable s o t h a t t h e y f l o w i n the p u r e b l o o d s t r e a m o f e v e r y A l b a n i a n . O u r people a r e modest, industrious people who are

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not in the habit of boasting to a n y b o d y about anything. T h e y have understood that their independence and the victories achieved must be defended as they were won, a r m s i n h a n d , e v e n w i t h t h e i r b l o o d i f n e e d be, a n d m u s t be further consolidated w i t h their o w n strength and resources, t h r o u g h s t r u g g l e a n d e f f o r t s . S o m e t h i n k t h a t t h i s c a n n o t b e done, t h a t l o a n s a n d c r e d i t s f r o m t h e c a p i talists and revisionists are indispensible. This is not true. W h e n true freedom and independence are understood correctly by a people and developed correctly by their leadership, they b r i n g them well-being, develop t h e m and m a k e t h e m conscious o f t h e i r o w n d e s t i n y . F o r e i g n l o a n s a n d credits h a v e never been a n d are not in the interests of t h e peoples. T h e y b r i n g a l l k i n d s o f m i s f o r t u n e s u p o n t h e peoples. F o r t h e m t h e l o a n s a n d c r e d i t s are a noose a r o u n d their necks. D a i l y life in countries nearby and remote f r o m us proves this very clearly. T h e b r i l l i a n t road of the A l b a n i a n people is the road of a l l peoples w h o fight for national and social liberation, for socialism. A n d the peoples of the w o r l d , w h o fight w i t h all their possibilities and in all forms, are the pow e r f u l a l l i e s o f s m a l l b u t i n v i n c i b l e , socialist A l b a n i a . This strengthens the positions of our correct M a r x i s t Leninist policy and enhances the authority of our c o u n try in the international arena. In this context we must continuously strengthen our P a r t y of Labour and our People's S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c , m a k e o u r e c o n o m y m o r e p o w e r ful, raise the w e l l - b e i n g and c u l t u r a l level of the w o r k i n g masses a n d c o n t i n u e t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e n e w society, socialist society.

The

Superpowers

ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE PARTY OF LABOUR OF ALBANIA


Extracts from the report submitted to the 8th Congress of the PLA
November 1, 1981

I
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY AND THE TASKS OF THE PARTY O u r socialist e c o n o m y enters t h e n e w f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d o f its d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h s t a b i l i t y , d y n a m i c a n d w i t h great possibilities to develop and extend social production further a n d raise its e f f i c i e n c y i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . T h e m a i n objectives of the 6th F i v e - y e a r P l a n have b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a i n e d i n g e n e r a l . T h i s has m a d e t h e m a t e r i a l - t e c h n i c a l base o f t h e c o u n t r y s t i l l s t r o n g e r , has f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d t h e resources o f r a w m a t e r i a l s a n d energy, has e n s u r e d b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e h a r m o n i o u s , r a p i d a n d ceaseless d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e c o n o m y . D u r i n g t h e past f i v e - y e a r p l a n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e forces c o n t i n u e d at h i g h rates, t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the e c o n o m y d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r a n d the t e c h n i c a l - s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n s a w i m p o r t a n t n e w advances. I n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e a n d t h e other b r a n c h e s o f t h e e c o n o m y m a d e f u r t h e r progress. In 1980, as against 1975, s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n rose a b o u t 25 p e r cent a n d i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n m o r e t h a n 34 p e r cent, at a r a t e 2 to 3 t i m e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e g r o w t h of the population.

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T h r o u g h t h e consistent a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c policy of the Party, perceptible improvements were made in the structure of i n d u s t r i a l production, and the proportion of means of production in total production increased. I n d u s t r y m e t t h e needs o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n better a n d its r o l e in the all-round development of the economy and the defence o f t h e c o u n t r y w a s i n c r e a s e d . C o m p a r e d w i t h the 5th Five-year Plan, agricultural p r o d u c t i o n rose m o r e t h a n 2 1 p e r cent. A g r i c u l t u r e m e t the needs o f t h e c o u n t r y f o r b r e a d g r a i n , f o o d p r o d u c t s and the most essential r a w materials, a n d increased the volume of export of agricultural products. T o f u l f i l t h e t a r g e t s o f t h e 6 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n the P a r t y a n d o u r state r a i s e d t h e l e v e l o f u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e internal resources a n d possibilities of the country. The uninterrupted financing of the development of the econo m y a n d c u l t u r e w a s e n s u r e d , a b o u t 300 i m p o r t a n t p r o jects w e r e b u i l t a n d c o m m i s s i o n e d a n d goods e x p o r t s rose over 51 p e r cent. The g r o w i n g economic power and the implementation of a n u m b e r of m e a s u r e s of an e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c h a racter guaranteed the level of w e l l - b e i n g already achieved a n d l e d t o its f u r t h e r u p l i f t . T h e r e a l p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d b o t h i n t o w n a n d c o u n t r y s i d e . T h e r e t a i l goods t u r n o v e r w e n t u p a b o u t 2 0 p e r cent. T h e housing conditions of the population were further i m p r o v e d and m e a s u r e s w e r e t a k e n t o e x p a n d s o c i a l services. A b o u t 2 0 t h o u s a n d p e o p l e g r a d u a t e d f r o m t h e h i g h e r schools a n d more t h a n 113 t h o u s a n d f r o m t h e s e c o n d a r y schools, or 57 per cent m o r e t h a n i n t h e 5 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n . T h e s e a c h i e v e m e n t s i n t h e g e n e r a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c development of the country assume special significance if w e b e a r i n m i n d w h a t i s o c c u r r i n g i n the c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i sionist w o r l d , w h e r e t h e e c o n o m i c crisis, w i t h its g r a v e consequences f o r t h e w o r k i n g masses a n d t h e w h o l e l i f e

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o f these c o u n t r i e s has c a u s e d s t a g n a t i o n a n d d e c l i n e i n p r o d u c t i o n . These a c h i e v e m e n t s m a r k a great v i c t o r y f o r o u r P a r t y a n d people. O n b e h a l f o f the P a r t y a n d t h e people, f r o m t h e t r i b u n e o f this C o n g r e s s I h a i l a n d c o n g r a t u l a t e t h e w o r k e r s , the specialists a n d the cadres o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d i n d u s t r y w h o , r e s p o n d i n g t o the c a l l o f the P a r t y , e v e n i n t h e d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h the C h i n e s e r e v i s i o n i s t s c r e a t e d f o r us, p r o v e d u p t o the task a n d succeeded i n b u i l d i n g a n d c o m m i s s i o n i n g the great p r o j e c t s o f t h e 6 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n , w h i c h f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d o u r socialist H o m e l a n d . D e s p i t e t h e successes a c h i e v e d , w e are also a w a r e t h a t some targets o f the f i v e - y e a r p l a n w e r e n o t f u l f i l l e d . T h e P a r t y , the state organs a n d t h e w o r k i n g c o l l e c t i v e s h a v e c a r e f u l l y a n a l y s e d these f a i l u r e s a n d h a v e d r a w n lessons in order to eliminate weaknesses and shortcomings in the w o r k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f the e c o n o m y . T h e great a c h i e v e m e n t s o f h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e a l r e a d y made in a l l fields, as w e l l as the r i c h experience gained i n t h e w o r k a n d s t r u g g l e o f t h e P a r t y a n d people f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d defence of s o c i a l i s m , c o n s t i t u t e a p o w e r f u l p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l base f r o m w h i c h t o a d v a n c e confidently and boldly. O n t h e basis o f t h e g e n e r a l l i n e a n d t h e e c o n o m i c p o l i c y of the P a r t y for the construction of socialism, the C e n t r a l Committee, after all-sided w o r k and study and a broad p o p u l a r c o n s u l t a t i o n , p r e p a r e d t h e d r a f t - d i r e c t i v e s f o r the 7th Five-year P l a n of the development of the economy and c u l t u r e f o r t h e p e r i o d 1981-1985, w h i c h i t presents t o the Congress for examination and endorsement. T h e f u n d a m e n t a l t a s k of t h i s f i v e - y e a r p l a n i s : The general development of the economy, relying completely on our own forces, on the basis of deepening the socialist industrialization of the country, the strengthening and intensification of agriculture, raising the efficiency of the economy, the develop-

REPORT TO THE 8th CONGRESS OF THE PLA

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ment of the technical-scientific revolution and perfecting the socialist relations of production, in order to guarantee and gradually raise the material well-being and the cultural level of the masses of the working people and to further strengthen the socialist order and the defence capacity of the Homeland. T h e m a i n directions and objectives of the development of the economy and culture d u r i n g the 7th F i v e - y e a r P l a n , w h i c h is distinguished by a n u m b e r of special characteristics, are s y n t h e t i z e d i n t h i s task. This is the first five-year plan which will be carried out relying entirely on our own forces and possibilities. Today A l b a n i a is the only country in the w o r l d w h i c h is d e v e l o p i n g a n d a d v a n c i n g o n t h e socialist r o a d w i t h o u t any k i n d of a i d or credit f r o m abroad. This is a great but g l o r i o u s test f o r o u r p e o p l e a n d P a r t y , a n d t h e v i c t o r y i s c e r t a i n , because, b y p r o c e e d i n g o n t h e basis o f M a r x i s m L e n i n i s m , w e p r e p a r e d o u r s e l v e s l o n g ago f o r t h i s d e c i s i v e step. The objectives and tasks of the new five-year plan are greater than in any other plan, but they are scientifically based and fully achievable. F o r t h e f i v e y e a r s 1981-1985, the v o l u m e o f s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d i n v e s t m e n t s w i l l b e larger t h a n the v o l u m e realized over the first four five-year plans t a k e n t o g e t h e r , w h i l e t h e v o l u m e o f e x p o r t s w i l l b e even larger. I m p o r t a n t t a s k s are e n v i s a g e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f education a n d culture, the health service, housing and other p u b l i c services. I n s e t t i n g these targets a n d rates, a c c o u n t h a s been t a k e n b o t h o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h e e c o n o m y has a n d w i l l p r o v i d e a n d o f t h e needs f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e c o n o m y a n d t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f t h e n e w a c t i v e forces, f o r t h e strengthening of the defence of the country a n d the i n crease o f reserves, a n d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s o c i a l

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a n d c u l t u r a l sectors, a s w e l l a s f o r e v e r b e t t e r f u l f i l l i n g the growing demands of the population. M a n y of the targets o f t h i s f i v e - y e a r p l a n , e s p e c i a l l y those w h i c h h a v e t o d o w i t h t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f reserves o f o i l a n d m i n e r a l s , t h e a l l o c a t i o n of i n v e s t m e n t s , etc., h a v e also b e e n seen t o i n close c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e c o n omy in the f u t u r e five-year plans, w h e n we w i l l be faced w i t h e v e n g r e a t e r needs a n d d e m a n d s . During the 7th Five-year Plan some important structural improvements will be made in the field of production, the circulation of goods and consumption by the people. T h e s e i m p r o v e m e n t s w i l l i n v o l v e e n e r g y resources, b l a c k metallurgy, the engineering industry, agriculture, transport, f i n a n c e s a n d mass c o n s u m e r goods, etc. T h e i m p r o v e m e n t s envisaged w i l l lead to intensification of the economy, raise its e f f i c i e n c y a n d m a k e i t m o r e c a p a b l e o f m e e t i n g t h e needs o f t h e c o u n t r y a n d o f c o p i n g b e t t e r w i t h t h e e n c i r c l e ment and blockade and the pressure of the economic crisis of the capitalist and revisionist w o r l d . The development and strengthening of the materialtechnical base of the country, as always, will be closely linked with the improvement of various aspects of the economic relations in the city and, especially, in the countryside. I m p o r t a n t m e a s u r e s h a v e b e e n a n d a r e b e i n g t a k e n for the further development of the cooperativist system a n d the r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l plot, f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n of specialization and cooperation, the strengthening of the organization and management of production, for a better l i n k i n g of the remuneration for w o r k w i t h q u a n t i t y and quality, savings and the f u l f i l m e n t of targets of the p l a n . These measures w i l l be carried still f u r t h e r w i t h the a i m of ceaselessly s t r e n g t h e n i n g o u r socialist o r d e r .

REPORT TO THE 8th CONGRESS OF THE PLA


1. T H E F U R T H E R S T R E N G T H E N I N G OF I N D U S T R Y A DECISIVE FACTOR FOR THE G E N E R A L A D V A N C E OF THE COUNTRY

315

T h e socialist i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y , w h i c h has d e v e l o p e d f r o m one f i v e - y e a r p l a n to t h e o t h e r as a great a n d ceaseless process, h a s o c c u p i e d a n d c o n t i n u e s t o occupy the m a i n place in the economic policy of the Party. It h a s b e e n a n d is a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r f o r t h e g e n e r a l a d v a n c e of the country on the road of socialism. The creation and strengthening of our multi-branched, heavy and light i n d u s t r y , b a s e d f i r m l y o n o u r o w n resources a n d assets a n d w i t h c l e a r p r o s p e c t s of d e v e l o p m e n t , is a m o n u m e n t a l deed o f o u r P a r t y a n d people, a c h i e v e d w i t h great t o i l , s a c r i f i c e a n d u n r i v a l l e d h e r o i s m , a deed o f h i s t o r i c i m p o r t a n c e f o r the p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . In the 7th Five-year P l a n our industry w i l l advance still f u r t h e r and develop on a broad front. A b o u t 46 per cent o f a l l t h e i n v e s t m e n t s o f t h e f i v e - y e a r p l a n w i l l b e made in this branch. The a i m of the policy of the P a r t y for the development of i n d u s t r y is: to consolidate the multi-branched structure of industry, giving priority, as always, to heavy industry ; to maintain and further improve the p o s i t i v e b a l a n c e o f e n e r g y resources, a t t a c h i n g p a r t i cular importance to the oil industry; to further develop the m i n e r a l e x t r a c t i n g a n d p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r y , w h i l e also starting to utilize new minerals; to make tangible improvements in the structure of means of production and c o n s u m e r goods; t o p u t i n d u s t r y e v e n m o r e i n t h e s e r v i c e o f the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e ; t o e x p a n d t h e e x i s t i n g productive capacities t h r o u g h their reconstruction and modernization. The Party devotes special attention to the energy industry, to the extraction of oil, gas, coal and the production of electric power. We h a v e c r e a t e d a p o w e r f u l a n d i n d e pendent e n e r g y s y s t e m w h i c h meets t h e g r o w i n g needs o f

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the country f o r energy and earns i m p o r t a n t incomes in h a r d currency f r o m its exports. T h i s is a m a j o r victory f o r t h e correct p o l i c y o f t h e P a r t y a n d a r e l i a b l e basis f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e n a t i o n a l e c o n o m y as a w h o l e . This victory must be consolidated and carried further, i n t h e f i r s t place, b y m a k i n g i n v e s t m e n t s a n d i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n , b u t also b y u s i n g a l l o u r e n e r g y resources w i t h the greatest e c o n o m y , strict c o n t r o l a n d t h r i f t . T h e s o l u t i o n o f these p r o b l e m s calls f o r w e l l - o r g a n i z e d , d i s c i p l i n e d a n d s y s t e m a t i c w o r k w i t h s o u n d s c i e n t i f i c bases a n d methods. The development of this crucial b r a n c h of m a j o r strategic importance is put f o r w a r d as an i m p e r a t i v e duty, especially in the conditions of the w o r l d energy crisis. T h e e x t r a c t i o n a n d p r o c e s s i n g o f o i l a n d gas w i l l occ u p y t h e m a i n p l a c e i n o u r e n e r g y resources. T h i s i s a great b u t f u l l y r e a l i z a b l e task, because i t i s b a s e d o n t h e e x i s t i n g resources a n d t h e k n o w n a n d t a p p e d reserves. T h e achievement of the targets for the extraction of o i l a n d gas a n d t h e i n c r e a s e o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e major expenditure made in this branch of industry require t h a t t h e o i l w o r k e r s , s p e c i a l i s t s a n d cadres g i v e s p e c i a l attention to i m p r o v i n g prospecting and extraction methods, basing themselves completely on the achievements of science, o n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f r i g o r o u s t e c h n i c a l a n d w o r k i n g discipline. T h e e x p e n d i t u r e o n t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f o i l a n d gas m u s t b e m a d e o n t h e basis o f p r o f o u n d studies a n d w i t h r e s ponsibility. Thorough-going technical, organizational and material measures must be taken to increase oil extraction, n o t o n l y f r o m t h e n e w deposits, b u t also f r o m t h e o l d e r ones, u s i n g i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n a n d s e c o n d a r y m e t h o d s m u c h b e t t e r t h a n u p t i l l n o w . I n t h i s v i t a l sector w e m u s t p r o c e e d w i t h e c o n o m y , w i t h reserves g u a r a n t e e d a n d p r o v e d , a n d u t i l i z e o i l a n d gas f r u g a l l y , t h i n k i n g o f t o d a y a n d also o f the f u t u r e . T h e s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n i c a l f o r c e s m u s t i n v o l v e

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themselves more deeply in speeding up the exploitation o f b i t u m i n o u s sands w i t h a h i g h l e v e l o f e f f i c i e n c y , because these are a great asset of t h e c o u n t r y , w h i c h m u s t be b r o u g h t i n t o e c o n o m i c c i r c u l a t i o n a s soon a s p o s s i b l e . C o a l , w h i c h is a f u e l u s e d on a mass scale a n d of g r e a t e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t , occupies a n i m p o r t a n t place i n t h e e n e r g y resources o f t h e c o u n t r y . A t t e n t i o n s h o u l d b e c e n t e r e d n o t o n l y o n the r a t i o n a l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g c o a l m i n e s , b u t also o n t h e o p e n i n g o f p r o f i t a b l e n e w m i n e s . P r o s p e c t i n g f o r coals o f h i g h e r c a l o r i f i c v a l u e a n d c o k i n g coals m u s t b e e x t e n d e d . W o r k must be done everywhere to replace l i q u i d fuels w i t h coal a n d f o r its f r u g a l use. L i k e w i s e , i t i s also n e c e s s a r y to take measures for the enrichment and briquetting o f coals, t o i n c r e a s e t h e e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e i r use. I n o r d e r t o k e e p a h e a d o f t h e g r o w i n g needs f o r e l e c t r i c p o w e r , a s w e l l a s f o r t h e i n t e n s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the w a t e r resources i n w h i c h o u r c o u n t r y i s v e r y r i c h , d u r i n g this f i v e - y e a r p l a n t h e w o r k f o r the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e K o m a n h y d r o - p o w e r station, w h i c h w i l l be the most powerf u l we have built up to now, w i l l be stepped up to m a j o r p r o p o r t i o n s a n d p r e p a r a t i o n s w i l l b e m a d e f o r t h e const r u c t i o n o f o t h e r h y d r o - p o w e r stations, b i g a n d s m a l l , n o t o n l y t o cope w i t h p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e needs, b u t also t o increase t h e e x p o r t o f e l e c t r i c p o w e r . T h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d use o f e l e c t r i c p o w e r m u s t b e seen i n u n i t y . T h e P a r t y a n d t h e state a n d e c o n o m i c o r g a n s m u s t w o r k t o c h a n g e people's concepts, s o t h a t e l e c t r i c p o w e r is a p p r e c i a t e d as a m a j o r n a t i o n a l asset w h i c h must b e u s e d t h r i f t i l y a n d w i t h r i g o r o u s c o n t r o l i n a l l fields, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h a t o f m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n , w h e r e scientifically studied norms must be established for every kilowatt consumed. The 7th Five-year Plan opens broad perspectives for

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the extracting and processing industry of useful minerals. Conditions have n o w been created for the extraction of o t h e r u s e f u l m i n e r a l s also, s u c h a s p h o s p h o r i t e , q u a r t z i t e , r o c k salt, d o l o m i t e , o l i v i n i t e , b a u x i t e , etc. C u r r e n t a n d f u t u r e needs pose t h e t a s k o f e x p a n d i n g the e x t r a c t i o n a n d e n r i c h m e n t o f l o w - g r a d e m i n e r a l s a n d i n c r e a s i n g the p r o p o r t i o n o f u s e f u l e l e m e n t s r e c o v e r e d f r o m t h e m i n o r d e r t o r a i s e t h e v a l u e o f o u r m i n e r a l resources, t o e x p l o i t e v e n those deposits, o l d o r n e w , w h i c h a r e o f p o o r q u a l i t y , b u t o f w h i c h t h e r e a r e l a r g e reserves. Special attention will be paid to metallurgy, in general, and iron and steel production, in particular, not only to deepen the full cycle processing of our main minerals, but also to strengthen the independence of our economy from imports. T h e r e f o r e , o u r m e t a l l u r g i c a l w o r k e r s m u s t m o b ilize a l l their strength and skills so that they learn a n d master thoroughly, w i t h strict discipline and on a scientific basis, t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f s m e l t i n g m i n e r a l s a n d t h e m a n y w a y s of processing metals, in order to utilize a l l the useful m a i n a n d associated e l e m e n t s o f t h e c o m p l e x ores, t o r e d u c e t h e costs o f m a t e r i a l s a n d e n e r g y , w h i c h a r e s t i l l h i g h . T h o r o u g h studies a n d i n t e n s i v e w o r k a r e r e q u i r e d for the big extensions w h i c h w i l l continue at the Steel of the P a r t y metallurgical combine, for the setting up of p l a n t s t o p r o d u c e tubes o f v a r i o u s k i n d s , steel p l a t e a n d carbonic products. N o w t h a t w e h a v e o u r o w n steel a n d h a v e b u i l t a powerful mechanical engineering industry t h e c o n d i t i o n s h a v e b e e n c r e a t e d t o set t h i s b r a n c h g r e a t e r t a s k s . T h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the e n g i n e e r i n g i n d u s t r y i n 1985 w i l l b e 43-45 p e r cent g r e a t e r t h a n i n 1980. The engineering industry successfully f u l f i l l e d the task o f p r o d u c i n g s p a r e parts, set b y t h e 7 t h C o n g r e s s o f t h e P a r t y , m e e t i n g 9 5 p e r cent o f t h e needs o f t h e e c o n o m y for them. In this five-year p l a n this achievement must

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be consolidated by radically i m p r o v i n g quality and greatly increasing the reconditioning of the parts replaced. In the years of this five-year plan the engineering i n d u s t r y w i l l engage o n a l a r g e r scale i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f equipment and m a c h i n e r y for the construction of new production lines and factories, f o r various reconstructions a n d e x t e n s i o n s o f p r o d u c t i v e capacities. T o c a r r y o u t s u c h a task demands i m p r o v e d organization and management of this b r a n c h of industry, and the technology of processing, planning, the cooperation a n d the standardization of prod u c t i o n m u s t b e p u t o n the m o s t s c i e n t i f i c basis possible. U r g e n t and comprehensive measures must be taken especially f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l a n d s t r u c t u r a l designs o f e q u i p m e n t a n d m a c h i n e r y f o r t h e n e w projects t o b e b u i l t a n d t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t o b e done during this five-year plan. M u c h of this equipment and machinery w i l l be produced for the first time. T h e designing and p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s e q u i p m e n t a n d m a c h i n e r y o n t i m e and w i t h h i g h q u a l i t y i s one o f t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t t a s k s w h i c h o u r e n g i n e e r i n g i n d u s t r y has t o cope w i t h . The commencement of machine b u i l d i n g on a large scale b y t h e e n g i n e e r i n g i n d u s t r y f o r c e f u l l y poses t h e n e e d to raise the l e v e l of q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h e people i n v o l v e d and d e v e l o p t h e i r c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , t h e n e e d t o t r a i n h i g h e r a n d m i d d l e cadres e v e n f o r n a r r o w p r o f i l e s a n d p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l i t i e s , m a k i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e changes i n the p r o g r a m s o f v o c a t i o n a l schools a n d t h e U n i v e r s i t y f o r this p u r p o s e . The chemical industry will undergo great expansion and development during this five-year plan. C o m p a r e d w i t h 1980, in 1985 its p r o d u c t i o n w i l l go up 63-65 p e r cent. Particular importance w i l l be given to increasing production o f p h o s p h a t e f e r t i l i z e r s a n d c h e m i c a l s f o r p l a n t protection. N o w t h a t m a n y b a s i c p r o d u c t s a n d a n u m b e r of i n d u s t r i a l r e s i d u e s a n d associated c o m p o n e n t s of m i n e r a l s

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are a v a i l a b l e , t h e c h e m i s t s a n d other s p e c i a l i s t s m u s t study and produce a m u c h w i d e r range of chemical p r o ducts a n d reagents i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e i m p o r t s o f t h e m a s soon as possible. T h e b e g i n n i n g s of c h e m i c a l s y n t h e s i s , based m a i n l y o n l o c a l r a w m a t e r i a l s , m u s t also b e c a r r i e d f o w a r d w i t h the a i m t h a t its p r o d u c t s b e c o m e a good s o u r c e of exports in the not-too-distant future. T h e P a r t y has a l w a y s b o r n e i n m i n d that, i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of i n d u s t r y as a w h o l e , the production of mass consumer goods must be increased in keeping with the needs of the population, ensuring the stability and continuous raising of the material and cultural level of the working masses. A r e a l change f o r t h e b e t t e r i s n e c e s s a r y i n t h e p r o ducts o f t h e l i g h t a n d f o o d - p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r y , a n d a radical improvement m u s t be achieved in the structure, range, q u a l i t y , p a c k a g i n g a n d t h e l o w e r i n g o f t h e cost o f t h e goods. T h i s c h a n g e c a n b e m a d e o n l y t h r o u g h c o m plete a n d e f f e c t i v e m e a s u r e s i n t h e f i e l d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and management, and the planning and technology of p r o d u c t i o n . A b o v e a l l , a r t i s a n concepts m u s t b e r a d i c a l l y changed, ingenuity and creative t h i n k i n g must be developed, there must be swift and efficient action to m a k e p o s i t i v e changes, t o open a b r o a d w a y t o t h e n e w e v e r y where. H u g e investments have been made for the establishment and development of industry, and a whole a r m y of q u a l i f i e d a n d d e v o t e d w o r k e r s , w h o are a p o w e r f u l s u p p o r t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s v i t a l sector o f t h e e c o n omy, has been trained. T h e attainment of the great targets l a i d d o w n by t h e P a r t y requires that the w o r k e r s of industry increase the efficiency of production and the productivity of labour, and raise their creative activity to a higher level. T h e y must utilize the m a n y productive capacities at their disposal

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e x t e n s i v e l y a n d m a s t e r t h e use o f t h e n e w p r o j e c t s a n d production lines that w i l l be completed and commissioned, a s w e l l a s those w h i c h w i l l b e r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e y e a r s o f t h i s f i v e - y e a r p l a n , a s t h o r o u g h l y a s possible. W i t h courage a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d r e l y i n g o n t h e r e s u l t s o f studies a n d science, t h e y m u s t c a r r y f o r w a r d a n d m o d e r n i z e the t e c h n o l o g y o f p r o d u c t i o n , i m p r o v e its q u a l i t a t i v e a n d financial indices. T h e people and the P a r t y are f u l l y confident that the w o r k e r s o f a l l b r a n c h e s o f i n d u s t r y , conscious o f t h e s i t u a t i o n w e are g o i n g t h r o u g h , w i l l m u l t i p l y t h e i r e f f o r t s a n d step u p t h e i r s t r u g g l e t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s a n d f u l f i l the great tasks w h i c h this Congress is setting for the d e v e l o p m e n t a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f o u r socialist i n dustry.

2. A G R I C U L T U R A L PRODUCTION MUST BE FURTHER INTENSIFIED IN THE AND THE SOCIALIST RELATIONS PERFECTED COUNTRYSIDE

O u r P a r t y has w o r k e d out a n d i m p l e m e n t e d a M a r x i s t Leninist agrarian policy, t a k i n g account of the historical conditions and the concrete circumstances in w h i c h our people's r e v o l u t i o n t r i u m p h e d a n d t h e c o u n t r y e m b a r k e d on the road of socialism. In the conditions of a v e r y backw a r d a g r a r i a n country, the P a r t y h a d to solve t w o problems s i m u l t a n e o u s l y : b o t h t h e socialist t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e countryside and the all-round development of agriculture. A g r i c u l t u r e h a d to be in a position to feed the r u r a l pop u l a t i o n a n d t o m a k e its great c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i n d u s trialization of the country and the development of the n a t i o n a l e c o n o m y . Achievement of these fundamental tasks required not any kind of development of agriculture, but precisely its socialist development on the basis of modern,

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large-scale production closely linked with all the other branches and sectors of the economy. The revolutionary transformations and the progress a c h i e v e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e r e p r e s e n t one o f t h e greatest v i c tories of the line and policy of the P a r t y for the construct i o n o f s o c i a l i s m . T h e fact t h a t d u r i n g n e a r l y f o u r decades o f t h e people's state p o w e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n general in our country has continued to increase about 2 times more rapidly than the population, that the r e a l p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e of t h e p e a s a n t r y has g o n e up 10 to 20 p e r cent f r o m one f i v e - y e a r p l a n t o a n o t h e r , t h a t n o w , a s c o m p a r e d w i t h 1960, a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d 1.7 t i m e s p e r u n i t of a r a b l e l a n d a n d 1.6 t i m e s p e r a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r , i s c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f t h e correctness o f t h i s p o l i c y . I n t h e 6 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n , too, a l t h o u g h t h e t a r g e t s w e r e not f u l l y accomplished according to plan, the average a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n w a s 21.4 p e r cent h i g h e r a s c o m p a r e d w i t h the 5th F i v e - y e a r P l a n . C o n s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w i n g its a g r a r i a n p o l i c y , t h e P a r t y h a s set n e w , m o r e i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e a n d t h e p r o g r e s s o f o u r socialist c o u n t r y s i d e d u r i n g the 7 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n . T h e t a s k s w h i c h t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y has set f o r t h e sector o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n the n e w f i v e - y e a r p l a n a i m t o increase production in order to ensure ever better supplies of a l l t h e f o o d f o r t h e people a n d i m p r o v e its s t r u c t u r e ; t o substantially increase the r a w materials f o r the light and food-processing industry; to gradually eliminate i m ports of that part of foodstuffs and agricultural r a w m a t e r i a l s w h i c h are s t i l l b r o u g h t f r o m a b r o a d ; t o i n c r e a s e t h e v o l u m e o f e x p o r t s o f processed a n d u n p r o c e s s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s ; t o i n c r e a s e a n d s t r e n g t h e n t h e necess a r y r e s e r v e . O n t h e basis o f these o b j e c t i v e s , a s w e l l a s t h r o u g h other e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l measures, t h e w e l l being of the peasantry w i l l be raised and the distinctions

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between t o w n and countryside w i l l be further reduced. These m a j o r problems for the development of agriculture h a v e to do w i t h the present and the f u t u r e of the c o u n t r y . F o r a l l these reasons, i n t h i s f i v e - y e a r p l a n a g r i culture w i l l occupy a special and more i m p o r t a n t place than hitherto. As always, grain production remains the primary task o f agriculture. E a c h y e a r w e m u s t s u p p l y t h e b r e a d needed b y t h e e v e r g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n , f u l f i l i n c r e a s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c o n c e n t r a t e d a n d i n d u s t r i a l i z e d foods f o r l i v e s t o c k , a s w e l l a s o t h e r e s s e n t i a l needs f o r g r a i n . T h e s e problems cannot be solved by constantly increasing the area p l a n t e d t o g r a i n . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e stress m u s t b e laid more and more on increasing yields and i m p r o v i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t y p e s o f g r a i n g r o w n . T h i s becomes e v e n more essential in the conditions in w h i c h the population is g r o w i n g at h i g h rates a n d , as a consequence, t h e a r e a o f a r a b l e l a n d p e r c a p i t a t e n d s t o decrease. T h e r e f o r e , t h e increase o f a b o u t 2 0 p e r cent i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f g r a i n in the 7th F i v e - y e a r P l a n , as against the 6th F i v e - y e a r Plan, must be achieved entirely through increased yields. T h e t a s k s i n t h i s f i e l d are v e r y serious a n d r e q u i r e e x c e p t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e o r g a n s o f t h e P a r t y , t h e state, the e c o n o m y a n d a l l t h e w o r k e r s o f a g r i c u l t u r e . A p a r t f r o m t h e increase i n g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n , m e a s u r e s must b e s t e p p e d u p i n a l l t h e l i n k s i n t h e p r o c u r e m e n t , h a n d l i n g , s t o r i n g a n d use o f g r a i n i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a n y loss o r d a m a g e . W e m u s t also a i m a t r e d u c i n g t h e c o n s u m p t i o n of bread per head of population, both in t o w n and countryside. W e m u s t p r o c e e d o n t h i s c o u r s e w i t h a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y studied p r o g r a m t o i m p r o v e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e people's food b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d use o f vegetables, potatoes, f r u i t s , l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s , etc. T h e p r o b l e m i s that w e m u s t p r o v i d e t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h m o r e m i l k , m e a t , vegetables, etc., a n d r e d u c e t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f b r e a d ,

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t h u s not r e d u c i n g the s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g b u t r a i s i n g it. Hence, parallel w i t h the increase of the production of vegetables, potatoes a n d beans p e r h e a d o f p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e i r cost, m o r e o r g a n i z e d w o r k m u s t b e done t o s t u d y people's d e m a n d s a n d tastes a n d t o t r a n s f o r m the e x i s t i n g a l m o s t a r t i s a n m e n t a l i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s p o r t , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d sale o f these p r o d u c t s . T h e s o l i d t a s k s e n v i s a g e d i n t h i s f i v e - y e a r p l a n c o n c e r n i n g vegetables, potatoes a n d beans r e q u i r e t h e implementation of all-round agro-technical measures, as w e l l as the concentration and specialization of the prod u c t i o n o f t h e m , e s p e c i a l l y a r o u n d t h e b i g cities, w i t h t h e a i m that the plans must be f u l f i l l e d in quantity, in v a r i e t y and on time throughout the year. T h e state a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s h a v e m a d e m a j o r investments for the development of fruit-growing. Up till n o w , h o w e v e r , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f these i n v e s t m e n t s , espec i a l l y i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s , has b e e n l o w a n d t h e w e i g h t o f t h i s sector i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i s s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . H e n c e , t o r e a l i z e the i n c r e a s i n g t a s k s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of f r u i t - g r o w i n g it is necessary, f i r s t of a l l , t h a t t h i s branch should be appreciated more correctly, and that ideas u n d e r r a t i n g it and manifestations of lack of interest i n t h i s great w e a l t h w i t h p r o m i s e f o r t h e f u t u r e o f o u r country, must be combated. In the orchards and olive groves a l l the necessary services must be f u l l y carried out and the appropriate conditions p r o v i d e d for extensive irrigation. The new investments must be concentrated m a i n l y on the c o m p l e t i o n o f e x i s t i n g b l o c k s a n d t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the existing vineyards. Studies must be carried out in the field of f r u i t - g r o w i n g and a great deal of w o r k done to add to and i m p r o v e new varieties, the p l a n t i n g of orchards o f v a r i o u s k i n d s a r o u n d t h e cities m u s t b e p r o c e e d e d w i t h

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a n d , w i t h i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s , t h e p r a c t i c e o f j o i n t statecooperative investments should be applied. T h e needs of t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a multi-branched agriculture require improvement in the s t r u c t u r e o f p l a n t i n g s o f i n d u s t r i a l crops, c o n c e n t r a t i o n and specialization of production in the districts and econo m i e s w h i c h h a v e h a d t h e best results, e n s u r i n g s u p p l i e s o f seeds w h i c h p r o d u c e h e a v y c r o p s y i e l d i n g h i g h l e v e l s of industrial products, and the application of advanced technology in production. We must adhere to the orientation f o r i n d u s t r i a l c r o p s t o f u l f i l t h e needs o f t h e people a n d the economy ever better w i t h the local production. I n r e g a r d t o t h e f o r e s t e c o n o m y , a l o n g w i t h measures to proceed more rapidly towards balancing cutting w i t h the a n n u a l n a t u r a l g r o w t h o f forest trees, w e m u s t a i m t o t r a n s f o r m t h e forests i n t o c o m p l e x e c o n o m i e s i n w h i c h , apart f r o m extracting timber, secondary forest products, s u c h a s p l a n t s p r o d u c i n g e s s e n t i a l oils a n d m e d i c i n a l herbs, are c u l t i v a t e d a n d h a r v e s t e d , a n d m o r e i s done t o develop and utilize the zooculture. The objectives put forward in the new five-year plan concerning livestock-farming require much greater attention from the organs of the Party, the state and the economy and all the workers of agriculture for this important branch. D e s p i t e t h e p r o g r e s s m a d e , t h e l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f t h e l i v e s t o c k sector does n o t r e s p o n d t o t h e b i g i n v e s t m e n t s m a d e a n d t h e i n c r e a s i n g needs f o r a n i m a l products. To this end it is necessary to radically change t h e concepts o n a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e needs and r e q u i r e m e n t s a r i s i n g f r o m the d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a r g e scale l i v e s t o c k - f a r m i n g w i t h m a n y k i n d s o f a n i m a l s , a n d b u i l t on a s c i e n t i f i c basis. T h e number-one problem in the field of livestockf a r m i n g is the a p p l i c a t i o n of a c o m p l e t e s y s t e m of a p p r o priate m e a s u r e s t o d o u b l e a n d t r e b l e t h e y i e l d s o f f o r a g e

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crops a n d t h e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f n a t u r a l p a s t u r e s , t o g a t h e r a n d u t i l i z e a l l t h e reserves a n d b y - p r o d u c t s o f a g r i c u l t u r e , as w e l l as to a p p l y a m o r e a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f c o n c e n t r a t e d foods a n d o t h e r agricultural and industrial products for the livestock. We have made and w i l l continue to make investments a n d t a k e m e a s u r e s t o set u p m o d e r n c o m p l e x e s f o r t h e strengthening of livestock-farming, for the production of m e a t a n d eggs, f o r t h e i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s i n g a n d e n s i l a g i n g of feed for animals. H o w e v e r , care must be t a k e n to ensure t h a t these i n v e s t m e n t s are m a d e i n t i m e a n d g i v e t h e p r o p e r effect. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t m u s t b e k e p t c l e a r l y i n m i n d that the o v e r w h e l m i n g part of the livestock, this great n a t i o n a l asset, i s i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d i n the herds formed f r o m the animals belonging to the m e m b e r s o f these c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e r e f o r e , v e r y g r e a t a t t e n t i o n m u s t b e p a i d t o t h e p r o p e r m a n a g e m e n t o f these animals, the increase of production and reduction of the cost o f l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s i n a l l areas o f t h e c o u n t r y . The fulfilment of the targets envisaged in the 7th F i v e year Plan for agriculture will be achieved, more than ever before, through intensification. T h e l a n d a n d a l l t h e r e l a tively powerful and diversified material and technical base w h i c h has b e e n c r e a t e d m u s t b e u t i l i z e d w i t h t h e greatest possible e f f i c i e n c y , w i t h t h e a i m o f g e t t i n g t h e m a x i m u m agricultural and livestock products w i t h the least p o s s i b l e e x p e n d i t u r e t h i s is t h e t a s k set. W h i l e setting m a j o r tasks for stepping up the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e , i n t h e f u t u r e , too, p e r s i s t e n t efforts must continue to extend the area of arable land, because o u r c o u n t r y s t i l l h a s l a n d w h i c h c a n b e o p e n e d u p i n t h e h i l l y a n d m o u n t a i n o u s areas, a s w e l l a s t o g a i n n e w areas o f l a n d t h r o u g h d e s a l i n i z a t i o n , etc. A m a j o r p r o b l e m , w h i c h has t o d o w i t h t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e , is a b e t t e r h a r m o n i z a t i o n , b a s e d

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on scientific criteria, of all the h u m a n , material, agro-technical and n a t u r a l factors w h i c h condition agricultural production. This is a general problem w h i c h concerns every e c o n o m y , d i s t r i c t o r a r e a . T h e specialists, cadres a n d v a n g u a r d w o r k e r s a t t h e base, t h e e c o n o m i c a n d p l a n n i n g organs, a s w e l l a s t h e s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s , h a v e here a b r o a d f i e l d f o r studies a n d c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y a n d i n novation. I n t h e f u t u r e , too, i n v e s t m e n t s a n d c a r e f o r t h e l a n d must c o n s t i t u t e t h e m a i n d i r e c t i o n o f t h e w o r k f o r t h e intensification a n d increase of agricultural production. This calls f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e m e a s u r e s t o increase t h e f e r t i l i t y o f t h e l a n d a n d p r o t e c t i t a g a i n s t erosion, t o e n r i c h a n d i m p r o v e t h e s o i l t h r o u g h a c o m b i n e d and i n t e g r a l s y s t e m o f f e r t i l i z e r s . I t r e q u i r e s t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d use o f seeds w i t h h i g h p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y , r e sistant t o diseases, pests a n d u n f a v o u r a b l e n a t u r a l f a c t o r s . T h e m a n y problems related to the intensification of agriculture can be successfully solved only by placing all agricultural production on rigorously scientific foundations. The 8th P l e n u m of the CC of the P a r t y gave orientations and d i r e c t i v e s o f v e r y g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o a l l t h e s c i e n t i f i c o r g a n i s m s i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f r o m t h e base t o t h e centre. I t i s a p r i m e d u t y o f t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e state a n d economic o r g a n s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h i s p r o g r a m i s p e r s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d . To t h i s e n d it is e s s e n t i a l t h a t a c o r r e c t concept should b e f o r m e d o f t h e g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e a n d r o l e o f scientific r e s e a r c h a n d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e a n d that a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e a s u r e s a r e t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t the results o f these studies f i n d a p p l i c a t i o n i n large-scale p r o d u c t i o n as q u i c k l y as possible. I n the c o n t e x t o f t h e w o r k t h a t w i l l b e c a r r i e d out i n agriculture d u r i n g this five-year plan, the Central C o m mittee of t h e P a r t y proposes to the C o n g r e s s t h a t a series of important measures for the intensification of agricul-

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tural production, giving priority to production in the more fertile plains of the country, should be applied within a ten-year period. T h e f i r s t stage of t h i s p r o g r a m , to be a p p l i e d i n the 7 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n , covers m o r e t h a n 100,000 hectares o f l a n d i n t h e a r e a o f t h e coastal p l a i n s . T h e a i m of this action is to increase agricultural and livestock prod u c t i o n i n t h e areas i n w h i c h t h e w o r k a n d i n v e s t m e n t s y i e l d g r e a t e r a n d m o r e r a p i d r e s u l t s . T h i s w i l l also create favourable conditions for a more rapid development of the cooperatives a n d for the g r a d u a l transition f r o m the p r o p e r t y o f t h e g r o u p t o t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people. U n d e r t a k i n g this action w i l l not affect the investments and m a t e r i a l resources necessary f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e o t h e r areas o f t h e c o u n t r y . O n the c o n t r a r y , w o r k w i l l continue for the further development and strengthening of all a g r i c u l t u r a l cooperatives. Success i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s g r e a t t a s k r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l w o r k , w e l l - p r o g r a m m e d a n d o r g a n i z e d , b y the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the S t a t e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , t h e M i n i s t r y of Finance and other central institutions and party and state organs i n the d i s t r i c t s w h i c h a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e zone where the higher level of intensification of agriculture w i l l be applied. The level already achieved in the development of the productive forces and the new steps, which will be taken in the 7th Five-year Plan and in the future, will be accompanied and supported by the further improvement of the socialist relations in the countryside. T h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e of t h e P a r t y h a s m a d e a m e t i c u l o u s s t u d y of a n d a p p r o v e d the r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n i t i a t i v e s o f t h e p e a s a n t r y f o r the f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t p l o t a n d t h e formation of joint herds f r o m the members' personal livestock, a n d h a s t a k e n o r i s t a k i n g a l l - r o u n d m e a s u r e s t o g i v e t h i s p r o g r e s s i v e process i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e p r o p e r s u p p o r t . T h e P a r t y i s h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t i v e o f the r e v o l u t i o n -

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ary spirit and ardent patriotism of the cooperativist p e a s a n t r y i n t a k i n g t h i s step o f s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e strengthening of the cooperativist system in our country. I t i s f u l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l plot a n d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f j o i n t h e r d s w i l l c e r t a i n l y l e a d t o increased agricultural and livestock production, to g u a r a n t e e i n g a n d f u r t h e r r a i s i n g the w e l l - b e i n g o f the p e a s a n t r y a n d t h e f u r t h e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e s p i r i t o f socialist c o l l e c t i v i s m . T h u s , o n t h e basis o f t h e rise i n p r o d u c t i o n a n d t h e g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g of the p e a s a n t r y , t h e plot, as a t e m p o r a r y a u x i l i a r y e c o n o m y , i s g r a d u a l l y l o s i n g its i m portance and w i l l eventually wither away completely. The implementation of the program for speeding up the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s l o w l a n d a r e a w i l l also b r i n g a b o u t i m p o r t a n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e socialist r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h i s zone. W i t h t h e b i g i n v e s t m e n t s , w h i c h t h e state w i l l m a k e i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s o f t h i s zone, t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f the s t a t e - o w n e d m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n w i l l increase. T h i s w i l l lead g r a d u a l l y to restriction of the sphere of the r e l a t i o n s of c o o p e r a t i v i s t p r o p e r t y , u n t i l , at a l a t e r p e r i o d , the l a t t e r t u r n s i n t o p r o p e r t y o f t h e w h o l e people. U n t i l this phase i s r e a c h e d , t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t s i n the zone i n w h i c h a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l b e i n t e n s i f i e d a t h i g h e r rates, w i l l continue to be paid in the current forms, w i t h norms and workdays. Meanwhile, we shall w o r k towards gradually r a i s i n g t h e i r r e m u n e r a t i o n t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e w a g e s o f the w o r k e r s o f state f a r m s . P a r a l l e l w i t h this, t h e w o r k w i l l c o n t i n u e t o c o n s o l i d a t e the h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s , some o f w h i c h w i l l b e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o state f a r m s . T h i s w i l l s e r v e a s a n e x p e r i e n c e f o r the f u t u r e , too. O t h e r h i g h e r - t y p e c o o p e r a t i v e s w i l l b e set u p i n t h e l o w l a n d zones. S o m e c o o p e r a t i v e s o f t h e h i l l y and m o u n t a i n o u s zones also m a y become h i g h e r - t y p e

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cooperatives, depending on their development and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e state. W h i l e p r o g r a m m i n g these n e w steps, t h e P a r t y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e v o t e great a t t e n t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e t o t h e development and strengthening of the cooperatives in the h i l l y a n d m o u n t a i n o u s zones. A l a r g e p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y l i v e s i n these zones w h i c h i n c l u d e a c o n siderable area of the arable land. The speeding up of intens i f i c a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e p l a i n s w i l l p r o v i d e t h e state w i t h greater material and f i n a n c i a l possibilities to m a k e i n v e s t m e n t s a n d g i v e g r e a t e r assistance t o t h e h i l l y a n d m o u n t a i n o u s zones. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n a n d care m u s t b e g i v e n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f a l l t h e state f a r m s , combating the shortcomings and weaknesses w h i c h exist i n some o f t h e m t o d a y . T h e t a s k w h i c h t h e P a r t y set l o n g ago, t h a t the state f a r m s s h o u l d b e i n t h e v a n g u a r d , m u s t b e c a r r i e d out p e r s i s t e n t l y . T h e m a j e s t i c objectives o f t h e n e w f i v e - y e a r p l a n o p e n up prospects of a l l - r o u n d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o g r e s s f o r o u r a g r i c u l t u r e a n d t h e socialist c o u n t r y s i d e . T o a t t a i n these objectives r e q u i r e s t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n a n d p e r s i s t e n t w o r k o f a l l the w o r k i n g people o f a g r i c u l t u r e , p e r f e c t i o n o f the p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l production and of a l l the subsequent l i n k s in the c h a i n : the organs o f p r o c u r e m e n t , the l i g h t a n d f o o d - p r o c e s sing industries, internal and foreign trade. The M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e a n d its d e p e n d e n t o r g a n s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , are f a c e d w i t h i m p o r t a n t d u t i e s i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y are e q u a l t o t h e m a j o r t a s k s f o r t h e development of agriculture w h i c h this Congress is setting. T h e successful achievement of the targets in the field of agriculture w i l l be a major victory for the agrarian policy o f t h e P a r t y , w h i c h i s t h e d i a m e t r i c a l opposite o f t h e p o l i c y p u r s u e d i n t h e r e v i s i o n i s t c o u n t r i e s , w h e r e a g r i c u l t u r e has

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landed in an impasse. As everyone k n o w s , the Leninist road o f c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n h a s l o n g b e e n a b a n d o n e d i n those countries. In the Soviet U n i o n and elsewhere, the existing f o r m o f c o l l e c t i v e c a p i t a l i s m i s n o w associated, t o a l a r g e degree, w i t h d i r e c t f o r m s o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . T h e i n d i v i d u a l private economies are regarded by the revisionists as a m a i n source for the production of meat, m i l k a n d o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s , m o r e o v e r , t h e y are e v e n b e i n g g i v e n t h e a n i m a l s o f the k o l k h o z e s a n d s o v k h o z e s t o f e e d a n d raise, t h u s l i q u i d a t i n g a n y t r a c e o f t h e socialist s y s t e m in the countryside. T h i s is the course that has led the a g r i c u l t u r e o f m a n y o f these c o u n t r i e s , i n w h i c h t h e shortage o f f o o d a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l r a w m a t e r i a l s has b e c o m e one o f t h e m o s t serious p r o b l e m s f o r t h e l i f e o f t h e w o r k i n g masses t o d a y , i n t o a p r o f o u n d crisis.

5. THE L E V E L OF WELL-BEING OF T H E PEOPLE MUST BE GUARANTEED AND G R A D U A L L Y RAISED

T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f socialist s o c i e t y i s a n a l l - s i d e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y process. T h e r e f o r e , t h e P a r t y has seen t h e development of production in u n i t y w i t h the strengthening o f t h e socialist s o c i a l order, t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e m a t e r i a l a n d c u l t u r a l needs o f t h e w o r k i n g masses w i t h t h e i r c o m munist education, the w e l l - b e i n g of the w h o l e people w i t h the s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d defence p o t e n tial of the H o m e l a n d , the general and collective w i t h the personal, the present w i t h the future, the development of the t o w n w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . I n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d a l l o t h e r social activities the P a r t y h a s a l w a y s h a d t h e w o r k i n g m a n , t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f h i s m a t e r i a l a n d c u l t u r a l needs, i n t h e c e n t r e o f its a t t e n t i o n . D u r i n g t h e 6 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n , too, a l t h o u g h t h e set targets w e r e n o t f u l l y r e a c h e d , t h e

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p u r c h a s i n g p o w e r a n d the r e a l i n c o m e p e r h e a d o f p o p u l a t i o n rose b o t h i n t o w n a n d i n c o u n t r y s i d e , the s u p p l y o f mass c o n s u m e r goods s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d , a n d t h e h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the w o r k i n g people w e r e f u r t h e r i m p r o v e d . T h e r e h a v e been n o p r i c e r i s e s i n f o o d - s t u f f s , o r i n d u s t r i a l goods, f u e l s a n d e l e c t r i c p o w e r , h o u s e r e n t s o r c h a r g e s f o r services f o r the people. T h e f u n d o f s o c i a l c o n s u m p t i o n i n c r e a s e d 2 0 p e r cent a n d each f a m i l y r e c e i v e d b e n e f i t s a v e r a g i n g n e a r l y 4 000 l e k s a y e a r f r o m t h i s f u n d . W i t h the development of industry, agriculture and the o t h e r b r a n c h e s o f t h e e c o n o m y d u r i n g the 7 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n , the m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g a n d t h e c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f t h e people w i l l b e g u a r a n t e e d a n d r a i s e d . D e s p i t e t h e h u g e program of investments and expenditure for the developm e n t o f the e c o n o m y a n d t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e n o r m o f accumulation, the real income per capita of the population w i l l g o u p 8-10 p e r cent. T h e r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n r e a l i n c o m e i n the c o u n t r y s i d e w i l l b e m o r e t h a n d o u b l e t h a t i n t h e t o w n . T h e p r o d u c t i o n o f mass c o n s u m e r goods w i l l i n c r e a s e 33-35 p e r cent a n d services f o r t h e people 45-47 p e r cent. T h e r e w i l l b e i n c r e a s e d s u p p l i e s o f meat, f i s h , eggs, v e g e tables, potatoes a n d f r u i t . I m p r o v e m e n t s are e n v i s a g e d i n the s t r u c t u r e o f mass c o n s u m e r p r o d u c t s a n d t h e s u p p l y o f d u r a b l e h o u s e h o l d goods, i n o r d e r t o m a k e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s easier a n d t o e n s u r e a m o r e c u l t u r e d f a m i l y l i f e . T o a t t a i n t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n the f i e l d o f w e l l - b e i n g , t h e w o r k a n d e f f o r t s m u s t b e c o n c e n t r a t e d , i n t h e f i r s t place, on f u l f i l l i n g the targets for increasing p r o d u c t i o n a n d r a i s i n g its e f f i c i e n c y i n i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e a n d a l l the o t h e r b r a n c h e s a n d sectors. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n m u s t b e p a i d to ensure knowledge and implementation of the requirem e n t s o f the l a w s w h i c h g o v e r n p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f goods a n d m o n e y i n s o c i a l i s m . T h e productivity of labour must increase more r a p i d l y t h a n the per capita income, the n a t i o n a l income must increase more

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r a p i d l y t h a n the p u r c h a s i n g p o w e r o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e purchasing power of the population must be covered w i t h goods a n d services t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t n o t o n l y t h e i r t o t a l q u a n t i t y , b u t also t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e i r s t r u c t u r e . V i o l a t i o n o f these p r o p o r t i o n s w o u l d b r i n g a b o u t d i s o r d e r i n the monetary circulation, w h i c h cannot be conceived or achieved apart f r o m production, the circulation of prod u c t s a n d v a r i o u s goods, a n d t h e c r e a t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n c o m e s . T h e w o r k i n g people o f t h e t r a d e sector are f a c e d w i t h m a j o r t a s k s i n o r d e r t o s e r v e t h e people a n d m e e t t h e i r d a i l y needs a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s better. T h e y m u s t r a d i c a l l y i m p r o v e t h e i r w o r k , c o l l a b o r a t e m o r e c l o s e l y w i t h the o t h e r o r g a n s o f t h e e c o n o m y , m a k e p r o f o u n d studies, organize a cultured trade, enhance their active role in production and become a b a r r i e r to poor q u a l i t y products. S p e c i a l care m u s t b e g i v e n t o t h e sale o f f o o d - s t u f f s i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , b o t h b y t h e state t r a d e n e t w o r k a n d b y t h e cooperatives, in order to give proper support to the i n i tiatives and the measures applied recently for the further r e d u c t i o n o f the c o o p e r a t i v i s t p e r s o n a l p l o t a n d the f o r m a t i o n o f j o i n t h e r d s f r o m t h e p e r s o n a l l i v e s t o c k o f the cooperativists. T h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f the h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n has a l w a y s b e e n one of the i m p o r t a n t issues of the P a r t y ' s p o l i c y i n the f i e l d o f w e l l - b e i n g . T o d a y , a b o u t 8 0 p e r cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n houses b u i l t d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f the people's state p o w e r . D u r i n g the 6 t h F i v e y e a r P l a n , m o r e t h a n 5 6 t h o u s a n d flats a n d houses w e r e b u i l t by the state a n d t h e people themselves. It is e s s e n t i a l t o speed u p t h e rates o f h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n i n o r d e r t o solve t h e p r o b l e m s o f h o u s i n g better t h a n has been done u p till now. Therefore, d u r i n g the 7th Five-year P l a n it is e n v i s a g e d t h a t m o r e t h a n 8 0 t h o u s a n d n e w f l a t s a n d houses w i l l b e b u i l t t o a c c o m m o d a t e about 400 t h o u s a n d people.

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A l t h o u g h house rents are a m o n g the l o w e s t i n t h e w o r l d , t h e y h a v e not been a n d w i l l n o t b e r a i s e d . T h e organs o f c o m m u n a l e c o n o m y h a v e m a j o r tasks f o r the m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h i s asset w h i c h keeps i n c r e a s i n g f r o m y e a r t o year. H o w e v e r , t h e y are faced w i t h e v e n greater tasks f o r the e x t e n s i o n of services f o r t h e people, f o r the r a d i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t o f these services i n q u a l i t y a n d f o r t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e i r cost, a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r the e x t e n s i o n o f c o m m u n a l a n d r e p a i r services t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . I n r e g a r d t o these a n d o t h e r p r o b l e m s c o n nected w i t h the d a i l y l i f e o f the people, t h e r e m u s t b e g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d interest f r o m t h e e x e c u t i v e c o m mittees o f the d i s t r i c t s , w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s m o s t l y w i t h the f u l f i l m e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n p l a n s . T h e e d u c a t i o n a n d c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f the w o r k i n g people a n d the p r o t e c t i o n a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e i r h e a l t h h a v e a l w a y s been a t the c e n t r e o f a t t e n t i o n o f o u r P a r t y a n d socialist state. R a i s i n g the l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a n d c u l t u r e of the masses constitutes a c o n d i t i o n a n d s o u n d basis f o r the e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l p r o g r e s s o f t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y , f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g the defence p o t e n t i a l o f t h e H o m e l a n d , a n d for the constant i m p r o v e m e n t of t h e l i f e of the people. T h e i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f k n o w l e d g e a n d c u l t u r e o f t h e people represents a great p o t e n t i a l f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t a n d f u t u r e plans, f o r t h e a d v a n c e o f t e c h n i c a l a n d s c i e n t i f i c progress t o n e w h e i g h t s . T h e r e f o r e , d u r i n g t h e n e w f i v e - y e a r p l a n e d u c a t i o n , c u l t u r e a n d science w i l l b e f u r t h e r developed. T h e n u m b e r o f p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n s e c o n d a r y schools w i l l g r o w c o n s i d e r a b l y . B e s i d e s the c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e cities, m o r e a n d m o r e c h i l d r e n f r o m the c o u n t r y s i d e w i l l b e i n c l u d e d i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g . V o c a t i o n a l s e c o n d a r y schools w i l l be extended and profilized, in order to respond better to the r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e c o n o m y , t h e c r e a t i o n o f n e w b r a n c h e s a n d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f n e w technologies i n

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p r o d u c t i o n . A b o u t 160 t h o u s a n d p u p i l s w i l l g r a d u a t e f r o m a l l categories o f s e c o n d a r y schools d u r i n g t h i s f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d , as a g a i n s t 113 t h o u s a n d d u r i n g t h e last f i v e - y e a r period. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n w i l l b e g i v e n t o the d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , i n w h i c h 4 5 p e r cent m o r e s t u d e n t s t h a n i n the 6 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n w i l l b e e n r o l l e d . N e w profiles w i l l be opened and post-university qualification and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i l l b e e x t e n d e d . N e w steps f o r w a r d w i l l b e t a k e n i n t h e v a r i o u s sectors of c u l t u r e , j u s t as in s c h o o l i n g , so t h a t t h e i r w o r k e x t e n d s and deepens a m o n g the masses a n d serves t h e i r e d u c a t i o n better. P u b l i c a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c , t e c h n i c a l a n d artistic b o o k s w i l l increase. T h e t o t a l p r i n t e d w i l l b e 1 m i l l i o n m o r e t h a n i n t h e last f i v e - y e a r p l a n . C i n e m a t o g r a phy w i l l assume f u r t h e r development. The radiotelevision network w i l l be extended t h r o u g h the setting up of relay and r e p e a t e r stations w i t h t h e a i m o f c o v e r i n g a l l t h e zones o f the c o u n t r y . D u r i n g t h e 7 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n c o l o u r t e l e vision broadcasts w i l l begin. F o r the revolutionary a n d p a t r i o t i c e d u c a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g people n e w m u s e u m s will be built in the towns and villages and the existing ones w i l l b e f u r t h e r e n r i c h e d . I m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s i n this field a r e t h e M u s e u m o f N a t i o n a l H i s t o r y i n T i r a n a , t h e S k a n d e r b e g M u s e u m i n K r u j a , the M u s e u m o f P e o p l e ' s M a t e r i a l C u l t u r e i n S h k o d r a , etc. I n t h i s f i v e - y e a r p l a n , m o r e f u n d s are a l l o c a t e d f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e a n d sports. S p o r t s f a c i l i ties w i l l b e e x t e n d e d a n d n e w sports palaces a n d s t a d i u m s will be built. T h e y w i l l serve the physical t r a i n i n g and recreation o f t h e y o u t h , m a k i n g t h e m b e t t e r p r e p a r e d f o r w o r k a n d defence. T h o s e t a k i n g p a r t i n sports a n d p h y s i c a l culture m u s t r e s p o n d t o t h i s care o f the P a r t y b y a t t a i n i n g the highest p o s s i b l e l e v e l of results. A g e n u i n e r e v o l u t i o n has b e e n c a r r i e d out i n t h e p r o -

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t e c t i o n o f t h e h e a l t h o f t h e people d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f t h e people's state p o w e r . T h e n e t w o r k o f d i f f e r e n t h e a l t h i n s t i tutions has b e e n g r e a t l y e x t e n d e d , t h e m e d i c a l s e r v i c e h a s been c o n t i n u a l l y i m p r o v e d a n d a l l t h e other m e a s u r e s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e h e a l t h o f t h e people h a v e been e x t e n d e d . T h i s successful course w i l l b e c o n t i n u e d d u r i n g t h e 7 t h F i v e - y e a r P l a n , too. T h e a l l - r o u n d prophylactic measures w i l l be extended f u r t h e r and undergo a qualitative improvement in both t o w n and countryside, b u t especially i n t h e latter. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n w i l l b e g i v e n t o i m p r o v i n g t h e h e a l t h service i n o r d e r t o r a i s e t h e quality of treatment and medical aid and to strengthen the measures f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e h e a l t h o f m o t h e r a n d c h i l d , w i t h the a i m o f f u r t h e r r e d u c i n g t h e r a t e o f i n f a n t i l e m o r t a l i t y . T h e decision o n the e x t e n s i o n o f m a t e r n i t y l e a v e t o n e a r l y 6 m o n t h s w i l l assist i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . O u r country is characterized by a dynamic growth in the p o p u l a t i o n , a s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h y o u n g e r a g e - g r o u p s and a population w h i c h is always active and fresh p r e d o m inate. T h e P a r t y has a l w a y s w o r k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t the d e m o g r a p h i c processes are s t u d i e d a n d t r e a t e d on a m o r e s c i e n t i f i c basis, so t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e s to increase at s u i t a b l e rates. Not only are unemployment and economic emigration u n k n o w n in our country, but the d y n a m i c development of t h e p r o d u c t i v e forces a n d s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s a l w a y s r e q u i r e n e w w o r k forces. A l l t h e n e w forces t h a t w i l l become a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h i s f i v e - y e a r p l a n , a m o u n t i n g t o about 210 t h o u s a n d people, w i l l b e e m p l o y e d m a i n l y i n p r o d u c t i o n . E m p l o y m e n t o f t h e n e w w o r k f o r c e calls f o r p r o f o u n d studies b y t h e S t a t e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , the S t a t e C o m m i t t e e o f L a b o u r a n d W a g e s , t h e other c e n t r a l d e p a r t m e n t s , t h e e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e s o f the people's c o u n c i l s o f t h e d i s t r i c t s , t h e e n t e r p r i s e s a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l cooperatives.

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N a t u r a l l y , the P a r t y a n d the state w i l l s t r i v e t o o p e n u p n e w j o b s w h e r e v e r t h e r e a r e people, h o w e v e r , t h i s depends, to a l a r g e extent, on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of n a t u r a l resources a n d riches. T h e r e f o r e , some o f the n e w w o r k force w i l l h a v e t o w o r k w h e r e v e r t h e c o u n t r y needs t h e m a n d w h e r e v e r m o r e j o b s are a v a i l a b l e . T h i s process m u s t b e s u p p o r t e d better t h r o u g h the d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n centres, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t r a n s p o r t , t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f w o r k i n g conditions and through adjustments to the pay system t o e n c o u r a g e p e o p l e t o t a k e j o b s i n the r e m o t e zones o r u n d e r d i f f i c u l t w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , too.

II
WE MUST CEASELESSLY STRENGTHEN THE PARTY A N D F U R T H E R E N H A N C E T H E E F F E C T I V E N E S S O F ITS W O R K

O u r P a r t y o f L a b o u r , u n w a v e r i n g l y l o y a l t o the p r i n ciples of M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , a d e t e r m i n e d f i g h t e r a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a l e n e m i e s a n d w i t h its roots deep i n t h e people w h o g a v e b i r t h t o i t a n d r a i s e d it, has l e d t h e A l b a n i a n people w i t h w i s d o m and foresight f r o m v i c t o r y to v i c t o r y , a t each stage o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a n d t h e socialist construction of the country. T h e P a r t y has also a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h h o n o u r t h e great, d i f f i c u l t a n d c o m p l e x t a s k s set b y its 7 t h C o n g r e s s . T h e s t r u g g l e a n d w o r k f o r t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f these t a s k s has f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d a n d steeled the P a r t y , e n h a n c e d its l e a d i n g r o l e a n d f i g h t i n g s p i r i t , r e v o l u t i o n i z e d t h e l i f e a n d a c t i v i t y o f t h e basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e f o r u m s a n d t h e m e m b e r s o f the P a r t y a n d t e m p e r e d the steel u n i t y o f its r a n k s a n d its close l i n k s w i t h t h e b r o a d masses o f t h e people. The general mobilization of the communists and the e n t i r e people t o c a r r y out t h e t a s k s w h i c h t h e P a r t y h a s set, t h e great r e v o l u t i o n a r y actions a n d m o v e m e n t s a n d t h e w o n d e r f u l s o l i d a r i t y o f o u r p e o p l e are c l e a r e x p r e s sions o f t h i s m o n o l i t h i c u n i t y o f t h e P a r t y a n d o f t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d it. T h i s u n i t y has been a n d i s t h e d e c i s i v e f a c t o r , the k e y f a c t o r o f a l l o u r v i c t o r i e s i n t h e socialist c o n s t r u c t i o n and defence of t h e H o m e l a n d . T h e c o n t i n u o u s s t r u g g l e t h e P a r t y has w a g e d f o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n i z a t i o n o f its r a n k s t h r o u g h its w o r k f o r r a i s i n g

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the i d e o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f its m e m b e r s , increasing their activity as political and social militants, a n d f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g its p r o l e t a r i a n c o m p o s i t i o n has s e r v e d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e P a r t y a n d e n h a n c e its l e a d i n g r o l e . M i l i t a t i n g in the r a n k s of the P a r t y is a whole a r m y of c o m m u n i s t s w h o h a v e d i s p l a y e d u n w a v e r i n g l o y a l t y t o the correct l i n e o f t h e P a r t y i n a l l t h e s i t u a t i o n s w e h a v e gone t h r o u g h . A s a l w a y s , t h e A l b a n i a n c o m m u n i s t s h a v e f o u g h t a n d w o r k e d w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y courage a n d o p t i m ism a n d have s h o w n themselves to be able organizers, educators a n d l e a d e r s o f t h e masses. T h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s t r u g g l e against m a n i f e s t a tions o f l i b e r a l i s m a n d b u r e a u c r a c y i n t h e a c t i v i t y o f the organs a n d basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e P a r t y , t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e consequences o f t h e w o r k o f enemies i n some sectors o f t h e e c o n o m y , i n art, c u l t u r e a n d the a r m y , i n t e n d e d t o d i s p l a c e t h e l e a d i n g r o l e o f the Party, and the observation and implementation of the p r i n ciples a n d n o r m s o f t h e P a r t y e v e r y w h e r e , h a v e f u r t h e r e n h a n c e d its m i l i t a n t s p i r i t , h a v e m a d e t h e P a r t y m o r e mature, more able and determined to accomplish the new great t a s k s t h a t e m e r g e i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e socialist c o n struction of the country.

I.

WE

MUST FURTHER ENHANCE AND PERFECT THE LEADING ROLE OF THE PARTY

The experience of our P a r t y over 40 years proves that o n l y a p a r t y w h i c h i s based f i r m l y o n t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t science c a n become t h e t r u e l e a d e r o f t h e w o r k i n g class, can a c h i e v e its h e g e m o n y a n d e n s u r e the t r i u m p h o f the r e v o l u t i o n a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f socialist society. O u r P a r t y has a l w a y s stood i n the f o r e f r o n t o f the s t r u g g l e a n d w o r k o f t h e masses, i t i s t h e l e a d e r e v e r y w h e r e , i n p o l i c y

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a n d ideology, i n t h e state a n d the e c o n o m y , i n e d u c a t i o n , c u l t u r e a n d science, i n the a r m y a n d a l l t h e o t h e r sectors o f the l i f e o f t h e c o u n t r y . N o p r o b l e m , s i m p l e o r c o m p l i c a t e d , c u r r e n t o r o f the f u t u r e , c a n b e s o l v e d w i t h o u t the l e a d e r s h i p of t h e P a r t y . T h i s has b e e n a n d r e m a i n s a l a w f o r us. T h e s i n g l e a n d i n d i v i s i b l e l e a d e r s h i p o f the P a r t y i s the source o f a l l the v i c t o r i e s i n t h e socialist c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h e surest g u a r a n t e e f o r t h e b r i l l i a n t f u t u r e we are building. T h e P a r t y does not a n d c a n n o t p l a c e itself o r r e m a i n i n t h e l e a d e r s h i p b y chance. I t secures its l e a d i n g r o l e t h r o u g h its correct l i n e a n d its persistent s t r u g g l e a n d w o r k t o p u t t h i s l i n e i n t o p r a c t i c e . E a s i n g itself o n the t h e o r y o f the m o s t a d v a n c e d class of society t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , on t h e M a r x i s t Leninist doctrine, on the laws of the materialist developm e n t of society, t h e P a r t y h a s a b r o a d r a n g e of v i s i o n , an e l a b o r a t e d a n d s c i e n t i f i c o p i n i o n . I t sees c l e a r l y i n a n y s i t u a t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d s t h e present, foresees t h e f u t u r e a n d k n o w s h o w t o a n t i c i p a t e events, b y d e f i n i n g a n d a l w a y s a p p l y i n g a r e v o l u t i o n a r y strategy a n d t a c t i c s w h i c h e x p r e s s t h e interests o f the w o r k i n g class a n d t h e w o r k i n g masses. T h e P a r t y r e a l i z e s its l e a d i n g r o l e e v e r y w h e r e a n d o n e v e r y q u e s t i o n t h r o u g h t h e basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d t h e party members. T h e better the ideology and political line o f t h e P a r t y i n g e n e r a l , a n d e a c h o f its d e c i s i o n s a n d d i r e c t i v e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , are g r a s p e d a n d a p p l i e d b y e v e r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m e m b e r , t h e s t r o n g e r t h e P a r t y a n d its l i n k s w i t h t h e masses become, a n d t h e m o r e its l e a d i n g r o l e i s e n h a n c e d i n a l l the l i n k s o f t h e socialist c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s is a d e c i s i v e c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e f u l f i l m e n t of t h e great tasks w h i c h face us at t h e present stage of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f the c o u n t r y a n d i n t h e concrete c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h w e are b u i l d i n g s o c i a l i s m . W i t h t h e P a r t y s t r o n g a s steel, v i g i l a n t a n d fearless i n t h e l e a d , t h e cause o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n and socialism is invincible.

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T h e f o r m a t i o n of a c l e a r e r a n d m o r e c o m p l e t e concept of the realization of the leading role of the P a r t y in all the l i n k s a n d i n e v e r y f i e l d i s o f s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e . I n practice, s o m e p a r t y c o m m i t t e e s , b u r e a u s a n d b a s i c o r g anizations have a n a r r o w u n d e r s t a n d i n g of this question. S o m e t h i n k m i s t a k e n l y t h a t the a p p a r a t u s e s a n d l e a d i n g organs a l o n e a r e t h e P a r t y a n d not t h e large, o r g a n i z e d mass o f a l l the c o m m u n i s t s . O t h e r s d o n o t u n d e r s t a n d o r f u l l y r e a l i z e t h e l e a d i n g r o l e o f t h e P a r t y i n the s y s t e m o f the d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , a n d u n d e r t h e slogan, the P a r t y leads e v e r y t h i n g , i n v o l v e t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a tions, c o m m i t t e e s a n d t h e i r l e a d e r s i n the p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n of m i n o r problems of production, administration, technology, etc. A p p a r e n t l y , i t i s n o t t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t o o d by everybody that a l l the party members, wherever they w o r k , r u n the a f f a i r s o f t h e P a r t y , t h a t t h e P a r t y exercises its l e a d e r s h i p e n bloc, i n a n o r g a n i z e d a n d c e n t r a l i z e d w a y , b y m e a n s o f a l l its l e v e r s t h e state a n d e c o n o m i c organs a n d t h e mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s . This is why, in their handling and solution of diff e r e n t p r o b l e m s , some p a r t y o r g a n s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s p a y m o r e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t e c h n i c a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspects a n d neglect t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l aspects, t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e e c o n o m i c , c u l t u r a l a n d m i l i t a r y policies o f the P a r t y , o r t h e w o r k w i t h t h e people, w h i c h i s t h e i r m a i n d u t y . S u c h j u d g e m e n t s a n d actions l e a d t o the m o n o p o l i z a t i o n o f a f f a i r s , s u p p r e s s t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e cadres a n d the masses, d u p l i c a t e a n d d i s p l a c e t h e l e v e r s o f t h e P a r t y a n d w e a k e n a n d v i t i a t e t h e l e a d i n g r o l e o f t h e P a r t y itself. O u r P a r t y has a l w a y s h a d a correct concept o f its r o l e i n t h e s y s t e m o f t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t a n d has played this role correctly. Therefore, it is very important to establish t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g and ever better application in practice of the fact that the w o r k of the P a r t y i s not t h e w o r k o f t h e p a r t y o r g a n s a n d basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s

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o n l y , a n d e v e n less, o f t h e i r a p p a r a t u s e s . T h e state a n d e c o n o m i c organs, t h e c o m m a n d s a n d s t a f f s o f t h e a r m y , the mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a l l t h e cadres a n d w o r k i n g people, w h e t h e r o r not p a r t y m e m b e r s , also c a r r y o u t t h e w o r k o f the P a r t y , because t h e y are a l l g u i d e d b y t h e i d e o l o g y a n d l i n e o f the P a r t y a n d c a r r y out t h e l a w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s o f the state a n d its p l a n s i n w h i c h t h i s l i n e i s e m b o d i e d . T h i s i n n o w a y reduces o r d i m i n i s h e s t h e f u l l r e s p o n sibility of the party organizations and their leading role o n a l l questions. H o w e v e r , t h e y c a n n o t d o e v e r y t h i n g t h e m selves. T h e r e f o r e , t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c h a r g e t h e i r l e v e r s w i t h d i f f e r e n t tasks, m o b i l i z e t h e m , open p e r s p e c t i v e s to them, guide them in their work, check up on t h e m and c a l l t h e m t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e precise f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e i r tasks. T h r o u g h t h e p a r t y m e m b e r s w h o f u n c t i o n i n t h e m , t h e p a r t y f o r u m s a n d basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o r k t o m a k e these l e v e r s conscious a n d set t h e m i n m o t i o n s o t h a t t h e y c a r r y out t h e f u n c t i o n s , t a s k s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h w h i c h t h e y are c h a r g e d , i n a r e v o l u t i o n a r y w a y a n d w i t h initiative. T h e s e questions m u s t b e t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t o o d , not o n l y b y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the P a r t y , but also b y its l e v e r s a n d e v e r y cadre. T h e P a r t y has a s s i g n e d t o e v e r y b o d y h i s tasks, competences a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t guides, c h e c k s up on and demands a rendering of account f r o m all. B u t e v e r y o n e m u s t m a s t e r h i s o w n j o b , s h o u l d act w i t h i n i t i a t i v e a n d persistence a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e competences g i v e n h i m w i t h i n the l i n e o f t h e P a r t y , s h o u l d b e a r c o m p l e t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e t a s k s set i n t h e sector w h i c h h e r u n s . F r o m t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , those tendencies seen i n practice, i n w h i c h some state a n d e c o n o m i c organs, a l l e g e d l y t o e n s u r e the l e a d i n g r o l e o f t h e P a r t y , seek the o p i n i o n a n d p e r m i s s i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s and forums of the P a r t y about e v e r y t h i n g and try to legiti m i z e t h e i r actions b y e n t e r i n g i n t o p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h t h e

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l a t t e r i n t h i s w a y , a r e n o t correct. T h i s i s n o t e n s u r i n g the leading role of the P a r t y , but a tendency to divide the responsibility w i t h the organization of the Party. T h e state a n d e c o n o m i c organs, t h e mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d t h e i r cadres are n o t a p o l i t i c a l , d e a l i n g o n l y w i t h t e c h n i c a l , a g r o - t e c h n i c a l , m i l i t a r y o r o t h e r questions. B a s i n g t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e l i n e o f t h e P a r t y , t h e y , too, w o r k a n d f i g h t f o r its a p p l i c a t i o n . N a t u r a l l y , t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n has its o w n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h e n i t a l l o w s f a i l u r e o n t h e p a r t of certain directors or administrators to p e r f o r m the duties t h e y h a v e b e e n c h a r g e d w i t h . I t m u s t h e l p these people, g u i d e t h e m , e d u c a t e a n d c o r r e c t t h e m , m a k e t h e m face u p t o t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , a n d w h e n t h e n e e d arises, p u t i n t h e i r p l a c e a l l those w h o w a n t t o act a s t h e y please, e i t h e r u n d e r c o v e r o f t h e basic o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i n t h e n a m e o f t h e party member. In this way, the danger of mistakes is d i m i n i s h e d , t h e c a d r e s m a t u r e a n d t h e i r sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e w o r k increases. The party organizations take up and w i l l continue to t a k e u p a l l issues: t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e e c o n o m y , c u l t u r e , defence a n d t h e e n t i r e l i f e o f t h e c o u n t r y . O t h e r w i s e t h e y cannot r e m a i n t h e v a n g u a r d a n d g i v e l e a d e r s h i p . T h e y must be a b l e to g r a s p t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t issues at t h e g i v e n m o m e n t , p r o v i d e correct, j u s t i f i e d , t h e o r e t i c a l l y s u p ported solutions to them, e x a m i n e h o w the line a n d d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e P a r t y are u n d e r s t o o d a n d a p p l i e d b y t h e p a r t y m e m b e r s , t h e cadres, t h e e c o n o m i c a n d state organs a n d t h e mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n d c a l l t h e m t o account w h e n t h e y do n o t f u l f i l t h e i r t a s k s t h i s is t h e basis of t h e i r ability. T h e party organization bears direct responsibility for this. It m u s t c o n c e n t r a t e its a t t e n t i o n on these questions and n o t b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f m i n o r concrete p r o b l e m s f o r w h i c h t h e P a r t y has c r e a t e d s p e c i a l o r g a n s and organisms. T h e w o r k o f the P a r t y is, f i r s t o f a l l , w o r k w i t h people,

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w o r k for their education, enlightenment, mobilization and organization. This must never be forgotten, otherwise the P a r t y i s d i v e r t e d f r o m its m a i n t a s k a n d f u n c t i o n a s a leader, i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a n o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i s m a n d assumes state f u n c t i o n s . T h i s constitutes a g r e a t d a n g e r for a p a r t y in power. T h i s is a danger we have pointed out l o n g ago to p r e v e n t it f r o m e v e r b e c o m i n g a s e r i o u s threat. The invincible strength of our revolution, of our socialist s o c i a l order, lies i n the masses o f the people, i n t h e i r h i g h l e v e l o f p o l i t i c a l consciousness, i n t h e i r r e a d i n e s s a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o b u i l d a n d d e f e n d s o c i a l i s m . T h i s i s the g l o r i o u s deed o f t h e P a r t y , w h i c h i t m u s t c o n s o l i d a t e a n d c a r r y s t e a d i l y f o r w a r d t h r o u g h its i d e o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d organizational work. T o t h i s e n d , i t i s necessary t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the P a r t y a n d a l l t h e p a r t y m e m b e r s m e r g e w i t h t h e m a s ses a n d w o r k t i r e l e s s l y a m o n g s t t h e m , a r e w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e i r m o r a l - p o l i t i c a l state, a l w a y s i n f o r m e d a b o u t the p r o b l e m s w o r r y i n g t h e masses, e x p l a i n t h e s i t u a t i o n t o them, c o n v i n c e t h e m of t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e t a s k s set, a n d m a k e clear t o t h e m the d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e P a r t y a n d the l a w s o f t h e state. T h e p a r t y m e m b e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o educate the masses w i t h t h e c o m m u n i s t o u t l o o k a n d morality, to combat any b a c k w a r d remnant or alien m a n i festation, t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e l i f e o f the masses, t o encourage a n d s u p p o r t t h e c r e a t i v e w o r k a n d i n i t i a t i v e s o f t h e masses, t o m o b i l i z e t h e m a n d i n v o l v e t h e m i n a c t i o n s t o s t r e n g t h e n the e c o n o m y , raise t h e l e v e l o f c u l t u r e a n d e n h a n c e the defence p o t e n t i a l o f the H o m e l a n d .

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2. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE WORK OF T H E P A R T Y A N D THE SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PARTY ORGANS AND ORGANIZATIONS SHOULD BE INCREASED

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T h e p r e s e n t stage o f r a p i d , a l l - r o u n d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d the g r e a t a n d d a r i n g t a s k s w h i c h w e h a v e t o solve r e q u i r e t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e w o r k o f the P a r t y m u s t b e r a i s e d t o a h i g h e r l e v e l i n a l l its l i n k s a n d i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . T h e w o r k of the P a r t y is broad a n d all-sided, an h a r monious synthesis of political, ideological, organizational, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e c o n o m i c a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects w h i c h m u s t b e c a r r i e d o u t a s s u c h . Its e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s m e a s u r e d b y t h e c o n c r e t e r e s u l t s i n t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t a r g e t s i n each sector of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . In practice there are instances w h e n the w o r k of the P a r t y i s c o n c e i v e d n a r r o w l y . S o m e p a r t y o r g a n s a n d basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r g e t t h e p e r s p e c t i v e , d o not p e n e t r a t e b e l o w the s u r f a c e o f p r o b l e m s a n d base t h e m s e l v e s o n l y o n w h a t they have learned f r o m practice, without confronting this w i t h a d v a n c e d e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h i n k i n g , w i t h t h e changes that have t a k e n place in the life of the country a n d the people. I n m o s t i n s t a n c e s o f f a i l u r e t o f u l f i l e c o n o m i c p l a n s o r s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t h e w o r k o f c e r t a i n enterprises, a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s o r some d i s t r i c t , s u c h m a n i f e s t a t i o n s are t h e cause. Culture, learning, competence a n d scientific knowledge are r e q u i r e d i n o u r w o r k n o w a d a y s . W e o f t e n r e p e a t t h a t we have been obliged to m a r c h on untrodden paths w h i c h we have b e e n o b l i g e d t o seek a n d create. H o w e v e r , t h i s c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t deep k n o w l e d g e o f t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t theory a n d w i t h o u t s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y a n d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r a c t i c e o f t h e c o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e w o r k i n g masses. T o d a y , t h e p r o b l e m s o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w o r k , e d u c a t i o n a n d c u l t u r e , science a n d defence, cannot b e c o r r e c t l y a n d s u c c e s s f u l l y s o l v e d w i t h o u t

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serious studies. It is necessary to do s u c h studies, also, on t h e w o r k o f t h e P a r t y itself, i n m a n a g e m e n t , o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n . S t u d i e s a n d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s b r o a d e n the horizon and open clear perspectives to the organizations of t h e P a r t y , t h e c o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e w o r k i n g people, h e l p t o combat manifestations of routine, f o r m a l i s m and superficiali t y , t o create s o u n d c o n v i c t i o n s a n d t o d e f i n e t h e r i g h t m e a sures a n d w a y s t o c a r r y out t h e c u r r e n t a n d f u t u r e t a s k s . T h e p a r t y organs a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s m u s t m a k e b e t t e r use of t h e q u a l i f i e d o p i n i o n of t h e specialists, a c t i v i s t s a n d other c o m p e t e n t people, w h o m t h e P a r t y has t r a i n e d i n e v e r y sector. T h e y are r e q u i r e d t o s u p p o r t a n d e n c o u r a g e advanced scientific t h i n k i n g and ensure that it is applied in the solution of problems. T h e y must combat manifestations of sectarianism a n d underestimation of advanced experience and t h i n k i n g . In this direction the communists m u s t be t h e f i r s t to set t h e e x a m p l e . A g o o d c o m m u n i s t is one w h o m a k e s a p r o f o u n d s t u d y of science, w h o l e a r n s c o n t i n u a l l y b y h i s o w n e f f o r t s a n d f r o m others, w h o f o l l o w s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f society, s u p p o r t s t h e p r o g r e s s i v e n e w a n d t h i n k s a b o u t the f u t u r e . The work of the Party is not only agitation and propaganda to enlighten and convince people, but also the work of organization and mobilization to implement the line and directives of the Party. T h e w o r k of t h e P a r t y leads, educates a n d m o b i l i z e s the c o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e m a s ses f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y actions, s o t h a t t h e y t h i n k , w o r k a n d f i g h t as r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . T h e P a r t y has f o u g h t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f one-sidedness i n t h e w o r k o f some p a r t y o r g a n s a n d basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w h i c h give priority to repeated meetings and lengthy rep o r t s a n d discussions r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e tasks a n d concrete m e a s u r e s t o c a r r y t h e m out. T h i s e x p l a i n s w h y t h e r e a r e cases w h e n , a l t h o u g h m a n y m e e t i n g s a r e h e l d t o a n a l y s e t h e state o f a f f a i r s i n t h i s o r t h a t sector,

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s t i l l t h e p r o b l e m s r e m a i n u n s o l v e d a n d t h e s i t u a t i o n does not change. E x p e r i e n c e has s h o w n t h a t p r o b l e m s a r e s o l v e d a n d tasks f u l f i l l e d , n o t j u s t b y a p p e a l s t o t h e conscience o f t h e c o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e w o r k e r s , b u t also w h e n t h e w o r k t o c a r r y out t a s k s a n d c o n v i n c e people i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y a l l r o u n d m e a s u r e s , b y o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d concrete g u i d a n c e , c h e c k - u p a n d c a l l i n g t o account. T h e i d e o - p o l i t i c a l a n d technical-organizational measures constitute a dialectical u n i t y ; t h e y educate, m o b i l i z e a n d i m p e l people t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y actions. P e r f e c t i o n o f t h e v a n g u a r d r o l e o f t h e c o m m u n i s t s has been t h e m a i n t a s k o f t h e o r g a n s a n d basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the P a r t y and remains so for the future. In the present c o n d i t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y , i t i s the d u t y o f t h e c o m m u n i s t s t o increase t h e i r d e m a n d s o n t h e m s e l v e s t o u p h o l d t h i s l o f t y title, t o f i g h t a n y a l i e n m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n t h e m s e l v e s a n d i n others, t o b e a d v a n c e d people i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n . T h e communists must be outstanding for their revolutionary determination and active participation in the daily struggle for t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m a n d t h e defence o f t h e Homeland, must be always on the most difficult a n d i m portant front of the w o r k a n d struggle, must be talented o r g a n i z e r s a n d l e a d e r s w h o act w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e implementation of the line of the P a r t y . T h e masses c a r r y out t h e decisions o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the P a r t y and follow the communists w h e n they do not separate t h e i r w o r d s f r o m t h e i r deeds, w h e n t h e y t h i n k , w o r k a n d m a k e s a c r i f i c e s f o r the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w o r k i n g people, s o c i a l i s m a n d t h e H o m e l a n d . T o b e a c o m m u n i s t and a r e v o l u t i o n a r y m e a n s y o u m u s t u n d e r t a k e a n d a c c o m p l i s h g r e a t tasks, m u s t n o t m a r k t i m e o r b e content w i t h t h e n o r m a l rates, b u t f i g h t f o r r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o n a l l f r o n t s , a n d a l w a y s t a k e t h e side o f t h e n e w a n d defend it.

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The work of the Party is effective when the. party organizations and all the party members develop the ability to act on their own initiative, develop the creative and innovative spirit widely. In t h i s d i r e c t i o n t h e r e a r e many examples and positive experience everywhere. H o w ever, a m o n g some p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , some cadres a n d p a r t y m e m b e r s i n enterprises, a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s , c e n t r a l d e p a r t m e n t s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t i s necessary t o c o m b a t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f w a i t i n g f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s , procrastination and hesitation, lack of initiative to solve p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e w i t h i n t h e i r competences. Methods of work, management and organization are not p r e s c r i b e d once a n d f o r a l l a n d u n a l t e r a b l e . L i f e p r o gresses, o u r socialist society is d e v e l o p i n g ceaselessly, t h e c o n d i t i o n s change. T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e s u s t o b e creative and inventive, to f i n d new, more flexible a n d varied forms of work, and to continually renew and enrich t h e m so t h a t t h e y r e s p o n d b e t t e r to t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of the t i m e . More qualified and effective work is required in analysing the directives of the Party. T h i s is a f u n d a m e n t a l task o f the basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d a l l m e m b e r s o f t h e P a r t y . T h e d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e P a r t y e x p r e s s its l i n e , d e f i n e t h e tasks f a c i n g t h e c o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e masses f o r t h e solution of different problems. G o o d experience has been g a i n e d i n the w o r k o f a n a l y s i n g t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e P a r t y . H o w e v e r , the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f f o r m a l i s m a n d s t e r e o t y p e d practices, w h i c h a r e s t i l l o b s e r v e d i n t h e w o r k o f s o m e p a r t y organs a n d b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , m u s t b e c o m b a t e d m o r e f o r c e f u l l y . S o m e t i m e s the d i r e c t i v e s a n d decisions o f t h e P a r t y a r e not t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e grassroots, t o t h e people, w i t h the s a m e seriousness a n d f o r c e w i t h w h i c h t h e C e n tral Committee or the district party committees put t h e m f o r w a r d . T h e y are s i m p l y t r a n s m i t t e d m e c h a n i c a l l y t o l o w e r levels w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r t h e concrete c o n d i t i o n s a n d s i -

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t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n operates, o r t h e tasks i t h a s t o c a r r y out. To analyse the directive of the P a r t y means to explain the n e e d f o r i t a n d its i m p o r t a n c e f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l , i d e o l o g i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c v i e w p o i n t , t o b r i n g out t h e t a s k s w h i c h emerge for the p a r t y organizations, the mass organizations, the state, e c o n o m i c , c u l t u r a l a n d o t h e r organs, i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e c o n c r e t e c o n d i t i o n s o f e a c h d i s t r i c t , zone, sector and collective, a n d to define the w a y s and necessary m e a sures t o f u l f i l these t a s k s . L a u n c h i n g t h e masses i n t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y actions f o r the c o m p l e t e a n d c r e a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t i v e i s o f d e c i s i v e i m p o r t a n c e . I t i s here, i n t h e heat o f t h i s battle, t h a t t h e correctness o f t h e d i r e c t i v e o f t h e P a r t y i s tested a n d t h e necessary a d d i t i o n s a n d a m e n d m e n t s a r e m a d e t o it. I n actions a n d t h r o u g h a c t i o n s t h e p a r t y m e m b e r s a n d t h e masses s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e Party, are educated and tempered, display their revolutiona r y i n i t i a t i v e s , a c h i e v e t h e u n i t y o f w o r d s w i t h deeds a n d e n s u r e a c c e l e r a t e d rates o f w o r k f o r t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f tasks o n t i m e a n d w i t h g o o d q u a l i t y . A c t i o n s also s e r v e t o combat bureaucratic a n d technocratic methods, procrastinat i o n , p e r s o n a l ease a n d s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n , a n d h e l p t o s t i r people e v e r y w h e r e i n t o a c t i v i t y i n l i f e a n d w o r k . The work of the Party becomes effective when the party organs and organizations are aware of and bear full responsibility for the implementation of the line of the Party and the fulfilment of the tasks of the state plan. There can be no struggle a n d efforts, no r e v o l u t i o n a r y actions f o r t h e s o l u t i o n of p r o b l e m s w i t h o u t a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h e t a s k s a r e c a r r i e d out b y w o r k i n g a n d struggling w i t h devotion a n d sacrifice, by putting our s h o u l d e r t o t h e w h e e l a n d p e r f o r m i n g o u r d u t i e s t o the last d e t a i l , w i t h g o o d q u a l i t y a n d h i g h e f f i c i e n c y . It is a fact t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y of t h e p a r t y

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organs and organizations, the party members and cadres w o r k w i t h a h i g h sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . H o w e v e r , o r g a n i z ations, c o m m u n i s t s a n d cadres c a n b e f o u n d w h o d o n o t struggle p e r s i s t e n t l y t o o v e r c o m e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d obstacles a n d t o f u l f i l the tasks. M a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f i n d i f f e r e n c e a n d m a k i n g excuses, o f c o v e r i n g u p s h o r t c o m i n g s a n d w e a k n e s ses w i t h g e n e r a l statements are n o t h i n g b u t a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e l a c k of a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h e P a r t y m u s t s t r u g g l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , n o t o n l y i n its o w n r a n k s b u t also i n t h e organs a n d o r g a n i s m s i t leads, i n a l l t h e w o r k i n g people a n d cadres. B u i l d i n g u p the c o l l e c t i v e sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e v e r y p a r t y o r g a n a n d basic o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d o f t h e i r l e v e r s , a n d the i n d i v i d u a l sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e v e r y p a r t y m e m b e r a n d cadre, creates a great g u a r a n t e e f o r t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f tasks a t a l l t i m e s a n d i n a l l f i e l d s . The sense of responsibility is strengthened when the demand that everybody must render account is made more rigorous, when there is strict check-up on the fulfilment of tasks. D e s p i t e t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s a c h i e v e d in t h i s d i r e c t i o n , t h e r e are s t i l l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f l i b e r a l i s m a n d s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , a s p i r i t of j u s t i f i c a t i o n a n d signs t h a t c h e c k - u p is underrated, as w e l l as formalism and superficiality in e x e r c i s i n g it. S o m e t i m e s c h e c k - u p a n d c a l l i n g t o a c c o u n t are w e a k because t h e t a s k s a n d decisions h a v e b e e n set o u t o n l y in g e n e r a l t e r m s a n d , as a consequence, c a n n o t be controlled. E v e r y p a r t y m e m b e r o r m e m b e r o f some p a r t y f o r u m , r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s post a n d f u n c t i o n , m u s t r e n d e r f u l l a c c o u n t h i m s e l f , a n d d e m a n d t h a t o t h e r s d o t h e same, o n h i s w o r k t o c a r r y out t h e l i n e a n d d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e P a r t y , t h e d e c i sions o f t h e basic o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d state duties. T h i s i s a c h i e v e d w h e n t h e p a r t y m e m b e r s engage i n s e l f - c r i t i c i s m courageously a n d without hesitation, as w e l l as in criticism o f a n y b o d y w h o does not f u l f i l h i s task, w h e n t h e y w a g e a

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d e t e r m i n e d s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t fear, v e n g e a n c e a n d p e t t y - b o u r geois i n d i f f e r e n c e . A s e l f - c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s h o r t comings, the courage of the party members to criticize a n d c a l l t o a c c o u n t a r e a n e x a m p l e a n d great s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a l l t h e w o r k i n g masses.

... a well-organized check, S t a l i n teaches us, is the searchlight which helps to reveal how the apparatus is functioning at any moment and to bring bureaucrats and redtapists into the light of day.*
We must always bear this teaching in m i n d and put it into practice consistently. It is the d u t y of the organs a n d organizations of the P a r t y to invigorate and strengthen the p a r t y c o n t r o l a n d t h e state c o n t r o l , t h e w o r k e r a n d mass c o n t r o l , a n d see t h a t t h e y are e x e r c i s e d c o n s i s t e n t l y i n a c o m b i n e d w a y . C o n t r o l f r o m above, p a r a l l e l c o n t r o l o r c o n t r o l f r o m b e l o w m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y b e m o r e active, m u s t b e a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h concrete h e l p , m u s t o p e n p e r s p e c t i v e s and teach people h o w to organize their w o r k , h o w to m o b i l i z e t h e m s e l v e s a n d cope w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e f u l filment of tasks.

3. T H E E S T A B L I S H E D CRITERIA FOR INCREASING THE RANKS OF THE PARTY MUST BE APPLIED CORRECTLY

Our increase tionary healthier The

P a r t y has a l w a y s a p p l i e d correct c r i t e r i a f o r t h e o f its r a n k s , w i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d i n a r e v o l u w a y . T h i s has m a d e t h e P a r t y s t r o n g e r a n d a n d i n c r e a s e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f its w o r k . P a r t y comes t o t h i s C o n g r e s s w i t h its r a n k s i n -

______________________________________ * J. V. Stalin, Selected Works, T i r a n a 1979, pp. 418-419. Alb. ed.

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creased w i t h c o m m u n i s t s w h o are r e s o l u t e f i g h t e r s f o r t h e cause o f t h e people, t h e r e v o l u t i o n a n d c o m m u n i s m , p r o l e t a r i a n s i n t h o u g h t a n d a c t i o n . N o w 122,600 c o m m u n ists, of w h o m n e a r l y 38 p e r cent are w o r k e r s , 29.4 p e r cent c o o p e r a t i v i s t s a n d 32.6 p e r cent o f f i c e w o r k e r s , a r e m i l i tating in the r a n k s of the Party. W o m e n m a k e up 30 per cent of t h e t o t a l , or 2.5 p e r cent m o r e t h a n at t h e p r e v i o u s Congress. M e m b e r s o f t h e P a r t y m a k e u p 4.5 p e r cent of t h e p o p u l a t i o n ; 24,363 c a n d i d a t e s f o r m e m b e r s h i p , 42.40 p e r cent of t h e m w o r k e r s , 40.43 p e r cent c o o p e r a t i v i s t s a n d 17.17 p e r cent o f f i c e w o r k e r s , h a v e b e e n a d m i t t e d t o t h e P a r t y i n t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e 7 t h C o n g r e s s . O f these, 40.70 p e r cent a r e w o m e n c o m r a d e s . T h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f those a d m i t t e d t o t h e P a r t y , either as f u l l members or candidates, come f r o m t h e s p h e r e o f p r o d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m its m a i n f r o n t s . T h e y a r e a m o n g t h e best w o r k e r s , t h e m o s t d e v e l o p e d p o l i t i c a l l y a n d i d e o l o g i c a l l y , those w i t h l o f t y m o r a l q u a l i t i e s and virtues and a high educational level, vanguard fighters and active participants in the construction of socialism. O n t h e basis o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e considers t h a t i t i s i n o r d e r t o a p p l y i n the f u t u r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s a m e rates a n d c r i t e r i a f o r the increase o f t h e r a n k s o f t h e P a r t y a s i n t h e past f i v e years: P r i o r i t y should be given to admission of activists f r o m the r a n k s o f t h e w o r k i n g class, e s p e c i a l l y those w o r k i n g i n the m a i n b r a n c h e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , i n h e a v y e x t r a c t i n g and processing i n d u s t r y and on the b i g projects under construction. B e t t e r w o r k s h o u l d b e done t o h a s t e n a c h i e v e m e n t o f the o b j e c t i v e set b y the 7 t h Congress, t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e t h e c o o p e r a t i v i s t p a r t y m e m b e r s s h o u l d o c c u p y second place, after the w o r k e r s , i n t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e P a r t y . A m o n g the o f f i c e w o r k e r s a n d t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , those

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w h o have a high ideo-political, cultural, technical and s c i e n t i f i c l e v e l a n d w h o w o r k i n t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t sectors o f socialist c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d defence s h o u l d b e a d m i t t e d . C o n c e r n a b o u t a n d w o r k f o r i n c r e a s i n g the n u m b e r o f w o m e n in the r a n k s of the P a r t y should be intensified. T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f these o r i e n t a t i o n s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e o r g a n s a n d basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e P a r t y c a r r y out m o r e q u a l i f i e d a n d b e t t e r c o n s i d e r e d w o r k t o increase the ranks of the Party. Manifestations of f o r m a l i s m and bureaucracy, a n y t e n d e n c y t o b e i n o r d e r w i t h f i g u r e s a n d p e r centages, s h o u l d b e r e s o l u t e l y c o m b a t e d . T h e quality of admissions has been and remains decis i v e i n t h e p o l i c y o f t h e P a r t y f o r t h e i n c r e a s e o f its r a n k s . The candidates must have a good political and ideological level, must have capacity and ability, be progressive in t h e i r t h o u g h t s a n d actions, w i t h b r o a d c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and technical-professional horizons, must enjoy the trust a n d respect o f t h e masses, h a v e i n i t i a t i v e a n d b e consistent r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . N o b o d y s h o u l d b e a d m i t t e d t o the P a r t y s i m p l y because he is t h e s o n of a w o r k e r , peasant or p a r t y m e m b e r , o n account o f t h e m e r i t s o f h i s f a t h e r o r m o t h e r , but o n a c c o u n t o f h i s o w n p e r s o n a l m e r i t s , q u a l i t i e s a n d abilities. T h e s e q u a l i t i e s a n d t r a i t s m u s t b e f u r t h e r t e m p e r e d b y the basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e P a r t y a n d b y each communist individually, in the daily struggle and activity. T h e p r o b a t i o n p e r i o d o f the c a n d i d a t e p l a y s a m a j o r role i n t h e c o m m u n i s t f o r m a t i o n o f those n e w l y a d m i t t e d t o the P a r t y . T h e e x p e r i e n c e a c c u m u l a t e d m u s t b e used t o e n h a n c e t h e r o l e a n d increase t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the p a r t y basic o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e c o n t i n u o u s i d e o - p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a n d the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t e m p e r i n g o f the c a n d i d a t e members. S u c h manifestations as underestimation of the probation period of the candidate, or failure to rigorously apply t h e r u l e s f o r p e r f o r m i n g t h e p r o b a t i o n p e r i o d , w h i c h are s o m e t i m e s seen, s h o u l d be c o m b a t e d .

III
THE TASKS OF THE P A R T Y FOR THE COMMUNIST EDUCATION OF THE WORKING PEOPLE

T h e a l l - r o u n d e d u c a t i o n o f the n e w m a n has b e e n a n d remains a f u n d a m e n t a l question in the activity of the P a r t y i n o r d e r t o c a r r y the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f socialist society c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r w a r d . T h i s e d u c a t i o n has b e e n c a r r i e d out o n a b r o a d f r o n t , closely l i n k e d w i t h t h e t a s k s of e a c h stage o f d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h l i f e has r a i s e d , a n d w i t h t h e concrete s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s has a l w a y s e n s u r e d t h e active c h a r a c t e r , t h e great m o b i l i z i n g a n d t r a n s f o r m i n g force o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k o f t h e P a r t y a n d its l e v e r s . The conditions in w h i c h we are w o r k i n g and fighting f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d defence o f s o c i a l i s m , a s w e l l a s t h e tasks w h i c h w e are p u t t i n g f o r w a r d i n t h i s C o n g r e s s f o r the socio-economic d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y , r e q u i r e t h a t the educational work of the Party be raised to a higher level and concentrated better on certain current and future main problems , in o r d e r to create deep M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t c o n v i c t i o n s a m o n g t h e people, t o raise t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l skills, to equip them w i t h broad culture and pure m o r a l virtues.
1. T H E COMMUNIST E D U C A T I O N OF T H E W O R K I N G P E O P L E THE BASIS OF OUR SUCCESSES

A l b a n i a i s the c o u n t r y i n w h i c h s o c i a l i s m i s b e i n g b u i l t w i t h success a n d w h i c h r e m a i n s f i r m l y o n t h e r a i l s o f

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M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , in w h i c h the development of the economy and culture, the organization and leadership of the P a r t y a n d t h e state, the f o r m a t i o n a n d t e m p e r i n g o f t h e n e w m a n , a r e c a r r i e d o u t o n t h e basis o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s m . T h e r o a d w h i c h o u r c o u n t r y has t r a v e r s e d has n o t b e e n easy. O u r P a r t y a n d p e o p l e h a v e h a d t o cope w i t h m a n y d i f f i c u l t i e s , t o press o n w a r d s o v e r roads k n o w n a n d u n k n o w n , o v e r n e w , u n t r o d d e n paths. T h e b o u n d l e s s l o y a l t y o f o u r P a r t y t o the i m m o r t a l d o c t r i n e o f M a r x , E n g e l s , L e n i n a n d S t a l i n , its a b i l i t y t o a p p l y t h i s d o c t r i n e i n a creative m a n n e r , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the conditions of the country and the complicated i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , its d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o d e f e n d the p u r i t y o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h i s d o c t r i n e f r o m the a t t a c k s a n d d i s t o r t i o n s o f m a n y enemies, i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l , h a v e b e e n a n d r e m a i n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l basis o f a l l t h e successes a n d v i c t o r i e s o f o u r people. T h e w h o l e p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e P a r t y has been t o ensure t h a t e v e r y step o n t h e r o a d o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a n d the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m s h o u l d b e w e l l c o n s i d e r e d , t h a t the f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e n e w socialist society s h o u l d b e s u c h as to g u a r a n t e e its ceaseless d e v e l o p m e n t t o w a r d s progress, a n d t h a t t h e w a v e s a n d s t o r m s o f the hostile i m p e r i a l i s t revisionist encirclement should be faced and overcome. This i s w h y t h e r e v o l u t i o n a n d t h e socialist c o n s t r u c t i o n i n o u r c o u n t r y h a v e k n o w n n o zigzags a n d reverses, b u t h a v e gone consistently a h e a d a n d h a v e a l w a y s scored v i c t o r i e s . T h e e x a m p l e o f A l b a n i a i s a n e w e x p e r i e n c e i n the history o f t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the p r o l e t a r i a t a n d constitutes a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l ism a n d M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . T h e c o m m u n i s t s , t h e cadres, t h e w o r k i n g people, a n d the y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , m u s t b e t h o r o u g h l y acquainted w i t h t h e r o a d o f the d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r c o u n t r y towards s o c i a l i s m a n d c o m m u n i s m , s h o u l d be as c l e a r as

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p o s s i b l e about w h e r e w e s t a r t e d f r o m a n d w h a t r o a d w e have travelled, w h a t difficulties have been surmounted, w h a t l i n e t h e P a r t y has p u r s u e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d a n d w h a t a r e t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h i s society w h i c h has b e e n b u i l t w i t h the blood, s w e a t a n d t o i l o f o u r h e r o i c people. K n o w i n g this glorious road and r i c h experience, our people w i l l h a v e a b r o a d e r v i e w of socialist society, of its present stage a n d its f u t u r e , a n d w i l l w o r k w i t h g r e a t e r consciousness a n d u n s h a k e a b l e c o n v i c t i o n t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e victories of socialism more and more a n d carry t h e m steadily f o r w a r d . T h e P a r t y m u s t see t h i s a s a c a p i t a l q u e s t i o n , b e cause t h e s t r o n g e r t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e present, t h e m o r e secure the socialist a n d c o m m u n i s t f u t u r e o f o u r c o u n t r y w i l l be. The strengthening of convictions about socialism, about its v i t a l i t y a n d s u p e r i o r i t i e s , assumes s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s w h e n s o c i a l i s m has b e e n u n d e r m i n e d in m a n y countries and w h e n the imperialists, the bourgeoisie a n d t h e r e v i s i o n i s t s h a v e l a u n c h e d a f r e n z i e d c a m p a i g n against s o c i a l i s m i n o r d e r t o d i s p a r a g e t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y ideals, t o s o w t h e seed o f d o u b t a n d u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t the socialist f u t u r e o f m a n k i n d . I t i s n o a c c i d e n t t h a t the m a i n t h r u s t o f this s t r u g g l e has b e e n a i m e d against o u r triumphant doctrine, M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , w i t h o u t w h i c h there is and can be no genuine socialism. L i k e w i s e , we must always take into account that the conditions in w h i c h socialism is being built in A l b a n i a are v e r y c o m p l e x . O u r P a r t y , state a n d people are f i g h t i n g s i n g l e - h a n d e d , face to face a g a i n s t a c o l o s s a l e n e m y f o r c e , against t h e c a p i t a l i s t a n d r e v i s i o n i s t w o r l d w h i c h e n c i r c l e s us. O u r people m u s t n e v e r u n d e r r a t e o r f o r g e t t h e d a n g e r s w i t h w h i c h o u r socialist society i s t h r e a t e n e d f r o m t h e great, a l l - r o u n d p o l i t i c a l , economic, i d e o l o g i c a l a n d m i l i t a r y p r e s sure o f t h i s w o r l d . O u r historic duty, national and international, is to be

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a l l o n t h e alert, v i g i l a n t a n d r e a d y t o cope w i t h a n y s i t u a t i o n , t o d e f e n d t h e v i c t o r i e s a c h i e v e d a n d t o press o n w i t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n a n d o u r socialist c o n s t r u c t i o n . W e m u s t c o u n t e r t h e d a n g e r o u s d i v e r s i o n i s t a c t i v i t y of t h e e n e m i e s of s o c i a l i s m w i t h o u r d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d courage, w i t h t h e steel u n i t y o f t h e P a r t y a n d t h e people, w i t h u n t i r i n g w o r k t o d e v e l o p a n d s t r e n g t h e n t h e e c o n o m y a n d t h e defence o f the c o u n t r y . A b o v e a l l , i n o r d e r t o d e f e n d s o c i a l i s m a n d e n s u r e t h a t i t a l w a y s forges c o n f i d e n t l y ahead, i t i s essential to continuously strengthen the healthy and profound conv i c t i o n s a b o u t s o c i a l i s m , a s the h i g h e s t s o c i a l o r d e r t o w h i c h the f u t u r e i n e v i t a b l y belongs. O u r people, l i v i n g a n d w o r k i n g i n a socialist society, are e d u c a t e d w i t h its n o r m s a n d p r i n c i p l e s , w h i c h a r e embodied in the economic a n d social relations, in the org a n i z a t i o n a n d r u n n i n g o f t h e state a n d t h e e n t i r e l i f e o f the c o u n t r y , i n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a n d t h e w a y o f l i f e , i n t h e system o f e d u c a t i o n a n d c u l t u r e , etc. O u r socialist r e a l i t y itself, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f people i n t h e w o r k of t h e socialist c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e c o u n t r y , educates t h e m a n d helps t h e m t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d a s s i m i l a t e t h e b a s i c principles of M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m and socialism. H o w e v e r , socialist c o n v i c t i o n s a n d consciousness, w h i c h are c r e a t e d i n p r a c t i c a l l i f e , a r e i n a d e q u a t e t o e n a b l e people to find their bearings correctly in any situation, to understand the p o l i c y o f the P a r t y p r o f o u n d l y a n d t o act a l w a y s with clear objectives. S u c h convictions m a y be shaken in the face of t h e v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e socialist c o n s t r u c tion o r t h e great p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e c a p i t a l i s t - r e v i s i o n i s t world, if they are not based on solid theoretical f o u n d a tions. O n l y M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , w h i c h i s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l base of scientific socialism and the communist education of the w o r k i n g people, creates p r o f o u n d , l a s t i n g c o n v i c t i o n s . T h e P a r t y i m b u e s t h e masses w i t h s u c h