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1 Introduction Although educational inequality has presented itself throughout American history, many new disparities presented themselves

in the United States educational system since the ‘red-lining’ of neighborhoods began decades ago !enou and "occard define ‘redlining’ as #the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as ban$ing, insurance, home mortgages, access to %obs, and access to health care in areas that are often racially determined & '1((() 1* +n order to combat educational inequality it is important to begin with a clear understanding of what factors contribute to the problem ,his paper argues that education is negatively affected by residential segregation because of residential segregation’s effect on poverty- it challenges school quality and educational success by lowering house prices and wealth for home-owners and limiting %ob opportunities and income for inner-city wor$ers ,he goal of our country’s educational system is to provide everyone with quality education and give them a chance to succeed in life .owever, academic success is much more difficult for inner-city minorities because of the effects of residential segregation Studying housing policies li$e ‘redlining’ and education programs li$e .ead Start will prove whether or not they have e/acerbated or alleviated the challenges faced by families living in poverty as a result of residential segregation 'Sharpe 011(, "arber and 2ann 1((3* As previously mentioned, the intended goal of the educational system in the United States is to give everyone the option of quality education so they have a chance to do well in life +nner-city youth are robbed of this chance because they are forced to live in a hostile environment with social conditions over which they have little control +t was not their choice to be born into poverty, and they did not choose to be raised in a

0 household where parents may be in prison or unable to find wor$ 4any inner-city youth have the desire to escape this negative environment and succeed, but they feel they have no control over the nature and quality of their lives + argue that changes in housing and education policies will allow for the quality of education in urban areas to improve ,his is necessary important because education is often the sole means of brea$ing the cycle of poverty for poor children '"andura 0111*

‘Red-lining’ ,he cycle of poverty for many inner-city poor results from ‘red-lining’ and the segregation of neighborhoods along racial lines 5overnment policies send aid directly to areas affected by poverty in order to improve social environments that promote deviant behavior, but few government programs are specifically concerned with the educational inequalities that result from residential segregation ,his is problematic because criminal activity thrives in the economically disadvantaged parts of cities, and minorities ma$e up a large portion of this population ,herefore, minorities are more li$ely to suffer the negative academic consequences that result 6uality education is important because studies indicate that it is intricately related to income level +mproving education increases overall income and reduces the negative effects of residential segregation ,he benefits of quality education are important because they influence entire communities, not %ust inner-city neighborhoods '"ennett 1((3* 2iscrimination through ‘red-lining’ policies lasted until the late 1(31s +t served to confine inner-city minorities to a narrow range of urban neighborhoods Subsequently, there are much higher poverty rates in the inner-city than in white neighborhoods because

7 they are not as densely populated 8esidential segregation prevented, or at the very least greatly hindered, economic development in the inner-city because ban$s would not issue loans to businesses in ‘red-lined’ parts of the town 9hile blac$s and other minorities are less severely segregated than in past decades, minorities are the ma%ority in nearly all modern urban high-poverty neighborhoods Accordingly, it is in high-poverty communities that the most negative consequences of neighborhood segregation on education are clearly visible '4assey and 2enton 1((:, 9illiams 1(((*

Effects of Residential Segregation on Property Value and Education ,he aforementioned high-poverty communities result from the disparities created by residential segregation by lowering the price of property and ta/ returns ;ven after the passing of the <ivil 8ights Act of 1(3= and >air .ousing Act of 1(3:, residential segregation has continued to e/ist ,his allows for racial stereotypes to be perpetuated and can lead to social isolation for inner-city inhabitants in and out of the school ,his is important because elevated levels of segregation broaden racial disparity and limit the economic performance of ma%or cities by allowing areas of poverty to bloom ;ven most residents of inner-city communities are unwilling to stay when given the opportunity ?ow property values as a result of residential segregation means that people would rather leave than stay behind and spur residential development '5amoran 011@) Sharpe 011(* ?ow property values have a negative effect on inner-city schools because of the way primary and secondary schools are funded Schools rely heavily on state ta/es and local property revenueAta/es, which are based on accessed property values Accessed property values are higher for people with higher socioeconomic status 9hat this means

= is that individuals living in richer neighborhoods pay more ta/es ,herefore, they are able afford better quality educators and overall better quality school facilities .owever, ‘redlining’ contributed to economic decline in urban areas by forcing businesses to relocate to more prosperous areas As a result, the inner-city has much lower property values and people of low socioeconomic status 'S;S* cannot afford to pay higher ta/es "ecause inner-city students cannot afford the quality of education available to middle and upper class families they are forced to learn in underfunded and understaffed schools 'BerneC, Dropp, and 8ydell 1(((* Ene possible solution to bridge the education gap between the rich and the poor as a result of residential segregation is to create homes for the economically disadvantaged in suburban communities 9hite neighborhoods with high educational attainment are less affected by poverty and the inequalities that come with it because poverty is more widespread '4c<lafferty, ,orres, and 4itchell 0111* +f these ideals are applied and incorporated to help inner-city minorities, then differences in education quality can be overcome Epponents to this solution believe that moving people of low S;S to areas with higher S;S will cause poc$ets of poverty to develop in the suburbs ,his is untrue because the 5atrauC Frogram clearly demonstrates that moving small amounts of poor residents to economically secure areas #dilutes& any negative economic effects on surrounding communities '8ubinowitC and 8osenbaum 0110* Since minority populations ma$e up greater and greater percentages of the American population every year, educational attainment for these struggling minority groups should concern our entire country Ene counter-argument to opponents of the 5autraC Frogram is that higher educational attainment leads to savings in federal

G programs throughout a person’s life span ,his results because the price of 9elfare drops as a person’s educational attainment increases 4any inner-city poor use 9elfare to improve their living conditions because they need help or cannot afford to do so themselves +t is offered in a variety of forms, such as food stamps, monetary payments, medical assistance, and subsidiesAvouchers >or an average middle-aged white woman, individual spending on 9elfare is appro/imately one-third as much for a high school graduate compared to spending on a high school dropout >ollowing this trend, 9elfare spending practically disappears for somebody who has attained a college degree Savings in public programs li$e 9elfare and 4edicaid also decline as education level increases +n addition, reductions in prison and %ail spending also occur as educational achievement increases 'BerneC, Dropp, and 8ydell 1((() 8affo 011(* As demonstrated, housing reforms that improve urban education benefit all levels of society .ousing reform is equally important because it eases the challenge of simply living in very poor neighborhoods Hot doing so presents a ma%or challenge to a person’s education and overall long-term life chances ,his is evident even at early stages in life, as seen in studies that show preschool children tend to display more violent mannerisms when relating with other people ,his affects young people from e/tremely poor neighborhoods because it ma$es them less successful in school than their counterparts from rich neighborhoods '?egters, "lafanC, Iordan, and 4cFartland 0110*

Effects of Residential Segregation on Education and Employment Jouth living in residentially segregated areas also have a lower li$elihood of achieving a high school or any college degrees Studies show that this also affects inner-

3 city students’ employment opportunities later in life because they are not as li$ely to learn from their parents the values and verbal communication s$ills that are important to succeed in American society <hildren living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are li$ely to suffer from a poor diet, undiagnosed- and thus untreated- physical and mental problems, troubles learning, and a homeAneighborhood surrounding that is not constructive to learning ,he unconstructive learning environment of living in poverty is e/plained by class differences in socialiCation resources Studies show that people with higher income levels are more li$ely to create stable home environments geared to helping children do better at school .owever, access to computers, the internet, and boo$s is much worse for poor neighborhoods and schools in the inner-city ,he disadvantages created by residential segregation on employment opportunities for the poor create a barrier to educational attainment 'Anyon 011G) Sharpe 011() ?areau 0110* Subsequent %ob losses and rising unemployment pushed poverty and segregation in many inner-city urban neighborhoods even higher '4assey and 2enton 1((:* Although there are employment opportunities that are accessible and within distance to blac$s and ?atinos, many of these employment opportunities are unattainable to them for other reasons Iobs requiring a college degree are most numerous in the districts where inner-city minorities have greatest access to wor$ +n comparison, the percentage of residents who are high school dropouts is greatest in the part of the city where the innercity poor are most populous ,his results in a growing disparity between the educational requirements of %obs and the educational success of residents in inner cities 'Stoll, .olCer, and +hlanfelt 1(((*

@ Accordingly, the American government must ma$e greater investments in education in order to $eep income inequality in the wor$force from becoming even greater ,his is especially true in a global economy because people with nothing to offer but physical labor will not compete well for better paying %obs Ene way for our nation to reduce levels of income inequality and promote economic growth at the same time is to invest in education >or primary and secondary schools, an increased investment in education means greater spending in the urban areas where blac$s and ?atinos are most populous because the percentage of residents who are high school dropouts is greatest in the part of the city they reside Also, higher educational achievement allows for greater employment opportunity outside of service sector %obs that are common in povertystric$en urban areas 'Stoll et al 1(((* ,he government must realiCe that the creation of low-paying service sector %obs will not spur economic growth, instead it will add to the difficulties of inner-city life Studies document that neighborhood environment influences teens’ se/ual activity and the li$elihood that girls will become pregnant during their teen years +t is not a coincidence that many teen mothers are also high school dropouts 4any youth at this stage in their lives do not see the value in education and are li$ely to ma$e school secondary to wor$ing low-paying service sector %obs or hanging out with their friends ,his relates to the previously discussed idea that youth who reside in areas prone to crime are more li$ely to commit crimes themselves +n addition, studies show that moving in and out of %ail or to and from %uvenile detention centers means that future employment opportunities are even more limited because they are criminal offenders <onsequently, negative changes in student academic performance result when living in segregated

: neighborhoods ,he socioeconomic status of students affects schools and when schools cannot ad%ust to the needs of the student body dropout rates increase dramatically As a teaching assistant in an urban high-school, + have seen declines in student attendance and difficulties in getting parents to participate in their child’s education because my school was unable to ad%ust to their needs +nner-city students are more li$ely to suffer from lowered self-esteem in the school because they cannot receive quality support from faculty ,his can transform into increased student reliance on street gangs as a source of the confidence and income 'Jinger 1((G* +t is is necessary to create quality %obs so that inner-city families can afford to pay for better schools 5oing to schools that provide inner-city students with quality educators means they have better chance of avoiding gangs and raising their self-esteem through academics 5rowth rates on government spending for education programs in the innercity must continue to rise if they are to ma$e any positive impact lowering gang activity and dropout rates ;ven small cuts on the growth rate of government spending for education programs have resulted in a large rise in criminal activity, especially for teens and pre-teens Social programs or wor$-training programs that successfully engage young people who might otherwise get caught up in %oining a gang, s$ipping class, or selling drugs are valuable to a community '"ennett 1((3* ;ducation programs geared specifically at low income families helps negate the disadvantages they face when compared to their wealthier counterparts An e/ample of this is .ead Start, which offers intensive learning e/periences to impoverished children and helps $eep %uveniles occupied +n addition to this, it also presents them valuable information on how to grow up as productive members of society

( '"ennet 1((3) 9illiam 0113* ,raining and paid education programs are designed as part of the fight against poverty to increase the s$ills of the poor, and help in minimiCing poverty that can be in large parts contributed to residential segregation >or e/ample, early education programs have had a positive effect on poor children by helping them complete school, avoid crime, and achieve higher test scores 'Sawhill 1(::) Sharpe 011() ;llsworth and Ames 1((:* ,raining and education programs give the inner-city poor a chance to succeed ?earning helps students stay focused on their academics and out of trouble by $eeping them in school Similar wor$ training and education programs for adults have also raised the income level of inner-city communities As mentioned, raising the socioeconomic level of the inner-city will have positive effects on the quality of education

Conclusion/ Discussion of Sources >ew studies agree on a simple solution to wor$ing out the problem of educational disparity as a result of residential segregation .owever, most do agree with the idea that the persistence of residential segregation adds to racial and ethnic inequality and undermines a person’s education and life chances ,he ma%ority of my sources agree that residential segregation affects education in urban areas by lowering property value and limiting employment opportunities and wages 'Anyon 1((@) <arr and Dutty 011:) 8affo 011(* 4any people argue over how poverty and education inequality in the inner-city should be removed Some people argue for the creation of federal assistance programs li$e ,emporary Assistance for Heedy >amilies ',AH>*, but studies show they have little effect on overall poverty rates ;arned +ncome <redit ';+<* is a ta/ credit created to ta$e

11 the burden of Social Security off low-income wor$ers .owever, ;+< is only available to people who are employed and there are eligibility requirements >or e/ample, most ;+< beneficiaries are married couples ,his is problematic because high divorce rates means that inner-city households are headed by single mothers ,his adds to the li$elihood that children will live in poverty and suffer from the effects it has on their ability to succeed in school 'Sharpe 011(* Several sources also discuss how living in poverty as a result of residential segregation also lowers property value BerneC et al discuss ‘red-lining’ and its negative contributions to education while offering possible solutions Ene main argument they ma$e is for the creation of mobility programs that transfer inner-city families who want to move to less segregated, therefore wealthier, neighborhoods '1(((-33* "ecause BerneC et al focus more on the overall net savings on welfare programs as a result of education they would have conflicting views with 8ubinowitC and 8osenbaum ,hey state that programs li$e the 5atrauC Frogram would not allow families to move from poor to middle-class neighborhoods and therefore would have no effect on inner-city education '8ubinowitC and 8osenbaum 0110* .owever, most resources provide statistics that show improvements in inner-city student’s educational outcomes result from mobility programs 4obility programs would improve education quality because it would reduce the effects of residential segregation by placing poor students in better quality schools <orbett et al posit that promoting effort and e/cellence of low-income urban students should come from schools that are #organiCed so that students get all the necessary help they need to do these tas$s well at school & '0110- 117* Using normal school day brea$s

11 to find time to help students, being available before and after school, and having another adult around to help students are ideas they mention in order to combat educational inequality for inner-city students '<orbett, 9ilson, and 9illiams 0110* 4c<lafferty et al go into further detail over the challenges presented by these options ,hey state that teachers cannot be e/pected to assume all of the roles e/pected by <orbett et al >or instance, they ta$e into account realities that show poorer school districts cannot afford e/tra teaching assistants as easily as <orbett at al assumes '0111- =0* <rampton and Anyon also directly focus on school environment +n general, they both concur that lowincome public schools have inadequate funds, not enough competent instructors, low academic success rates, and out-dated buildings "oo$s agrees that this contributes to lower graduation levels in high school and college '011=-0@* 4y sources concur that poverty will continue to remain a ma%or problem if actions are not ta$en to solve the issue ,his paper ta$es one step by addressing possible reforms of housing and education programs ,he ne/t step involves using this information to ma$e a positive change for people affected by poverty and education inequality as a result of residential segregation + argue that the creation of education programs li$e .ead Start can alleviate the challenges of living in poverty as a result of discrepancies between inner-city and suburban education 8esidential segregation in inner-cities will continue to undercut school qualityAeducational attainment by lowering one’s overall wealth and confining employment opportunities if nothing is done "ut if the government continues to implement programs that address disparities in educational achievement as a result of residential segregation, then the life benefits of the inner-city poor will be immediate

10 Bi liograp!y Anyon, Iean 1((@ Radical Possi ilities" Pu lic Policy# $r an Education# and a %e& Social 'o(ement) Hew Jor$- ,aylor and >rancis "andura, Amy 0111 #Social <ognitive ,heory- An Agentic Ferspective & Sociological * stracts G0- 1-03 "arber, 4ichael, and 2ann, 8uth 1((3 Raising Educational Standards in t!e Inner Cities" Practical Initiati(es in *ction 5reat "ritain- 8edwood "oo$s ?td "ennett, 9illiam 1((3 Body Count" 'oral Po(erty+ *nd ,o& -o .in *merica’s .ar *gainst Crime *nd Drugs) USA- Simon and Schuster +nc "oo$s, Sue 011= Po(erty and Sc!ooling in t!e $S" Conte/ts and Conse0uences Hew Iersey- ?awrence ;rlbaum Associates, +nc <arr, Iames and Dutty, Handinee 011: Segregation" -!e Rising Costs for *merica Hew Jor$- ,aylor and >rancis <orbett, 2ic$, 9ilson, "ruce, and 9illiams, "elinda 0110 Effort and E/cellence in $r an Classrooms" E/pecting and 1etting Success &it! all Students Hew Jor$,eachers <ollege Fress <rampton, >aith ; 011( #Spending on School +nfrastructure- 2oes 4oney 4atterK& 2ournal of Educational *dministration ;llsworth, Ieanne and Ames, ?ynda Critical Perspecti(es on Pro3ect ,ead Start" Re(isioning t!e ,ope and C!allenge Hew Jor$- State University of Hew Jor$ Fress 5amoran, Adam 011@ Standards-Based Reform and t!e Po(erty 1ap" 4essons for %o C!ild 4eft Be!ind) 9ashington 2<- "roo$ing +nstitution ?areau, Annette 0110 #+nvisible +nequality & *merican Sociological Re(ie& 3@-@=@-@3 4assey, 2ouglas and 2enton, Hancy 1((: *merican *part!eid" Segregation and t!e 'a5ing of t!e $nderclass .arvard University Fress 4c<lafferty, Daren, ,orres, <arlos, and 4itchell, ,heodore 0111 C!allenges of $r an Education" Sociological Perspecti(es for t!e %e/t Century Hew Jor$- State University of Hew Jor$ Fress 8affo, <arlo 011( #;ducation and Foverty- 4apping the ,errain and 4a$ing the ?in$s to ;ducational Folicy & International 2ournal of Inclusi(e Education, 17- 7=1-7G:

17 8ubinowitC, ?eonard and 8osenbaum, Iames 0110 Crossing t!e Class and Color 4ine" 6rom Pu lic ,ousing to .!ite Su ur ia <hicago- University of <hicago Fress Sawhill, +sabel 1(:: #Foverty in the U S - 9hy +s +t So FersistentK& 2ournal of Economic 4iterature# 03- 11@7-111( Sharpe, Shane 011( 4ecture University of 9isconsin-4adison Stoll, 4ichael, .olCer, .arry, and +hlanfeldt, Deith 1((( #9ithin <ities and Suburbs8acial 8esidential <oncentration and the Spatial 2istribution of ;mployment Epportunities across Submetropolitan Areas & *merican Sociological Re(ie&, 1:- 11:(11(( BerneC, 5eorges, Drop, 8ichard, and 8ydell, Feter 1((( Closing t!e Education 1ap" Benefits and Costs 9ashington 2 < - 8AH2 Jinger, Iohn 1((G Closed Doors# 7pportunities 4ost" -!e Continuing Costs of ,ousing Discrimination Hew Jor$- 8ussell Sage 9illiams 1((@ #,hat <hild is Smart "ecause .e’s 8ich- ,he +mpact of Foverty on Joung <hildrenLs ;/periences of School & *merican Sociological Re(ie&, (- 011-07=