0 Up votes0 Down votes

124 views7 pagesJan 25, 2014

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

124 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Neuromancer
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

You are on page 1of 7

2006/2007

Chapter 1

Pure Component Properties Using EOS

1.1 Compressibility Factors Using PR-EOS

The gas cylinders distributed by Jordan Petroleum Re nery Company (JPRC) contain

a mixture of propane and n-butane. Assume they contain only n-butane. The volume

of the cylinder is about 30 liters and the net mass of its contents is 15 kg. In winter,

the temperature of the cylinder can be assumed to be 15 C, and the pressure inside the

cylinder is 12 bars.

1. Use the Peng-Robinson equation of state to determine what are the phase(s) inside the

cylinder.

2. Repeat the same calculations as in the rst part if the pressure is reduced to 7 bars.

What are the mass fraction of the liquid and that of the vapor?

The following general solution procedure for the use of EOS in compressibility

calculations is recommended to be followed:

1. Obtain the properties of the component of interest from any reference you deem

useful. I am using the properties package coming with Sandler's book.

Component M W (g/mol) Tc (K) Pc (MPa) ! (-)

.

n-butane

58.124

425.2

3.80 0.199

2. Determine the covolume (b) and energy (a) parameters from the proper EOS. This

time the PR-EOS is used,

RTC

b = 0:07780

;

(1)

PC

= 0:37464 + 1:5422! 0:26992! 2

(2)

(

"

#)2

1=2

T

(T ) =

1+

1

;

(3)

TC

a(T )

0:45724

R2 TC2

(T ):

PC

(4)

3. Determine the reduced covolume (B) and energy (A) parameters. Once the covolume

and the energy parameters are determined, we can make a better utilization of their

values by using their reduced equivalents i.e.,

bP

B =

;

(5)

RT

aP

A =

(6)

(RT )2

Section 1.1

4. Find the coef cients in the compressibility cubic according to the proper EOS. For the

PR-EOS the coef cients of this cubic are given as

0 = Z 3 + a2 Z 2 + a1 Z + a0

(7)

a2 = B 1;

(8)

2

a1 = A 3B

2B;

(9)

2

3

a0 =

AB + B + B ;

(10)

5. Solve for the roots of the compressibility cubic. Two approaches exists: numerical

and analytical solutions. The solution for these conditions yields only one real root

Z =0.0472. This is equivalent to one single phase which is a subcooled liquid

phase since the total pressure is higher than the vapor pressure of n-butane at this

temperature.

Solve for the roots of the PR-EOS using Matlab's roots function. The roots function

is based on solving for the eigenvalues of the companion matrix. One can use the Matlab

built in fzero and solve twice near B and 1. If the two solutions converge to the same

root then a single phase exists, otherwise two phase coexist. In an exam setting one would

use an easy numerical method such as the Newton-Raphson method which is outlined

below.

The Newton-Raphson (NR) nds a re ned estimate of an initial guess to the root using

the simple formula

f (Zi )

Zi+1 = Zi

:

(11)

f 0 (Zi )

The compressibility cubic is easily differentiated to yield

Zi3 + a2 Zi2 + a1 Zi + a0

(12)

Zi+1 = Zi

3Zi2 + 2a2 Zi + a1

1.1.1.1

The butane problem at 288.15 K and 12 bar is solved for the compressibility using the

following sequence of steps

Chapter 1

(8:314)(425:2)

= 7:2446 10 5 ;

3:80 106

= 0:37464 + 1:5422(0:199) 0:26992(0:199)2 = 0:6708;

(

"

#)2

1=2

288:15

(T ) =

1 + 0:6708 1

= 1:2513;

425:2

b

a(T )

A =

a2 =

a1 =

a0 =

0 =

0:07780

(8:314)2 (425:2)2

(1:2513) = 1:8837:

3:80 106

(7:2446 10 5 )(12 105 )

= 0:0363;

(8:314)(288:15)

(1:8837)(12 105 )

= 0:3938;

(8:314)2 (288:15)2

0:0363 1 = 0:9637;

0:3938 3(0:0363)2 2(0:0363) = 0:3173;

0:3938(0:0363) + (0:0363)2 + (0:0363)3 =

3

Z

0:9637Z 2 + 0:3173Z 0:0129:

0:45724

0:0129;

Solution with initial guess Z = B To determine the liquid like root, on starts with an

initial guess Z0 = B and carries out the iterations using NR method.

(0:0363)3 0:9637(0:0363)2 + 0:3173(0:0363) 0:0129

Z1 = 0:0363

= 0:04677

3(0:0363)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:0363) + 0:3173

(0:04677)3 0:9637(0:04677)2 + 0:3173(0:04677) 0:0129

Z2 = 0:04677

= 0:04716

3(0:04677)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:04677) + 0:3173

(0:04716)3 0:9637(0:04716)2 + 0:3173(0:04716) 0:0129

Z3 = 0:04716

= 0:04716

3(0:04716)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:04716) + 0:3173

Iterations are repeated until a convergence criteria is reached. Convergence criteria

may be the absolute or relative tolerance in the compressibility and/or function value.

Solution with initial guess Z = 1 To determine the liquid like root, on starts with an

initial guess Z = B and carries out the iterations using NR method.

(1)3 0:9637(1)2 + 0:3173(1) 0:0129

= 0:7549

3(1)2 + 2( 0:9637)(1) + 0:3173

(0:7549)3 0:9637(0:7549)2 + 0:3173(0:7549) 0:0129

Z2 = 0:7549

= 0:5668

3(0:7549)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:7549) + 0:3173

Iterations are carried out until the convergence criteria is met. This is achieved after 13

iterations as

(0:04716)3 0:9637(0:04716)2 + 0:3173(0:04716) 0:0129

Z13 = 0:04716

= 0:04716:

3(0:04716)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:04716) + 0:3173

The same root is arrived at as that with the initial guess Z = B. Consequently, we

have only one phase which is a liquid phase.

Z1

Section 1.1

1.1.1.2

The butane problem at 288.15 K and 7 bar is solved for the compressibility using the

following sequence of steps

(8:314)(425:2)

= 7:2446 10 5 ;

3:80 106

= 0:37464 + 1:5422(0:199) 0:26992(0:199)2 = 0:6708;

(

"

#)2

1=2

288:15

(T ) =

1 + 0:6708 1

= 1:2513;

425:2

b

a(T )

A =

a2 =

a1 =

a0 =

0 =

0:07780

(8:314)2 (425:2)2

(1:2513) = 1:8837:

3:80 106

(7:2446 10 5 )(7 105 )

= 0:02117;

(8:314)(288:15)

(1:8837)(7 105 )

= 0:22973;

(8:314)2 (288:15)2

0:02117 1 = 0:97883;

0:22973 3(0:02117)2 2(0:02117) = 0:18605;

0:22973(0:02117) + (0:02117)2 + (0:02117)3 =

Z 3 0:97883Z 2 + 0:18605Z 0:0044052:

0:45724

0:0044052;

Solution with initial guess Z = B To determine the liquid-like root, on starts with an

initial guess Z0 = B and carries out the iterations using NR method.

(0:02117)3 0:97883(0:02117)2 + 0:18605(0:02117) 0:0044052

Z1 = 0:02117

= 0:02731

3(0:02117)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:02117) + 0:18605

(0:02731)3 0:97883(0:02731)2 + 0:18605(0:02731) 0:0044052

Z2 = 0:02731

= 0:02756

3(0:02731)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:02731) + 0:18605

(0:02756)3 0:97883(0:02756)2 + 0:18605(0:02756) 0:0044052

Z3 = 0:02756

= 0:02756:

3(0:02756)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:02756) + 0:18605

Solution with initial guess Z = 1 To determine the vapor-like root, on starts with an

initial guess Z = B and carries out the iterations using NR method.

0:97883(1)2 + 0:18605(1) 0:0044052

= 0:8349

3(1)2 + 2( 0:97883)(1) + 0:18605

(0:8349)3 0:97883(0:8349)2 + 0:18605(0:8349) 0:0044052

Z2 = 0:8349

= 0:7562

3(0:8349)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:8349) + 0:18605

Iterations are carried out until the convergence criteria is met. This is achieved after 6

iterations as

(0:7333)3 0:97883(0:7333)2 + 0:18605(0:7333) 0:0044052

Z6 = 0:7333

= 0:7333:

3(0:7333)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:7333) + 0:18605

This is a different root and the same as the root arrived at with the initial guess Z = B.

Z1

(1)3

Chapter 1

Contrary to the numerical solution using Matlab's roots function, one can use analytical

solution to the cubic equation obtained.

1. Write your cubic in the form

Z 3 + bZ 2 + cZ + d = 0

(13)

2. Compute

p

2b3

b2

9bc + 27d

54

3c

(14)

q3

(16)

(15)

p2

4. Two cases may arise

a. The cubic has only one real root if p2

following sequence of steps

p

r =

p2

Z1

p

jpj

the following sequence of steps

=

Z1

Z2

Z3

1.1.2.1

=

=

=

arccos

q 3 + jpj

1=3

r +q

r

q3

p

p

q3

(17)

b

:

3

(18)

!

p

2 q cos( =3) b=3

p

2 q cos[( + 2 )=3]

p

2 q cos[( + 4 )=3]

(19)

b=3

b=3:

(20)

(21)

(22)

Solving for the compressibility of butane in the cylinder problem requires the cubic

equation. The coef cients for 288.15 K and 12 bars are available from the PR-EOS as

Discriminator is used loosely since this is not the same as the discriminator for a quadratic equation.

Section 1.1

2( 0:9637)3 9( 0:9637)(0:3173) + 27( 0:0129)

p =

= 0:01135

54

( 0:9637)2 3(0:3173)

q =

= 0:002571

9

2

3

2

3

p

q = 0:01135

( 0:002571) = 1:289 10 4

The discriminator in this case is positive. Therefore, we have one phase equivalent to one

real root which can be calculated as:

p

p

1=3

1=3

r =

p2 q 3 + jpj

=

1:289 10 4 + j0:01135j

= 0:2832;

0

Z1

1.1.2.2

p

jpj

r2 + q

r

b

=

3

0:01135

j0:01135j

0:28322 + ( 0:002571)

0:2832

( 0:9637)

= 0:04716:

3

The sequence of calculations are the same as the case with one single real root. However,

the discriminator is negative in this case which means we need to calculate the three roots

using equations 19-22. Solving for the compressibility of butane in the cylinder problem

requires the cubic equation. The coef cients for 288.15 K and 7 bars are available from

the PR-EOS as

= Z 3 0:97883Z 2 + 0:18605Z 0:0044052

2( 0:97883)3 9( 0:97883)(0:18605) + 27( 0:0044052)

p =

= 0:006585

54

( 0:97883)2 3(0:18605)

q =

= 0:04444

9

p2 q 3 = ( 0:006585)2 (0:04444)3 = 4: 440 3 10 5

The discriminator in this case is negative. Therefore, we have two phases equivalent to

three real roots which can

! be calculated as:

p

0:006585

= arccos p

= arccos p

= 2:3503

3

0:044443

q

p

0:97883

p

Z1 =

2 q cos( =3) b=3 = 2 0:04444 cos(2:3503=3)

= 0:027562

3

p

0:97883

p

Z2 =

2 q cos[( + 2 )=3] b=3 = 2 0:04444 cos((2:3503 + 2 )=3)

= 0:73331

3

p

0:97883

p

Z3 =

2 q cos[( + 4 )=3] b=3 = 2 0:04444 cos((2:3503 + 4 )=3)

= 0:217 95

3

The maximum root Z = 0:73331 is assigned as the vapor compressibility, while the

minimum root Z = 0:027562 is assigned as the liquid compressibility.

0

- Term Project GuidlinesUploaded byagentradio24
- ECM6 Practice Exam_2016Uploaded byNguyễn Văn Quyết
- RIWAYAT Niccolo FontanaUploaded byNadillaKadissaAstuti
- ch6-soltionUploaded byYaserYons
- Advanced Computational Fluid(Shu Chang)Uploaded bylc8_2001
- Syllabus ICE All SemUploaded bypappu1023
- thermal modellingUploaded byVishnu R Puthussery
- CSE330 Assignment1 SolutionUploaded bynehal hasnain refath
- Handout 1.3 FEA BigIdeas WithNotesUploaded byDaniel Gómez
- Matlab NumerAnalyis BookUploaded byLucas Cavalcante
- Bret AndersonUploaded byAtulkumar Manchalwar
- Design Sensitivity AnalysisUploaded byWisdom Patrick Enang
- The Best EquationUploaded byAditya Kurniawan
- [quadratura] 11216Uploaded bysamuelcjz
- nn01.pdfUploaded byChiều Tàn
- New Finite Element Analysis Lec1Uploaded byBookMaggot
- CN3421 Lecture Note 1- IntroductionUploaded byKiang Teng Lim
- Conversion FormulaUploaded byareeb078
- System Theory for Numerical AnalysisUploaded byTHuy Dv
- lnoUploaded byMohammad Jalal Ahammad
- Jacobs1968 - On the EOS of Compressed Liguids and Solids.pdfUploaded bypaulocouceiro
- Chapter6 (1)Uploaded byNathalia Gomez
- FutureUploaded byEddy R. Vélez
- LESUploaded byMuhammad Zahid
- B Tech ECE JNTUAUploaded byshabbir470
- EP501 HW5 Rajat JoshiUploaded bySamaksh Behl
- Asymptotic analysis of the steady-state and time-dependent Berman problemUploaded byAlirezaYousefi
- Documento Principal Calculo de Valores y Funciones PropiasUploaded byCamilo Rojas
- Thesis Grim MeUploaded byArsalan Asif
- 107 Syllabus (1)Uploaded byjoltmajor9218

- adsorbtion in water treatmentUploaded byEyuelAdam
- Determination of the oxidation state for iron oxide minerals by energy-filtering TEMUploaded bymbolantenaina
- jp993593c.pdfUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Murad Clays and Clay Minerals What Can Mossbauer Spectroscopy Do to Help Understand ThemUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Extraction and Characterization of Hemicellulose From the Corn Fiber Produced by Corn Wet-Milling ProcessesUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Removal of Methylene Blue From Aqueous Solutions Using Yemen BentoniteUploaded bymbolantenaina
- ZVI PentachlorophenolUploaded bymbolantenaina
- 1556-276X-3-397.pdfUploaded byPeeyush Rathor
- Hemicellulose bioconversionUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Effect of Ultrasound on the Extractibility of Corn Bran HemicellulosesUploaded bymbolantenaina
- 1-s2.0-S2212670814000311-mainUploaded byVictor Darwin Silupu Risco
- Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, Lignin..Uploaded byAyban Wan
- Reinforcement of Adhesion and Development of Morphology at Polymer–Polymer Interface via Reactive Compatibilization: A ReviewUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Compatibilization of Starch–Polyester Blends Using Reactive ExtrusionUploaded bymbolantenaina
- A New Hybrid Nanocomposite Prepared by Graft Copolymerizat Ion Ofbutyl Acrylate Onto Chitosan in the Presence Oforganophilic MontmorilloniteUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution by Magnetic Alginate Beads Crosslinked With EpichlorihydrinUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Redlich Kwong MathematicaUploaded byEmiliano Velázquez
- exam_1Uploaded bymbolantenaina
- 4AA4-6108ENWUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Matlab GuiUploaded byJohnson Jay Opadere
- CHE654_2012_Homework3_Solutions.pdfUploaded bymbolantenaina
- CHE654_2012_Homework2_Solutions.pdfUploaded bymbolantenaina
- CHE654_2012_Homework4_Solutions.pdfUploaded bymbolantenaina
- CHE654 2012 Homework1 SolutionsUploaded byseralvaga
- CHE654 Problems 2012Uploaded bymbolantenaina
- Applied Chemical Engineering CalculationsUploaded bymbolantenaina
- MATLAB TutorialUploaded byKrishna Kumar

- HTMLUploaded bySourav Mishra
- Simba 1354Uploaded byManuel Uturunco Aguilar
- Calculation Sheet of Lifting FrameUploaded byVõ Anh Hải
- Fok et al_ICGI.2012.A Case Study of Ground Improvement using Semi-Rigid Inclusions for Breakwater Road Bridge.pdfUploaded byAlex Crispim Fortunato
- Railways Pakistan SystemUploaded byzahimb
- 5. WhittingtonUploaded byIrwan Suirwan
- PriyankaUploaded byRAMA KOTESH
- Fracture testing according EN 9017Uploaded byAnil
- Wiley - Inner Speech and AgencyUploaded bynachin111
- JCI_60422Uploaded bydinkohe
- Review QuestionsUploaded byMANIKANDAN
- Coulter-plant Structures-A Second Book of Botany 1899Uploaded byOcean
- h13Uploaded byVeyolla Jaffrey
- W08-6_Ostrom_DLCUploaded byMridu Mehta
- Final ReportUploaded byApratim Singhal
- PEC-Engr Reg Form 1A AUploaded bykrickx
- Approch of Construction Management Towards Rmc Plant ManagementUploaded bysachin hande
- Tesda Courses OfferedUploaded byRyann Zandueta Elumba
- library practice course syllabusUploaded byapi-293158008
- Atomic Structure Sheet (Narayana ) Goyal SirUploaded byKassandra
- Master classUploaded bysabrahima
- 6-10-2015-MWD+Uploaded byTheMyawadyDaily
- Design of a Steam Power PlantUploaded byAbhishek Meena
- Appl. Nanosci.Uploaded byRam Esh
- Analysis of VarianceUploaded byHani Barjok
- Design and Analysis of Leaf Spring of AnUploaded byrajesh kumar
- Procedure for Safety Certification and Technical Clearance of Metro Systems by Rdso (Jan-2013)Uploaded byastor
- LP-1-StM-Mba-6A B-6Feb13.pptUploaded byFurqan Mughal
- Shear Center LabUploaded byJulianSamayoa
- First Break All RulesUploaded byjsmk1980

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.