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1. Which of the followings are clinic appearances of early caries lesion?
(1) Intact surface
(2) White spot
(3) No cavitation
(4) Area of translucency
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ "
Notes$
%arly& uncavitate' caries is often first 'iagnose' #y #lowing air across the suspect surface& which
re(oves (oisture an' changes the optical properties of the 'e)(inerali*e' ena(el.
!linic appearance of early caries lesion$
Intact surface
White spot
No cavitation
Area of translucency
+rogress to cavitation , -e(inerali*ation
2. .he (ain co(ponent of 'ental pla/ue is$
A. Water
. acteria an' salivary proteins
!. !ar#ohy'rates
". Inorganic ions
Answer$ A
Notes$
(1) !o(ponent of 'ental pla/ue.
Water$ 012
acteria an' organic,inorganic soli's$ 212
)) acteria 31)012
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)) 4rganic,inorganic content$ 21)312
5 %pithelial cells& leu6ocytes& (acrophages
5 %7tracellular (atri7$ protein& polysacchari'e& lipi' an' glycoproteins
5 Inorganic co(ponents$ largely calciu( an' phosphorus
(2) !lassification of 'ental pla/ue
ase' on relation to gingival (argin.
)) 8upragingival pla/ue))) associate' with 'ental caries
)) 8u#gingival pla/ue9associate' with perio'ontal 'isease
ase' on relation to tooth surface
)) :nattache' pla/ue
)) Attache' pla/ue
(3) ;echanis( of 'ental pla/ue for(ation.
Ac/uire' pellicle for(e' #y 'eposition of salivary co(ponents& it is cell free
)) !o(ponents of the 'ental pellicle inclu'e al#u(in& lyso*y(e& a(ylase& i((unoglo#ulin A& proline)
rich proteins an' (ucins.
Ac/uire' pellicle is coloni*e' #y gra( positive #acteria such as 8. sanguis& 8 (utans an' A.
viscosus. .hese organis(s are <pri(ary coloni*ers= of 'ental pla/ue.
+la/ue (ature' #y further coloni*ation of other #acteris
3. >or an early caries lesion& which of the following area has the (ost a(ount of loss of
(ineral?
A. Intact ena(el surface
. o'y of lesion
!. "ar6 *one
". .ranslucent *one
Answer$
Notes$ %arly %na(el caries
>ro( outsi'e to insi'e$
(1) Intact ena(el surface
)) +artial 'e(inerali*ation& loss (ineral 1)112,:nit vol.
)) Ions for re(inerali*ation co(e either fro( 'e(inerali*ation of 'eeper layer or within pla/ue an'
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saliva
(2) o'y of lesion
)) 'e(inerali*ation& loss (ineral ?212,:nit vol.
(3) "ar6 *one
)) *one of re(inerali*ation& loss (ineral @2,:nit vol
)) +ore volu(e 2)42
(4) .ranslucent *one
)) a'vancing front of lesion& loss (ineral 22,:nit vol
)) :nrecogni*a#le ra'iologically
)) 8lightly (ore porous(12) than nor(al ena(el (1.12)
(A) Nor(al ena(el
4. Which of the following state(ents are correct?
(1) "ental caries is a series of cycles of 'e(inerali*ation an' re(inerali*ation.
(2) Bigh flow rate an' #uffering capacity of saliva will pro(ote re(inerali*ation
(3) -e(inerali*ation (ay occur if calciu( an' phosphate ions are availa#le
(4) %7tent of 'e(inerali*ation 'epen'ent on length of ti(e of sugar avali#ility
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ "
Notes$
>actors affecting re(inerali*ation an' 'e(inerali*ation
(1) +la/ue pB is the (ost i(portant varia#le which 'eter(ines 'e(inerali*ation, re(inerali*ation
(2) >actors affecting +la/ue pB$
Availa#ility of 'ietary car#ohy'rate
Availa#ility of 8aliva
)) !a
2C
+44
)) uffer capacity
)) !learance
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!o(position of +la/ue ;icro#ial >lora
(3) Anticariogenic properties of saliva
)) -e(ove foo' 'e#ris fro( teeth surface
)) Anti#acterial co(ponents of saliva inclu'e lyso*y(e& lactoferrin& sialopero7i'ase& #istatin& DgA etc.
)) Inorganic ions (!a2C& +o4) pro(ote re(inerali*ation of tooth structure
)) uffering effects to neutrali*e aci'
A. Which of the following +B is the critical one for 'entin 'e(inerali*ation in caries processing?
A. #elow @.0
. #elow @.A
!. #elow A.A
". #elow A.1
Answer$
Notes$ "entin 'e(inerali*ation
.he <critical= +B at which the inorganic co(ponent of ena(el #egins to 'issolve is a#out A.A.
"entin 'e(ineration occurs at higher pB than ena(el 'e(inerali*ation (#etween @.1)@.A)
.he #acteria sprea' rapi'ly through the 'entin tu#ules
After the loss of (inerals& #acterial protolytic en*y(es #rea6 'own collagen E non)collagen proteins
resulting in loss of 'entin (atri7
With the loss of its (atri7& re(inali*ation of 'entin 'oes not occur
@. Which one of the following #acteria is the (ost a#un'ant one on healthy tooth surface?
A. 8taphylococci
. Dacto#acilli
!. 8treptococci
". acteroi'es
Answer$ !
Notes$
(1) .he (icroorganis(s that for( the #iofil( on tooth surface are (ainly 8treptococcus.
(2) .he percentage of gra( positive ro's an' cocci 'ecrease in pla/ues associate' with ginivitis an'
perio'ontitis.
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(3) .wo gra( positive cocca #acteria are (ost co((only associate' with 'ental caries$ D. aci'ophilus
an' 8. (utans.
(4) 4ther cariogenic #acteria inclu'e$ 8. salivarius& 8. sanguis& 8. (itior& 8. (illieri& +eptostreptococcus
inter(e'ius& A& naeslun'i& A. viscous etc.
(A) "ifferent species of #acteria have special favorite attac6 site on teeth. 8. (utans& Dacto#acilli prefer
the pit an' fissures while A. naeslun'i an' A. viscous prefer root surface an' often present in 'eep
'entinal carious lesions.
3. Which of the following #acteriu( is (ost aci'uric?
A. 8. ;utans
. D. casei
!. A. viscosus
". Actino(yces
Answer$
Notes$
(1) Dacto#acilli casei are Fra()positive facultative anaero#ic. .hey are a (aGor part of the lactic aci'
#acteria group& (ost of their (e(#ers convert lactose an' other sugars to lactic aci'. .hey can survive
in very low +B an' are high relate' to caries progression.
(2) .he critical +B for 'riving the 'issolution of calciu( phosphate of the tooth ena(el is$ A.A. >urther
lower the +B& pro(ote progression of the carious lesion.
0. Which of the following two are the 6ey factors for re'ucing the suscepti#ility of root surface
caries?
(1) Foo' oral hygiene
(2) >luori'e application
(3) Dow cariogenic 'iet
(4) ;anage(ent of 7erosto(ia
A. (1) (2)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (3)
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". (3) (4)
Answer$
Note$
"iagnosis an' (anage(ent of root surface caries is a (aGor concern for el'er patients. +revention
through good oral hygiene an' low cariogenic diet are the 6eys for re'ucing the prevalence of root
surface caries. .he (anage(ent of 7erosto(ia will further re'uce the suscepti#ility of root surface
caries.
H. "iagnosis of early pro7i(al caries for posterior teeth is usually (a'e #y$
A. visual e7a(ination
. e7plorer 'etection
!. #itewing ra'iograph
". any of the a#ove has the e/ual effectiveness as early pro7i(al caries 'etection.
Answer !
Notes$
(1) Iisual e7a(ination of posterior pro7i(al area is 'ifficult an' thus inaccurate.
(2) It is not reco((en'e' to use e7plore to 'etect early caries as it (ay pro'uce iatrogenic 'a(age.
(3) !urrently posterior #itewing ra'iographs are the (ain 'iagnostic tools to 'etect pro7i(al caries in
'ental practice. ecause early 'e(inerali*ation lesions (ay have s(ooth surface an' pro7i(al area is
'ifficult to reach #y routine 'ental e7a(inations.
11. Which of the following (etho's are (ost appropriate to 'iagnosis of early occlusal caries?
(1) visual e7a(ination
(2) ra'iograph
(3) gentle tactile e7a(ination
(4) e7plore 'etection with force
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". 4nly (4)
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Answer$
Notes$
(1) %arly caries presents as a 'iscolore' or chal6y surface after gently air 'ry.
(2) .he use of e7plore shoul' #e gentle to avoi' iatrogenic 'a(age. After re(oving pla/ue an' 'e#ris
fro( the pits an' fissures& use the tip of e7plore gently to feel soft tooth structure or cavitations.
(3) Foo' /uality #itewing ra'iograph can help evaluation the caries e7tension. J
11. Which of the following is the (ost effective way to 'ifferentiate #etween a 'evelop(ental
lesion an' early caries on #uccal,lingual surface?
A. visual e7a(ination
. e7plorer 'etection
!. #itewing ra'iograph
". can #e any of the a#ove
Answer$ A
Notes$
(1) .he #est way to 'istinguish early caries an' a 'evelop(ental lesion is through visual e7a(ination. A
'evelop(ental lesion is visi#le either the tooth surface is 'ry or wet. .he early caries lesion is (uch
clear when the tooth surface is 'ry an' (ay 'isappear on wet tooth surface.
(2) -a'iograph is of little or no help to 'etect early facial or lingual tooth surface 'ecay.
12. Which of the following state(ents regar'ing ena(el caries are correct?
(1) ;ost of the ena(el lesions which are shown on ra'iographic i(ages are not cavitate'.
(2) 4nce the caries lesion inva'e "%K& the lesion is cavitate'
(3) %na(el caries without cavity 'o not nee' to #e restore'
(4) -estoration always re/uire' if cavity e7ists. .
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$
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Notes$
(1) 4ver H12 ena(el caries showing on ra'iographic i(ages are not cavitate'.
(2) ;ore than half of the caries lesions which e7ten' to the outer 1,3 of 'entin are not cavitate'.
(3) %na(el lesion without cavity can #e reverse' #y re(inerali*ation an' 'o not nee' to #e restore'.
(4) 8o(e !lass I caries lesion with no esthetic concern an' patient can practice e7cellent pla/ue
control techni/ue& then 'o not nee' to #e restore'& preventive (easure such as topical fluori'e can #e
applie'.
13. A low ris6 caries 3H year ol' patient. with a pro7i(al caries at 'istal surface of tooth 3@
e7ten' Gust #eyon' the "%K on the ra'iographic i(age an' no 'etect cavity& which of the
following is the proper (anage(ent?
A. +ro7i(al slot preparation with a(alga( restoration
. "4 cavity preparation with a(alga( restoration
!. +ro7i(al slot preparation with co(posite restoration
". ;onitor an',or use re(inerali*ation therapy
Answer$ "
Notes$
(1) Appro7i(ately A1)@12 pro7i(al caries lesion which e7ten' within the outer 1,2 of 'entin
ra'iographically have no cavity an' have a chance of #een reverse' #y re(ineralination.
(2) As a general rule if there is presentation of cavity on pro7i(al surface or loss of contact& a
restoration is nee'e'.
(3) :sually if caries lesion progress 1.A(( #eyon' !%K an' patient is at (o'erate to high carires ris6
level& restoration is nee'e'.
14. Which of the following *one of 'entin caries has no or few #acteria?
(1) <'estroye'= 'entine
(2) <affecte'= 'entine
(3) <infecte'= 'entine
(4) sclerotic 'entine
A. (1) (3)
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. (2) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". 4nly (4)
Answer$ !
Notes$
>or( out(ost to inner(ost of 'entine caries$
(1) "estroye' 'entine
Intensive #acteria invasion
"entine structure very soft
(2) Infecte' 'entine
acteria inva'e along 'entin tu#ules
"entine 'e(inerali*e' an' softene'
(3) Affecte' 'entin
No or few #acteria invasion
"entine 'e(inerali*e' an' softene'
(4) 8clerotic 'entine
No #acteria
-e(inerali*e' an' har'er
1A. !lass I caries can #e present on$
(1) 4cclusal surface of (olars
(2) >acial surface of (olars
(3) Dingual surface of (olars
(4) Dingual surface of incisors
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ "
Notes$
(1) F. I. lac6 !lassification of caries lesions$
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!lass I !arious lesions that #egin in the structural 'efects of teeth such as pits&
fissures an' 'efective grooves.
Inclu'e caries on$
)) 4cclusal surface of (olars an' pre(olars.
)) +its on facial an' lingual surfaces of (olars
)) +its on lingual surfaces of anterior tooth.
!lass II !aries on the pro7i(al surfaces of the pre(olars an' (olars.
!lass III !aries on the pro7i(al surfaces of anterior teeth that 'o not involve or the
preparation no involve the re(oval of the incisal e'ge.
!lass II !aries on the pro7i(al surfaces of anterior teeth that involve the incisal
e'ge.
!lass I !aries at the gingival thir' of the facial an' lingual surfaces of anterior an'
posterior teeth.
(2) 8i(onLs (o'ification) !lass II
!aries lesions involving cuspal tips an' incisal e'ges of teeth.
(3) Worl' health organi*ation (WB4) syste(
"1. !linically 'etecta#le ena(el lesions with intact (non cavitate') surfaces
"2. !linically 'etecta#le cavities li(ite' to ena(el
"3. !linically 'etecta#le cavities in 'entin
"4. Desions e7ten'ing into the pulp
1@. Which of the followings are characters of acute caries?
(1) .hey are often associate' with pain
(2) .hey are usually 'ar6 colore' than other types
(3) It has high ris6 of pulp involve(ent
(4) Bistologically& 'entin sclerosis is pro(inent
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$
Notes$
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!aries classification$
(1) ase' on location of teeth surface
+it an' fissure caries
8(ooth surface caries
)) ;ost co((only seen on the pro7i(al surface Gust #elow the contact area
(2) ase' on progression$
Acute caries
)) -api' clinic progress an' early pulp involve(ent
)) Desions are usually light coloure' than other types
)) Bistologically& 'entinal tu#ules are large an' show no sclerosis
)) .he affecte' 'entin is usually light coloure'
!hronic caries
)) 8low progress an' with 'ar6 'ecalcifie' leathery 'entin
)) +ain is not a pro(inent feature as the protection of tertiary 'entin an' sclerotic 'entin
)) Bistologically& 'eposition of tertiary 'entin is evi'ence an' show 'entin sclerosis
)) .he carious 'entin is 'eep in colour
Arreste' caries
)) !arious lesion that #eco(es static an' 'oes not show any ten'ency of further progression.
)) :sually is 'ue to the shift of oral con'ition. >or e7a(ple& e7traction of a'Gacent tooth an' i(prove'
oral hygiene cause stationary of an initial pro7i(al caries.
)) !linically shows (ar6e'ly #rown pig(entation
)) Bistologically& tertiary 'entin an' sclerotic 'entin are co((on
(3) ase' on relation to ol' restoration
+ri(ary caries ( Initial caries)
-ecurrent caries (secon'ary caries)
)) 4ccurs aroun' an e7isting restoration
(4) ase' on e7tension of caries
Initial caries
8uperficial caries
;o'erate caries
"eep caries
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"eep co(plicate' caries
13. Which of the following state(ents regar'ing caries re(ove are correct?
(1) All infecte' an' affecte' 'entin shoul' #e re(ove'
(2) .otal eli(ination of caries lesion at the !%K is essential
(3) !aries lesion close to the pulp always #e re(ove' first in or'er to assess if the vitality of
the tooth can #e preserve'
(4) Bar'& 'iscoloure' 'entine shoul' #e preserve'.
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ !
Notes$
(1) "uring cavity preparation& i'eally all infecte' an' soften 'entine shoul' #e re(ove'& affecte'
'entine can #e preserve'.
(2) "iscoloure' 'entine& which is har'& shoul' #e preserve'.
(2) +eropheral caries lesion shoul' always #e re(ove' first an' co(pletely& an' #e sure thereLs no
infection lesion on ena(els an' at the 'entino)ena(el Gunction.
(3) .otally re(ove of caries lesion which is close to the pulp is not critical.
10. Which of the followings are features of ra'iation caries?
(1) -api' process
(2) Desions encircling the nec6 of teeth
(3) rown to #lac6 'iscolouration of tooth
(4) 8pot 'epression which sprea's only on #uccal or lingual surfaces
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
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Answer$ A
Notes$
(1) ;echanis( of the etiology of ra'iation caries
Doss of salivary anti#acterial effect
)) ;ost co((on si'e effect of ra'iotherapy
)) "ecrease' salivary secretion&
)) Increase salivary viscosity
)) Dow salivary +B
)) "ecrease salivary #uffering capacity
-a'iation 'a(age to pulp lea's to 'ry& #rittle type of 'entin which pro(ote loss of ena(el fro( the
"%K
(2) !linical (anifestation
-api' 'evelop(ent of ra(pant caries
!arious lesions usually co(pletely encircling the nec6 of the tooth.
rown to #lac6 'iscoloration of the crown.
4cclusion surface of posterior teeth an' incisal e'ges of anterior teeth wear away.
Desions usually encircling the nec6 of teeth
egins as #rown to #lac6 'iscolouration of tooth
8pot 'epression which sprea's fro( any surface
(3) ;anage(ent an' prevention
)) -estore all the caries lesion an' oral hygiene instruction #efore sche'ule' ra'iotherapy
)) Meep goo' oral hygiene
)) .opical fluori'e (12 neutral so'iu( fluori'e)
)) :se fluori'e contain toothpaste
)) ;outh rinses with chlorhe7i'ine
)) ;anage 7erosto(ia$ fre/uent sips of water& sialogogues (e.g. pilocarpine)& saliva su#stitutes.
)) -egular 'ental chec6 up
1H. Which of the 'entin is for(e' #y newly 'ifferente' o'onto#last)li6e cells 'ue to the 'eath of
the original o'onto#last?
A. +ri(ary 'entin
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. 8econ'ary 'entin
!. -eparative 'entin
". -eactive 'entin
Answer$ !
Notes$
.here are three types of 'entin& pri(ary& secon'ary an' tertiary
(1) +ri(ary 'entin is the layer of 'entin for(s #efore the root apical for(ation is co(plete
)) It inclu'e (antle 'entin& circu(pulpal 'entin& pre'entin& peritu#ular 'entin an' intertu#ular 'entin
(2) 8econ'ary 'entin is a layer of 'entin for(e' after root for(ation is co(plete.
)) It has a si(ilar structure to pri(ary 'entin.
)) It is processe' throughout the life of the tooth an' causes re'uction of the si*e of the pulp cha(#er
with age.
(3) .ertiary 'entin (irregular secon'ary 'entin) is for(e' in response to a sti(ulus& such as a carious
attac6& cavity preparation& erosion etc. It is confine' to local area an' has two types$
-eactive 'entin is for(e' fro( pre)e7isting o'onto#lasts
-eparative 'entin is for(e' #y newly 'ifferente' o'onto#last)li6e cells after the 'eath of the original
o'onto#lasts.
)) 8celerotic 'entin is a type of reparative 'entin
21. Which of the following is the correct or'er of cavity preparation accor'ing to F.I. lac6Ls
concept?
(1) 4#tain outline for(
(2) 4#tain convenience for(
(3) +erfor( resistance an' retention for(
(4) -e(ove re(aining caries an' infecte' 'entin
(A) >inal refine of the cavity
A. (1) (2) (3) (4) (A)
. (1) (3) (2) (4) (A)
!. (2) (1) (3) (4) (A)
". (2) (1) (4) (3) (A)
Answer$
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Note$
>ollowing F.I. lac6Ls (echanical concept of cavity preparation& tooth cavity preparation can #e
'ivi'e' into several steps$
(1) Achieve the outline for( following the criteria of clear the "%K area.
(2) +erfor( resistance an' retention for(s.
(3) Fet convenience for(.
(4) -e(ove re(aining caries an' infecte' 'entin (caries close to the pulp shoul' #e re(ove' last).
(A) >inish ena(el an' e7ternal cavity walls.
(@) >inal cleaning an' toileting.
21. Which of the following state(ents regar'ing the outline for( of !lass II a(alga(
preparation are correct?
(1) All occlusal 'eep pits an' fissures shoul' #e inclu'e' within the outline
(2) .he outline shoul' #e e7ten'e' to re(ove un'er(ine' ena(el
(3) .he outline shoul' avoi' stress concentration area
(4) All the carious lesions (ust #e inclu'e' within the outline
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ A
Notes$
.o o#tain the outline for( of an a(alga( cavity preparation& the following rules shoul' #e followe'$
(1) All the circumference caries shoul' #e within the outline for(.
(2) All 'eep pits& fissures an' grooves shoul' #e involve' within the outline.
(3) .he preparation (argin shoul' #e e7ten'e' to soun' tooth in self clean area an' without
unsupporte' ena(el.
(4) .he outline (argin shoul' avoi' stress concentration area.
22. Which of the followings are resistant for(s of a class I caries cavity preparation?
(1) Fenerally flat pulpal floor
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(2) No unsupporte' ena(el
(3) 8(ooth curve' outline for(
(4) 8ufficient 'epth
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ "
Note$
(1) .he a#ility of force resistance for the entity of re(aining tooth structure an' restorative (aterials is
'epen's on three (ain factors$
.he occlusal force (force character& 'irection& fre/uency an' (agnitu'e)
.he cavity 'esign (e.g. outline& floors& walls& 'epth& wi'th& line angle& cavo)surface angle& etc)
.he physical properties of the restorative (aterials (e.g. co(pressive stress& tensile stress& shear
strength& ect)
(2) >or(s of resistance for a class I cavity preparation$
-elatively flat pulpal floor
+arallel an' slightly converge #uccal an' lingual walls
;ini(i*e the cavity wi'th an' increase 'epth& it is reco((en'e' to achieve cavity 'epth 1.A)1.1((
#eyon' "%K an' wi'th of 1,4 to 1,3 the intercuspal 'istance.
No un'er(ine' ena(el (e.g. slightly 'iverge (esial an' 'istal walls)
8(ooth curve' outline for(
-oun'e' internal line angles
23. .he function of reverse curve in a !lass 2 cavity preparation for a(alga(s$
(1) 8erves as a retention feature.
(2) -e'uces stress concentration at the pulpo)a7ial line angle.
(3) 8erves as a convenience feature.
(4) 8erves as a resistance feature.
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
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!. (2) (4)
". 4nly (4)
Answer$ "
Notes$
+ro7i(al seg(ent of class)II a(alga( cavity preparation$
(1) .he #ucco) an' linguo)pro7i(al walls are parallel to the ena(el ro' 'irection& so thereLs no
unsupporte' ena(el.
(2) .he #ucco) an' linguo)pro7i(al walls are H1
1
to the tangent of the tooth structure& thus allow
a'e/uate #ul6 of restorative (aterial (a(alga().
(3) .he reverse curve ena#les the for(ation of a H1
1
angle #etween the pro7i(al walls an' the tangent
of the pro7i(al surface (#utt Goint (argins) an' preserves the triangular ri'ge.
24. What is the (ini(al 'epth of occlusal cavity preparation for a(alga( restoration?
A. 1.A((
. 1.1((
!. 1.A((
". 2.1((
Answer$ !
Notes$
-esistance for( of occlusal cavity$
(1) .he pro7i(al walls are parallel or slightly 'iverge occlusal to get clear unsupporte' ena(el.
(2) >lat an' s(ooth pulpal wall& which is at the right angle to the long a7is the tooth& is perpen'icular to
the 'irection of (asticatory force.
(3) %nough (aterial thic6ness (1.A)2(( 'epth) to prevent fracture un'er (astication.
(4) .he internal line angles are roun'e' slightly to re'uce stress concentration in.
(A) .he cavosurface angle is appro7i(ately H1N to (a6e sure that thereLs no un'er(ine' ena(el an'
the thic6ness for a(alga( enough.
2A. .he retention for(s of pro7i(al #o7 of a class II a(alga( preparation inclu'e$
(1) 4cclusal 'ovetail
(2) -eversal curve
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(3) 4cclusal convergence of facial an' lingual walls
(4) evel the cavosurface of gingival wall.
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$
Notes$
(1) -etention for( of pro7i(al #o7 is provi'e' #y
4cclusal 'ovetail preparation
4cclusal convergence of facial an' lingual walls
>lat gingival wall
+ro7i(al retention grooves in the a7io)facial an' a7io)lingual line angles
(2) -esistance for( of pro7i(al #o7 is provi'e' #y
"ivergent pro7i(al #uccal an' lingual walls to provi'e open contact an' to re(ove unsupporte'
ena(el
uccal an' lingual walls for( H1
1
angles with cavosurfaces to ensure no unsupporte' ena(el an'
enough (aterial strength
>lat gingival wall is perpen'icular to the 'irection of (asticatory force an' the long a7is of the tooth
evel the cavosurface of gingival wall to re(ove un'er(ine' ena(el
evel the a7iopulpal line angel to prevent stress concentration
.he internal line angles shoul' #e slightly roun'e' to re'uce stress concentration
2@. Which of the following is the (ost co((on reason of isth(us fracture for a !lass II
A(alga( preparation?
A. .he isth(us is too wi'e
. .he isth(us is too shallow
!. .he a7iopulpal line angel is not roun'e'
". %7pire' (aterial
Answer$
Notes$
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(1) .he isth(us fracture is a co((on reason of class II a(alga( failure. Isth(us fracture is (ost often
'ue to too s(all #ul6 of (aterial ((ainly the (aterial is too thin) an' sharp a7io)pulpal line angle.
(2) .he cavity preparation shoul' #e at least 1.A(( in 'epth at the isth(us area an' #evel the
a7iopulpal line angel is essential to re'uce stress concentration.
(3) If the cavity preparation is wi'er than two)thir' of the intercuspal 'istance& thereLs increase' ris6 of
cusp fracture.
(4) rittle (aterials have high co(press strength an' low tensile E shear strength. .hey nee'
(a7i(u( the 'epth of (aterial with (ini(al wi'th to 'ecrease the surface of (aterial e7pose' to
(asticatory force an' to increase their strength.
23. Which of the following state(ents regar'ing the 'ifference #etween conventional !lass II
co(posite an' a(alga( cavity preparation is (are) correct$ ( " )
(1) !lass II co(posite cavity preparation shoul' #e 'eeper than that of a(alga( to get enough
(aterial strength
(2) !lass II co(posite cavity preparation 'oes not nee' to #evel the a7ial)occlusal line angle
(3) !lass II co(posite cavity preparation 'oes not nee' reverse curve
(4) !lass II co(posite cavity preparation 'oes not nee' retention groove in the a7io)facial an'
a7io)lingual line angles
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". 4nly (4)
Answer (")
Notes$
8o(e features of !lass II co(posite restoration$
!o(posite restoration 'oes not nee' #ul6 to withstan' force& so can #e 'esigne' (ore conservative
.he outline for( of co(posite restoration shoul' #e narrow to have less occlusal contact an' thus
re'uce the ris6 of fracture
.he reverse curve 'esign re(oves unsupporte' ena(els an' conserves (uch (ore tooth structure
.he internal line angles shoul' #e 'efinite #ut not sharp
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Au7iliary retention in the pro7i(al cavity is not re/uire'
.he a7iopulpal line angle shoul' #e #evele' or roun'e'
.he cavity walls 'o not nee' to #e converge' for retention
!avosurface #evels are not re/uire'& #ut if prepare'& all #evels shoul' en' in ena(el an' shoul' #e
1 (( coronal to the !%K
20. Which of the followings are a'verse effects of e7tension for prevention 'uring cavity
preparation?
(1) Wea6en the soun' tooth structure
(2) Increase ris6 of pulp involve(ent
(3) Increase perio'ontal involve(ent
(4) Increase ris6 of recurrent caries
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ "
Note$
>actors influence the cavity e7tension 'uring tooth preparation$
8urface ena(el involve(ent
!aries sprea' at the "%K area
!hoice of (aterial
4ral hygiene
+atient age
.eeth align(ent an' occlusion
%sthetic re/uire(ent
2H. .he retention of a !lass II co(posite restoration is provi'e' #y$
(1) +ins
(2) -etention grooves
(3) "otholes
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(4) Aci' etching an' #on'ing
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". 4nly (4)
Answer$ "
Notes$
!lass II co(posite restoration re/uires (a7i(u( aesthetic an' e7cellent fracture resistance.
(1) .ooth preparation$
)) -e(ove thin& fria#le ena(el
)) 2)2.A(( cha(fer achieve' in soun' ena(el aroun' the entire circu(ferential of the 'efect& the
'epth of the cha(fer e7ten's to half of the ena(el thic6ness
(2) -etention$ %ntirely provi'e' #y aci' etching an' resin #on'ing syste(.
(3) !o(posite insertion.
(4) +ins are not reco((en'e' for routine class II co(posite restoration& as they (ay increase the ris6
of tooth crac6ing an' 'iscoloration.
31. Which of the following state(ents regar'ing to class I cavity preparation are correct?
(1) Its outline for( is roun'e' trape*oi' in gingival 1,3
(2) A (ini(u( 'epth of 1.A(( in 'entin is re/uire' for the strength of a(alga(
(3) .he a7ial wall is slightly curve' (esio'istally an' occluso)gingivally
(4) -etention grooves place' insi'e the (esial an' 'istal walls
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
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!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ A
Notes$
8o(e features of !lass I restoration$
.he outline for( is roun'e' trape*oi' in gingival 1,3. occlusal outline is straight an' parallel to the
occlusal plane
;esial an' 'istal outline inclu'e 'efective tooth structure
.he a7ial wall is slightly curve' (esio'istally an' occluso)gingivally with unifor( (ini(u( 'epth of
1.A(( into 'entin
4cclusal an' gingival wall is slightly 'ivergent following the 'irection of ena(el ro's (if the gingival
wall is locate' on the root& it is (a'e of 'entin an' ce(entu()
-etention grooves (1.A(() place' at the occluso)a7ial an' gingival)a7ial line angle
-oun' internal line angles an' point angle to facilitate con'ensation of restorative (aterial
>or co(posite restorative (aterial& ena(el is #evele' at cavosurface (argins
31. Which of the following (aterial can #e use' to restore root caries?
A. A(alga(
. !o(posite
!. Flass iono(er
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ "
Notes$
(1) -is6 factors of root caries$
%7posing of root surface
+oor oral hygiene
-e'uce' salivary flow
>re/uency cariogenic 'iet
Dow fluori'e e7posure
A'vance' age
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+hysical 'isa#ility
8(o6ing
(2) !ritical 'e(inerali*ation +B for tooth structure$
!rown$ A.A
-oot$ @.2
(3) ;anage(ent$
.ype of 'efect ;anage(ent
8uperficial root caries asic preventive care& e&g& 4BI
>luori'e vanish
%arly surface root caries asic preventive care& e&g& 4BI
8urface 'iscing& recontouring
>luori'e vanish
!avitaion
Non)esthetic area
A(alga( filling
>luori'e vanish
asic preventive care
!avitaion
;ore esthetic area
-esin)(o'ifie' glass iono(er
>luori'e vanish
asic preventive care
!avitaion
Iery esthetic area
!o(posite resin
>luori'e vanish
asic preventive care
(4) !o(parison of (aterials$
;aterial .echni/ue
sensitive
A'hesive Inherent caries
protection
;oisture
tolerant
%sthetic
A(alga( Dess No No Foo' +oor
Flass iono(er ;ore Oes Oes (>C
release)
+oor >air to goo'
-esin)(o'ifie'
FI
;ore Oes Oes (>C
release)
+oor Foo'
!o(posite resin ;ore Oes No +oor %7cellent
(A) .he (ost co((on (aterial use' as a filling (aterial for root caries is -;FI.
32. Which one of the following is the #est (aterial for cavity toileting?
A. +henol
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. Alcohol
!. By'rogen pero7i'e
". Water
Answer$ "
NotesP
+henol (ay cause pulp necrosis
Alcohol (ay cause 'ehy'ration of 'entin an' pulp irritation
32 By'rogen pero7i'e is effective through its effervescent function& an' shoul' #e washe'
i((e'iately with water to avoi' ther(al pulp insult
8ilver nitrate (ay cause 'iscoloration of tooth structure& pulp irritation an' a(alga( tarnish
Bot air #last (ay cause 'ehy'ration of 'entin
Water spray is the #est as it is not a (e'ica(ent (no 'a(age to the 'entin an' pulp tissue)
.he cavity is 'rie' #y cotton pellet an' the re(aining water re(ove' #y gentle air for a short ti(e
33. Which constituent of a(alga( serves as sacrificial ano'e?
A. .in
. !opper
!. Qinc
". In'iu(
%. +alla'iu(
Answer$ !
Notes$
(1) !onstituents of a(alga(.
asic$ 8liver& .in& !opper& ;ercury
4ther$ Qinc& In'iu(& +alla'iu(
(2) +roperties$
8liver Increase strength
Increase e7pansion
.in "ecrease strength
"ecrease e7pansion
Increase setting ti(e
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I(proves plasticity
!opper -e'uce ga((a 2 phase
-e'uce setting ti(e
Increase strength
Increase setting e7pansion
-e'uce tarnish an' corrosion
-e'uce creep
;ercury Activates reaction
Qinc 8acrificial ano'e9'ecreases o7i'ation of other
ele(ents
!ause 'elaye' e7pansion if conta(inate' with (oisture
Increase setting ti(e
In'iu( "ecrease surface tension
Increase strength
-e'uce creep an' (arginal #rea6 'own
+alla'iu( -e'uce tarnish an' corrosion
(3) B24 C Qn Qn4 C B2
Increase creep
Increase (icro)lea6age
+itte' surface of restoration an' corrosion
+rotrusion of restoration
34. Which of the following co(ponent of reacte' a(alga( alloys is the strongest?
A. Ag
3
8n
. Ag
2
Bg
3
!. 8n
0
Bg
". Bg
Answer$ A
Notes$
(1) A(alga( capsule contains$ pow'ere' a(alga( alloy E li/ui' (ercury.
(2) A(alga(ator (triturator) (i7es pow'er an' li/ui' co(ponents to get a wor6a#le (ass an' (i7 ti(es
vary fro( A)21secon's accor'ing to 'ifferent types.
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(3) -eaction$ Ag38n (R) C Bg Ag38n (R) C Ag2Bg3 (R1) C 8n0Bg (R2)
+hase !o(ponent 8trength !orrosion Iolu(e change
Ag38n (R) 312 of volu(e strongest phase least Increase with ti(e
Ag2Bg3(R1) @12 of volu(e (o'erate (o'erate
8n0Bg(R2) 112 of volu(e wea6est ;ost "ecrease with ti(e
3A. Which of the following state(ents regar'ing spherical a(alga( (co(pare' to A'(i7ture
a(alga() are correct?
(1) Dess Bg nee'e'
(2) Bigher con'ensation force nee'e'
(3) Fet strength rapi'ly
(4) %asy to achieve tight interpro7i(al contacts
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$
Notes$
A'(i7ture a(alga( 8pherical a(alga(
%7a(ple +er(ite .ytin
Bg nee'e' A1)A22 43)4A2
!u content 11)312 11)312
!on'ensation force higher Dess
!on'enser si*e 8(aller Darger
8trength ti(e 8lower >aster
A'vantage "isa'vantage
A'(i7e'
a(alga( alloy
%asy to o#tain tight
interpro7i(al contacts
Foo' polishing
Bigher con'ensation force nee'e'
Fet strength slowly
8pherical
a(alga( alloy
%asy to con'ense& less
force nee'e'
Fet strength rapi'ly
8(ooth for carving&
"ifficult to o#tain tight interpro7i(al
contacts
Bigher ten'ency of overhangs
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#urnishing an' polishing
3@. A'(i7e' a(alga( alloys 'iffer fro( spherical a(alga( alloys are as following$
(1) .hey contain lathe)cut particles
(2) .hey re/uire (ore Bg
(3) .hey have longer wor6ing ti(e
(4) .hey nee' less con'ensation pressure
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ A
Notes$
.ypes len' (A'(i7e') Alloys 8pherical alloy
%7a(ple PERMITE (SDI) (1A.42 !u) TYTIN (Dentsly) (132 !u)
co(ponent lathe)cut particles of Ag8n
#len'e' with Ag!u spherical
a''itive
(ainly a single co(ponent syste( of
spherical particles
!u content !u content 11)312 opti(u(
12)212
!u content 11)312& opti(u( 12)212.
Bg re/uires A1)A22 Bg re/uires 43)4A2 Bg
trituration
ti(e
varies accor'ing to triturator
#ran'
'ou#le spill$ 3 secon's
single spill$ A secon's
!on'ensation s(aller con'enser hea's an'
greater con'ensation pressure
nee'e'
easily con'ense'
large con'enser an' less con'ensing
pressure nee'e'
!haracter con'ucive to the pro'uction of
a tight contact in !lass II
greater ten'ency for post)operative
sensitivity an' in)vitro (icrolea6age
Wor6ing ti(e greater wor6ing ti(e than
spherical alloys (appro7i(ately
H)11 (inutes)
>ast setting$ -egular wor6ing ti(e$ @ ) 3
(inutes
If use' for 'irect post)core& tooth
preparation can #e perfor(e' after 1 an'
1,2 to 2 hours
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33. Which of the following state(ents regar'ing the physical properties of a(alga( are
correct?
(1) 8pherical a(alga( alloys contracts less than a'(i7e' ones
(2) 8pherical alloys get strength slower than a'(i7e' alloys
(3) Fenerally& the (icro)lea6age of a(alga( restoration increase' with ti(e
(4) .he less ga((a 2 phase in a(alga( alloy& the less creep
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". 4nly (4)
Answer$ "
Notes$
(1) "i(ensional change (contraction an' e7pan'ing)
8pherical alloys contracts (ore than a'(i7e' alloys
.he (ore (ercury s/uee*e' fro( the alloy& the (ore contraction
(2) 8trength
y 24hours& (ost a(alga( alloys reach H12 of their final co(pressive strength
8pherical alloys get strength faster than a'(i7e' alloys
A(alga( is a #rittle (aterial& which is high in co(pression strength an' low in tensile an' shear
strength (tensile strength$ 1,@)1,0 co(pressive strength)
(3) +lastic 'efor(ation (!reep)
!reep is a ti(e 'epen'ent slow 'efor(ation of a(alga( alloy when place' un'er a constant force.
.he less ga((a 2 phase& the less creep
!reep (ay cause thin (arginal <'itching=
Accor'ing to A"A& creep shoul' #e #elow 32
!reep of low !u a(alga( is 1.0)02& high !u a(alga( is 1.4)12
(4) !orrosion
Bigh copper a(alga( for( si(ilar corrosion pro'uct than lower copper ones& #ut (uch slower
!orrosion #enefit the long)ter( sealing of restorative (argins
(A) .her(al con'uctivity
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A(alga( alloy has high ther(al con'uctivity
Fenerally& the co)efficient of ther(al e7pansion of a(alga( alloy is 2.A ti(e than that of 'entin& the
'ifference is the cause of (icro)lea6age
(@) ;icro)lea6age
A gap #etween a(alga( restoration an' tooth structure
+oor con'ensation increase (icro)lea6age
Dac6 of corrosion #y)pro'ucts increase (icro)lea6age
!o(pare to co(posite resin& a(alga( has higher initial (icro)lea6age& which re'uce' over ti(e
30. Which of the following ways of a(alga( (anipulation (ay cause 'ecrease of a(alga(
co(pressive strength?
(1) :n'er)trituration
(2) "elaye' con'ensation
(3) "ecrease con'ensation force
(4) urnishing
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ A
Notes$
A(alga( (anipulation
(1) .rituration$
Appropriate trituration$ Foo' (i7 with shinny& ho(ogenous (ass
4ver)trituration$ war( 'ull surface& increase contraction& increase creep& increase or 'ecrease
tensile an' co(pressive strength 'epen's on the stage
:n'er)trituration$ cru(ply (i7& increase creep& 'ecrease tensile an' co(pressive strength
(2) !on'ensation$ force nee'e' is 'epen's on the type of a(alga( alloys
(3) urnishing$
-e(ove e7cessive (ercury
I(prove (arginal a'aption an' s(oothness
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-e'uce (icro)lea6age
(4) +olishing
Increase s(oothness
"ecrease corrosion
"ecrease pla/ue accu(ulation
3H. .he final polishing of an a(alga( restoration is finishe' #y usingSSSS pow'er (i7e'
withSSSSSS.
A. alu(inu( o7i'e& water
. alu(inu( o7i'e& ethyl alcohol
!. tin o7i'e& ethyl alcohol
". tin o7i'e& hy'rogen 'io7i'e
Answer$ !
Notes$
(1) >inishing an' polishing the restoration are two separate proce'ures$
>inishing a(alga( restorations inclu'es re(oving (arginal a#nor(alities& 'efining anato(ical for(&
an' s(oothing the surface. It is finishe' #efore polishing an' nee's a#rasive agents that are coarse
enough to re(ove the #ul6 fro( on the surfaces
+olishing a(alga( restorations is perfor(e' #y using (ore (il'ly a#rasive (aterials to achieve
s(ooth& shiny surfaces
.he finishing an' polishing proce'ures shoul' #e perfor(e' at least 24 hours after it has #een
place' an' carve'
(2) -ational
.o prevent recurrent caries (-e'uce pla/ue an' 'e#ris collection)
.o prevent 'eterioration of the a(alga( surface an' the restoration is less li6ely to #e tarnishe'
.o (aintenance of perio'ontal health (restorations with goo' contour an' (argin i(prove the
perio'ontal health)
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.o prevent occlusal pro#le(s
(3) Instru(ents
-otary instru(ents& a#rasive stone (Freen stones)& 'is6s& an' finishing #urs& >inishing 'is6s
)) +ay attention& not to gra*e the tooth surface as the green stone is har'er than ena(el
Ban' Instru(ents
)) >inishing strips$ use' to s(ooth the gingival (argin an' interpro7i(al surfaces #elow the contact
area of a !lass II restoration
+olishing Agents
)) +u(ice an' tin o!ide are (ost co((only use'
)) .in o7i'e is the last of the polishing (aterials to #e use'& it is (i7e' with water or ethyl alcohol
)) e careful as polishing the cervical area& as the ce(ent thic6ness at the !%K is only 21)31(icrons&
an' the ce(entu( a#ra'es 3A7 faster than ena(el
(4) Alu(inu( o7i'e is use' for polishing co(posite resin restoration
41. Which of the following property of 'ental ce(ent is (ost i(portant for a long ter( clinical
success?
A. !o(pressive strength
. 8i(ilar coefficient of ther(al e7pansion with tooth structure
!. -esistance to solu#ility an' 'isintegration
". -a'iopacity
Answer$ !
NotesP
I'eal properties of 'ental ce(ent
ioco(pati#ility an' pulp protection (serve as ther(al an' electrical #arriers)
on' to tooth structure an' restorative (aterials
A'e/uate wor6ing ti(e with rapi' setting at oral environ(ent
;ini(u( solu#ility
Dow fil( thic6ness an' viscosity
Bigh co(pressive an' tensile strengths
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Anticariogenic function
-a'iopacity
41. Which of the following (anipulation (easure of *inc phosphate ce(ent (ay 'ecrease the
setting ti(e an' increase the co(pressive strength?
(1) Increase pow'er incorporation ratio
(2) ;i7ing over a large area
(3) ;i7ing on cool glass slap
(4) Increase power,li/ui' ratio
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ "
Note$ Qinc phosphate
(1) !o(ponent
+ow'er$ Qinc o7i'e& ;agnesiu( o7i'e
Di/ui'$ +hosphoric aci'& Alu(inu( phosphate
(2) 8etting reaction$
%7other(ic reaction& cause pulp irritation
8etting ti(e$ A)H(inutes
Initial lower +B$ the pB of newly (i7e' *inc phosphate ce(ent is aroun' 2& an' gra'ually reaches
to neutral after 40 hours
Water can accelerate the reaction
;anipulation 8etting ti(e !o(pressive
strength
>il( thic6ness Initial aci'ity
Increase
power,li/ui' ration
"ecrease Increase Increase "ecrease
Increase pow'er
incorporation ratio
"ecrease "ecrease Increase Increase
Increase (i7ing "ecrease "ecrease Increase Increase
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te(perature
Water
conta(ination
"ecrease "ecrease Increase Increase
(3) +roperties
Bigh co(pressive strength (01;pa for luting& 141;pa for lining)
Dow solu#ility in water
.her(al insulator
-a'iopa/ue
(4) A"A reco((en' thic6ness for luting is 2Au(
42. Which of the followings are properties of reinforce' *inc o7i'e eugenol ce(ent?
(1) Anti#acterial
(2) .her(al insulator
(3) 8e'ative to the pulp
(4) %7cellent seal against #acterial (icrolea6ag
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ "
Notes$ Qinc o7i'e eugenol ce(ent
(1) !o(ponent
+ow'er$ Qinc o7i'e& -osin& Qinc stearate. Qinc acetate
Di/ui'$ %ugenol& olive oil
(2) !haracter of setting reaction$
"o not generate heat
Bigher initial +B& not cause pulp irritation
Water can accelerate the reaction
(3) +roperties
Anti#acterial
%7cellent seal against #acterial (icrolea6age
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+alliative an' se'ative to the pulp
.her(al insulator
+oor physical properties
!ytoto7ic when 'irect contact to pulp tissue
Inhi#it poly(eri*ation of co(posite resin
(4) !linical application
!aries control an' te(porary restorations
43. !a(4B)
2
ce(ent can #e use' as a$
(1) su#liner
(2) luting agent
(3) pulp capping (aterial
(4) cavity #ase
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$
Notes$ !alciu( hy'ro7i'e !a(4B)2
(1) !o(ponent (two pastes)
4ne$ !a(4B)2 E accelerator (Qinc citret)
4ther$ Flycol salicylate& inert fillers& pig(ents& ra'iopacifiers
(2) !haracter of setting reaction$
"o not generate heat
Bigher initial +B(H.2 ) 11.3)& not cause pulp irritation
8etting ti(e (2.A ) A.A (inutes)& affecte' #y (oisture
(3) +roperties
Anti#acterial
+alliative an' se'ative to the pulp& sti(ulates tertiary 'entin
+oor physical properties
)) Dow co(pressive strength (21;+a)& tensile strength an' elastic (o'ulus.
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)) -e/uire (echanical support i.e. 'entin or high strength #ase
Bigh solu#ility in oral environ(ent
.her(al insulator
(4) !linical application$
8u#liner (aterial an' pulp capping
>or a 'eep cavity preparation& place !a(4B)2 at the 'eepest area& then place a#out 1(( thic6ness
glass iono(er (e.g. Iitro#on') on the top. !avity vanishe' is applie' followe' #y A(alga(
44. Which of the following state(ents regar'ing to the properties of +olycar#o7ylate ce(ent
are correct?
(1) Bigh initial +B
(2) !he(ical a'hesive to 'entin
(3) Dower solu#ility than *inc phosphate
(4) Bigher co(pressive strength
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ !
Notes$
(1) !o(ponent
+ow'er$ Qinc o7i'e& (agnesiu( o7i'e& alu(inu( o7i'e an' other reinforcing fillers
Di/ui'$ polyacrylic aci' copoly(er& organic aci's such as itaconic aci'
(2) +roperties of +olycar#o7ylate ce(ent
Bigh co(pressive strength (01;+a)& which is enough to withstan' the con'ensation force
It as aci'ic (wea6er than phosphoric aci') an' nee's su#liner in 'eep cavity preparation
Bigher solu#ility than *inc phosphate an' glass iono(er
!he(ical a'hesion to tooth structure
-a'iopa/ue
4A. Which of the followings are a'vantages of glass iono(or ce(ent co(pare' with *inc
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phosphate ce(ent?
(1) !he(ical #on' to tooth structute
(2) Dower solu#ility
(3) !ariostatic activity.
(4) Bigher co(pressive strength as luting (aterial
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ A
Notes$ Flass iono(or ce(ent
(1) !o(ponent
+ow'er$ !alciu( fluoroalu(inosilicate glass
Di/ui'$ poly(eric aci', itaconic aci'& accelerator
(2) !haracter of setting reaction$
Dower initial +B& +B increase' gra'ually
8etting ti(e is re'uce' #y higher pow'er , li/ui' ratio an' higher te(perature
(3) +roperties
!he(ical #on' to tooth structure& the free car#o7yl group #on's to the hy'ro7yapetite of tooth
structures)
;icro(echanical #on' to co(posite resin
!ariostatic activity 'ue to constant fluori'e release
;ini(al shrin6age
Dowest solu#ility of all ce(ents e7cept resin
Bigher co(pressive strength (@1;pa for luting an' 221;pa for filling)
8uscepti#le to 'ehy'ration
(4) !linical application$
Diner for posterior co(posite resin restorations or a(alga(s when anticariogenic properties an'
'entinal seal are 'esire'
4l'er patients with caries potential or gingival recession
+er(anent ce(enting of in'irect restoration
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4@. !avity liner is usually$
A. Dess than 1.A(( thic6
. 1.A)1(( thic6
!. 1)1.A(( thic6
". A#out 2(( thic6
Answer$ A
Notes$
(1) A cavity liner is a thin coat of a flowa#le (aterial put on the 'entin.
(2) It has either therapeutic effect (e.g. calciu( hy'ro7i'e) or serves as a physical #arrier (e.g. glass
iono(er).
%7a(ple$
!alciu( hy'ro7i'e liner$ "ycal
-esin (o'ifie' glass iono(er liner$ Iitre#on'& >uGi lining D!
(3) !lassification
.ype %7a(ple .hic6ness !linical use
8olution liners !opal vanish 2)Au( :n'er a(alga(
A'hesive :n'er co(posite
8uspension
liners
!a(4B)2 21)A1u( :n'er a(alga( or co(posite
!e(ent liners -esin (o'ifie' FI
(Iitre#on')
211)1111u( :n'er a(alga( or co(posite
43. Which of the followings are correct (aterial choose for pulp protection of a (e'iu( to 'eep
a(alga( cavity preparation?
A. 2)3 coats of copal vanish
. -esin)(o'ifie' FI an' 2)3 coats of copal vanish
!. !a(4B)2& FI an' copal vanish
". :se resin)#on'e' a(alga( only
Answer$
Notes$
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(1) .he (aGor source of pulp pathology relate' to any restorations are resi'ual #acteria infection an'
chronic (icrolea6age.
(2) ;aterials for pulp protection for a(alga( restoration$
!orpal vanish !a(4B)2 FI (Iitre#on') A(alga( <#on'ing=
))8eal 'entin tu#ules
))-e'uce initial
(icrolea6age
))+revent tooth
'iscoloration
))-e'uce post)op
sensitivity
))Anti#acterial effect
))+ro(ote re)
(inerali*ation of
affecte' 'entin
))8ti(ulate for(ation
of reparative 'entin
)).her(al insulation
))Anti#acterial effect
))!he(ical #on'ing to
tooth structure
))Anticariogenic
effects
)).her(al insulation
))8eal 'entin tu#ules
))-e'uce initial
(icrolea6age
))Increase (icro)
(echanical retention
(3) Diners use' un'er a(alga( restoration$
"epth of
preparation
;e'iu( ;e'iu( to 'eep Iery close to
pulp
%7tensive
restoration
;aterials !opal vanish(2)3
layers)
FI an' copal
vanish
!a(4B)2& FI an'
!opal vanish
!a(4B)2& FI an'
resin)#on'e'
a(alga(
(4) Inter(e'iate restorative (aterial (I-;) which contain Q4% an' !a(4B)2 can not #e serve' as #ase
(aterials& as their co(pressive strength is too low.
40. Which of the following state(ents for the pulp protection of posterior co(posite restoration
are correct?
(1) >or a (o'erate cavity& resin)(o'ofie' FI liner,#ase is nee'e'
(2) Diners shoul' #e place' on all the 'entin walls to re'uce post)op sensitivity
(3) !a(4B)2 liner is nee'e' un'er FI if cavity is very close to pulp
(4) .he prevent initial (icrolea6age& copal vanish nee' to #e applie' at the (argin of the wall
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
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Answer$
Notes$
(1) !opal vanish or Q4% can not #e use' 'irectly un'er !o(posite resin& as they well prevent
poly(eri*ation.
(2) If the cavity preparation is (o'erate to 'eep& resin)(o'ifie' FI shoul' #e place' for pulp protection
an' future (icrolea6age.
(3) It the preparation is 'eep an' very close to the pulp& !a(4B)2 shoul' #e place' un'er -esin)
(o'ifie' FI. Flass iono(er has low initial +B an' not suita#le for close pulp application. ut it is
stronger than !a(4B)2 as a #ase.
(4) %nough uncovere' peripheral 'entin shoul' #e left to allow goo' sealing an' #on'ing.
(A) Diners shoul' never #e place' on the ena(el wall of preparation& as they are solua#le in saliva.
4H. Which of the followings are co(ponents of a'hesive in 8cotch#on' (ultipurpose?
(1) isF;A
(2) B%;A
(3) +hoto)initiator
(4) polyal6enoic aci'
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ A
Notes$ 8cotch#on' ;ultipurpose 'ental #on'ing co(ponents$
(1) %tch$ 3A2 phosphoric aci'
%na(el etches1Asec (ini(u(& "entin etches1A sec (a7i(u(
+urpose$
)) .o clean #on'ing tooth structure surface& re(ove s(ear layer
)) .o 'e(inerali*e peritu#ular an' intertu#ular 'entin surface (up to 3)2A(icron)
)) .o help achieve (icro(echanical retention an' re'uce (icrolea6age
(2) +ri(er$ ac/ueous solution of B%;A E polyal6enoic aci' copoly(er
+urpose$
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)) +ri(er ha' #ifunctional nature& its hy'rophilic en' #on's to the 'entin an' its hy'ropho#ic en' #on's
to the a'hesive resin
)) It wets the con'itione' 'entin surface an' facilitates the contact #etween the 'entin an' resin
.echni/ue
)) Apply to slightly moist 'entin
)) ;ultiple coats an' shoul' saturate 'entin surface with glossy appearance
)) .he solvent (ust #e evaporate'
(3) A'hesive$ isF;A& B%;A E photoinitiator
+urpose$
)) !o(#ine' with pri(er to for( resin Treinforce' hy#ri' layer
)) >or(s resin tags to seal the 'entin tu#ules
.echni/ue
)) rush thin an' gently air thin to for( uniform layer
)) Dight curing 21 secon's
A1. Which of the following are inorganic fillers of co(posite resin restoration (aterials?
(1) Uuart*
(2) 8ilica
(3) Flass
(4) Alu(inu( o7i'es
A. (1) (2) (3)
. (1) (3)
!. (2) (4)
". All of the a#ove
Answer$ A
Notes$
(1) !o(position$
-esin (atri7 Inorganic fillers !oupling agent
;ono(er$ isF;A
Initiator
) !a(phoro/uinone
Flass
Uuart*
!olloi'al silica
8ilane agents
)) ifunctional (olecule
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Inhi#itors
)) utylate' By'ro7ytoluene
+ig(ents
)) ;etal o7i'es(e.g. alu(inu( o7i'es)
(2) .%F";A is a''e' in the ;ono(ers to lower the viscosity.
)) Increase poly(er conversion
)) Increase cross)lin6ing
)) Increase shrin6age
(3) !a(phoro/uinone.
)) ;ost co((on photoinitiator
)) !a(phoro/uinone9(a#sor# #lue light) C a(ine activator free ra'icals initiate poly(eri*ation
(4) >iller particles
)) -e'uce shrin6age
)) Increase strength
)) Increase wear resistance
)) >acility han'ling
!lassification accor'ing to the si*e of fillers
)) ;acrofillers$ 11)111 u(
)) ;i'ifillers$ 1 T 11 u(
)) ;inifillers$ 1.1)1 u(
)) ;icrofillers$ 1.11)1.1 u(
)) Nanofillers$ 1.11A)1.11u(
(A) !oupling agent94rganosilane
ifunctional (olecule$ facilitate che(ical #on' #etween filler particles an' resin (atri7
)) 8ilo7ane en' #on's to hy'ro7yl groups on fillers
)) ;ethacrylate en' poly(eri*es with resin
(@) !o(pare' with ;acrofiller& ;icrofills co(posite resins$
A'vantage "is'vantage
;icrofills
co(posite resins
Increase' 'i(ensional
insta#ility
Dower physical properities
Increase' (arginal
Increase' (arginal s(oothness
Bigher gloss finishing
;ore translucency
Dess generali*e' wear
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(icrolea6age

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