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15 International Brick and Block Masonry Conference Florianpolis Brazil 2012

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THERMOPHORESIS ON EXTERNAL FACADES: EVALUATION AND ORIGINS


Breitbach, Acio de Miranda1; Gleize, Philippe Jean Paul 2, Viotti, Gldes Cabral de Albuquerque3
1

Msc, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Civil Engineering Department, aecio.m.b@posgrad.ufsc.br

2 e3

PhD, Researcher, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Civil Engineering Department, ecv1phg@ecv.ufsc.br 2 e gledescabral@gmail.com 3

The use of an external final coat with low thickness, especially on structural masonry, with final painting latex, has been preferred for its easy execution and low cost. The use of industrially produced blocks under strict quality standards allows a coat with low thickness which enables the appearance of a gradual biodeterioration showing the different porosity of the substrate. This leads to a masking effect by the delimitation of the different constituents of the substrate. As a consequence, the thermophoresis starts giving a discoloration of the superficial facades for different temperatures of the surface which affects the aesthetics of the building. Several proposals in order to counteract this effect are presented and discussed with the aim of raising awareness of the consequences that the reduction of thickness of coatings mortars can bring to the physical appearance of buildings.
Keywords: thermophoresis, biodeterioration, external coat, coatings mortars, structural masonry.

INTRODUCTION The thermophoresis is a phenomenon that occurs on the coating of mortar in external facades of buildings, whose semantic meaning is the thermal viewing of the substrate. In other words, the difference in temperature between various points would be responsible for the formation of a contour image of the different constituent materials of the substrate coating the external facades. This image affects and compromises the aesthetics of the facade, giving a distinctive and unwanted aspect of dirt. This temperature difference becomes more evident as the thickness of the coating layer mortar is reduced. In Coatings type travertine and scraped mass, doctoral students Christian Botelho Borges and Max Junginger (2001) defined thermophoresis as a phenomenon in which the temperature difference over the same region of the coating causes differential attraction of particulate materials, such as dust. The thermophoresis is responsible for the appearance of a so-called phantoms (ghosts, photographs, radiographs of the blocks). These authors also suggested that the small thickness of the coating can also cause the phenomenon. In "Pathological manifestations in coatings of mortar," the master student, ngela Borges Masuero of

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NORIE / UFRGS (2008) discussed the pathology of thermophoresis as a coating of mortar due to differential deposition of dust and stated that a possibility to prevent it is the use of mortars with higher retention water as well as a base preparation and application of coatings with greater thickness. In "Rehabilitation of the surrounding vertical opaque," a monograph wrote by Celina Captain Rose (2005), from the University Fernando Pessoa, Portugal, the author reports that, associated with the condensation of moisture, there is the formation of dark spots in areas of vestments corresponding to thermal bridges due the deposit of dust and the moisture retention. In "Penetration of moisture and fungal growth on facades," Neide Sato, Fulvio Vottorino, Vahan Agopyan Kai Vanderley Uemoto and John (2000) stated that the development of fungi on facades occurs in different ways for diverse substrates coated by mortar. The regions on the concrete structure have clearer colors, with less fungal attack that the part of the masonry. It is possible to distinguish clearly the edges of the blocks and rows that appear darker than the area of settlement of mortars. Professor Vasco P. de Freitas and Eng. Sandro M. Alves (2008), from the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, described the pathology of thermophoresis as patches of dark color which create an image, allowing the mortar joints in the base coat of hydraulic binders and arrangement of structural elements. The phenomenon of thermophoresis is described and identified by these authors, however many other authors also describe it without identify it. That is, the thermophoresis is widely recognized that there is no consensus on how to analyze the phenomenon. THERMOFORESIS The standard NBR 15.079/2008 states that coverage capability if 6.00 m2/liter for a dry latex paint Premium which corresponds to a higher quality. The standard also determines that 90 % is the coverage power of the wet paint immediately after application. It also determines that the minimum resistance to wet abrasion with abrasive paste is 100 cycles. Fulfilling these minimum requirements, latex paint, in external use, should be able to resist the action of the weather without allowing the formation of thermophoresis for at least three years. However, the action of solar radiation as well as UV rays break down the polymer chains of the resin. The resin acts as a gluing of the thermoplastic film formed from the evaporation of the solvent of the ink during their coalescence. External actions grow the permeability of the coating film and start the breakdown of charges and pigments, becoming the surface as a dusty one and losing the ability to protect the substrate. Thus, the absorption of moisture also increases allowing the beginning of thermophoresis. Only an action of repainting is able to restore the initial conditions for protection and waterproofing. The acrylic paints allow the passage of water only in the form of steam or dew condensation, before starting the process of irreversible degradation. Precisely because

15 International Brick and Block Masonry Conference Florianpolis Brazil 2012

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of their superior ability, the acrylic latex paints are the most used in the external facades of the PVA-based, which are more permeable. The textured acrylic paints are more suitable for exterior paint, providing the formation of thicker coatings, having a consumption of approximately 1 kg/m2, creating topography of peaks and valleys, which in addition to mask imperfections in the plaster is able to follow thermal movement without a noticeable disruption. According to Prof. Vasco P. de Freitas and Eng. Sandro M Ahmed, the amount of solid particles increases with the decrease of temperature. The temperature difference on the surface of the facade is due to significant differences between the thermal conductivities of mortar joints and settlement (see figure 1) of the masonry block. Using a thermal imager, Prof. Vasco P. de Freitas and Eng. Sandro M. Alves found that the temperature of the surface of a facade is lower in masonry block than in their joinings in a moment when the outside an inside temperatures are 5 C and 18 C respectively.

Figure 1Different water absorption by the wall masonry- Prof. Vasco P. de Freitas / Eng. Sandro M. Alves

These authors suggested that the solution is accomplished by applying a new coat, since the simple cleaning of the facade would not eliminate the causes of the problem. The uniformity of the surface temperature could go through the application of a thermal insulation system type ETICS -Exterior Insulation by - or cladding of the kind ventilated facade. Also according to them, the reduced thickness of the coating (<1.0 cm), the heterogeneity of the substrate, very thick joints or protruding settlement and even cracks or detachments of the joints are the source of thermophoresis. During the drying of the coating under temperature differences over the facade and absorption by the various constituent materials of the garment does not enable uniform hydration of the cementious binder as illustrated in figure 1. Such heterogeneous hydration promotes an irregular coloring result in the final coating, rising zones known as "phantoms". Carlos Mariano Melo Junior (2010) wrote

15 International Brick and Block Masonry Conference Florianpolis Brazil 2012

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in "Effect of oriented rain and architectural details over the durability of the siding" presented a table which has been reproduced in table 1. This table shows values of porosity, content of water absorption and density of shell material, showing their different potential in the formation of thermophoresis.

Table 1 -Property of siding materials Material Mortar 1:2:9 Ceramic block Concrete block Concrete (beams and pillars) Porosity (%) 28,0 31,9 12,4 8,1 Water assimilation 15,0 22,0 6,6 3,6 Apparent specific mass (kg/m3) 1.730 1.620 1.980 2.260

The porous ceramic block has a 12% higher than the bedding mortar. On the other hand, for concrete block the pores are 125% lower than for bedding mortar. This strong difference directly influences the porosity is thermophoresis. For this reason, the thermophoresis is less intense for the ceramic block in masonry than for concrete blocks. Carlos Mariano Mello Junior, LOGEAIS (1989) described as "phantoms" the stains appeared in facades, drawing the masonry joints, resulting from the adhesion of solid particles in the atmosphere that are deposited on the walls according to the intensity of the temperature of the surface of these walls, so the deposit is more intense in lower temperature. Figure 2 Effect of "fantmes or thermoforesis at Florianpolis (SC)

15 International Brick and Block Masonry Conference Florianpolis Brazil 2012

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This author conducted a meteorological study to evaluate more precisely the issue of deposition of moisture in the form of rain water on the walls of buildings. He concluded that the absence of sun enhances the development of fungi, bacteria and microorganisms that proliferate more rapidly, enhancing the appearance of phantoms on external facades.Fernando Jorge Fernandes Jorne (2010) proposed some mitigation actions to reduce the effects of thermophoresis. He suggested to correct thermal bridge with ceramic tiles on the structure of concrete and masonry walls and recommended to reduce the thickness of the mortar joint settlement in order to reduce the differences in temperature.

BIODETERIORATION Because of the loss of protection, the water can start a process of biodeterioration which sometimes is considered as thermophoresis. Due to the different porosity of the substrate formed from blocks of masonry, laying mortar and coating, moisture absorption also occurs in different ways. The attack of fungi and algae is regulated by the availability of humidity and solar radiation. Algaes need direct sunlight to perform its vital functions and provide to the wall a colorful appearance close to red or pink, without degrading the substrate as shown in figure 3.

Figure 3 - Algaes in residential building placed in Canasvieiras, Florianpolis (SC).

Fungi need only moisture and give preference to substrates free of direct solar radiation and confer a dark aspect near to black or gray, degrading the substrate. These colors give an effect of the wall which sometimes is wrong considered as thermophoresis.

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SEEPAGE OF MOISTURE The difference in temperature, which would be responsible for the deposition of particulate materials, is a natural consequence of the effect caused by the difference in moisture content. This concentration difference is capable of generating lower temperatures in unsaturated substrates, which require more heat to reach the same temperature of unsaturated substrates. As the moisture penetrates the facade of the substrate by the action of rain and dew, it is possible to leave the same way, by the sunlight. Therefore, it is important to note that the identification of thermophoresis results from several observations, and on sunny days without rain, so that the phenomenon is not to be confused with the simple absorption of moisture. The penetration of moisture into facades painted with acrylic latex paint which is the best cost/benefit finishing and the most widely used in Brazil - starts only after the beginning of the process of surface degradation. Ultraviolet radiation breaks the bonds of polymeric surface of the ink, allowing that leaching remove pigments and exposed charges. As the various layers of the coating film are degraded, the moisture can reach the substrate. Thus, in the first year after application of acrylic paint, it is unlikely the appearance of thermophoresis, and its occurrence more likely from the third year

CONCLUSIONS The appearance of thermophoresis in structural masonry coatings is frequent, due to its low thickness, which is approximately ranged from 0.50 to 1.00 cm. Cement mortar coatings with reduced thickness, tend to have more frequently thermophoresis due to its low mass that is quickly saturated, reaching the masonry substrate faster. The growing of the thickness of the coating also increases the ability to absorb water, reducing the possibility of formation of thermophoresis. Cemented cementious coatings for masonry structural effect using water repellent additives are less susceptible to thermophoresis due to the reduction of porosity and water-repellent obtained. The different levels of moisture absorption, caused by different porosity substrates, produce fungal proliferation and dark places of greater moisture absorption. For this reason, the microbiological attack intensifies the formation of thermophoresis. Cleaning by washing of the facades has the capability to retard the process of formation of thermophoresis, as well as to remove the solid particles and microorganisms deposited on the surface. The repainting is capable of restoring the thickness preventing the formation of thermophoresis.

REFERENCES
Borges, C.J., Junginger, M. Revestimento tipo travertino e massa raspada. So Paulo EPUSP-PCC, 2000, 19p. Acessado em 16/10/2011 em http://maxjunginger.pcc.usp.br/images/Trabalhos/Travertino.pdf

15 International Brick and Block Masonry Conference Florianpolis Brazil 2012

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Borges, A.M. Manifestaes patolgicas em revestimentos de argamassas. Porto Alegre NORIE-UFRGS, 2008. Apresentao 11p. Acessado em 16/10/2011 em http://icposgrados.weebly.com/uploads/8/6/0/0/860075/argamassa_2.pdf Freitas, V.P., Alves, S.M. Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, apresentao Tektonica 2008. http://www.apfac.pt/eventos/seminario_argamassas_fabris_2008/V%20P%20Freitas%2 0Tektonica08.pdf, Acessado em 16/10/2011. Jorne, F.J.F. Anlise do comportamento higrotrmico de solues construtivas de paredes em regime varivel. Lisboa, 2010, dissertao de mestrado 154p. Acessado em 24/10/2011 em http://run.unl.pt/ bitstream/10362/4976/1/Jorne_2010.pdf Melo, C.M.J. Influencia da chuva dirigida e dos detalhes arquitetnicos na durabilidade de revestimentos de fachada. Goinia UFG, 2010, dissertao de mestrado, 204p. Acessado em 16/10/2011 em http://www.dominiopublico. gov.br/pesquisa/DetalheObraForm.do?select_action=&co_obra=183819 Rosa, C.R., Martins, J.G. Reabilitao da envolvente vertical opaca de edifcios. Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Portugal, 2005. Monografia 87p. Acessado em 16/10/2011 http://www2.ufp.pt/~jguerra/PDF /Reabilitacao/ Reabilitacao%20da%20envolvente%20vertical%20opaca.pdf Sato, N., Vottorino, F., Agopyan, V., Uemoto, K. e John, V. Penetrao de umidade e crescimento de fungos em fachadas John, ANTAC 2000, 6p.