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ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT

Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur

Seminar Report On

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of VIIth semester ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING By PRATIK K. MASKE Under the guidance of Internal Guide Prof. Niermal Chhajed Dept. of EE

Acharya Vinobha Bhave Institute of Technology, Pawnar, Wardha 2013-2014

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT

Acharya Vinobha Bhave Institute of Technology


CANAL ROAD PAWNAR, WARDHA-442001

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
Certified that the seminar report entitled ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT carried out by Mr. Pratik K. Maske a bonafide student of 7th Semester in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering of Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur, during the year 2013-2014. It is certified that the corrections/suggestions indicated for Internal Assessment have been incorporated in the Report department library. The seminar report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of project work prescribed for the said degree.

Signature of the HOD (Prof. Niermal Chhajed)

Signature of the Principal (Prof. Anil K. Gawhane)

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
An endeavor over long period can be successful only with advice and guidance of many well wishers. My sincere thanks to the management and Prof. Anil K. Gawhane, principal, Acharya Vinoba Bhave Institute of Technology, for providing me the opportunity to conduct my seminar work. I am highly indebted to Prof. Niermal Chhajed, H.O.D, Electrical Engineering Department, AVBIT for his assistance and constant source of encouragement. I wish to express my profound and deep sense of gratitude to Ms. Kalyani C. Wakhare, Lecturer, Department of Electrical Engineering, Project Co-coordinator, for sparing her valuable time to extend help in every step of my seminar work. I whole heartedly express my thanks to, Mr. Nikhil S. Barahate, Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Department, AVBIT for sparing time to go through every tiny detail and give his valuable suggestions to make this seminar report a success. Id like to thank Ms. Sneha S. Palkar, Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Department, AVBIT, for her valuable support and guidance throughout the seminar. I would also like to thank the staff of Electrical Engineering Dept. for their generous guidance. Last but not the least I would like to thank our friends and family for their help in every way for the success of this project report. PRATIK K. MASKE

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT

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Contents Abstract Introduction Problem of Definition Road Energy System Utilization 1. Heating/ Cooling 2. Generation of Electricity Storing Energy in the Ground Improved Traffic Safety Increasing the Durability of Road Construction Increasing the Durability of Concrete Structures Environmental Gain Economic Benefits Applications Alternative Applications The Process Facts about RES Conclusion References

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ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT


PRATIK K. MASKE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AACHARYA VINOBA BHAVE INSTITUTE OF TECNOLOGY, CANAL ROAD-PAWNAR, WARDHA pratik_maske22@ymail.com

Abstract

In recent years it has become increasingly evident that the fossil fuels used to generate energy are not inexhaustible and that their use is harmful to the environment (Greenhouse effect). The conventional resources used for electricity generation are depleting at an exponential rate. Hence there is an urgent need to develop and commercialize alternative sources for electricity generation, which preferably should be eco-friendly unlike fossil fuels. In summer our cities gets warm/ hot because the dark asphalt on the roads absorbs the suns rays so efficiently, pushing temperatures up to 45- 50 degrees Celsius (118-128 degrees Fahrenheit). While we do not often think of it this way, when asphalt heats up, what it is doing very effectively is collecting solar energy. Considering the massive surface area covered by roads and parking lots in the average Indian cities, this is a huge amount of free power that is right now being lost. This heat energy can be harnessed via a series of connected water pipes embedded in the asphalt, using it to both heat/cool buildings and can be used to generate electricity. From this system we can extract about 270kw per square meter a year. The aim of Road Energy Systems is to achieve energy savings by using thermal energy stored in aquifers for cooling and/ or heating in commercial and industrial buildings, residential areas and the agricultural sector. This system can also be used for generation of electricity using binary cycle power plant.

INTRODUCTION
Current energy scenario indicates that the 75% of energy requirement is met by fossil fuels. Nuclear energy contributes to about 3% and 9% is met by hydel energy, 12% of energy consumption is met by biogas and remaining sources like wind, tidal, wave, solar, contribute to about 1%.

ELECTRICITY GENERATED
FOSSIL FUEL HYDEL NUCLEAR RENEWABLE SOURCES

12% 9% 3%

76%

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT


Why should we look for alternate energy sources? Fossil fuels, which are main source of energy, are getting depleted. As a consequence the cost of fossil fuels is increasing. Further, the fossil fuel based systems produce detrimental effects on the environments. This in turn will affect our health. This means that indirectly, the medical bills will be rising the world over.

PROBLEM OF DEFINITION
The extensive usage of non-renewable energy sources has resulted in an energy crisis, and there is a need to develop and commercialize alternative energy sources for electricity generation and to achieve energy savings, which will not only ease the crisis but preserve the environment. This seminar gives an idea about RES a less complex method for heating/ cooling and generation of electricity.

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM


Road energy systems utilize the large surface area of tarmacked/ asphalt roads, car parks and playgrounds to absorb solar energy in conjunction with a ground source heat pump. Road energy systems are designed to collect the solar heat from tarmacked/ asphalt surfaces. This is achieved by embedding pipes into the layers of the road. The solar heat is then collected by the pipes that circulate a working fluid (glycol, iso-pentane, isobutane) collecting the energy. This energy is either used by a heat pump to satisfy heating demand, or the energy is circulated through the heat pumps boreholes / aquifers to raise the ground temperature.
Road energy system

UTILIZATION
The Road Energy Systems, works a little like Geothermal energy system/ heat pumps, only its not the Earth but the asphalt that heats the water in the pipes in summer. The generated hot water can be utilized for; 1. Heating/ Cooling buildings. 2. Generating electricity.

1. HEATING/ COOLING

Heating and Cooling system

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT

IN SUMMER
a) The ventilation fans in the building pumps hot air into the heat exchanger in which cold water is pumped from the cold water aquifer. b) The hot air gets cooled and is utilized to cool the building. c) The cool water extracts the heat from hot air and rises its temperature. This hot water is then pumped to hot aquifer through the pipelines below road. The temperature of hot water is further increased by the heat energy absorbed by the road.

IN WINTER
a) The ventilation fans in the building pumps cool air into the heat exchanger in which hot water, saved in the hot aquifer during summer, is pumped. b) The cool air extract the heat from hot water and becomes hot, this hot air is then utilized for heating the buildings. c) The hot water turns into cold water and it is then pumped through road pipelines to the cold water aquifer.
Binary cycle power plant

Storing energy in the ground


Storing energy in the ground is an energy-saving, environmentally friendly heating and cooling technique. In summer, Road Energy Systems generates considerable heat. This heat is stored in the ground and can be pumped up for heating purposes in winter. Conversely, the stored winter cold can be used for cooling in summer. The warm and cold water are separately stored in an underground waterbearing sandy layer (an aquifer). The hot and cold groundwater can be pumped up from the aquifer or it can be injected back. The vertical conveyor pipelines running from the hot and cold source are located approximately one hundred meters apart and can be as much as one hundred meters deep. In winter, groundwater is pumped up from the heat source. After it has been used for heating, by allowing it through the asphalt collector, it is injected into the cold source. In summer the process works in the opposite direction, with water being pumped up from the cold source and used for cooling. The heated water is then once again led through the asphalt collector, where it is further heated by the sun and then injected into the heat source in the ground. This system saves considerable primary energy (natural gas) as less cooling and heating is required by the central heating and cooling systems. The combined use of this storage system with heat pumps and floor and wall heating requires the control systems to be thoroughly tuned to match the actual requirement.

2. GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY
If the water that reaches the surface is not hot enough to produce steam, it can still be used to produce electricity by feeding hot water into a Binary Power Plant. The hot water goes through heat exchanger, heats up working fluid such as iso-butane/ iso-pentane which boils at a lower temperature. The working fluid gets converted into steam and is used to drive turbines, producing electricity. The working fluid then condenses back to its liquid state and is used again.

Improved traffic safety


In winter the temperature of asphalt can be kept above freezing, preventing the formation of ice on the road. The evaporation rate of rain and melt water is also speeded up. In summer, cooling the surface to

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT


below the temperature at which bitumen begins to soften prevents the asphalt structures from being deformed. This in turn prevents the formation of ruts or permanent deformation, which significantly improves traffic safety, especially under poor weather conditions. The combination of a reinforced asphalt structure with a heating system ensures that the road surface will develop fewer cracks in winter. An asphalt construction incorporating Road Energy Systems has a longer life than traditional constructions. This means less road maintenance, resulting in fewer road closures and traffic jams and hence improved traffic safety mobility. Reducing the use of salt Using Road Energy Systems to heat roads in winter results in savings on the use of salt on icy roads, thus lowering the environmental impact of salt.

Energy efficient buildings


The combination of a low EPC (Energy Performance Coefficient), energy efficient installations and Road Energy Systems can produce substantial savings on energy consumption when compared to traditional buildings.

Economic benefits (financial and sound business management)


Major savings on energy consumption when used to heat buildings; Longer life of asphalt constructions; Reduced maintenance costs for roads and engineering structures; Reduced cost of anti-ice measures; Subsidy possibilities; Short pay-back period for the extra investment; Fewer traffic jams; Improved traffic safety; Green image.

Increasing the constructions

durability

of

road

Road Energy Systems can be used to reduce variations in temperature that can occur in an asphalt layer, thereby extending the life of the asphalt construction. Cooling and heating asphalt also reduces general wear and tear. Because these asphalt constructions are less prone to cracking, there will also be less damage caused by freezing and thawing. In addition, the combination of temperature regulation and a specially reinforced structure will extend the life of the asphalt construction even further.

Applications
Loading platforms (at company premises and airports, harbors, bus and train stations/ platforms); Keeping roads, engineering structures and airport runways free of snow and ice; Heating and cooling buildings; Road Energy Systems can be put down as thin asphalt layers on both new and existing pavement.

Increasing the durability of concrete structures


By controlling the temperature of a concrete structure within a certain range, it will not expand and contract as much, significantly reducing the expansion and construction between the joints in the concrete structure. By using water-impermeable bituminous membranes in combination with Road Energy Systems, it is possible to use an asphalt covering layer on structures without the need for joints. By not having to spray as much salt or any salt at all, there is no damage to the concrete from corrosion of the reinforcement as a result of salt penetration.

Alternative applications
Heating and cooling sports fields, soils used for cultivation of crops (cold crop cultivation) and greenhouses. The heat can also be used for biological soil sanitation purposes.

The process
Before using Road Energy Systems, a number of tests need to be carried out during the preliminary stage: - The energy requirements of the building, road or structure has to be determined; - Determination of the surface area, structural division and location of the asphalt collector; - The mix composition and engineering properties of the asphalt construction have to be determined,

Environmental gain
Reduction in CO2 emissions Using Road Energy Systems to heat buildings means using less fossil fuel, which reduces CO2 emissions.

ROAD ENERGY SYSTEM: ENERGY FROM ASPHALT


depending on the application of the level of loading and strength of the substrate; - Before deciding on the aquifer system, a geohydrologic study needs to be carried out to assess the ground storage capacity and the quality and flow rate of the groundwater; - When used in buildings, the measurement and control technology aspects of the various systems have to be attuned to one another (asphalt collector, aquifer system, heat pump and the heating/ cooling system).

CONCLUSION
Done successfully, harnessing this power could simultaneously cool off the street surface and send the heat somewhere useful. The cooler roads would have a longer lifespan and the free & clean solar energy would be going to beneficial activities, reducing the need to build power sources elsewhere. In the end, the best way to beat the heat may be to get it working for us.

References 1. www.thegreenhome.co.uk/heatingrenewables/heat-pumps/roadenergy-systems-benefits/ 2. www.ogi.co.uk/road-energy/


Red: asphalt (normal); blue: asphalt (cooled); yellow: air temperature

3. www.ooms.nl 4. www.invisibleheating.co.uk

Energy balance asphalt collector

FACTS ABOUT RES


1. 2. We can extract about 270 Kw per square meter a year. A supermarket/ mall with RES spread over 5000 square meter could reduce its carbon footprint by 70%. Such systems are now installed on a motorway flyover in Rotterdam and also in Scotland, where an installation by Invisible Heating System generates 108 Mws a year from a 400-square meter parking lot, which heats a 1500-square meter office building and adjacent workshops.

3.