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Thames a Hudson world of art


a handbook





Any copy ofthis book issued by the publisher as r p,perbrk i' .old .ubject (o rh. condirion Lhrr rt shall not by way of r:de or otheMise be lent, resotd.hired out or otheMise circulated without
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Firstpublished in the United Kingdom in I989 byThames & Hudson Ltd, IsIA High Holborn, w\




O r98gThrmes & Hudson Lrd,London

Reprinted 2oor

liveryday life; Fighting; Work and play, public and privatc; l{eligion


All Rights Reserved.No part ofthis publicrtion maybe reproduced or tnnsmitted in any form or by any nleans. electroDic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any other inlormation storage and retrieval systen! without prior permission in writing from rhe publisher.

'flrc Gods; Big figlits; Hcraklcs; Thcscus; Thc Trojan

Oyclc; Othcr herocs and cycles; Othcr figurcs




Printed and bound in Sinsapore by C.S.Gnphics






Note s and bibliographies 241

Chapter One

List of illustrations
oJ artists and grou1ts

245 250


dex of mythologitul stbjcctt

Gueral index


llrrs volunrc is thc successor to Athenidn Red Figure Vases: The Arthaic Petiod q,lT5l hcrcabbrcviatcdlRFHI) anditcarriesthesurveyofAtheniandecorated l,(ilt.ry down to thc time when painters finally abandoned thc rcd figurc r, , lrrrrqr-re, during the second halfofthc fourth ccntury BC. A comparable study , i r lr t carlicr, black figure vases appexrcd in ry1 4 (ABFLI1, and, Dalc Trendall has r, , , ntly publishcd a companion volumc on South Italian red figure (RFSIS). In rlr, t lrlicr handbooks some attention was givcn to qucstions oftcchnique but it l,.r\ sccrl)ccl appropriatc to dcvotc a sepaiate chapter to it here. The word I I rssical' suffcrs a grcat variety ofmeanings. In this ritle it means simply postArrh;ric, through thc fourth ccntury; in Chaptcr Thrcc it is rest cted tp It( .r/ley's usc of 'Classic' which means roughly thc pcriod of the Parthenon. I'lrc gcncral schcnrc follows that of the other volumes, dictated by thc ,r , r cssivc groups formcd by thc works ofirrdividual paintcrs and workshops, as rlr, y hrvc bccn dcfincd by SirJohn Bcazlcy in his grcat books, which form the , , nerstoncs of all studies of Athenialr red figure. [n the early editions of his 'r l,,,,rks which listcd rcd figurc paintcrs, in r92J and r94u, Bcazlcy had stopped .l)r)rt ofthe fourth century, 1!n omission he made good in 1963, but without l)( \t()wing upon thc latcr vascs quitc thc samc lovilg detail that he had on the , .r r lrcr: undcrstandably, since the quality is generally lowcr, thoughBcazlcy was r,,, clitist and hc is fullcr in classifying thc worst ofthe fourth century than the 1,, st, for much ofwhich he would (he explailed) haverequircd a closcr study of rlr, lrrtcr vascs in Lcningrad than hc had becn able to give them. Wc start with works ofhigh quality, and standards are generally maintained l,y ()mc paintcrs to thc cnd of thc fifth celtury. Thereafter there is still good rr,,r k to bc found, but in decreasini proportion although thcrc is a divcrsity of ,r rl, jccr mattcr which is highly informative about myth and cult, wholly Athens,,rrrrcd. An important element is the 'Kerch style', reprcscntcd by rathcr li.rrrrboyant vascs which sccm to indicate a new phase ofactivity in the Adlens l,( )ttcrs' quarter. It is debatable, however, whether it is a new phasc rathcr than a rL \urgcncc of intcrcst in stylcs ncvcr rcally abandoncd. The tcrm has perhaps ,,Lrr livcd its uscfulncss, and ncw studics should bc ablc to dcmonstratc continuity rrr,rrc clcarly. 'Iir the er,d, Athenian red figure remained virtually thc only figurc-dccoratcd l)()ftcry in the Greek homeland. Some other parts of Grcccc paid it the

.omplinlcnr ofinritation, irr .l hurnblc rvay: rordr Clrcccc, llocotia, Corinrh, Sprrrr. Irs appcll ovcrscls was r.urdir)rirrisl)ccl, and inclccd its markcts qrcw, rlclibcrltcly or cilsullly. Its clcclinc in qualiry and rhis is nor lr alroscthcr
sutrjcctivcjudgcnrcrlt. as a qlxrlcc throLlirh drt- pictrrrcs irr rhis book shoulcl show h:rs ro bc cxplairrcci irr othcr wxys. In rhc ArcLaic pcriod the rlrawing stylcs prictisccl on potlcry wcrc ls flnc us iD urly other nrcdiunr known ro us, a|d wc nrry lcgitinr:rtcly essunrt: that thc best xrtists cnjoycLl e conlpctcncc also in othcr nrcdi:r ofpairrrint which hevc not survivcd, :urcl pcrhlps rr othcr lrts- Btrr in dtc tirst halfofthc lilih ccrtury ncrv scylcs of 'rndor plintirlil' wcrc irrrroduccd. 'I hosc rtssociltcd u,irh thr'uanrc ofthc nrur:rlisr l)olyeroros ofThasos irtroclLtccd ncrv schcnrcs ofconrpositiorr rvhich rhc vlsc-paintcr coulcl trkc rrp rnd edJusr ro his fic1cl. But thc printing stylcr thar lollowcd introdnccd shrdin!1, chiaroscuro .rnd subtlctics ofcolour which rhc vasc-plrintcr c()Lrld ncvcr hopc to rrltch, lnd incvitrbly rhc:rb1cr h:rnds lvcrc rttractcd au,ty frol)l thc craft b othcr nrcdia. Thc custorrr providccl by thc r,vcll-ro-clo rnay havc dcclincd rr thc sen)L- tr)ra, csPccillly oncc'\,csscls irl prcci()Lls rDctal bcca rc rorc;rcccssiblc (from l)ersi.rD Ioor:rrrd thc pcrqrrisitcs of cnpirc), encl :r grorvinr nrurkct iirr fine pJein black vescs nrct hurnblcr ncccls. llul it would trc wrong to thiDk thrt the Arhcnrars thought much thc lcss ofa cr:rlt in rvhich thcy harl long 1cd thcir,,,"orll. In thc htcr fi1rh ccntLrrv thc Athcniln pocr Clrjriis listcd drc rnost distirgrrishcd proclucts ofvarious s!atcs thclirrDitrrrcof(lhios:rndMilctus,thcgolclcupsand rlccorrrivc bronzcs of F.rrrrrir, thc chariors of Thcbcs, rlrc ulphabcr of the l'hocnicirns, eud lrorn Arhcrrs, rhc victor ofMarlthon tlrc pottcr's u,hecJ and rhc child of cl:ry lnc{ lhc ovcn, rhc fincst portcry, the houschold's blcssirrg. Most ofthc nretcriel hrs bccn scr out hcrc lirllowing Ilctzlcy's attribrrtioDs ft) pxilrtcrs :rnd schools, with nlir)or:rdjultnlcnts to suit prcsctrtrtion. I havc not n;rrrccl rn thc tcxt cvcry p:rintcr r,vhosc work is illustrelccl thcrc arc so rnar:y, ;rncl thosc ornittcd iu thc tcxt r:rtc x pictrrrc cithcr bccausc rhcy or lhc v:rscs showrl dcscrvc llcirhcr nlor-c nor lcss. I)rinciplcs ofattribution wcrc ciiscusscd bricfly in ,'1RFH I p. 8, lnd r firrthcr word nrly not bc arlriss silcc thcrc lrc cloubtcrs.

1,.rr, Ll rlrrrlcrirrgsforanalysis. (Thc siglcd work ofJapencsc p nt-rnakcrs , rr,, rroilc:rr clrtoonists, nci*rcr irrdrrclcccl uruch by'srucly front lifi', ' , ,, lrL r.rlitlity ofrhc tcchniquc ofatrriburiorr.) Thc ncxus ofrcndcrir)gs rn , r r ' \\ ()rk is such rher rcpctitiot ofthcnl il ochcr works elmosr ccrtlinly , , rlrr surnc lrlrrd, ancl ticsh cviclcncc (sonrctinrcs of sigrrccl works) , , ' , .. rr Lrth rrdtcr rharr sanctlfics crror. ADd thcrc is so t11uch more ro it than r r\l ,L I r.rr \tLrdy of rcrrclcring offornrs: conlposition, ornarncnt, favourcd . .LrL)tr.t, go t() coIifirrn a sysrem u.hich is ocarcr ro bcing 'scicntific' thrn rrr ,ut history. Thc opportunity it otfcrs to disccrn in dcraii thc

, L

l,r rr,r rs

ot inclividual cralisnlcrl, drcir intcrrclationships, rhcir


' L, rrLl ( \'cll socill prcl'crcnccs, rhcir rolc tn thc rrading oftlrcir produirs, rs , I , ll, 1,1 in.rntiquiry ur)til thc days of st:rnrpcd llorlan warcs. llcazlcy's I , r rlrr' r'Lrnnoisscurship oi Athcnian vescs hls rcrldcrcd possiblc scrious rr r u,holc rlngc ofncw stlrdics to cnqitgc thc intcrcst ofarchacologrsts I

| I l, , ' '


I ( rntury, is rc:rdily dcfinablc ir tcrrrrs ofclatlbJc sculprurc (scc CSC-'P ,,r rorr tlrc tcnrplc sculptl.rrc lt OlyDlpia, throush thc fairly cJoscJy

(.u) sorlrctinlcs bc dctcctctl on vescs, r,"hich arc thcrctry givcn a l)ti\l qucl]t c.1I., lhc Atltcrla rnd Marsyas of (iS(-'P li.g- (r4, and ntany , r , n( , ( ahocs tll' I)arthcnon figurcs. Thc dcvcloptncnt rs irot so rcadily


l,lrrns of rvork on thc l)erthcnon ilnd othcr nlonllrlcnls. Ilchocs of

[]crzlcy harl rdoprcd a vcrsi{)l ()f rhc Morclliln systcrl of aDalysilrg thc rcnclcrirrg ofclcc;ril, cspccillly anltonricrl, by rvhich a paintcr's 'hlrrclwricing' rDirlht bc clctcctcd, wl)cthcr that rcndcriDg bc ullc(nsciously rcpcatccl bccaLrsc trivill, or corrsciously adoptcd and rhcr sust:rincd.'l hc trivial is olicn rhc nrorc iutirrnrltivc noteblv on thc backs ofthc larecr vascs rvhich rrr'oftcll, it ()ur pcriod, fillcd lvithtlvoorthrcc'nlilrrrlc 6ljurcs' clrepcrl youths,tr)cn orwoilcn skctchcd cluickly by thc p;rirtcr and thcrcforc rclcli)y bcrraying his 'lrarrd'; ct. Ir,t-2, ;4-;1. (This critcrion or] SoLlth Itali.ut rcd figurc is clcrronstrltcd by li cndlll in R|SIS.) In this rnd r)thcr rcspccrs Bcezlcy's n)atcial wils cvcn rnorc lcrdily susccptiblc to strch enalysis th;ur thc drtwings Jrld paintings studicd by M,lrclli; it was slrictly llnclr and so nlorc casily dcflrrablc, nruch of ir wrs rot consciously 'artistic', it did not to rny noreblc dcqrcc rlcpcncl on clrlwiug'fronr liti', u.hilc b:rrc bodics:rnd e lirnircd ranqc il drcss olfc'rcd rrlny more rcliablc

t ' ',t /'/i(r. r77 9) clrrv irirly sinrplc fisurcs- Penarhcrraic prizc vascs c:rn bc , lr,,tlr,,,crrt'romthcrrch()I1'snellrcthatthcycarryinthcforrrthcortury / i i / l, r(,9). l)ul thc black figurc drewing or) thl'rlr is lcss rc:rdilv corrrplraLrlc , ,1 trqrrrc than it had bccn in rhe Archric pcriod, tlrough rt lcast onc;rrrrst , r rl both rcchniqucs rnay bc idcntificd, in thc nrid ccntury. ,, , Lrc sc,,,crel lrchlcologic:rl ditting points or contcxts which cotrflrru our ' , t rlr qcrcrel scqucncc. C;r:lvc aoDtcrlts'prrrificd' fiolt l)cios in 425 wcrc , ,l orr tlrc nclrby isl:rnd of l{hcrci:r nncl incluclc mrlch Arric porcry. Thc r r c lir thc b;rrtlc ofl)c1ion in 4u 4 et Thcspirc cott:rilcd lirtlc dcconrtccl rnd tlnt Bocotian, bur corrprrablc with Atic. l'hc gravc of thc 'r. , , .r,.rn,, in Athcrrs (4: t/:) h:rs black portcry rclltablc to rcd figurc. Th.rr rs , l l r, t brcrk ir inrports to Clun)ilc rn lclly, clcsrroycd in 4:r/o. Hirrrcra in , , "rrr,l Louscs u,ith Artic potcry
,['srr oycrl irnd r.]zcd to thc grould irr 4o9 and scvcral 6fih ccnrury havc bccn cxcavatcd- Therc is elso portcry ,\ t lrcrrs ccructcry lronr thc Ionrb ofrlrc Lacolilrrs (4o3; rclatcd to Scmclc ,Lr \\uli l'j.tintcrs) ind ftom thc presurned torrrb ofDcxilcos (194; mur.,r,

rr l lre tirrrrth ccntLrry, partly bcc)rlsc it i! lcss nrerkcd in works rhrr rrri!lht , , Lrrrl r,r,ith rhc v:rsc-pilinrins ofthc day. llccord-rclicfs datcd ro thc ycar


Lul:tttrrLrutcd vxscs). Kalos i:rscriptions pr;risine handsonrc yotrths who nright bc i,.lcntiliablc arc lcss comrnon but still uscful for suggcsting synchrouisnrs in thc rvork of diffcrcut printcrs, cspccielly arotrnd tlrc nrid ccnlury (see ,4RFH I p. rrl): riotablc erc (ilaukon, son of Lcagros (ibid.) rnd lJuaion, sotr ofthc poct Acsclrylus (born about J2J), bLrt EulioD tnly bc praisccl for his xctins rarher than

Chapter Two

,vouthfirl bloonl; hc is known to havc bccn r pleywright. In thc forrrrh ccntury drc 11ow of Attic porrcry ro Cypnts drics up el abotrr thc tirnc ofthc clc;rth ofEurgoras, king ofSalarnis ancl ally ofAthcns, in 374/3, bur it clocs rrot ccasc cntircly, it sccnrs; thc tuJJ blown 'Kcrch stylc' is ttot rcprcscutcd. C)1ynthus, irr rrorth (ircccc', u,rs clcstroycd by PhiJip of Maccclon irl 3411; thc conlpletc vascs foLllld on i!s Irousc floors:rrc:t goocl indicatioD ofcurrcnt stylcs, ircluding'crrly Kcrch stylc', brrt prrr ofthc sitc was soorr rcoccupied. Thc 'l hcban pipcr Prononros [3,2-3] l:rd thc Sparten Spartc [365] arc unlikcly to havc rppcarccl orr Artic vescs until e fter thc cnd ofhostilitics widr Thcbcs ancl Sparta at thc crd of thc lifrh ccntrrry. Lr south llussia, end to a ntinor clcqrcc clscwhcrc, Actic vascs havc bccn fornrd in tolrbs with cl:rtcd Parrathcnaics (scc abovc) or rvith lcss cusily cllrteblc coins. In soudr l{ussia somc ofthe coins run to thc cnd of rhc lourth ccntLlry a! lclst bur nccd not ctrry thc prodllcliolr date ofthc vascs lnyu,hcrc ncar so 1atc. Alcxtndria was fouDdcd iIr 33 t lncl its carly ccmctcrics h:rvc bccn wcll robbcd but so littlc Atric rcd figurc has bccn found (c.g. [azsl) ther it is dillictlt to cscapc thc conclusion tirlt fincr warc was no lotr{cr in procluction in t)rc j:.os. Ilcportcd 6nds in Athcns ofred 6gurc with Panathcnrics of thc a ros rl)ily rcprcscnt its last appcarancc irr siqnificenr conrcxt. _fhis voJunrc, thcrcforc, covcrs e pcriod rnorc dr:rn twicc as long as rhat rn .'1RFH I, conrprising somc two-thlrclt ofthc vascs in Bcazlcy's rcd figurc lists; bur clcspitc dcclilc in thc quality of thc cL awing ot thc vascs tlrcrc is rt lcast ls rnuch that is handsorlc, rncmorirblc arrd signiEcant to disctlss rlrd illustr:ttc.

L, \ rlrcrrs tl)c sccond clurrrcr ofthc fiflh ccnrury is:r pcriod ofwcalth, a pcriod of ',1,rrL' .rnd of frcqucnt cxpcrlitio:rs ovcrscas, e pcriocl irr rvhich rhc lcw l, ,('.lcy is rcsh:rpcd rnd stabilized end its nrcthocls ofchoosirrg its lcadcrs , Lr, r ilcfnrcrl.'lhc cncl is rnarkcd by pcrcc r,vith Pcrsia, rvhich rnlclc no rnorc rr,,r'i.rl ,rlenrrnds on (lrcck llncls, rnd by thc pl:rnning frrr thc rcbuildrrg of \ r, rr: rrd its tcnrplcs. Wc know littlc ofthc rnajor arts ofAthcns il thcsc yc:rrs, , ,l, , ,l l l)cy wcrc partirlly srillccl b y thc clccision nor ro rebuild strliuht awly thc r r rl,lcs ruincd by thc Pcrsians. thc hurubler crrlt of vasc-pain cin q, howcvcr, ,, rr r trs l glinr psc ofthc cflccts ofothcr erts visiblc in thc city, and continucs to ,, lrrllr 1v inhrrrnative about meny aspccts ofAthcnian lifc ard sociccy, not lerst ,,i ,l,rtionships rnd bchlviour wirhin irs potrcrs' qrrartcr. Alicl rhc brillirncc.rncl varicry ofLatc Archeic vasc-paintine, rhe ncw phirsc ,L\ l() bc cxpllincd partly ls iingcring or sub-erchaic in moocl (wcll , iLrl)oslrltcd by thc so-cl1lcd Manncrists, discusscd irr,4RFHI pp. 179 93 1r r r,\'r'Drcr)t' which corrtinucs: scc Obaptcr Tlrrcc), plrtly itr tcrrrs of thc ,l,.rrcnt influcncc of e diffcrcrrr nrccliunt. Prc'viously, rhcrc is l1o rcAsorl to ,,l,.ct thitt 'nr:rjor peiDtiru' or1 plncl or wall wls r}ruch unlikc vasc-painrIng, , .,.pt thrt it probably dlcl not usc ilcision (Jikc black figurc) arrd prclcrrcd I

, L lr:rckg1611pfl (un)ikc rcd figurc). \Vhlt wc scc and lcarrr eborrt Late Archric ,rrtcll woodcn pancls suggcsts compositiorrs likc thosc on vlscs ancl not
, rr t

ll'/rll I

iculrrly largcr nor of liner quelity than, s:ry, thc drewing of thc Pionccrs ch. :), sonre of whorrr arc likcly llso ro hxvc bccn pencl-painters;
ofpalcl-pairrting nright cvcn lic bchirrd rhc vcry invcnrron

,,lceLl, thc practiccs

,,i llrc rcd figurL'tcchnlaluc. Nor is finer clEraving apptrcDt on meralwork, ' ,,lccrl thcrc scems to hlvc bccn sonrc clcclinc hcrc after thc scvcnth cerltury lr t ri oLrr of nrodcllcd (cast) clccoration. I rorl thc scconcl cluartcr ofdrc filth ccntrrry, howcvcr, wc havc tlcscriptions t tlrc ,,vall-pairrrings of l)olygnoros ofTirasos (working principally it Athcns r ,l l)clphi) rnd ofthc Athcrriiln Mikon. fhcsc paintirgs arc clclriy quite novcl r L Lrrnposition, bcing lrljor friczcs with figr.rrcs at lc:lsr halflifc size ancl clisposcd , l,.rr(1 dowrl thc friczc, which wls itsclf onc-arrd-a-half or two fiqurcs high. I lrcrc wes no qucstion of pcrspcctive in drcsc picturcs, ancl thc uppcr figurcs 'r L lc rot snrallcr or dccnlcd to be fi.lrthcr awty, or cven lcss irllportarrt, b!1t dtc


possibility of, c.g., cuttin!! olFsome figurcs, as bcllind rocks or a hill crest, :rnd of introducing ncw rclationships bctwccn figurcs and within groups, no longcr bound to a singlc ground linc. This opcncd up the possibilitics of ncw corrccptions ofspacc iD figurc compositions. !trc know tllc paintings o Jy l'rorrr clcscriptions by latcr writers, Dotably Pausanias' figure-by-figurc accounl of rhosc at I)clphi; nonc havc survivcd, nor wcrc thcy to drc tastc oflatcr coPyirt\ end collcctors, howcvcr highly tJrc nemc of l)olygrrotos was rrted 1 hc new conrpositiorrs wcrc observcd and inritated by thc vasc-paintcrs froDl rbour 46o on, scldo:r end in a linritcd way, though with irllporlrnt implications for thc composition oflatcr vasc sccllcs. Thc carlicst exanlplc, ancl perhaps tirc oDc !hat corlcs closcst to thc aPpcilrancc ofthc wall liiczcs, is on thc nanlc v:lsc of rhc Niobid l)aintcr [1], whcrc wc scc thc fiiczc' of on c-an d-a-half figurc hcight ud thc cuc-olF figurcs. Somc bclicvc that tlrc ncw paintings also introclucccl lcw poscs for figurcs bur dris is not bornc out by rhc dcscripciorrs, elrhough thc cnlargccl ficld arrd thc ncw pcrception ofspacc ifnot dcpfi which it olfered, probably cncourrgcd somc boldcr foreshortcnings; bur drcrc is no dranratic cbangc. Thc ralhcr oldtashioncd alatonrical dcrail shown fcrr somc figurcs orr this vasc (rhc cnrplutic bclly-pattcrrrs), and on slightly lltcr vascs which also sccm inspircd by wallpainrirres, has bccn thought a fcaturc ofthc major painrings, copicd by thc vascprintcr. If truc, this would bc irltcrcstiDg and surprising sincc thcrc is cvcry rcason to bclicvc th:rt thc vesc-p:rirltcr clid not copy w:t1)-paintings, Ji:rc for linc or figurc by frgurc, Lrut lh:tt thc inllucncc was far nrore gencralizcd and thc ncw stylc clrlstically adrprcd to thc diffcrcnt nrcdium which could offcr long lriczc conrposiriolrs only by rvrapping thc sccncs eroulrd thc largcr crerer

of vrricd

grour)d lincs within thc composition ofi:rcd thc

, r, rr ,,1 .r Lrlc. is no longcr a novclty. Facial expressions cxplore subtletics ,, r, ,l rlri rrrcrc grintace ofpain, and postures abandon the formuiac ofthc

' , ,,,.., l,(x)k, rlrlrorrgh each paintcr will

develop and cxploit his own


L \ , ,r r r ( \. t Irc plintcr contrives 'to includc ilr his art morc ofnaturc's manifold t,1,, r r, , rrrr rr.r t hln bcforc' (Bcazlcy). Colour and pattcrn bccome subordinatcd to

discussed already in,4RFH I ch.4 - fic l\l ,,,,,( ll\r\. sor)c por-pxintcrs, and followers of somc ofthc Late Archaic cupI ,,,r, r, ,rll in varying degrees depcndcnt on the old tradition. Here wc ! !1,,i, rrr.rtc (nr thc tlcw, but the Archaic constantly intrudcs.

, .l,rr'r\t()l) of lnood. ',,,,,,t l,.rir tcrs ofthis pcriod havc bccn


obscssion with pattcrn in arraronry ancl drcss, arrd with ir sonrc ofrhc delictcy of clrluglrtsnrrLnship: 'thc nan who draws oudincs on pors bccotttcs a hulnblcr,

'l'hc carly drawing stylcs of thc [arly Classical soon :rba:rdon thc Archaic

rrorc rncchanical person' (Bcazlcy). Thc moocl is nrorc dignificd, almost irustcrc, and thc perellcl cxprcssion ofit in sculpturc is aptly narrcd thc S.:v.:rc
Stylc (CSCl) ch. 2) typificd by rhc sculpcurcs ofthc Tcmplc ofZctrs at O)ynr pi.r. Athcns h:rs littlc to ollcr in sculpturc u:rtil towards thc middlc of thc ccntury, rvhich is whcn many think thc finc Riecc bronzes wcrc crcatcd (ibid-.f{r. l8 9), in an Athcnian studio. lrr dctail, wc scc thc pattcrn ofclrcss shakcn or-rt itrto looscr, rrorc rcalistic folds: wherc rhcrc arc stacks t>flolds chcsc arc no longcr dcfinccl by zigzag hcrllirrcs bur sirnply grortpcd in plrallcl lines oftcn with a dot Pattcrn

bctwccn. Thc hcavicr woollcrr prplo-,,,^76111 by womcn in prcfcrcnce to tltc looser and nrorc ornatc .l,i/dl abcrs this imprcssion- Ar-ratorny is rcndcred sonrcwhat nrorc intprcssionistically, but still with carcful obscrvttion ofpetlerrl, end a propcr profilc vicw ofthc cyc is gradually achieved, ptrpil to lhc front, Jong uppcr lid. lleal forcshortcrling is attcmptcd lncl the rhrec-quartcr vicw,

I r, Nr()rn) PATNTER [1 8] is thc prime exponent of the new style. We have '1,,,r,.,,,1 his rlanle vase [4] and its demonstration of the influencc of wa1lIL,,,rI)1,,, l)rrr rDust notc that it is so far uniquc in his work and appears late in his , ,, , r A vrricty ofthis composition, with only a slightly rising or fluctuating 1,,r r,,l lirrc. is found in thc work ofhis contcmporarics, c.g. It-2, r3 ], but not (so i r ,,r lris vrscs. It too probably dcrivcs lrom major painting and in its way is ,,,r, , llictivc at suggesting depth offield though almost as restrictive as the old i , , , r r thc lumbcr offigurcs ii can accommodatc. Our paintcr docs, howcvcr, ,,t1, r .,. rr c finc largc-frgurc friczcs on a singlc groundlinc [2, 3 ], often encircling rl,, r .rr'. .rnd pcrhaps also cchoing morc conventional narrativc stylcs on largcr r,, ,, rrr othcr mcdia. Hc likes thc largc vascs for such subjccts volutc, calyx ' ,r,l lrcll cratcrs, with somc of the medium-sized - pelikai, neck-amphorae, l,,,lrrrr lor rnore modcst groups. Anothcr way to answcr thc intcrcst in major tr r, :, s .rrrrl nrany figurcs was to split thc cratcr ficlds into two narrowcr friczcs, a l, r,vc find also in the Niobid Painter's work [5, 6]. ',,, ( )r lris nanle vase the ground lincs lre in white (and so barcly visiblc in Ilr,,r,,rtr.rphs) and this is to be the rulc cxcept whcre paintcrs dispcnsc with thcm ,lL,,r'( (lrcr. Somc modcst floral cmbellishment of the ground may be seen: lrr,lll 'larrdscape' though this too has been attributed to the influence of , ,,1.,, .rpc clcmcnts in major painting, which thc dcscriptions show to havc bccn ,, rrrrrrr.rl. I Iis figurcs havc a finc, solid prcscncc to them, scrupulously drawn and ,' rrlr ,r lor ofdress and armour patterning in the Archaic manncr, although this ',,,,,, probably docs rcflcct thc grcatcr colour and dctail possiblc in mrjor 1,,r'rrnq. He has a 6ne, almost antiquarian eye for the detail ofdrcss, ar,d for



nrorc old-f:rshioncd, but

giants or ccntaurs, as did thc wlll-paintcrs, whilc his smallcr vascs carry divinc pursuits or clcprrturcs of warriors, hcroic, or Adrcnian, or hcroiscd Atherrran. wlrich bcconrc incrcasirrely popular. TIrc hcroic atnrosphcrc ofa dcparturc sccnc such as l7l is applrcrrt whcn lvc contp:rrc it with Hcccor's artnjng for dcparturc by Euthymidcs, fifty ycars crrJicr (,{1?FH I-/ig. -t:, cf.45), and on Lil thc "nd thar nunrbcr of wonrcrr plcscn! hrs suEgcstcd to or)c scholar this should bc, Achillcs prcprring to lcavc rhc llclics ofSkyros lor Troy, encl nor rn Arhcnran subjccr. Thc fornrulac lor such sccncs had bccn long cstablishc'd; when a ltcw one is sought for a myrhological occasiorr, :rs on [t], wc m:ry bc surpriscd by rhc ;rpprrcDt r)aivcty irr showing how Apollo dcflccccd Paris'arrow to Achillcs' lrccl. Ofthc Niobicl Painrcr's conrpaniorls rhc ALTAMURA PATNTF.R lro, r I I is c:r1ntcr,

4:), rrrd this is a quality to which nr,,r. !,.r\u prrntcr.\ will now:rspiic, with verying clcgrccs ofconviction. Hc likcs thc cpic fighting sccncs, of Alnirz()n5,

oftlarrativc- Tlrcrc is a nronurncntality about his work which cscapcd his prcdc'cessors, cxccpr, pcrhaps, thc Klcophr;rdcs Painrer (,4RtH I lr'gs. rz9

,, r,' ..,,lrr, L,l bv thc hish fjclds olli'rccl by sorneshapes. ()therwise the clcsirc r ,, L l,r,,lrlt r.rrr()r) ,rf snrrllcr ligrtrcs on thc largc vlscs, ancl thc narr.rtivc l, I rr, , tlrcv ollcr. is lrrswcrcd by putting two ticrs of Iillures or1 cratcrs, ,,,,,11, \\Lrlr rrrrr,lltcrlstrlrjccts, l clcvicc wc lravc nrcr alrcady wirh thc Niobid l',,,,, 1 ,. r,l Nrrnc ofthcsc variablc groturd-linc or up-ancl-down coDlposi,,', , ,,1 l,, c.rr licr tlrarr about 4_io, and rhcy look apprcciebly latcr rharr rhc ,, ,ll' rrr(r':n;lr)rcv;rsc. lt7] and lrg] offcr odrcr painrcrs' rrcatnrcnts ofthc

',, , ,', rrrrilL lrrczc tn a cr.1tcr. k is clcar that thc friczc, whcthcr or not it rs l. l,,i rlrtiqlrt,h;rsbccorncanrorcimportxntclcDrcnrfornarrativcdisplay L rl , I' rnt l, errd ir is Jikcly *rat drc rrcw stylcs of major pairlting arc rllc
lirr this slrilt of



lir Lrlc-groun

d-1in c

conrpositions, Jnd Ir,9] a djffcrcnt usc ofthc

lot for

drat rcason 1irerally his scnior and only

tcrn pcram cntaJly his'clclcr brorhcr', ls Bcazley c:rlls him. Irrdccd hc decoratcs thc 'ncw' shapc for tllc volutc cratcr, wirh nroulclc'd ncck I ro], which rhc Niobid l):rintcr docs not- Hc dccorrtcs stamnoi too, :t shapc also nrvourcd by thc plrurrrs oflerqc pots (brrr scldonr a lield lor rhc Niobid Painccr), whilc thc old fashioncd
bc11 cratcr wirh 1ug handlcs is not forgortcn Ir r ]. I Ic sccn)s nor to bc r:rkcrr by thc ncw compositions. For thcsc wc turn to e crudc but bold followcr ofthc Niobid I);rintcr, thc PATNTER or rrrE Woolly SATyns. I,zl is a gooci cxamplc ofa conlposition with thc fluctrrating groLlnd linc ancl it ncrtly dcmonstrltcs both onc of thc distirrctivc cut-olF figurcs and a darirrg group of Greck clispatching Anr;rzon in a conrbination ofpostLrrcs unthinkrblc carlicr. Anrazorronrachics arc fivorrrccl for such sccrrcs: a subjcct popular roo on wal]s, scrving ls parablc to A drcus' succcssful dcfeircc:rgainst thc l)crsian invasions. Hjs volurc craccr li3l rl,itlt its sinllle nilrrow friczc aud figurcs on a variablc ground linc offcrs a richcr tcxcrlrc offiEurcs than nlost colrvclltional rccl figurc, and cxp)oits wc11 thc litrc black ofthc vitsc walls, as had mosr black figurc volutc craters. Ir4] is no lcss original: this scc'ms ro bc a wcary Hcraklcs with rhc dcad lion (which looks morc :rslccp than dced). Thc scatcd figurc should bc Eurysrhcus, thc yourh Iolaos, Hcraklcs'conrpani<>n, but hc sccms alrcady to have e lion-skin. A third trcarnrent fcrr rhc ncw corrlposirional styic is to il]crcasc thc height of thc friczc relativc to thc figurcs, as iD rhe crrly cxlrnlplcs lry thc parNrnn or BoLocNA 279 [15, r6l. Wltcn rhis is combincd with ntore ovcrlapping groups rnd rctivity rlngine up and down the ficld, the gcncralc1Icct may bc confusug, errcl ifwall-paiDrings wcrc rcelly likc this wc must ittlaginc rhat thcir grcatcr sizc inrproved rhc cfFcct. [t sccms barcly approprjatc on a c]ay vasc, and latcr, bctccr peiDtcrs who arc attractcd to such compositions wiJl spacc thc figurcs rnorc cffcctivcly, whilc poorcr paintcrs will range thc)it in scparatc but trndefincd

t I r


ly rclrtcd brrt rnorc acadcrnic group ofpailrtcrs sAw no ncccl for sr;ch

,r rr r t)rrly thcir lcadcr, thc VtL^ Grurl^ PatNrnn lzo 2jl, will rcgul.rrly ,r rl)1 ll)c litrgcr critcrs for his work; for thc'othc'rs pclikai, stamnoi and


r \nllicc, u.irh smallcr vrscs. Thc nrost characrcristic cornpositiorrs arc, in , ( \'\ pl)rrsc, 'quict and harnronious', k) thc point ofbcing boring cxcept ,1,, r, thc subjcct rrlttcr clD hold us. The revcrses of thc vascs arc lnorc r rr ly now 6lled by Jay 6gures (the ViJJa Ciulia Painrer ofrcn has a'king' and

,,,",,rrrcn),banalgroupsofson)cvaluc,howcvcr,iridcntifyingartists'hlnds, , , rrr thcsc 6gurcs (commonly 'mantlc figurcs') drc artist rclaxcs lnd rcvcrls

,,, ,'r,,n.rJly works on whitc ljround,

r , ,r

rrrtLrrrl' rDd lndiviclual h:rrrdwriting his signaturc- Our paintcr also as in thc rondo on [zo] with rhc goddcss 1..,,,)holdingajugtinncdovcrtoinritarcsilvcr.ThcCnrcac()PArNrF.RJ26 291

r r)r()rc cnEeging pcrsonelity. Thcsc rrtrsts rnrtiitc,ln rnlcrcst in

rlrip lncl darrcc at



pillar inragc ofl)ionysos lz4l, oftcn associ:rtcd by schollrs ,i rrlr thc Lcuaia fc'stivitl, or with an cpisodc in thc spring Anthesrcria; thcsc hevc a tr,irl bLr! visorous voguc. Thc Pcrsian bcing attackcd on [29] rcminds us thac r ,lr (ontcnrporary cncourtcrs with thc barbariarr hacl bccn givcn a dcgrcc of r r()r. status in Athcnian art sincc thc l)crsian wars (ARFH l.ftgs.27t),3oj).


t llrltut Lnru Ly lht Nil,iLl /,an,rrr. .sarA r,/ lnt: tuy . ,)l ,lilhn tnp( oi Kd\\ 11111
t ti, ,trtd

th( Ni,)i,irl /ini,,/(i.

Wttttr lcpan: (AltiLlLs.fron


t (dhrt,tul hli) Calys tratr by rhL Ni|'ltid hli tt ltn"t( td\.). Apll., Attotis a tht


uthLr, ,4nt:uonaLhy

2 t/.1 ( L'ntl L,y th( Nnt,itl Pni 0. Al'oN klL, lnrtLl by Phalot.

tr\ thtttt

by tht NirhiLl Pdi tet. Cigantodathy: Arts,

Zas, Ano i!,

ApolLo. tsclou, Dionysos.

j Cdlyx trdto



Ni\)hid Paintu. Abor(, the.qrds./&t( Pdndotd.

B(k\*, a Pahltdttr drtr\

ta l/rlLt.

Oildtlnn hy: Di tt\)\, Ar]tu , Ztr\






tfu Ahatunn Painu

Bt lan,,



(b(Lt\,) B(lL


Hddkl(\ lnle$ Ol)aq^

nfit l,t tu



E Palih! hy

th. Niotid Pd,rkr.

"tr 1th, Nnbitl 1'a0ttt t;tra d,ltt: Znt\, Hdrklt, 4tlhlr, Atttn\

(hd.tu) Caiyx rd@ tu


,t) t lttt hl th lrnitlb rftht t t trllh ' r1i! ttu dul lidl


, 1, I I t fuhtt( trrt( I'l 1lr Pdittu if I I )i t ) lhrt H.rd^l'r r,'l ts,jni\. ri 1. ri, \,rr1r ,r(dn,r/ 7lr.l,.i , ti,i r hl'\r)- H- 7r-5 ^.

t, (dhor() V.ltu htt:r l't th! Pai'tu .l tlt

Ll oolly Satyt t. An a :ttLtnatlty

11V.ln( 6tb

ln Pdiltu,,Jtk lyD.lly

Sdtyr\. D.dlh ol ,4k1aiL,t


l?ckv af 15.) Ath




Bolor a )79.

(tuLt) Vol . ddttt hy ttu l)ot 0 A ,t:a Wnh),


4.. t tt\


tt Vrlui tn t to etdl uilh th( ()\N,n Paittr. .4tltillts



t9 Cdlyr

tato h)'tlt( Stt.tkll\ Pdntn\. Kadnt

on1 rhc Llra,qot

,o Ctp hy th( nild O"tlio Poi' tr.

K.n Din . ,1.5

,3 (aLrk) Stdtutu\ hy th( VilLa Cutia Pdhttt. Apalli and M$t\- Il- i1-1


W$nt! .[ Diony!i\ (t1it|ft ihnr.


std,n@\ hy

ttu Villa


td P,1ittkr.





:z Btll raxt


H.t :t

tht VilLi Oi id l,dit 0.

t.s drd ittfa

t Diaty\.:

enter by

tht Vill. Oirlia Pnitttt


',,,,1, t't tht Chiedro Po"tat. . t ,t I l\ t.t |t. H. 23

10 Pointcd

dnphard by thc Orcithyin Paintar.

Bor?as and


a (akw

Poitn l anryhatu by the Copenhqte Pantut. AthiUes rckit,4 kttu ahnott. H.47.2

Altcni'. H.47.j

leJt) Lekyrtur by thc Villa Oiulid Painto_ Apotlo

,7 kboft an.l h.Low) Stannos hy tha Chnara paint(r

?ollbo+'ittt, Stda'"-,lt th,\', la; t,1-tB-a lpl

,6 pelike Ly the Chndgo Pdintet. Poly eilet bib6 Lriphyte

35 Calyx crater by rhc


PanLtut. ApalL.,,

Tittos d d Ct.




hy ,h" D,"1,1,,,a Pailnn. A

ldty a n (ta firht


Onn)(ho( af


j'.1! (rrtui|yht.q


Cro"t) rf

Doli rat5.

Hctaktcs antl


Sdtyt dtdtk!



Cohnn mtet hy
hti!1tct (1tdtt.

thc hy



Ot(lt$ tht1tatul

Clytdtuit nra killi Aqistltus

YdL( O"nd1o!..ldadnLt H-.1.1


Hyitid by th! Pnhn.r .l




17 C.lrnn ndtd hy tt Cku.ln d Pai tu. Kai .ts


(1c[ t.l dl,at)

Lottrophotu\ hy th( Sytdttlc

pain.t. ptuth(si\. H


tq Colnn htu hy tt Sfrdtts. Pdhtu. 11. 4 r.l






t\ id' ttltlltl.,t t)l HhtLL!


Ctln n rrto by tu ()rlutd


sdtif/ t. n ho

,t. (:rlrtrtt tl1to hy th. O,|utul htnto. -l,trrn d t


fi(tL.; tht .4,t\, \ltit to ri.tttl

t t,L

tr\ Ly


Alkn nllr\



Honlh\ d n tuititllr!

ii Htd.'

.rj \i.l

d,?r.rr ht th lllkirtuth! hti t(,. t l.h1l!1.! I


\'..1 i,ryrr.r, lty rht,llLinatlut l\1i n1'. Ih(!r\ t l lalil\irt\

ttir t\i\ ltrir Zai

tt'\ bt rfu .llkinalo l)diltt.t. Bi ll t)l


at l'rhtu da!.r [l th Btun! h]ittu. 1l-


, I I , ;

t,,,r i).rirrrcls ot lhc Icriotl rrc rDcrrror,rblc il('rrcr:rll) ti)r indi',ldu.rl

l,.rr(i.Lllrr stlbjc(as. .rrr(1 lll.rrl! f;lvotrI llr( c()lul]lll crrtcr. .l slrilPc Ll l,r' tLc sccrrrrcl rrtc; it is n)()rc crsllv potte(l, rrr()rc cr\ily c:lrric(1. l\ t(I.c robtrst. llrc ()l]lllrryl,\ lrrtrrrr,rr L.lrrl convcl.: stili v)lrlc \ L .rnrl gr.rrr.lcLrr, lrrd rrru\r l)c c.rrlv irl thc pertocl. Notitc thc firtc, r l.rrd h:ril oi thc North WirLl (ltorc,rs).,rnrl rhcthrccdifii'rcrrr u;tvs
r rL

irrc \ho\{ll rcxli\tiL cLrrls. xrlLl rhc Arclr.tic rvrr'1'locks i,,,l,hlcr. Thc Ar,t;rs r r r L. s l)^r Nrfn rlso r lcrr A rlhlic oriqinr (:rr thc , rl),untr.r'sbench; .'11?1rl/1./i(s. r99 -lor;ln11hcr,.]) rrrtlrttcrupts (r.rtcr\ ]t5, ;61. ()tlrcrs ll: 11, i7 l.i] .rrr Provc corrrpctcrrt ;rrrd , ,,it,rriorrrll,v \\'rth \()rrr('rigoLrr irr tirrurrrg, oaa;l\iolt;lllv with lt() , l :.r.rlalry dirccttrcrs. lhcl irrrlLrlqc sonrc nrinor sPccirlls.rtj(,n nr ,, ,rr rl]cl lcbctc: q.trrrik,ri l;l', +ol (.orrccrrtr;tttolt bv sorrrc l.lilrtcrs ort r rl rr,1 wcdclirrq r,:rscs $ il1 bc rt fi'rttLrre ol tLc a()llllllq qcncl rtiorr' I hc 's , ,s l'ar I r r rr l4;, .7 s I rc.rll\ n)rrrr ()1_tlrc l)rtr l)rtitrtcr clttictcr trlourctlts rnfl)or:rc rr(l )ck,r'thoi (.'l/lFH I,hlt.. ::) +f. c\p. thc lckvrlroi,./r(r. I , rqcring Archlisrrr c,trr bc sccrr cvrrv\!hcrc it tlrc uolk of tllcsc , l).lilltcr \ bLrt thc llottt,rs ,rDd l t otrl' l)ll\r lr n\ l./J 501 illc thc

, .\ r)t_thc cirl\


ut t.tttt l,) th l\,tttt

I'tli!1tt ltr,

tjjtl :tiritrl


r. p(r vcr scl\, .lcnroting rlrc rrcck fior,rl irr iivotrr ()f


olti iislrionccl


bl,rck nccks.rrrd rrqht ,,,1ri r. gcncllllv uot irtritirrq trrorc lh.trr orrc or two liqlrr c\ fcl sidc. I'11is , r,L r rrpicd irr rhc ::rrrrc ycilrs b\ rhc cirrlv Mirrrrrcrisrs :rnd otlrcrs rvllosc r rL AlcL.ric studios is Irtorc:c.rdrlv,IPfirrerrt.lnd r,r,ltosc rvork hls bcctr I r,, .l/l/rll I ch. -1. ,,t tlrc lckl'thos printcrs rlcscrrc.rtttntion lirr thcir corrrlibtrtiorr to rhc r,rl.lrir)'o1 .rn ol(l tc.llrriquc wLitc groLlr)d rhich is lirltllcr sttrrlictl r r ( llr,lptcr [i{)ur. ]'hcS,rrr()lrRorrl)AtNlltRl5/ tlllsilbtrs,vorp-prlrrrcrtrf r' rir, ojlcrirlr plcrsrrrg ifLrn.rrrrbrti()Lr\ tlqtrrcs of)oLlllts llttl wotrtert otr , i .orrrc bcttcr u or k orr lrrqcr r,'tscs. I lc p.rirtctir lcrv lcd-figLrrc lck,vthoi, \ \\ hltc qroLrrrd wlri.l) rrc Lll\\c(l clst u hcr c rrrd hc :t goo.l rvltitc r,,rLlo,.vitlr IIcrr l;r]. I'Jrc lR()r,rYl),llNttRsPcrsrrtAthcrrl'itrirrgorr rnrplror:rc,

Lr. rl),lrry orhcr l.rilrtcrs (lcvotcd ro tLe \rr).rllcr Pols. Il()trblY


r,rll Nol;ur'rrerk

uith thcir iris

r ul-ligurc. btrr tltcr c rrc sorrrc , ,lr,rrrqc of rnood. Most of his lckl thoi 'rr,. r,,LrnLl. u'itlr thc !rrrrc sirnplc ruL-,jccts. rlrrnly sirrqlc llgtrrcs of worlrcrr ,..Lrr,l rhc olrl bl.rtk-prlrrrettc shoulLlcrr 'l'hc Atsr:tttxtr! l']^rNrr,li 16. (-rl l, ll,\rirsRlrrr t).llNrr.R h,rvc r sirrriLrr r:rrrii( of irr ,r tlrr.r

' rs PLrzzlins lr;1. lhc Ilrlu,trotN Ir^r\lllk ltb 591 r,,':rr thotr{ht l)1' r r,, bc r'cr) likcl,r'tlrc sillllc tttitll ls the Atllclrl l)rirrtcl lr'ho 1l;rLl rrll rs c.rrccr in Lrhck tigLrrc c,rr1y irr thc ccrrtrrr',v (.-1Ii|1J pp. rr-l .1, Ll8). r .h,rllqe oi tcal]rliquc :lrld .l(l\' )c,trs sccnr .tca()rrlPrlllici-l bY il '

n, (:'lu

thttt L) th. llitrr



rt irttlIriNtLt

1,,,1r,,1 lhcsc'us a:rcl with -lroj:rn sccncs outsiclc; rhc tcchniquc this tl n rc , , r t , r r I rcd fiqurc and rhcsc 'firll insidcs' arc tours-dc-forcc r:rrcly ,rr, rr1,r,,l b1 virsc-paintcrs. l hc borclcr to thc lor1do of his rralllc vese was :l ,,,,Lrr rl r r v fiie zc, a dcvice that will notbcforgottcn by ptinrcrs (:rncl scc lris I [1,,, ,!t)l), but on sonre othcr bill cups with lergc tondo scc]rcs hc pLlts an

l, l, , ,, lr r. rrorc couvcrrtionully imposing nrlstcrpir:ccs. Anothr:r cvcn bisgcr r1 , , rr r .rr rors) frorr Spina l8r ] fi11s its irl rcrior with r friczc lround thc toDdo ,

Thc Early Cllassicrl cup-p:rintcrs rvorking still in thc olcl tr:rdilion rvcrc
,4llirIJ L Thc ncw srylc is dorlinatcd by two narrrcs which typify rhc bcst lnd rvorst ofrhc pcriotl. Ihc l)rsToxtNos l'arNrrn 164 69l carrics much of thc tlclicacy and qutlity ofthc Latc Archric into thc ncw pcriod; aptly, hc pr.riscs Cilaukon on his v:rscs, son ofthc Pionccrs' darlirg, Lc:rgros (,,'l RFH I p. : r j ). Wc nlct Pistoxcnos ls thc skyphos-1'rottcr who acloptcd thc nanrc Syriskos (ibid- p. r r 4). Thc pain tcr h rs rn othcr pottcr liuk wirlr thc Latc Archaic in h is clccor r tiun
discussccl in

,r r,.rrlr bordcr [8-z ]. , ,r lrr r sidc t() his crrccr is dcm()nstretcd by thc cxtcrior of his nanlc vtsc I,' ', r, r ,' tlrcrc lrc trivi;r1 sccncs ofbig-hcaded youth s alcl rhcir horscs. Thcsc, ,,1,,, rl,,rrublv dullcroups ofyouths and girls, pcoplc thc nrajority ofhis othcr ,l, lr,l l'lrc srylc is sJick, nor quitc cerelcss, sometinrese rnitc charrning, trut rl, r lr' rvcckday nranncr abovc which hc riscs only irr rhc larecr rondo cups

, I

,,,,1 r, rrthcrlabourcdcxccllcnccofhisrlarrcvasc.Thccxtcriorofl.lzlhasdrcsc

of onc (or morc, cups nrrdc lor hirn by thc now clclcrly I)ionccr Euphronros
lrorrr peirrtirru ro pottinu in thc carly lifth ccntury; ibid. pp. z. rhc clroicc ofr whitc srouncl hrr thc tondo carryirrg dclicatc but vigorously conposccl outlinc clrlwing wirh a strong Archeic flevorrr. Hc has ln originll way rvirh srory-tcJli)lq; i llrajor Jrtirt ofthc pcriocl. His rvhirc gronnd rondi nrLrsr bc c:lrly,47o or iirtlc latcr, rvirh stroDg rclion I64, 6Jlor sirrglc tlcirystutlicsl6Tl.'Thcrcisasubtlctyofcolor.rtroD ancl dctail hcrc which cscipcd r)rost ofhis contcmporarics- Ofhis conrprnr,rns thc lAReurNrA l'arNrnn will e]so rry whirc-grourd tondi [7;] but is gcncrally sirtislicd wirh rcpctitivc youths and lthlctcs. FIis snbjcct martcr is still strorrgly Archeic. Thcrc is othcr inrcrcsring work of rhis fhvour in this arc. [75 79]. C)bscrvc thc black cnpboy oD If] w]ro inrruclcs irrto thc pl.iD band ofstill-lifes u,hich rcpl:rccs thc couchcs in thc syrnposion (.rs,4l?lLH I.hX. lo5).
(r,vho had turrrccl

1,,, ,, irlurcs! brrt paintcd by rnothcr hend. Bcazlcy dctccrcd sonrc fifrccu ,lrll I rr l),rintcrs sharirlg thc work of dccora!irg cups in this 'workshop',

3l): lhcy ilrc clistinguishcd in thcir painting too by

, r, rrrly cloi:rg tondi or cxtcriors, wh:ttcvcr was palsscd to thcm along tltc l, ,,rrr'c rhc orhcr sidc hrd dricd off. We need not dwell on individuals, but ,r ,,, , ,rsionllly risc to bcttcr drinqs, sornc copy thc ivy-wrc:rth torrdo-bordcr ,t r ( rr;rstcr's vascs [87, 8E] or artcrnpt a full insidcs [90], cvcn if sp:rrscly I l,,rlrrtrl. Pyxiclcs arc anothcr lavouritc shepc [891. Thc rrurnbcr ofidcrrrificd ,, tr, rrr dris workshop nLrmbcr rrclrcr r thollsend thall hvc hundrcd; by now

l, r

Thc sccond cup-pairllcr works latcr and is importent ls both ;trtis!


' , r lr()r)) thc cvcn lcss illspircd, vcry letc bllck frgure which it was rcplacrrg l/i/ // fp. rJo r). r, portcr Pisroxcnos scems to hrvc inlullLrritcd a fislrioD for spccialist I llr,rs protluction and dccorrtiorr. Thr: LEwls PAINTER [92 95], who, no doubt l, r l,r rl)()scs of ldvcrtiscrncn I or sclf-cstccnr, borrowcd thc nanrc ofhis rnorc


h.rr thc

bulk of Athcnian rcd figurc


prodlrction wrs about, laking

cntrcprcncur (ifhc wes indccd nrastcr ofthc workshop that wc associerc with his r:rnrc): thc PrNrlrrsu.uA l)ATNTER IEo 86]. On his nanlc vasc thc figurcs fill thc tondo IEo. i ] lncl lrc rhcrctirrc as big or biggcr th;rn nrost on cratcrs (t]rc cup rs 4-1 crrl :tcross). ()nc scDscs thxr tllc colllposiliorr would havc [rcttcr soitcd a rcctatlglc' rhan a circlc, u,hich clocs not rncan that it wts copicd fronr a fiiczc or plnc1, though it clclrly f<rllows thrr stylc ofconrposition which wc:tssociatc with nr:Uor peir)ring. It is e goocl cxlrnplc ofthc inadcqnacy ofthc mcdiunr ald ficlci fir such clrawing, but individually thc figtrrcs arc inrprcssivc, hclpccl by rich touchcs ofwhitc tnd gilt relicl I'hc tcchniquc is rhrr ofthc whitc-ground vascs (inclcccl prccious littlc bleck backsrourrcl is visiblc). Thcrc:rrc opaquc wxshcs of cololrr on drcss, ovcrpaintcd with whitc or black lincs. A pale wash shrdcs thc intcrior of 'Achillcs" (thc idcnrity is nor ccrtain) shiclcl; his body is rcdclish, chc orhers brownish. Wc giinrpsc hcrc thc lppcarance of m:rjor Early Olassicei plintr:rg probably rnorc clcarly than on lny s(rrviving whitc-qround work. Bu!

r rr

ofgods, olccn lavishing sonrc carc'or) thc clctail ofthc ritlrcr stiff Owr-Sxvpn()r bck)n!: ro tllc sccond:lnd thircl querrers ofthc ccntury L,,l l,r csc-nr thc Athcnian owl rnd (rivc sprig on cithcr sidc, oltcn on r skyphos l,r (thc.(1drr: owl) with onc horizoDral, onc vcrtic.l hlDdlc (likc a bc.rk :rncl r ). thcy irr.'rathcr like holiday souvenirs, with the local coat ofarms [96,97]. ', \rN r VAL]]NTTN v:rscs, l]lrir)ly skyphoi or footlcss kantheroi, :rrc pattL'rrlcd ouly 'rrLlr chcqucr, fcathcr/scllc rnd rinrilar tcxlilc-likc dcsigns l99l, which will . i ll.t llcs eppcilr rlso orl thc orrrsidcs ofothcrwisc Iillurc-dccorated cups. And r rlrr\c ycars thcrc is a short-livcd ncw kantharos shapc wirh stumpy ft)or and ,,,r h:rrrdlcs, dccorarcd by various hands l98l. Wc turn with sonc rclicfto thc llr Lrf thc grcirt n;rmes of this period. \( )TADr.s w;rs r pottcr ofirn;rgiuatiou rnd delicacy. He and his entoLrrage rllade

, rr(\t chaptcr), printcd rrxny smell skyphoi iu a pieasirrgly unassunrng Ir f ri( r, llcDcrelly withjust ooc or two fiqurcs on cach sidc, favourir)s pur\Lrits
,r,,1 ..trrriics

rrlLrishcd con terr

porary Polygn otos (arrd so is ca)lcd I'olygnoros II; f<rrlscc

rrr irrg.




oLrrlirrc drrwinq is cxccurccl in prJcsc gloss pdinr, bur thc rcldc,cl coloL;rs arc nreinly now_1osr. Tirrcc finc ctrps ir London (two arc ro.z, ro,;l), wirh rhc phillc I lrool rnd-ocher ribbcd cups wcrc fountl irr onc !or:rb ln Ailicrrs. l.lrc subjr,ct nretrcr ofrhc tondi is originrJ ;rncl rttcntpts havc bccn ntadc ro firrd a cortr:not ftctor which might cxplein thc purchasc :urcl dcposiriorr of tllc qroup in orc tonrb. (loral rccl is usccl on thc oucsidc ofonc, ,rnil in thc groovci ofthc ilutc.l cups; it also appcars rrl othcr cups, erolll1d rhc toncio roEl or on tbc outsidc, thc I lesr irnporttnt Llsc lor this untrsual colouring ccchniqnc.

odditics (irn esrresal Iro5l). A nrorc colourful inriratiolr ofarr casrcrn shapc is rhc Hutcd (rvhite. bl:rck arrcl coral rccl) phirlc, wlrirc within, rvith e cicacl:r p.,rcJrccl on irs rnvcl l.rool. IJis dclicecy is displ:rycd in drc snrall cups vu,ith nrciryrhought h.rurllcs. clccoratccl by rhc lrtisr wc call rhc Soraors parrrlr iof]_ -ihc

typc Iorg f:rnriliar fronr prccioLrs-nrct:rl l)crsilrr spoils and inrporis tiorrr thc Lrst; othcr-s rrc wholc ligrrrcs (sphinxcs Iro6l) or eroups (a l,cisier lcading :r camcl Iror l, r r)cqro boy clLrghr by a crocodilc lro4], e rrounrcd Arnrzon), or

nrrlr bcr ofnovclty fiqurc vascs wirh rccl-6lrur c dccor:rrion on thc v:tsc nrouths. Sornc rrc in thc shapc ofeninul lrceds (rams, clogs, bolrs lo7], donkcys) copl ing


5t (ahot) Cq bt ttu snho tuli t)dittttt.


y (ht) L.kytho! b)'ttu Sdb.wilJ Pdil .t. H. 15.9 :t (l\hrr) (:rt h), tlt. sahatrL,A hut!.t. AYll,'


n t,l)tlti

l), th, 1i thttu\ l' ittl

lunth n\ t. H

tl ) t l,lt ) P,ltlr l,) th





ij /rlf,1 ,i(r/l \nh I t, ttt), I rr ,r


It1^.r t\


It\tlt,, I), h 11,it,\


,,lit ltl.)th,,l,) th |\.r,1 n t,

t,l:),lD\ liy th. lJrtl.ili

6t lrkytho' I'y th ,li!.ltitu: L\tiikt. li\ rkl I ilhol:


(:rlt" lw\ dl,l\^fto hr ttu ..1i!lti t\ hri ttt I njLtL)tlt, t) ttn. l\tth, t.t tr1. ll ,t_)





rrir irirrr,x.roj l,rinro


Crp b, th( Pi\toxo.\ pdjlttr Dlnjh of Oryh.,\

(/'Ott) bf tllt l)istaxt .\



;) (:rt


|h. Trtul|ilin h1i1l('. t)i.n-


l,t r,i. /)iJn)!,oj 2rnrlrr. L/.akttt



6q Llol$nt hy tln,

l)i!r.\-ir: t\ttjtu Itt,tkh.!


L t.:|ry

h) tht l iquriht ]\trtL'. Atlnln n tl Hqlninr\ tuhit A (lidr . Di&" .tt


L!k)rh.: i tlk nnu .l lht t)inovltr!

i1 ()\t [y

thL Pai itt .l Alh.ti\ tzil

la (l(ft) O"Ntt


h T tlt|ia Pdit .t.

(b.l !) ()tt n 1ltu r tr.l th( tr\ i ir




ti Bhlrt


()!p by tfu Aino

Pdiltt(. Yrrth tal\



On.tlb. hf


Pnhtlr af ll




()hatlo( by thc lta, 1\.l [Ltotrt ao,l. Zus d


sr.t C


by th. Penth.\ilu Pait (r. AthiLL5 nnd 1)o h^ikn?

Dib .11



(dhrt( d

t b(l\\t) (: r

by t1l


I t,l, I'y 11. Plnh!\llu r, I () ty"Edt.

Si!], Mititan,


itiLtl. Dionr.7,

tt5 ,4eroeup


by nr ktthesiba Painter lhr i! t5taftd. Dia,]t. ,r.4

t6 (htlow) Shyrhas by nt? Pothcsilad



odr: of a pdn,

tAphrcdit, ?)

"t tt tlt, | )Dtrr Panr,t Dian-:1


Pfxir hy ttu Pdnh af La,kio D


87 Cup hy



pdotel. Apono. Didn. tz.5

ttl Cup by

the Abcrdeu Paint?t.


an.l Atala td

., t ),t' hy la Wetldi"r Pdniu W.ddinf



dkd Thdis

. tlt, l1r'ii Priltkr


(),, jlU,/r.r. //. ,r.J

n- \l yltlt,, 1\ tlr t t i t\ t, tiil, t ,/,,\,1 ,t !ttt,,1,t

i)t Skyt,lDt hy lt t,t,u,i\ lrt;tttt. Iai! .ttu! !-ittt,,,trt



i:l!ll)ho\ Ly

tlI tjti\ .1 :r !. H. tl.j

,9 .\t l'dl.

t L,Itthrt,s

, ,/ /'i //,r s.tud.r Ptittto AlPtu'

roo Phinl.

Dirht' )15

uith tndth hy k pono SotadT



ta\e bt th. Ntter Sotod.\



, ',,

ttr tur (t



Sotatut Pdi

tu. Nlrnh,lvr ils

& t t: H


to5 Ankqdl hy th. :jntote\

pdin1 L.





-,' -rLl t,ti/ I,tt.,r rn I t,r,t,.,S".r/,. /,,,.4., t, r\,x/,1 \ilr H .o' ^tl


rl,.\,rt) dL,r tr th(


l\litto lar1 tul tu


n do). Dian.


Chapter Three


I l, ltcr lin l)aintcr. masrcr of thc Latc Archtic pcriod (,4RFH I pp 9 r t t I) . ,rl,,l .rr into thc sccond qtrarlcr ofthc 6ltlr ccrrtury arrd hecl a busy ifrr'rt ,1', ,r. ,lntinguislrccl tirllowing (,4RFH I pp. I9l J). Thc Acrtrrrs l)'rrNrrn lr,1 rrSl,.rtworkbyabout46o,sccnrsllisnatLu:ll succcssor xlld nr ey cven hevc


r,,,, r .l

'I'hc P:rrthcnol was bcing plrtrnccl irr thc nrid filth ccntury; in 43 B thc tcmpJc wrs rlcclicatcrl lncl irr rhc lirllowing six yc':rrs thc pcdinrcnlal figttrcs wcrc instellcd. It rv;rs l buiJding rich iu nrrrblc sculprtrrc, lrrd in rclicfrrrclrhvork and p:rinting (orr thc cult starrrc). Thc sr.rrvivinq sculprurc typiflcs lor rts Arhcnian arl of thc pcr iod, irs Cllssicel, idcllizcd stylc. In vasc-paiuting wc rightly look for cchocs ofthjs, bur it is clusivc, althottgh wc rley tclclily dctcct sccncs uhich appcar to ;rlnr lor !hc slrnc idcrlizccl, hcroic autlospherc,:rod sccucs ofcivic display. Thc $J;ry thc c fi dcvclops cln bc ttndcrstcxrd :rlmost wholly in tcrms of thc mcdir.rnr rund its tcchniqucs, perellcling radrcr than copying highcr:rrts. 'l his chaptcr dcels u'ith 'thc I'arthcnotr pcriod', ycrrs ofprospcriry lnd powcr ibr Athcns, dolvn to thc,l2os wllL'n war and cvcnts lvhich wcrc co lcad ro dcfcat sign:r11ccl for sorlc paintcrs e surprisinq chlngc ofnrood. I havc dcfcrrcd to tht' ncxr chrptcr orle or lwo :lrtists wholn Be:rzlcy irrcludcd ill his '(ilassic' phesc, not i:r lny atrcnrpt !o itlprovc orr his cllssific:rtion, but to isolltc hcrc that work lvhich is truly'Prrthcrronian'and to kccp ()gcthcr thc work ofartists whtr cxprcss morc fully thc rrcw, nrorc florid stylcs of latcr in thc cc:rtury. Thcrc is soincthing ofthc appcaralrcc oflhcsc ncw stylcs ilrcirdy in thc latcsl Parthcnorr scu)ptnrc (thc pcdirrcrrrs), Llut nor of thcir nroocl as il is exprcsscd in vasc-

,,,, ' ,1,, llrr. strtrccts Itrr, lr.:1. Likc his llrrsrcr hc is not lntrch intcrc-stcd in ,,, l, t L1.d srory-tc'llirrg btrr is satisflctl rvith sruclics ofgorls, Nikri, pursr'ritr. | , rrl.rrq. Hc rpprccilrcs prrrc black, Plltrilr!! thc tinicsl vigncttcs ()rl sornc t ,l .r ,rrioi,lndirmeyltavcbccntrtlchthcsamcprcfcrcncc'whichlccllrinrto 1,r rrlr, rrcrcrsirrgly popullr sqtrat lckyrhoi, wirlr tlrcir sinrplc hceds anci busts i,, ,l ,,,r.rtion. WircD hc.lccc,ntrcs thc biggcr crltcrs thcliqurcs drc ticd to thc , , ,Lrr,,l ror clisposcd up lnd dowrr ill thc'nlodcrn tlratlncr'lcerrrcd fronl wT lls

tlrcrclorc big bJeck vescs (1ikc thc olcl-fashiorrcd bcl1y arrrphora, his .rrc I rogl) or thc srn:rllcr Nohn lrnphorec w)rich dispJay wcll thc onc- or

Fronr this point on, drawing stylcs clcvcloP Inorc slowly thln they had in thc pililltcrs:tchicvc a Ilcw lllastcry ofsPicc end lhc f:LsL hundrccl ycars. hl tilnL'sot1lc iclrtiolship bctwccl fiirurcs, or sttcccssful dcpictioll of rllass lnd motion irr linc drrrlvirrg, bul for lhc rlost Pxrr dctcrlrlil)ation of darc ancl of rhc work ot'

r)llstcr, hc- pcrltlps Prints ilr blilck frqtlrc loo, for prizc l)llrethcnllcs ground 1c'kythoi, 1o t). I fii'sobcr bceuty'is bcsl cxprcssccl otr whitc , , I , lr rr,c lttrn latcr, though hc adnlits sotlrc of thc tirncral sccncs oDto rcd r,,,,1-r,thoi lrrEl,rnclhis'battlclor.rtrophoros'ltt3l ise rrocablc:tncl rroblc,, llrc ch:rrlctcriz:rtion of thc old warrior orl lrl4] is tlllcxPcctcd ill this t r ,,,1 ,,l rtlclliz:rtion. IIc rvorkcd on to rt lcast 4lo, il sccnls His carly vesr's ,,, / r/,,r nrrrcs (Klcini:ts, Lich:rs; whilc l)iphilos lncl I)ro:lippos arc his , i,,fl1( \ ()n u,hrtc grotrncl) rvidr Fl;rrly Classicr) cuP-plirrtcrs; his lltcr, '"r'ith ,, r,, bc ,ncrrrio,,cd bckru (Euaio:r :rrrd Axiopcithcs; with tht'l'hialc;rtrd

l, , lr.

lil/ // /,f

indiviclurl ertists is still clcpcndcnr ol obscrvatiorl ofdctirils ofdraughtsnranship rnd shrpc. fhc connoisscurship bcc."... nrorc ditficult elld thcrc is llo spacc lrcrc fir dcrlilcrl :rnd pcrsonal conlpJrisons- Wc lnight hlvc cxpcctccl lhc il]Bucucc of m:rjor peintiDt to grow, irltroduciDll lrcw orllllllcllt or cvcll il dcsrcc ofpolychrorny, wc havc orrly thc incrcesing usc of whitc grourrd ltrr r lirnitccl if DLlr)rcrous cltss (thc whitc lckyt)roi, Oheptcr Four), wirilc rhc up/clou rr corrr positions or usc of ir vtriablc ground-1irlc rcnlain quitc rarc duqitt thc etrcntior thcy incvitebly uttritct irr tcxt- lnd picturc-books. (icncrally tht'

I lr,'rrl,,rirrtcrs).Thcl)wanrl),trNrtlullrg,l,zo!aldl)Lt{srl'll()NLl)AINTLRIl2ll

1,,,1 ,Lrr

r, i

tc,-l folL>wcrs of. ;urd lkirr to, ttrc Achillcs Prirrtcr by Bclzlcy' l)warfil r(tcd thc synrPilthctic altcntiol ofAdlcrrirn ptintcrs bclorc ('41?FH I ). Irlgl nrakc. nicc:ltlclllPt at clrawirtg arl Archeic kouros rs rr crrlr


qood ertists lrc torally contpctcnt in llretorrrical rcrldcrings, though still stricdy ibrnrul:ric in thcir usc ofstock poscs ancl eroups, ancl thcir ar,vkw:rrd nrcdiunr ri'r thcnr still to rneirrly profilc vicws of hcacls ltllcl to rvcll-speccd colnpositiont'

I , Achlllcs Painccr's ptrpil, thc I)tlt,qrr l)^lNlLR ll22 /2d1,'an 'rtisl oftruc l, r rrcl. in his l:rrgcr rvorks, nobility', h.ts sinrilar prcfc'rcnccs but pcrhaPs , r, lrr'.rrt lirr rrlrreiivc. Hc dccotelcs vcry firv u'hirc grourltl lckyt)roi but L, , . tlrc tcchniquc for rr,vo slrikirr{ crlyx cr:rtcrs {r:5, r;6] which,withrhcir 1l r rlht rvrlls. tltrs! lekc us closc to thc rppcerancc of thc clLlsivc l)r'!or ,,,, ,,' ,,t_thc clay. _lhcir subjccrs rrld corllPositi(nls sccDr not !o bc dcrivccl

scvcrll llrgc tw(rticr calyx cmrcrs irr rcd figurc kro; hc sccnts ro h:rvc'rhouqht biggcr'thln his rnastcr, xt lcrst in tcrnrs ofpots ifnot offigLrrcs. Hc is nlrrrcci for thc phialc It:81,:r shapc rlrcly printcd witl] flsrrrcs. C)fthc rhrcc v:rsc-pairtcrs rvho borrorvcd rhc r:rnrc ofthc iinrorrs nrurrlist thc losl prolific stlnds irt thc corc ofr 111:Ljor qroup ofartists. l)()Ly(;N()r()s It2q ,-rdl lcrllou,s in thc stcps ofthc Niobicl Plintcr lor his stylc lnd choicc ofsubJCt. llcrdy cr)ouqh !o lttcnlpr thc larqcr crxtcrs and onc ofthc firsr to t';rvour thc bcli cratcr, lrc ncvcrthclcss docs rrot f<rllow his r:restcr il cxpclirrcntin1I with nlrlrllist conrpositiors, ancl lhc ntost churrctcristic \{'ork ofrhc grorrp is s(uD tIl what xppcrr'rc bc cxccrpts fronr thc big Arrrlzonorrrachic's and sirnilar rtr.r-j,rr brttlc sccncs (ccnrrrrrs, crc.) fionr rvhich thcy cxtnct typicaJ tlrrcc-figrrrc sccncs.

lronr or inspirccl by thc irntous rvrll p:rintrlgs but possibly lronr snr:rJJcr pancls, or rrc thc peir)tcr's orvlr origin:rl intcrprcrerions ofstorics, pcrhrps nr:Lclc poprrllr oD thc staqc- [l:-5] praiscs Erreion, thc playwrighr sol of Acschyltrs. c h:rs

'Ihc Arnlzonomlchics arc prrticullrly vericd, irrcluding not only thc fishrs in Attlcl Ir;i r i-5lblrt thc T'rqln, with Aclril]cs, end thc Anrazons rhcnrsclvcs erc trcrrcd wcll rvith sccncs of arnrinq enrl riding Ir.7,u ], hcki:rg arry cspccill ;rqgrcssivc inrcrrc. Thc qirl rcrob:lt :rnc1 slvord rlarrccr on lr.7<ll ;rrc a l'air inclicrtion o1-thc Llcgrcc to which lili js bcconri:rq thc rrroclcl for sonrc rrrrsts.
Within thc Polygnoun (irotrp thcrc rrc sorlc irn porcant individtral peiDtcrs. On thc Mn)As I)ArNmn's lrrnrc vasc lr-;91 clrc l,hrygirn king prcscrvcs his di{r)rry
r,vith his donkcy cars. Ilcrzlcy s l)clcus Group includcs work ofthc I Ircron :rDd l)LrEUs l)ArN.rERs Ir7o r14l rvho do lrtcurpt thc grxrrLlL-r lriczcs u,ith verieblc srourd-lincs, which .rrc blrcly hintctl at in Polyanotos' rnorc nrodcst cornposi!ions. l'hcy achtcvc it


ln cxcclicnt Anllzol()nr,rchy lr-sql; Thclcrrs corrf'ror)tirrg thc qnilty Nl,,lcu rvirlr hcr poisonccljuE lrtl philtc Ir69l; l u,cak knccci Andiorrrcc]e vu,ith lr, r bllck artcnd.rrlts bcinq lcd to hcr stlkc lncl thc uyst rvith thc scr_rlonstcr

'r .' tlr) rL rv('tlt.r\.r\(\,,tLlr. (,r,,Lrl, ro,,,,n,.r.,rr1,1..r,.,rrrr,.,1-i, llrLr trjvilll, oltcn rrcltcd u,ith consiclcrrblc clclic:rcy: thc str;rngc rlc:trcs i\ rl,,rzios end Cybclc?) on {r-571 r,vorshippcrr bcfirrc ricrn, rn ccsr;tic dilncc

',vorltl lr49l: rhc firur Nikei pcrxrnilv the Cianrcs rr Arhcns, Ncrncir. Itlrr Ltlrorrrrrdlsrhnriit.ThcLyKAoNl,^tNrrRlrso r.sll .orn<rrl,,,ur th.rlrrsurl r r \.r\c sccr)c to :r litcrll illustrllron oflincs lronr Hinrcr, though hclcids:r I , r( thrr thc poct ierrorcs, IIcrnrcs, a naturll attcrcLnt ior t_irc inrcrtircc l, rrr rcrr crrrh rnd rhc tr.tlcr*,orld, u hcrr t)drsscus iirr t,vcr rht hlt,.,d p,rol t. ,l ,\rr()D his losr contrlclc Elpctror li-;o]: .ls wc cxch:rngctl thcsc rvorcls of ,r: r): steyccl srttins oppositc clch orhcr, I :lprrr. wirh rly sworcl drlwn ,,r,r thc.blood, lnd_rty corrrmdc's lahost orr thc orhcr sjclc, ccliing his lorrr:_ lr Lrrn t.rlc (tr:rns. Shcrvring). Lr his rvork. t()o, \{c scc en crrly iniinration of \\ r. I r\ to bcconlc it ti'rtrrrc ofrhc lirllo\i".i s gctrcr.ttiorr, thc rrsi of rvhitc p.rint ,,r tlrcllcshof.rgirl lt-sll. l)crs.nifications ofrhc abst.rct :rrc Crr,iliur in (ircck ll.rec (Lyssa) Llrgin!I on Artcrnis'cloqs to !c:lr irl Akteion,llrcacly sprourug .r r,\ .lntlcrs ot lr-;,:1, is orrc of tltc ocl.lcsr I hurrocss *;tt, wrLrr I ooil .t.rg,, s t1c:td tr.rii r, r qinq 6rrlt hcr owrt rabi,.l_ l hc CEllsrlr l)ArNl.lR's konros " lr,sll rccalls err \r,lrric subjcct. to bc pickcd up by othcr CLssical printcrs. Tl,c'liiNr.oxn ,l l'\r\ rlk has x litc l)rilpic intluc ofHcrrlcs, rvitlr setyr rnd tllc.nlcl Jrs5l. llLrt lrssl lJLrt rlr, rc .rrc a rDinor-ity of h;rnds disriDuLrirlr..l by 13c.izl.y i, thc .t,.,lvunoran



rlr,: thc l)al rnd slryr on ltddl nrolcsrinr I slccping rrr.rcnarl

ir rlr l bl.rck, lnd llTol hrs;tn urr.or)vcr)rional birth ofl)rndolr

.cwifi'. Thc Lrnrssierrcd Ir691shou,s how rhc rcci figirrc rcchniquc:coulcl

rjisq!risc,:l irs



ccrtrin dignity too lvhrclr sccnrs qcllcraily to hrvc cscapcd thc

J l)c Kl rioprroN l)AlN rFR IrTr r76] rrr:ry rot bc rhc bcst ilrrist oihis pcriod bur . lr, is.rhc crsicst. ro lpprcci:rtc. Hc lcerrrcd tionr polygloros. B.,.rzJcy wrs

r,,,orkrlerrlikc nrirstcr (ifth:rr w:rs irclccd his rolc). Only thc inscriptions on Il4o] rlisrineuislr I Iccror's dcpertrrrc h orl un Athcni:rn sccrrc. lnd o]d Prianr pipcs an cyc in r linc snrdy ofdiunificcl sorrow. Friqnrcnts of l crttcr $,ith sccncs ftoirl thc (;rnrcs fbr l)clils grvc us a hairy rthlctc, pcrlrlps I lcraklcs, bcsiclc:r cnpod, end thc sporty Atrlanr:t wcarirrg il $,rcsllinq crp and:rn advlncccl dcsign of brassicrc lr4.1l; cf- AITFH 169. Thc (locutL Prrrl'tln's Srrnrisc Ir.1-sj hls plrrneing nrkcd boys rs rhc lircling stars, rnd thc Eprmror:s l,ArNren rn crrrlordinlry cvoc:rtion of ;l kithtrodc's sLlcccss in n)irjor corr)pctitions of thc

rcrous to his'fiqurcs. . . ftr1l rncl flcshy, his clrrpcry loo*- anci florving,intl in lrr,bcst rvorks'a sirrrpliciry:rncl lnrplitudc which,.joinc.l u,ith thc grauc bceury ,,t lris hc;rds, ql'cs it:t torrch ofqrlndcrrr'; ,thc bcst.fhis rirrrc i, ilis


or.rtcs :r_fi11 rangc ofrhc lerqcr shapcs. Thc rnost chrrrctcristic oflris strbLcccs r rl,c us blck ro thc Archaic, thc frolro-r of rrcn ancl youthr, ciarrcing dclibcrarcly r,l 11uict1v, it,!ccnts, thcir clisrjtrctivc fc:rturcs in cllssic contp,rsurc




I:nl,hrr|.' n

,,. Nk[ n,rl!'tu lrl t]k lkltiLlt\ L\ti d nt uln t () litr\

t lhtlo( hli) i\!rl, t thrylhtr I'y th(


ALhillt\ IJnt

o. Oili t! n'1d tlt


i1, (l,tlou irhl) Nolot mtltun l,y .1tltill.\ 1\tnth. /ir d,/J Krfl,d/,,\.


11i Oitt\hrt l') tli A.ltilk! htin.'. H. ,J


tt 1

t \tttrtlt \r\ l,) tlL


\ l\tit a

(l(li) Ikll

.11to by ttu /1thillt\ 1\1itttl

)j (l'th\t)

.\turrtus hy

tlt . thilh\ l,rntlo ',t

t ) rr! hy tht Athillt\ Pdilttd. lh( nntkl ,)t ir t lrllrf H. 17 6t rj.6

,.J 1-.[),//ror

,1lil1(\ Pdnttu.

ly /li.

tri Nolu rlnt) hf tht Pli'tu hitut


re Nrh,r r hy tht l)r\tl l\iiitto Htlo ttul

r)tt I\'1il:t l)y tlu

l)trrtl t\ti ttr t t,r.t,t!.). It :l

Voi,,, r,/1,/ro,d


fi l)ltidh l\ti td. l\nth

i.1 1\lil. br


tlhiilt hlirti .,lr,,r,h'rnr(


lrll ttuta


tlr Ptttyltut Pni ttl.t ntu rn\) 4 nh|t 1,0\'],hn l


(l,ritx,r.ll'l bt ttu l'hiti L\tn t t\',tr\ ttul Anlnltila

tt,tt i.ttt tr.l'y 1lt Phial( Ptilto. 1)d N n l


Phial hy th. Phial( 1\1i t.r ( dht rd\'). Dir .,a.q


(ilyx ntL\

hy th. l)hidk Pri

It. tltltttt Dir ya,! tdktl to Sil! r! hy


$. Ij_ tr.t

trg Sta tu'. Ly ]\lU rt\)J. Krn&JrJ lL


lJo Stan

os by

l,olyg oo!. Dio\horrci_ H.


Netk o ryhoru hy Polylnoto\- Antiopc,


Lottrcphorcs hy Palyr ata!. Wcdthry.



13) Stdnnat by Polyrfiotus. H.tdkles

a d tdtyrs

t3, B.ll odtPr by Pnllr] alr:. And.on\

ijb P(litu l,y llry(,.roj. ti7 (tu|o!)

I,,,rjr rJ

dtr, MrJ,rJd


/f ].,l),!,,




t\,ly! .h,\ tTht^ n

rtq Std,n.\ hl th(

lrltli! hlttu ( rD f,!,

.Si/.,oJ 1,4o,. lliLl't\.


tao lrhar. , l lii) i\iak rnth.ti hy I Hit\tr Paitt.t lnnw n\') l,r; , II(tri hpn:

tai ll'tLtt') Str

"b! Nit!( |)ntdi Cnlull


th. p,1iitt1

. I t

. ,,


I l\t. t -ll nt n trird j

t',.. t,'. lth,.t. 1tt, t-- ,'' I'1''ll','t'rtt

t)a \t,l rrtt'h,nl,) rlt, lrl,,t l\tittrt \t,lt a T':, y'i' h rt, l l ri'x, Il. Jr


lt (:rly! tuh b),th 11ltt\ llli't . itutr" td\t) ll tlln! t'l 1\lLar d d

lylri,l ltt


C.Ihill latirttt.'t ht \n l H.lirs) /iJ'J; J/n/J J'r

t16 Sta tu)t hy tht


ta7 lhthu' hli) ! ,o"t\ hy th! ()t.(lklni I\i"tttt. tar (b.L\r

tp t\ltl', hy tlt, 1:l\11" l,' I\1ittt,t l. rhtrl, ,ntJ Nil ti ,, r;,rdr\


titht) Nttk

drylrota Ly


ttt. l)t.:tnt n

rlt Ilpitttht

lto lh!l,\r) l\'lil:. I'y tht Ltkro hntkr. t4rlo, nt th. l,it tl Hdlt\

t_r IJ.ll

.ntuhyth Lykaa llli ttt. Lys\t(F'0:y) ndA oti\

L)(nth rl',4ktriol, u,ith


| ,i,

tiu ht th( (:1ti!1i( t\titrt0

rsa Sn

rrdj ol rr'll)/f(rrrd, (;(irl)

t5l BtlL L ttat hy th. Lykn. Pditlt(_ Syhryosrrt toith.qit ud ior dd1|(r

rrr ';t.\

i,,/,, \'tlt

I ttr.\.n r',tillt,t

t:,: t




!h h)l)!btr

(;r.,f .\,rr,:i(rj,!r, Ktttlta t1


, j,r / l .irrl ,, n, r/ rll I r) rr!,r,, (;rjrl). (;r\,,,,/i,,r,rf




,r ii\ r /i ,i) |

rn)r /),,i/

il Ji,

l),t ,irttt ,'l tllt 1)rllllrt






r)r' /)ir,.r,r/ tlr 1\,1)lttrtlt ()idtl, IlL\11,ijt .\



ltu (:tlt\ t'dtur lh l\tly! ;t'\t)r llttt t,r'11,/,l,,iinrJ r,r


tt ti.t rl tlr' lr,i),(,,o,rrr ()ii,/i

I ltauyt

t ltln,h,l

ttn-t Ht,ht

ltthrtrt lt. tt


t( t

( ) y\ innl' rl tht l\l)'.1|ot1rt )tut) t)\\tti\ r l ltn\ilinr?

(:rl)\.t tt il ttu hllt|dn r;ary. lhttt: ml rhL lttll, r'irh


.ll{.IJ dr,/ .1/r,/r


])<lil.. ,4 tia ttld

r I'l'nl.


(h(ldr) l oh ( tt&t. Zttl',

I hrrt's, ))ltiutrhu: dtd Pattlata. 1/. 1J.j

tt (rh.tu) (:dly.\ nrtt r t)\\k.ihri .rh)' .tll tht nn .:tltu! \ il l.t,Lij,tr:.




tlt KlLitrhrit latiittr

1it t..l t irtt' l)t ttu Klotltrn priltkt ta.a\\irt t.,7,t!ttl



Di|o\ ltl n t) n" Pni, o (lL N ta!

1tt hlitu ht th. Kllnthtu l\ti ttr. H_




Stnr lo, bt th. l)i r! tlf Dj. ),\t\


th d )k! ltnn [.tu,s

t/q Cnty.t olttt' [y tln l)' o\ t\|illlta. .Atdl




ttu lrrttuat: Hiltldirrt\ r.t.itt:

,,\. (.,/f!,r

/,, l,) tl 1)iIr' 1\|tLttt l)irtrt,,\

lrll ,)h) l'l tln l)i r\ 1\tiitt,

lirr,-'hcrrls tcnd to thc lolir.;rnd,,tr;righr uitlr hrir drcsscd hiqL.rl)ovc.r hc.rribrnd IIis rrrost lirrrrrll .()r)lposiri()r, on;r qrrncl volutc aj.rtcr fr()r) Spjnil llTr l, prcscrts.rn Apollinc vcrsion oi.r proccssion to s.rcriflcc rvhich jncvit:rblv rc.,rllr thc nc.rr-.orrrcrlrpor.try l)lrthcrron fiiczc ((i,S(_p /igs. 91 f,). ,,rhilc th.. M.rvpolc oD I r 7,r ] cVoLcs .rD AthcniJ r fi \rrv rl. I lr rs tr (r rr rtlr rr hrtr ,,rr rhc odrl sccrrc of r;rr r iors irr .r gr;rvc1.rrd ort rlrc lorrtrophoros lt 76j. lhc l)tNos l)AtN.rFR ]r;7 r,t'-: I firllons hirn rr ;r lcss solcnrrr rci:r urrd,.ls rielrt rt thc cnd oithc l)aliod al)o\cn tirr this clr.rprcr. uith clcrrrcnrs, indccd, oftthc ncxt gdrcrrtrorl .rllcrriv .tpp:ucrt in lris rvork. IIc lc,rrl: u r.cncr.r.ctl if r-cstrictccl intrlrcsr jn thc gr',rn(1, ntLrlti lcvcJ contposrtions. bLrr lot tirr tltc cpic fiqhrs. r.ltl)er ior rhc l.)ioDysi;rc or r).trrilovc grorrps rvlrich urc sootr ro rcg.riD populirritv. .rrrcl r.r,hiclt tircus orr onc or fi.\\ ccrrtr.ll 6qurcs rrrhcr rherr Llcvclop l ihcrrrc llol!.a rLc tirczc


IJl. lhcllfPlrAlsrosl)AlNIliR poplrlilr Lrtc Archric snb.jct, A.1:rx rncl Achrllcs tlicirrg l:ool, 1, ir.rps rccrlling.r d.rrrregccl Acropolis rnonLr)rcr1! (cl-. lAlrl.lp. )3t,.ARl:lII /,, ,:(;,5,'1Pp.87). 1'hc l)ArNrrR or MtrNI(ttt zJ-tJ 0ro Miirrrrcrist) "vcshrll nrect rr iirr his rvork on wlijtc ilrourd [:61'], but hc dccorltcs rD:rly l:rrscr shrpcs ' ,i. l()6]: l'hcrclsrshockingclitli'rcrccbctwccr)lhisxrtistsbcst.rndhisworsr'
L )r,,\tLurrirrr;c1-.Ir;6] rnclcont;rst,il?FHI-i.(.
, s Lrs

\r..r:r rnrl hcr conrprnions: girunt. itwkurilrLl tittrrcs :rttcrnpting rc:rlistic ' hut tcllinq thc srory wcllcnouqh. I'lrc fcerrrrcs ofhis Mcdusl on lr97l lrc

brck to




I Iis rt',.1c ot drirvirrs lpproxiDt.ttcs to rhc Horitiitl ofthc sLrrcccdl q qcl)cr,ru,lt, .rrd orr ronrc v;tscs hc c.rn llso bc qcrrcrotrs urrlr n,hitc plint. lirr rrr Lros or tirrrriturc. trltich is.rnothct rrovcltr soon to bccotlc.ut olrscssiorr rvitlt v.tsc

u,hich hls inctc.rscd cnortuously in irrrportrrrcc rhrotliillout lhc rLrrl hrs bccn thc fcrrrirrinc: drc Lti' of rvonrcrr lnd tl)cir rolc irt culr or in l, ,'l,rrrrior) lbr rrtlrrrrqc. A spccillist iD !his is rhc WAslllN(i l)AINTTR l2d7 2ll l, ,r rri, rlccorltcs lreny wcdding v;rscs lcbctcs g:rrrrikoi lnci loutrophoroi rvith .,, ,lrlinq sccucs or rclltcd subjccts ofrvor)rcrt in thcir quilrlcrs (!hc,q),,r,1r4.k)r). L rs nrrrrrccl lor srnall hydrirc rvith \\'orrrcr) washinq. IIis stylc rnighr , Lrr to qurLf,v hirr) ft)r iDcluliorr irr thc ti)llorving chaptcr lnd hc is ccrtrinly onc , ' I l) c ,v()un lic\t ;rrtists rncntioncd hcrc. Hc is. b y thc stundards oilhc da y, a goo,.1 , : rLrghrsnrrn. IIis rchtivc hrcncss is dcrnonsrretcd by thc closc-sct lurdrrlering L rr\ orl wolllcn s drcss, irrd lhc rvry il] u,hich, oD solllc figurcs, the lincs cvcrt , gil] to brcrk into ctrllicucs, hrllnrlrks of rlrc florid stylc to coDlc. IIc hls ,, l,rr,r,crs I-:l.l,.zrll, lncl;rrlone thc irrdcpcndcnts clccor:Ltirlir larqa vitscs wc or:ry ,,,rrcc drc l:tit,orts l)rtNrrt's trsc of pcrson ificition lz r dl: Atht-nr was disr.atrstccl
( )nc slrbjcat

on;rhvrllillr,irl,.rnd.rrturrri,\\rLiJrr,l\,.rv,lr,rrl lh. prtcls thc .()lLrntn outcrr corrtrtrorrlV rct;llrr rhcir firnt,:,s iD rhc ,rl.l ,,r,,,,,,... c\p.ciill\ ,lntor)g tltc L,,rltlR Mr\NNr,Rrsts uho contintr,r. rhcir prcdc.c \or\. (. I/?l11l Ipp. r79 9;) rrtcrcst ir oltl snlcs unrl olrl rhcnrcs (c.r.. rlrc old_ lirlrioncLl birth oiAthcrr,t on lrqgJ) but ,,r.rrhout tlrcjr- ilrir lirr purtc:rn. I tlo not n.rrrc hcrc rll tlre prirrtcr.s illrrsrr.rtcrl in lrql -zo+l I'hc N,rusrr:,rl l),\rNrr,R \\.:rs ,lr)()thcr rvll) Lr()rc tlrc u t c l)olt grrofos. I Iir D.r nrc vlsc r94I ;rrr cpic thcr:rc, l u'itlt ()rlrrseus'll.tkcLlllcs\ lriddctr bv cxirruous brllclrcs .rncl Atltcn,t tl.,rtr
Lrthcr slrupcs

cr.rrcr plrntcrs lr,!(r t9.;l h.rvc occ;rsiorrrl sccncs oin;rrr;rtivc no\.alt\,. usurllv orr

rrrl sontc qroLlps uud ligLrrcr itr ir Ootr.ruronrrch,v { r,9; J. .l hc rolur)lr) (r'rtct lrus bccorrc tvcll cstlblislrcrl tg.tin, rctirirlrnq its oltj_t.rshioncrl p()ilrrc(l l)urls o, thc,cck. rr,:l sorrctir,c\ c'cr) it silhoLrcttc triczc ofurrirr:rlr rr. thc lrp: rr'c rccnt itrrdi,, to lr.rvc nrovcll rr.,,.rr. liorrr thc Arch;ric..l,irc colrrntn
I t,!.1 |

'l hr'rc:rrc nrrn\.otlrcr pot p.lrrtcr.\ oi!his pcriorl, l fi,u,ofn,horr qo hcvond ;t vrri,rblc rlrorrnd Iinc rn corrrpositiorr, ,rnrl nrost of ,,r.honr .rrc rrrcirror.rblc fir:. irtllridu;rl picccs of intcrcsriDq.()ntcltt. ()n bigqcr \,;rscs ttvo ricrs rrc srill Ir'ctirrcd ro lnvthiltg rlrorc c\:tctirrq bv urv of corrrpositior. Ihc Nlxvr,t l),ttr'rt r l ollirr sontc ltiqhlv trrtrsLr:rl sccncs. tltc Uldcr \\ orLl sroul) on his r).rrc


,\'lydeuswhohrllc:rtcnthcbuinsofhist'ircMclanipposlrrcisoshcdcnicdhinr frllorr:llity. dcDronstrllcLl on thc v.rsc (rtorv lost) by hcr lcrdirrg Llrllrort:rlity ,\th.rnrrsi.r) :ru,e,v lroru hinr. 'fhc llAR(tLAY I)AINr FR l2r6l Llcc()rrtcs il bcll cr:ttcr

\\ rth :ln unusuillly cleborrtc Jip nroulclirlg. Arlorrq rhc snritllct v:rscs ofrhe dry ilrrothc-r shrPc, lxr!!cly ignotccl sitrcc l:rtc L,l.rck fli{urc. comcs lo rivel thc ctrp irr inrP()rlincc thc oiD()choc. It is rlccorrtcd 1,., r rlistirerllshccl scrics oispcci.tlist ertists. At thcir hclcl st;rrtds dlc MANNIIEIM -r.:ol, itrr clcgrnt drlrghtsrrrlrr rDLrch ()f$'hosc u'ork stlrrds.lLtttt osc to tl)c L)cttcr l)() brrr is f:rr rttorc tlclic;ttc. Thc shlpc cDc()uraqcs .lclic.rcy. olli'rlng r ficld firr rclativcly fcw fisLrrcs and r goodly displev ofllorrl



otrrld thc hrrnrllc. I'hc Stluv,tt-ov l)^rNrrrt l22r z:4] follorvs hinr, itr rlrc tnorc widl clctr rntirll;l!iol)s of whit is to cottrc, etrcl rirrrsclf problbl-v rvorking irrro thc 4ros fionr rtroLlt .14o. His sprightly srrr:r11 igrrrcs, rvirh thcir irrtclt irezc, rvltcdrcr thcy arc phying:nylh or 1ili', arc rnrortg rhc nrost plcesine ofthc rgc. Hc dclights irr tltc lifc ofrvorrren er)d, ils corrlnlonly

L,lvrncccl l)erthcnoni:trr pcriod,

n dlc w()rk ofpilintcrs now, irrr Eros is oficn Prornotccl to rnortrl colrrParry. Hc ,lisplrys r controllcd prcttirlcss in rvhich ir is uot cliilicult to r crci rhc pronrisc of llrcrc v;rpi,-1iry. Sorrrc of his c()nrPrnions il)cl li)llowcrs, of d)c Al.rxANl)Rl, (irour,Iz:,rl;rndorllcrslz26 22t1, arc nladc ofsornclvhet stcrDcr strtf]'. llct$'ccn 1hcn,;rrLl rvith rhc Ercrrir Pilintcr', thcy will irrspirc whar u'ill provc ro bc thc bcrt of thc succccclng ilgc.


r.r7l, contcr)lporlry ofthc Shuvrlov l):rirrrcr Irtrt rrrorc inllucrrri:rl, is rhc nrost iutcrcsting of rlrc cup-p;rinrcrs, :rlthonglr his ir, sr rrork ls rror orr cups but on oinochori :rrrrl sorlc inrposile squat lckydloj I2-?q -:Jol uhich ulc pclsurdcd to c.rrrv rrrrlti-figrLrc grolLps up lrd clorvn thc flcl,l. ;rncl on occrsion :rrc str-ctchctl to sonrcthrng rcirrcr corrvcrtiorrirl lckytlr,,s ploportr()ns, .rs in thc finc cx:rnrplc in Ncu, York [:-1r I rvhcrc l ccrrrrll zone rt whitc grorncl, lncl tlccorrtcd u,ith el :rpproprietc firncrc:rl thcnrc. Achillc: nrourninq b,v dcrd I'ruoklos rvhilc his Ncrclcl illn!s brirrg lrirn frcsh :rrrlorrr _['hc ovcrsc;rs. prirtcr dccorrrcs oddcr sh:rpcs too, ligurc r,:tscs rnd hcrrl klnthrroj. I hc cLrps lrc or dirlry in thcir r:lcctxetior. lll athlcrcs or setyrs rvitlr nrrcn:rds, bur his othcr v:rscs hrvc rr goocl rllnqc oinryth lnd rrrarry scctrcs lvitlt norrcn, crrcfirllv oLrscrvcd :rrrd vericd in conrposirion rnd the bchrri,,trr

Thc Lrr,rrr,r l)^rNlr,a



,, , ,,Lrrr t


r, . rncl jn this b,rok, thc corrvctlicncc tirlt clictatcs thc insc,ti(lr1 ofa scParrtc ofwhitc grouncl vrscs ilr thc tlcxt chaPlcr should not allolv rhc rc;tcicr rt> i,r,rk thc inrlnr:rtc ccrnncctiotr of Irscs discttsscd abovc rvitlr Printcrs elld

r\ , \


lbr ChlPrcr Fivc.

rlcscribc'd. ()n l:.151 l kncc cr.rvcr lirr .,r,ool-rvorking onJy thc nrrrcs rcvcul thlr rhc rvctlding prcpir:rtions itrc lil inrrror[lls, not con!crnporlry Arhcrirrrs. 'I lrc F) ct ir l)airtcr is s()nrcthirlr ofil nlilriaturist en,.l his stylc ofrlr:rlvirrrr is rlolr' inBLrcntjrrl lith succc'ssors in thc flLrrid stylc tlrerr thrr ofthc Shuvaiov l)eirrrcr, ulro is nro:c ccorrorrricll, lcss pltssiorretc. 'I'hc (loDRUS PArNrfR l2r,! 2ll I is ir cup-priDtcr of djfcrcnt rcnrpcr]l)crt, cxplnsivc :rnd Lrold in clisposrrior of nrrjor nrvth orr rhc conrp:rretiveJy snnll frcld oliircd. rc:rriy to fill insidcs ofcups l.z4o l, c,rrcltrl with lr;rtonr v rnd postulc


;rrhlctcs; olcl-fishiorrctl, rvc nright juclgc, wcrc it not lir tr:tits in drr$ inq ,.vhich rr.rkc clc;1r \\,hcrc his u'ork is to bc pJeccd. I k' is strone in sccncs ()l'

l,r-1,1, .u.,ro]. Thc Mattt-av l)AlNUrR's cups. nrorc oltcn prcii'rcncc u,hich rvill qrorv, rrc dorri:rltcrl by syrlposil, bLtt lrr. dccor:rtcs hrgc v;rsc1 to() l14-r,:1-J] l d intlulgcs thc rrtorunrcDul, vrrirblc laloulld linc, conrpositions of prcdcccssors. With thc Lro Parrrrn, he :rllou,s 'rc\rilc , Srillt Vrlclrrin pittacrDs on !o thc oLrlsidcs o1_sorDc cups- Thc eleborltc l.l;4 ] is cxccprionel rr rhis drrc. :rncl l:4-51 lrrs sonre oriqinll u,itys rvitlr ttlditionll

Arhcns nryth-history

stcrrlcss rrou,,

I hc


C)hssic.rl sk,vphoi is nrlintlincd trv rhc l)rrrLot,l I'ArNrr,R, ir Ilorrrcrist orr his rrrrrrc vesc [:47] :rnd on rnothcr u,ith Odvsscus sh,ving thc suitors l-:+61; :r p:ttriot on otllcrs with urrusurl sccrres of Athcni:rn cult

trlclition of thc E:rrly

e clignificd sr,vlc. ()n [:191 s:rtyrs intrudc on Ar]rcniln ritull, l.u.i,!l) rcrrdcrccl su.inging .r gi11, .rnd cscor!rnq lilcly, pclh:rps lhsilurrrl, firr hcr secrcd rulrri.tre

l:;9] rnd rnvrh history


(the bLriicling oiAthcts'rv;r1lr by Athcn:r rtrci a strrtt

to I)iorryvrs:lt the sprirrg Anthcstcri:r icstivrl. lbc ERr(irluoNros l)rrrrrrr


n.rrrcd firr his trc;lrlrctt ofrrrothcr-Athcnien thcnrc [:-;o], rnd drc I)ArNrriR ()1, TrrF Wun/BUr(i Cl,rnrrr proviclcs err enrusirg cnvoi fbr this ch:rprcr l-:-5r1. Thc problcnr ofclcfinirion bcrr,vccn chrptcrs is ror,vhctc rnorc lantc th;11 hcrc.

Sr'vcrll of !hc plirrtcr\ tliscusscd rlrcedy hrvc ruovcd t'iom


clrssicisnr to r vcrsion ofdrc ornatc:rnd Horici srylcs rvhich typily thc lesr dccadcs oithc ccnttrry (or, rlolc irccllrrtcl,v, irr ternrs ofAthcns'history. thc ycars ofthc r itv r tlccLrc rr,-1 dcti'rr). llcazlcy hinrselfchangcd his nrind ebout r,viro tr> placc

| | Ltdl d1nd tut' ttu (:h'li! t\|iltttt. Sd,rili( rl a ,a

,fl(lrfi,,d/( l)t /r. \'.11,i,, l)ti 1d.t1ir n,raf).S.rr.Jrr l!rl(: Htrt{lL.\ r,filj ttu\11:a l PL.itltr)t. Il1rlt\ t. lLli Hort: n illl; t pith d l &rt ttiiu, ttltiu hrlt t rt ld hrtiit) t:r\ird, .ltlt.\ l\tltr tlt: r tl Ilt\'ttlr\i

)lrtrit tlu ht tli l\ti t' 'l tlt( t..11tk (httnri rnh) t nrtr td\') H



(ir1).rr, rrli) /r. \r(fir 1,,r,[,r (:t1 allrrlrltl

t\. Ittll r nt L), th t\ it.t ,j L, rtt ttrttturt ,nlt)

tttt I


t\i tl\1, ,) H),tltr L) tlt P|rttr ,l nt tr tJ t ri rtr ltt I ttlrt\ i l)a ht, hi! ddr.\:ht.t\ ht ittr rttt,

tF Qtht tt oli


hy ttu

O\tlltr\ htilltt'

19t 1..utrl'! by th( htitt!.t.1 Lonlo tq.!t. Wdnrtr. II :(

Luq Coh M httt hy tfu Nrlh: Ptiittt. Otthu\ d n\tt !lt Il \

r //y/rid 1,), 11. Nd,iji.dd t ,,r,' ])u!(1t\ r d Matlr\r



hy nn Nd r\ai 1\1rt0 O,lyrrcas arrl Ararsicna

rnl h(lor')

N'r,c[ nnplrora

( r r'rt\').


N..[ dflflr.r, 1,],./r.,Ndtritdo Pai tu

\6tt:\ I\lutut ( an( rd\().

rys Cal,n"t


hY th.

()tt!.5 dt D(rlti tuith Aprll,tndnl:tttf

P.ti|kt- ltla t IIdt[hi dlnl


r9a H),r/,i r




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,,, Idil. rl

tl1. Poitll&

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t ii., ht !h. Ihthditfu! Pnttk\


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tali t


by tlk

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by n4

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nt Pti tu



2115 ltnt



l,tlik. hf th! Pantkt Il ,j


l\lntrh ).1i5.,44,/1,, MItr

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rr r 5,1,

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, /, Itrrt]


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l.l.i .ttJ ..1


,tti 11.11 tuntt b) tht Rt)t1,\, l\r td'. D!t hrnt r'itl1


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(rhrk r l l4i)Oi t)t^it l:rt!- H 1).+

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()i rlh& l,j th l\ld tlt.rti


lI- r)

) | ) tirtltrL hy

nl Shrnl')r


to hr anl Knnn' 1l' :t

,,a (ob ,(, hli d


onNhr( ht th. shu'rtr1)

,22 Onodtu by th. Slu ,nLtt

Pditut.,4" :. \ It_ rt.\

,,6 (htt. ))orr\1r\,. LL


i , , \1 b(lan,) Kntharos L,f nt AlLso*tn t)t!l\ t l .4 kt:o s: l,harLrts a Alrxantt, 'i tr,,t.ridAnrontht


Orn\ltrt hy tlr Sht nl,,, lldirt(. H. )l


s.lrdt l.kythrs. H- to

2s Ork\h.( ()ort



/tjdir !/i nr{.

ttu l)$ut\ l)ttt.,

atu oa!


alrl h(h\r

t4i) sq,nt

Ll:vtha\ hf ttu t"tu'ttid


Ana:otorutltv |ith 7tus \'

:t1.1 (ti{ht) lrk),tho\ (tot) nn.t.Ll) by tltt Llfthir Pditt.t

,29 Sqtut Lkytlk, hf th! Ltuttii laiinlo. Dit


d n .onpa


.,ti t'lt-t .:t, .rt 1r ).",./' '.xr. tt "tt t R't , ,t,,t,1.11 t t'l'l. ",1tt-.1r-"tt',


z.'t 11,tul \:tt.t

,.i) I'illi) ,l rylori\Lr! l),.trr, /)n!rt!)J' ,!rjl

hy th.

lt.nja t\li 1t,. 11. 1s t

.tt lilrn') Oi rtltu




tttt'ir ]\ljt t'. 11,r,a I likn. ttit rttilj! lfut)

.i, O,.J /r'j,,tr r.,) by th. Er(tti1 lalitttt'


l,\ l,dliirs' )lltni''

Ihtt r


:t(' ( itli l,.t


l)ttttir l',rrt,,
);o ()tt, ltt tln (),tl'n'

2t; t:tt, l)) tlt. l)1ttit l\utrt,, Ln,.r ,rr,/.\1.r,,!.J

l,r,tttt l)l ttl r,rl

| \ t t lt) ttu C)\htt\ l)dittttr- H.


11 t,t

L _ \t




t1(:dlyx.tdtu hy tlt Mitld)' Pri'|t.t


t,- t, ,t \t.,t t- 1..|__t.. .,-.', . .-111 ],|tt., t,]t -," I, I n:_.- 11. t_,.t..r,t

:r)t(rl 1)tlr t. ti nr tt tl tlj :.,t,

tt '. t Cnlt by tn tlrurnl



.ltull'tln1tt '.\{ 'f


t\ i\ u t\ti!





hl tlt l\ti|tl r.l l.ritlrlt


t.t lu, Iltnl.t\ t ,l tltl li." I,Il.t,ltLt,ltjtl

jlk l,i

i.ri St)rrlr.j /rI ,r, Pt tl')t( l\)i n\ .1,1\'tu1.f d n'ltt il (),/tj!,, ,un/ rA nur, htYkltit

iln" SlftJ,iJ h),

l\r tu




1tfurt tltd n lir)n

Chapter Four WH ITE G ROUND


lll whltc slolu)d vrscs nor rll lckythoi ofrhc por,t-Ar.h.lic pcn()(l ilr(' I , L:sserl in thrs chitptcr', brrt tlrcrc is goocl rclson firr rhc title. In thc [iurly r r'\i.xl pcriocl thc \\ itc glorrnd rcchricluc:urd lckvthos shrpc u,crc cspcci:rlly
t.l, ,Llrcr

L..,,,r.ltcd. illthoLrqh thcrc \\crc othcr sh.ipcs s!lll [rcirtg c]ccorltcd irr rlfritc

',r rt,.r lr:,;, r26l; scc (lheptcr '['rvo rrrd thc u,ork of thc Vil].r CliLrlla, l'.r()\crros, ;rrr.1 Terquinir p:rinrers :rud Sot:rcles. A:rcl ir tlrc lllrly (illssicll
r oLl nrost lergc lck,vtltoi r.c srill red hqur-c, bur thcrc is.rirc:rclv.r rrr()vc t() 'r rIc rv]ritc grouncl lckythoi cspccirlly hrr burirls enrl to dcco:-rtc thcru l.l,r()prilrcly. Mosr cerlicr lckythoi corrrc flortt brrttels, of c()Ltrsc, bur \\,c r rot bc srrrc thitt thcy rvcrc:rll ,,,ldr lor brrrixls llld thcrr clccorltion is lr thlc ,,r othcr shrpcs. This is truc in thc Lrrly (illssical pcr iod for thc rvork ofscvcrel r 1r\t\ \\'lro uscd whitc uroLrnd quitc frccly, sr.rch as rhc Itorvdoin, Aischincs lllcl ( Lr lsnrhc pirnlcrs ((iheptcr 'I u,o). I'ronr thc Clessicrl pcriod on to thc cnd of L , tilih ccrrrury thr'tcchniqucrr virtrr;rl1y rroropolizecl by rhc shrpc. xnd uftcr ,' tirlrc of thc Achlllcs P:rurtcr, thc lcrcling Cl:rssicul prrctitiotcr, thc strbjcct r rrtcr is lrc.rrly illwivs liurcr:rrv or intclligiblc irr rcinrs oifuncr.rry iconoqrl1,1rr. u,hich wc scc rlso ort grivcstorlc :cliciir. llut tllc grrvcstoncs ilrc , irll)lclllor;rtivo rD:lrkcrs. whilc rhc lckythoi rccord riturl it thc gritvcsidc, or I rcprrl.iolr frrr ritu.r1, or thc rlytholog,v ofriclrh. VirtLr:rllv rll cr:rnrplcs ofthc tLrrrcrlr,v lckl,thoi corlrc lronr Athcns.rnci Attic:r, or liorrr Erctr-i:r irr Euirocl. rr lrcrc nrlny Athcrrirrs h:rd sctlcd in thc uricl fit'ih ccntury. As .r 'titual' ty pu rt r\,rs D()t lirr gcncrrl cxport artl li'rv rc;rchctl orhcl prrts of(ircccc or- Itrlv; we rrLry usrellv slrspcct \\,hcn thc'y clid thar thcrc w;1s \ornc stronrr rDd pcrsonll \thcri.rn irtcrcst. A ii'u, plxces tlid, howcvcr, copy thcnr. Arch:ric usc of wllrtc srolrld. hrr bllck or rcd tignrc. hus bccn clisctrsscd ,'iscrvhcrc(norrb1y,'111/rtlpp. roJ a). r rl 4, r.+7 io, rgotorthct:rlscintcrir,rsrr rr.ur,v lckvthoi. llrrkirts thcir rcrl crprcity lirr lcss th,ir1 rhcrr;rpP;rrcrrt c:rpirLrty; rrd,11?ts1l Ipp. r7 r8, r.2. l, a)r, I r,+, u: .r, r9, I9r). Uscd for irlibrstn, thc l hrrc groLln,:1 irrrit:rtcs thc stonc vcsscls tllc shlpc copics; (nr orhcr shrpcs thc irrrpir.rtior rrr.rv bc diil'crerrr. Ir rcscnrblcs thc ground uscd fit f;tirrrccl u ooclcl fxncls (thcrc ilrc c,lrl,v cxernplc's ofrvhirc erorrrrrl cley pl:rc1ucs,.{1lII/ I-/r'qs. 5-t 1):rrrrl rrr litih-ccntrrry vlse plintrns u,c pcrh:rp\ c()rlc closcst t() thc rppc:rrrlrrcc ,rt thc uork ofnlur:rlilts rnd plncl-p;rinrcrs ()r) thc\c whitc,,rscs, cspcciallv in


ttu l\1tL\\' Pniittl






ttu ltrnhl|nitt t\1i H :(.5


Atl tr a t

tcchnique soo)r appc:rrs too (ARFII I lty.:ro). lt1 rhi' tinrc rol,,ur rv.rshcs;ur. bcing addcd (ibid.,./ig. : o7) and rhcsc rcmain e fceturc ofell latcr work cxccpt rl)( rlost pcdcsrrian. Ihc colours, though trsrrally lirccl otr (scc Chlptcr Elcvcrr), havc oftcn dis:rppcarcd lcaving a not urrtttrilctivc trxnsparclrt r'flcct or drapcry: this wts ccrrainly a clclibcrerc intcn!iotr on sontc vascs, to judgc by tltt. .rrretonricel dctlil trcncadr thc colour. Thc lincs :rrc irr thc fanrililr gloss or 'gllzr, p:rint ofrccl figtrrc brrt oftcn thinncd, giving a plcasing honey colour. lly thc Classicll pc'riod thc gloss peirrt is bcing rcpleccd by ntltr colorrrs for thc iincs, fircd on but nrorc fugitive. Thc grcaccr ranirc ofothcr colours (somc put on llicr. 6rirrq,;rncl rlany hcavicr, likc rcmpcrl) havc also provccl vulncrablc to tinrc arrrl burial (:rnd ovcr-cnthusiastic clcaoing), as hrs thc whirc qrountl, which rcnds t,r losc its lirrc gloss and is oficn vcry powclcry pcrlraps a bcttcr basc for colour. Sirrcc thcsc v:tscs sccl)r to hrvc bcL-r dcstincd lor btrrial or dcdicarion eftcr buri;rl rt rhc sravcsidc rirc-y wcrc nor iDtcndcd ro bc crrjoyccl by nrortal cycs lbr long. ;lnd iDlpcrnr:l11cD! ccchniqucs would uot havc sccnrecl objcctioneblc. Thc slrapc is cylindrical (so ir is possiblc to rakc rollccl-our pJrotographs ofthe scorcs, somc of which rrc usccl hcrc)- lr dcvclopcd by thc crrd of thc sixtlr ccntury, :rnc1 thc'rc rrc sonrc trivial varients with t:rpcrinq lowcr wllls or plumpcr boclics. Thc'squar lckythoi', wirh fcw cxccptions, do rro! attr:tct rhc whi[c qround or thc fullerary dccorttion. S]rouldcr decoration is as that orr crrlicr lckythoi (notably thc latcsc black-figurc) but rhc Early Classicel pcriorl irrrroduccs a ncw pelncttc typc.,vitlt sparsc, spirrdly lclvcs, sontc outlincd or rvrsh-Iillcd, lllcl soon to bc rordcrcd in ntatr colours. Sornc of ttrose rrtrsts irr whosc work lvc scc bcqitrrring thc clranec frorl) !!loss to Dlatt outliDcs for fi{ur,:s rrL'thc oncs who elso introducc rhc frmcr:try sllbjcct nlattcr, but tllc oldcrf;lshionccl kccp to thc g)oss paint outlinc's and usc'sccond whitc', as do thc bcttcr. Clessic;rl paintcrs, to disrirrguish r",,onrcn's flcsb tionr thc tricksrouncl whitc (sottc b)ack figr-rrc arlists working orr whitc ground answcrcd thc sunc problcrrr in thc srnrc rvey). Thc llcldenr lrlirtcr pracriscrl bl:rck- arrd rccl-figurc arrd brci

thcir use ofcolorrr, which wes gcncrally abjurcd in dris pcriod for thc essorti.rlly bichrorrc rccl figurc. 'Ihc firsr whitc ground )ckythoi arc decoratcd in silhouctc bllck figurc brrr latcr sorlrc;rrc p:rintcd in 'scrnl-outlilrc' (ABFLI fi1. -u69) encl I rvholly orrtlirrc

,lr nLqhtsnran l-rut shou,s sorl)c


llld thcir

vilricty ancl inraqi:ration in display of torlr['r dccordtiolr. His \\'orkshoP is srill busy through lhc

inrrodtrccd rhc filsc inrcriors to lckyrhoi (ABFIl pp. r,+9 50, r90): thc TIM(JxnA S l']aruun [z5zl lus rcd-figurc pallncmcs on shou]ders and uscs r 'sccond whirc', as docs rhc PAtNrrR ot ATIENS r826 lu-53]. Thc Sauounorr l),rrNrrn [:-5.1 256] was obscrvccl in Chaprcr Two for his plcntiful rcd-figurc rvork [5 r ,5.2 ], nrainly on cLrps, but r)1ost oflris lckytlroi arc rvhirc grorrrrd (lnd ct'. thc cup l,;-7]) and rvith funcrtry sLrbjccts, sonrc rhrec-qutrrcrs ofthcnr wirh nrrtt
ou!lincs. Othcr Ear)y Classical p:rintcrs worth a lncrlti()n lrc drc lNsr;nrprloN l'arrrrn [257i, rvho puts dot inscriptions on somc of his gravestoncs; lncl thc TyMRos I'ATNTER l25E 260). a prolific crlfrsrnar who rn()ves lrorrr I yellowislr q1r)ss pirint to r nr:ltt rcd gcncrrlly withour othcr colour. Hc is not I cercful t30

s:rcll pcriod. 1r is rs thc point at rvhich to spcak ofthc subjecr rlrxttcr ofthc whitc lckythoi. \\'Jren uot firncrary, es is stil) rhe c:rsc quitc oftcD bcforc thc rnid ccr)rury, subjccts iL r cpctitivc, worncrl and youths, rrrcly rnorc. Thc fi.rncrary subjccts, $fiich are i ( | to thc cnd ofthc ccntury, incluclc a fcw with eppropriatc Drythicrl contcnt .r , lr rs Slccp ;rncl l)c;rrh (Hypnos :rnd l h.natos) rcn)ovire a body l,t7l, z7-5l, or rlr( li'rrynlrn of thc clcacl, a shirggy, rusric Charcn with lris polc and pturt l-259, aJ, 2Zd, 2,J21, rcccivinq thc dclcl, sonrctinrcs lronr Hcrmcs (as p-,yr/roporttpo-r, ,.,Jcr ofsouls l:551), hcrc in a suernr ofnridgc-1ikc winqcd souls (tidola, c[';91); thc Jlst h.rvc pcrhlps bccn dcnicd prssallc ovcr thc Styx lhcy rppcxr on ,,rlr(r occirslolls [:74] and somc rlllkc nrourniDg lrcsturcs. O11 l:6ol Flcrrncs , ,,r1urcs souls into ancl orrt ofa pithos. Oforclintry fttrrcrelsccl)cs thc lilying-out i/r,)rii.ri{; ,4BFHpp. r j r4,, I4r) sonlclinlcs .ppcrrs {2,561 (cf. [2.rI] . lrcrc tlrc protlrcrir of Petroklos lppcars on whitc groLurd) but commonly rhc , i rtrcpiccc is:r tonlb rlronurrcnt shown in a grclt varicly offt)rnls gcncrally e 1, I.rr (-vc/r), sorlctinrcs morc like an rltar, or r gravc-rllouDd. TIlis is ,,, rirsionally dccoritrcd with sculptnrc lz73l or roppcd by aD :rppropriatc objcct L, up I2-t71, lyrc lz54l, loutrophoros [.:67], ccc.), iurd is oftcn ricd erouDd with trllcts errd with o1Icring vascs surnding (or brokcn) on rcs stcps. Marblc gravc rrLrnunrents only appcllr rgrilr in Atric ccrl)ctcrics ftom iL)out 4lo on (CSCPps-l) but !h()sc shown on carlicr lckythoi lrc rcal crr()uirh arld rrally rrust r(prcscnt wooclcrl 1)l(rlunicnrs. Letcr stclai havc acanthus ort'ttt11c:nt1276,277, 'f.7l. ()nc, trvo or rnorc l:llilrrcs strrid by thc qrrvc lncl sirrcc :rt lcast onc ofthcrrr r\ r cgulirrly shown carrying an offr'ring (:l Lrox or fillct) wc n)ry txke this to trc a r isit to thc tonrb on or)c of rhc prcscribcd occltsions aftcr buri:1l- Sornc figurcs, .r'.rrccl or slanding, sccnr irlcliffclcrlt lo rhc procccdiDgs lnd it is nrtural to assutnc rlr.r! tlrclc rDiLy rcprescDt thc dcad but it is susyricious lhat rhcrc is rlo unifornl r.olloqriphy to idcntify thcn). Mxny of thc vascs drcnrsclvcs wcrc pul lrl!o r1)rntrs at thc rirrc ofburial, thc oii havirrg pcrhrps bccr Lrscd ir) thc ritual; wc i.n<;rv tlris bcclusc drcy havc bccn lcrtrnci in totrrbs. llut thcy nrust also h:rvc post-burial offcrinqs, sLlc)r as rrc dcpictcd uporr thcrrr (both thc:rct rnd 'crvcri as ilrc ol)jL-cts). M,rrc ptrzzlirg lrc thc sccncs wirh e torlrb as backgr ound to othcr figurcs an L.rivc wrrrior [,277] or brttlc (ci l3z5l), horsenrcn l.z79l, harc-hunt Iz7z]; sorrcr)rust irlhldc ro livc bcheviour (bur noc ncccsslrily th;rt ofthc pcrsorl buricd, sir)cc rhcrc rrc grcrt r)lixtllrcs ofsccrlcs ou lckythoi fronr singlc burials; scc belorv). Apert fronr :r fc'w riturl llcsrurcs of firc$,cll or mourrlilrg thcrc lrc vcry fcw rcirlly crrrotionxl sccrlcs on thc lckych,li [267]; !hcy carry sobcr sralcrnclrts of u,hat hlppcncrl ;rr thc ronrb, or whet was thought to havc happcncd. ThLrs, cvcn ( lhlron nray put to slrorc bcsidc a gravcstorre [-2,!zj. Scvcral Jatc sccrlcs ]ook vcry I]rooliy t() r-ls but arc no r)lorc s() tlull nlrrry contcl)tporirry slolrc grave relicfs.


rlr.. rrlr,.r dr,l irr r rr\ll r\ rcturD k) !hc firintcrs. thc rlliddic oftlrc ccntury.lllLi tllr il)aeption ()l tlI - .Wc lirll Cllesricrl sty1c. lhc Acrrrr.Ifs l),\rN.rrR lz6t :6;l ts rhc perlqorr' wc lr.rr, sccn hls rcd-frsrrrc iu ohlprcr 'r'rucc lrog r,,tl.Mosrofhiswrritrlrckvrh,,rtr,,,,, tlrc old !aloss plirr r ou tLncs. usr)g ;r 'scconcl r,,,liirc., irncl thc, ur,rjorltv dl rrot h ,, , tirrrcnrrl rullccrs. brrt quicrlv rlourcstic groups, rnistrcss er,rlin,rij, r c1cpe, r,,,,, u,;trrior l:6;, :6-s l, cvcrr r)r ),rhi.:ll such :r\ rlrc Mrrscs on HcLkr)r) J?(l21. A Il bu I I lr, LLrr h.rrt sul.te.rr rrhr,h rccrn.rplropnitrc to rhc !on)b,:rrr11 virtuullr,;rll w,.r, I, 'rrrr,I rr. r, rrrI''. I,rtr - I r . . . r . . r I . I r r Ir r,r ,,r .l* u lr. rr. l, rlru r jri, I rr,,rl,r..rr.l ' nl:nly c:trry lrl()-{ inscriptions u.hich sccr:r sontcholv tD;tppropriurc !o I solcrrrrr ofii'rine. so r,r,c nr;ry het bour rcscrvrtiors ilbout rltc flutcrery i,ttcrrr ofo/l r,,,lr,r,
. . ,

qrit ! c\tol)cs or tltc Achillcs l)riutcr's v.r\cs. sccrlrs to lcrrd e;) to such sccncs: .r litrlc. htcr . drc nr orc llorjd srylcs prob.rbly

hc r.rrhcr rcstr;tincd. idc:riizcd. Clessicrl Athc.:riln sr,vlc, shorvn on c.rrlt

.tpproprittc (ii{r rrl \ look ,rr,.r. .h,i,,1,.,1

.1, , ,

"itlr ,.r,,rr,,rr Li r.

:rnd shlclillq, or' lllorc ,lri. ,1,. printing on lrtrsc nritrblc lckytlroi uhiclr hilvL'bcllurr-to rpPclr rs , ,",1, ,,,'rrkcis ir Atbcls' cc,rtctcr-ics 'tnd lvhich thc clav r'.rscs clc:rrlv copy' Ir is

;,,, , ,,s oithc dity, wilh ils c\Pcrinlcnr\ ill chiuoscur()

rrL.r,,rrcv:rscs,probeblv,thetArisropll;rrlcsrcfi'rstolnhispJrv,E'l{jin:r'lrd''of ,l , ,,. l9os,.r,iiring oi'thc bcst ofprirrtcrs. . . thc orrc l'\'ho Prints lckytlroi firr rl,,,l, rLi (lircs99'1 6). Wcdorrotknorv rvhythc rvhitc firrrctilr,v lckvthoi wcrc ,,, ,,,,gc,,rre.lcllicrebotlt4oo.bLlttlicrcwcrcorherclityoil_vascsrvlrlch'ould I iircir plrcc its o1Icril)qs, th()tlgll lronc cxprcssccl thcrr Plrrposc so



ir thcir dccolltion ls tlirl thcir wl)ilc

qrounLl prcdcccssors'

lckvrlroi fionr thc nud ccnrurv

rr.lJi...rrr,.l1r,,,..rr.{r,rr,.rnr,,1,.r.1.,rr,r.,r,r,,1,.i,...,'1,,,,,,,..,,,,pr.*i.,,,* c tl r t I - (. ) r I y v:rscs. Finrllv, tlcrc urc rLrrvlr,iuq fi,,.c rrUr;r, lcLyrh,,r J:r+1. up r,i.1 rrtrrc hi{lr, \,vith dcrecLrblc lips. p.rirrccd rli,,vhjrc lrr,l rlccor.rtcrl irr .t uJrollv 'plirrrcrly' st,vlc ofc,rlur, ,rrrtc, tlrlt ,,1ust cop). thc prnclrir .lr.rrvrrs , ,fv,nt
, L I

torrrb ',r'rrh wonlcr, or it yoLlth rncl ., ,r,,,,,.,,,,,rt.,r \\..rrlr(,r .rurl .r wonrun, or (lhrron rrd r wonllr irrdic:rtin,r rL..rrlt ucrrhcr .r \\.rrrrLJr \ sr,rvu r)()r .r \\, r'r. r . t.r\, ,tlt.. \\ \ ,,t rlr,. ... rrrrl ,,,..u1.,.llt .r.r, rr,,r l,r...rr rr,..,1.,1 Lr tltc letcr yc:rrs of rlrc tcrtury thc fiDcr lckytlroi lrc larqc, rll tlccor:rtc.l i,, nlr1tt oLlrlincs lnrl riclt il] colour. fhc lr.tists br:!rry tltc sarrrc Dcw.irrtcrcsts rrr clruing rs tltcir rctl flqltrc cor tctu porrt ics, such Ls (rn.c shrll scc) rhc Mcirti,r, l)itiDtcr. LrLlt their (lillcrcIrt rcndcting of t'irrnts. both ;rnurortricel eIld rlrcss. 'rrggcst ,r d rBi rcrrr '..h,,r,lrn{. pt rh rps rnorc clirccrll. infltrorccrl bv st,,,lcs on v,,ells .rn.l p,rrtrlr.,rnJ rvtrh r l.,rsirrrely s.ulptural rir to ntrny ofthcrr.,flr" W,,"nr.L l)AtNtriRl-?76,rZJ otli.rslrcev,v,hurclr,,r,rr trrrrr.,llrcr,'r.rnrcrl fi,r thu t r.1n6y ,,1 his .,r'ontcn)..Tlrc llft,l) I)ArNTlt J?7,\, jTgl prints srtrtllcr. pr>orcr vitscs. s()l)r(. rvith tht'r'ccd_v sctrirq oflhc Stvx ro givc h]nr his nlrrc, br.rt is o:rc ir J hrscr Otroul ll(cccl) u hich inclu,.les hncr l.rr {c r .rscs, hi,jhlr t xprtssrr. t. ru tigurc, posc
. L

r-l-lj i16r'l rlso.r,rorkcd irr rccl ti{urc l-u r-s]; rnorc rlcclic:rrctl 19 thc shepc rrrr,l .l,uA\At.()s tcchntrlLrc lrc tllc ll()5AN(.)ultr l)arNr.rrr l)AtNu l l:69, :7ol anrl rhc [:7r,:7:], both conlpcrcnt irrrjsts still Lrsiirc nrairrlv qloss Plirrr oLrtlirrcs, errrJ tlrr. tlrorc rrrodcst (irr cor:tPctcncc errcl qcrrcrrlly iD sizc of vcsscl (lcc-oriltr,tl) (f,uaDlaII l,arurr.rr l:7-lJerrcl lJrlD prrrrr rr lz-Jl. rr.,,rkrnq Ir.rrnl\ rvrrir nr:rrr p;lint o,tli,cs. l'hc lxtrcr pro'idcd rrrost .fthc,clcvcrr lckyriioi i, e si,{1,. Anlvy\os il] Atticl; thr \.rrtrt) ,,fsLrt,1..r, lI rhL !aruuD scclrl l() rcdcct.. rhc llck of clclibc,tc chorcr t,,r .[p,,rirr,r,l rh.r.,,r.]u.1.,1.,,"r,,, .,

rrxxe cxprcssivc fiqurcs thrn his lrtstcr's. Mlny othcr spc,cirlisrs irr lvltrr,. lekythoi ofrhc Cil:rssic,i pcriocl h.r'c bccrr idcrrriflcrl. l,hc l,arrrlr or M.Nr( ,

(lccor:rtcd rr,hrrc !Ir.orrrrLl critrcrs l?2,r, r:6i.rrid


His prrpil. !hc pHt^l F I)AlNr.r.t1 lr6b, -)(,t1. l fl,rv r,r,hit,., ickyrhoi, wirh r..rtlrr






,llrro, lf rri

'/ ,,.(',nr,'J

:s; Lrl,lrlto.


rh t'ri1tr. ttf.'t!hdt\




| -t ).: .-


-.'. ..),

:56 Lrkythot


ttu Sahow{l t)att.t t+othj!

1 rrllroi



I {tltia




.snbon,ll Pdihk\.


,,., I r )rri\ !Irli. tt i.ttlr'\ t)l ttu lyntrt;tory. (li,r,, r,,iJ.rrl H t | )t|n\ t)J tlt 't\. ho\ Cfutq. ilrurr arrl urlr
'l yntl\\ ()t.rt)- H.



I1k)ahoi h)'

ttu Salttunll l,rt o_ Iltalrt! Chnt\\1, \\t\

rt 1,1.)thr


ttt, 4 htlL\ ll


ra: Lr"r),/iro' lrt tlit ..ltltill\ lj,tirtLt..\ltt



:t.j LLlytltr

h), tlt,

A,ltillt\ 1' tht

j65 L.Lytho\ by ttu

A.ltill.t Pdi


,rt Ll ylb,


tlt, ldrll^

?nrtt, t


th, lt,t.l. l".t.t


r.,l ""'a,

2O liLythr. l)y !fu lrhiiL l\itt.





),h.tu rl Mt itlt );1t (:ttaku

. i ttthr! l,) th( ltu\rtqRt 1\ri,trt


Lt[ytho: by

tfu Ihrnn.\Pai nt.Sh\ln




tlr Ba! tqnt I'di ttt

ttL),n..\ by ni Tlturnto: ]\ti kr

:/-: LtIythrt tul tli Iltr,, r\ 1\trltr


l,t tlI BLI l),)n i

lti)tli, ' 1) th tt itlttl'tittrt

:li l.rllthr! it tllt rrrlt'


tltt ll',r r l\tilttt

zii Irl),tlt.J l)l tli Qr\tlt t pri tt. Shtr nrtl Dtttll


l!),tli, hy tht t?&l t\trlttt (:hatol



hy th.

lln\l l),tirnl

2r, /,i(,r/l
r,r, 1l,rl,,r,


/-.1),r,.r,, (;0rj,

i,r1 iIJl(. I-rI),/r!r.


2,\'r /-.4),//roJ

/i. r, C,o,it,

Chapter Five


rrrL. Lrsu:rlly disposcd irr rcqistcrs tllhough tllcrc rrc I fcw clistingtlishccl r1,lcs of n)olc llou,jn!r arrd wcll-knir c()rnPosilions then wc hrvc scctr rLrlr, rr(J lrt7, ;941. k is unlikcly tllat lhjs rtrarrncr was still livotrrcd by nr{or l, ,Lrr\ .rn(1, ro jttdgc fronr dcsr:rlptiorls of thcir work, !hcy wcrc llow , ,,,, , r rrc,-l r'r'irh r)orc uniflcd Perrcl conrPosiritltrs on rvhich rhcy clcploycd rrcu' rl r rrr slriclinq, clli;1r()sctrro.trrrl pr-rspcccivc. Hcrc thc vlsc-peintcr could not r.. lr tirllou,, but thc I)olygnotlrr rrrLlrrls wcrc thcrc still to bc a,-lnrircd lncl thc \ r, llintcrs hlrl cvolvcLl thcir o$'l) trrtlitiorl of dc:rling with sccllcs irr .r


'I Icrc rlso drcrc's bclury: thc glcenr ofgolcl, lovcs rnd lrtlics rvith sofc limbs. irr sot't rrinrcnt, ard lrll thirt is shirrin!1, c.tscful :tDd luxLlriorrs: pcrfunrc, houcy urrtl roscs, tlll thc hcrlt ionlrs lor rvhlt is frcsh, pungcnt, arcl harcl (llc:rzlcy)- Evc tlr. icslhctc c.rn tincl thc rnood oftlrc Mcidils Pljnccr's vascs too cloyirrg lncl cllitr,, but the'rich'()r"orn:i!c'stylc ofthc liltcr fifdt ccltrrrry hls rnnch co tcll oftlrr'
socicty which it scrvctl lrlcl rvhich crcrtcd it. srylc oD pottr'rv rcletcs c:rsily r o \\'orks in othcr, Dlajor rrcclil, und hcrllcls rhc l:rst phJsc ofAftic rccJ figurc, wltcrr tl)c cmtt ibrlicrtccl any clrir:rs it oncc had to bciug:r nr:Ljor art and bccrrrr, rvorkrnlnlikc, sontctintcs 1l:rshy, blrt no lcss inforrnltivc ind cngilqinq th:ur il hetl trccn in cxrlicr Llays. '['his chlprcr c:rrrics thc story throueh thc hst qulrtcr ofthc fifth ccntury un,l on irrto rhc l7os. Mid\\:rv. in 4o4, Athcns rcknowlcclgccl dcfc'lt iu tlrc


L' rlr.rr:lblc rritllllcr. Lr LnrliviclLrrl 6r:urcs thc Arch:ric rrrcl Clltssical pertc'rn of lincar corrtritst

rrrl by thc usc ofintcnsc rclicflirrcs bcsiclc palcrdcr;ril lincs is 1;lrgcly l()\t irr ,, 'rrrrplcr liDc clrewin!a which is Dcvct;ts cnlphrtic, artcl which is varicd llreirrly l,r rri rv irrtcrcst in Plttcrrr orr circss rnd bol(lcr Lrsc ofilddcd co)our rncl gilcling. \r . r,rnr,v is skctchcrl rithcr rhau shlrply dc6nccl. Thc Iincs arc oiicn short and

,, rrr hLrrricd, ycl rhcy sLlccccd irr inrplrting llcw scllsc ofrotrrlrdity' ald rhc ,,, r cl oiclrru,ing corrrcs vcry closc r() lhr: clicct achicvccl by rclicfsctrlPtLlrc of
r, ,l,rv. 1)cpiction ofposc, rclaxccl ()r:1ctivc, is;rcc()lllplishcci lld convin(inq. ,, n in thc hlrrds ofthc po,.rrcr rrtists, eld lirnbs arc rcelistically forcshortcncd; L. (lrlrrtcr :rrc1 liont:rl fi'alurcs rclllain cxccptional brrt posrng lro rcal

l,,,lrlcr:rsoirlcli:rc:ttiorr.Thisislnrlnncrofclrauitrgrtrwhichthcstrictlyprofilc rr,rr lirr figurcs ls botrncl still r() bc Prcfcrrcd. I hir is llow showrl ir1 scPilrrtc

l)cloporncsiln Wrr. lucl thcrcaltcr rcliccl lor its rcpurrrion ;rrtl srarcling rrr (i cccc rlorc or nrcrr or y ofits irnpcrill plst than on ils rcal powcr to influcn.r .rtl:rirs. Thc orn.ttc stylc in vesc-p.tincing llotrrishccl ir dtc ycers preccdirrlt


r, r,,,ls, rveshcd ovcr, arrcl rrot ;ts :r bl:rck nrass cxccPl o1l lhc Po()rcsl works or ol) l.t \, fiqurc\ thet Llccor i!c thc backi of lrarly vascs. Oll drcss, closc-set lillcs arc bc l, .rt e(l !o cnlpl)ilsizc rhc coDtotus of dtc firrttrs bcncath; thc lincs lrlay lor ,, L\tic bu! thc swccpillq rrcs tcross r thigh or:rrnr vcry wc11 convcy fornr jn ihc

Atlrcrrs dcfi'rt, e pcriod irr u,hich tlrc city rv;rs bclclgLrcrcd by borh cncnrics rrrLl pl:rglc. t-ifc'hrcl ncvcl irr livrns ntcnrory (,,vlrich is rtrr corrrrrccl) bcct so squ:rlirl rrrrl hopclcss, but orr thc stitqc thc cor)ric pocts uDcrrillqlv \itiriTcd thc city's politicirrrs lnrl coutrscls, errcl tontc urtisrs ar lcest fcrund it rhc rirrc to (lrlw tlr(. tcctl) fronr rhc srr,:rgc-ry ofboth liii';rncl thcir trlclition:rl nryth-itspircd strblccr nr:lttcl. to fintl pt':rcc irrtri prontisc cvcn in rrlcs ofslanghtcr, to drvcll on:r lili stvlc rcvcl quirc kno\,11 or crjovccj on clrdr, but surcly carncstly drciu)lccl ()fin :l ai!) whosc gicrrrring ncw rrr,rrblc rcrtrplcs u,crc sintply I rcnritrclcr ofl gJor-y which hlLi so soori plrsseci. Afrcr dcfc.rt. thc chasrcncd Athcns ilnd thc clcclinir{ crrfi of vlsc peiDrillg clicratcd a lttorc sobcr irtr(l lcss .trtrbirions :rpproach by tlrr, puinters ro rhcir uork, though sornc wclc crprblc still ofproducing nrasrcr picccs, rn(l eficr the I llos e onr:rrc ,itylc lingcrs :rnt1 cvcn llourishcs rgri for rr spcll to lightcn thc hsr chys offiqurc drarving on Arhcnilrn vlscs Our nc\l chrptcr). Hcrc, wc hirvc flrst to chtr:lctcrizc tbc ()rniLc srylc ofrhc lrttcr fitil) ccntury, thcrl look :rr rhc rvork of thc Mciciils Pli fcr ind his circlc. at solr)r
illtists u,ho in thc silruc pcriod kccp ro srtrrclicr, olrler stylcs, thct a! thc succ.ssrr,l ir r r() thc lbrlrth acntury. Thc np/clorvn corn positions ofthc Chssicll nrrrr:rllsts qrlcc thc firrcr vescs, thr.

rIrcr thrt wc lccol]Irizc rcrdily irr sctrlptLrrc, rrotxbly irr lhc pcciirDcnts ofthc l'rlhcllor) (o1 thc 43os; CSCP,hgs.79, 8o), x]l(l [hc'trirr]spxrcrrt' cllccl ofthis ,, rrriquc is cchocd too orr lttcr rclicf sculplLlrc, sllch ls lhc bllustradc k) lhc '.1rlr'Tcrnplc orr rhc Acropolis (>f tlrc4ros; ibid.,-/iq. r ro). Prttcnr ol dr' r' is I Lr,tclv l nratrcr ofbroed hcnls ofrrys or hooks. sor:rr:tiltlcs sprcadill!l ovL-r thc Mcidirrt " r,,lc qernrcnt rvith s!.rrs end 6otcrs; this is rllost ofrcll sccn on Post
,' ,,r ks, into thc fburth ccntury. Stripc-s ofwesh on thc frrlds nray binr et shedow,


r'r'ericty ;rrrl colotrr of tlrc pancl-plintcrs Thc Mcidian vilscs ilrc, ilowcvcr, r,,rrlcst iI thcir trsc ofthcsc cnlbcllishrl)cllts. Lrt!cr, cvcn nlorc colour crn bc L,lrrrrttcd, nor:rbJy ycllorv, or ycllow strcakcd ovcr with brown, bluc and pi11k. \\rhitc qrorrr)cl vescs (ltst ciraptcr) cnjoy aD cvcn brordcr prlcltc trr)lil thc cnd of rlr. acr1tuly. Of shapcs, tlrc bcll cratct contcs t() lltill rsccndallcy ovcr oiher
,, r rrrs

r .rrc rrrc. (lilt rclief clcleil bcconlcs irrcrcasingly collllll(rl oll lhc lllorc veses, lir itc-rus offtrrniturc, wrc:ttlls, rvirl gs, jcwcllcry. Thc Chssicll ,, r r,rel h:rd trcgutr to trsc whitc on figrrrcs of woulcll or Eros ancl lhc Prit ti( r .rL'ws, c rbrrtaing horscs and frrrnittlrc, lcnding thc sccncs a rathcr gxrish, ,! Lrdo-polychroInc itltpearxncc, Probebly thc ncxrcst thc lrail)lcr collld lact to

ofcreter. bnt


clrsscs conrirluc to bc' nr:rdc, thc

varicry clwincllirlg in thc


tilrrth ccnturv. Ihc hvdri:r n()w

l)cc()nrcs ;1 c:rrrrcr of rrr:r-jor ficc tit l,l collrpo,jrtio \. 1'hc sqLlrr lckvrho\ ill1Cl s!crrrlc\\ cLrp bcgin to tukc ovcr fi'orrr tlr, r.rll lckltlros lrd thc firotccl cup (kv1ir) :rntl thcre is:r proliti'rrtior oirrr,l pclikli, pvxidcs, oilrochoii en,-1 ,-lishcs. Lrscrptiorrs rppc;u olicr on Mcitlr,rrr \ rsc\. t.rr lc\s in l.rtcr vcurs rintrl !l)c) bcrorrrc crccptionrrl. 'l'hc Mr,tot,rs I),rtsrrn rs nurnccl lbr !hc pottcr $ l)osc siun.rturc rppcrrs orr lrr, Drost ilulloLrs r':rsc l:o';]. Hc Lrscr thc hvrlrjl tirr.tll ovcr coDlpositiolls, LlsU.lll\ rrritig.rtcd bv h.rvlng ,r bod,v frjczc, but brrclv r scorc of r';rscs rltoqcthcr .rrr
;rtrribLrrctl to hinr. This rs IiLclv to bc r scvcr c rr:rtlc: cstirr.ttc ()1_rvh.rt hls survivL'r I ,rrrl trt;trtv othcr s fior)r hls hirud nrtrst lLrlk xur()nq thosc rccogr)izcd ro bc irr lrrr rr:rrncr. 'l'hcrc rs :r blllct likc posturinq to rn:ulv of hrs figLlrcs but !l)cy iu(

gr.rccfirll,v conrposcd rnd hc rvoids rhe irrprcssion of otli'rinu ] ptstc Ltp (il disp,rrerc tir:Lrrcs rrrrl slotrgrs. rvhich is uivcn by llost nlLtlti fiqrtrc sccncsorr rtrl firrurc v.rscs. l'hc rr:tnncr ofdruuing hrd trccn hcrrltlcd b,v tl)c llrctrit Pilrrr('l

l-::9 :;7],;rrrd *.rs itsclf.irr ccl)o ofsalrlptnr.ll tirnls, rs u,c h:rvc sccn, but tlr, rrrood rr ncrv .rnd rr is firrciqn to both drc \,igour :u)d thc conrposurc of tlri (ll:rrsic:rl nrorlcls. Whcrc rhcrc rs [rrrstlc;rrrrl cxaitcrrrcnt, ls ol], ir rt corrtrollccl .rrrd r rthcr strqr.. I hc iririitl i:uprcsslor ofhis rvor k rs unrppcilinq to rrrorlcrn cvcs. firrrrli.tritl uithrtrvinsrcspccrtirrcltrllrticsburclyrrrxtchedhv
his con tcrrr ponr rics ()r \ucccs\()r'\. Noti.c thc prrlrdc-groLrrd prccisrorr of lrir
f.r!tcr r) \\ or k ir)

r v;rrictv ofrroods, but probebly not rrll cxprcsscd by rhe slrnc ertist(ll;rssic:r1, Mcidias l)tirrtcr Hc l:g-:,.u 9ll roo blts bccn lirkcl lor thc young, err Ir . I .up dcvotcd to thc Thcsclrs ci'clc [:9:], o1d sulrjcct arr'.l treatcd in I 'l ,,, r, thoroughly (llessicll rnlrrrrcr th:rrl rhc Mcidien. hc grotlps orr his squrrt , I r rLros l,:931 conlc irs.losc to lhosc tl:r thc Parthcnos shicld ((iSCP-li.q. r ro) as ,r'\ ,,rr vese-printlrlg, btlt lrc still rclrtivcli/ clisrallt incl do not rcprodtlc' thc r , t rLsrinctivc rrrcl iDnovirtivc ofthc rclicfqrorrps on thc shiclcl. l'hc tlrau ing , , lrr crsily bc sccn ls irlcipicrit Mciclirn, but thc;rrtist, ts dcfined by 1)eazlcy, , ,' olF into a dcjcctccl scrjcs of sr1r.l1 pclikai u'irh lthlcrcs whic:h lrc ,, rr pltiblc rvith such r cLstirrgulshcd idclrtlty. Ifeithcr ofthcsc ]rtisrs wir\ thL'r,, \,LLrr{ rnas!cr, he sulicrt-d I clterlretic ahilrgc ofhclrr in his cerly c:irccr' Within thc Mciriiun circlc vlrious indivitlualartists crD bc rccogrrizcd, ilnd thc ,,,.1c ofsrrlrjcct oBi'rcd ilr thc distincrlvc stylc oltcD walrdcrs inlo thcnlcs $ith ,,r. nr ()n Lr nl crlt:tl ;rtrcl olcl-fishioDccl essociiltiolls than thosc o1'thc D)astcr' I rlronrccl copics' is Ilcezley's r'rthcr tlnkind vicw of thc l)AINTIIR ()f rltr' ( \rtLsrtullE I'alrs l:g;l u,h()sc nilrllc- vrsc prcscllts thc olcl thcnrc ill nc\" drcss, tr rlr rl1 oricntxlizcd l)rris, a srrrucscluc Athcna, Helios rising right il e erotlp , rirrsccnt ofa rccurrcrtt thcrrrc orl lhc Prrtllcnol ((;SCP./i(.711 il c), rnLl irn ,. ()rtrrc t ofpcrsol)iticrtio s, sttlllc ofirlllllccli;lrc rclcv:rncc to thc slory su'll ;rs I r\ (Strifi), thc -thc1 Friry who provokcd thc conrcst bcrrvccn thc soddcsscs, ,l sonrc of lcss rclcv;trlce sucll ls Eutychiir (Cioocl Luck). Zcus. bcaring thc ' L rrlrirlc rrsp()rrsit)ilitli for cvcnls, also lttcr]ds, top 1cli. ()thcr l:rrqe vtsc\, i\ ihc L rc virsc of thc l)AlNILtt ()l'TIIr A'ulFNS WFI)l)lN(; J29,51, lrc pcdcsrrilrl in thcir rr. o-rcqistcl Lrsc ofthc frcld, bLrt his big, lLrggcd bcl1 cretcr lz96l oF:tn trrrrrsrlrl ,'rc1ling sh.rpc, is gr:rndcr;rnd givcs us rlrothcr Sunrisc ovc, aJLldgcnlcnt of L'.rrls. Tlrcrc rrc rlritiry grrccfirl sDlll1 vrscs, likc thc Iittlc ecorrr lckythos ['u971 ,.rdc by :r pottcr rvho cells hinrsclfPhintias thc Athcllian (rcc.rllirrg, to us:tt 1crst,
'\ r,,,



iczc clir rdcrs: rlris lcrr;rinr thc h.rllnr urk ofthc besr



.Ir()t]rcr qcncrrtion. 'I'hc rvork oftt o orhcr lrrrists. u hosc truc c kno$ n. lrirs trccn cl.rinrcd (Lrv Liitlircrt scholrrs. of coLlrsc) fi)r tllc rlrii\tcr lrinrscll_. Arrrsrolrr,lNrs,

n,rrl)cstIcrlrdcortcrrrpor.trroithccorrcpoct,sirgnslrvocu[,snrrt]ctirrhirrbv Lluiuos l:,!9, ?qol irDLl ilr)othcr vxsc \\'ith no porrcr-sign.rrurc- ()rc ofthc c!rl)s rL.r.hcrl l'rrqLrirriir ',r'it1r;t rc.u-rcpLc.r frorr his h.rnd, unsignccl l-r9t]: rt r' intclcsring to ob\cr'\'c hou'ljkc.rnrl unlikc such rrrc'rcplicir\'cln bc. Arrothcr ncxr rcplic.r oithc cup s inrcrior (onrirting Hcreklcs) sccrDs probeblv bv tlre Mcltlirs l)rintcr,.rr.l ou thcnr lll thc stllc o1_c|uuing is ccrt.rinlv closc to the rr.rstcr.'lhc rroorl. horvcvcr. is (luitc ditl'crcr)t, irr viqorous lrrcl corrrrittcrl rccrcs ot blttlc. rnorc tlul) rnorrurrcntll th,rrr thc Mcidi.rrr ;rrtl ir:r rv;ry b.rrkr.r'.rrd-Lrokirrg. lirrt tlris c.rr h.rldll be thc vounq Mcidirs Printcr, u,hosc stv[ .rrrrlrLrtlcr t rrter cst stcnr: liorr :r diftircnt tr:rdition. I his \tvlc, it sccus. c;rrr

rr.rtArch:ticl)hintieswhorn:rdccocklcshcllv:rses;.41lFHIp.35),orpyxirlcsatrd .,lu.1r lck,vthol, whiclr sccru r,vcll srritcd lo rlrc dclicecy ofthc srylc ancl .1ftrr" thc l,,,udoir suhjccts which it clprcsscs so \tcll- Wc obscrvc Irow thc gro$'illg r )rcrcst in eddcd dcteil of gik rclicf or u'hitc. xDd ;l cerlrin floriditl in l, rL kgrorrrd onrerncrrt, llthough thc besic iianring p:rttcrns, thc nrlrclnLlcrurrd prlr)lctrc bilrrLls. rrc nl)eltcrccl ill ell but cxcclttioll lrom lvhat had ',lurrcs:rnd i,, ovcd lcccptlblc orl sr.lch shlpcs lbr rlcarly I ccrlrury. This is scill :r pcriorl 1br \llrpriscs in sr]bjcct Dl:ttlcr ifDot stylc: n);1lly pcrsollific:ltions l3or,3o1,3o5l' a ,qu,:1, uic* of L)cclipus rncl rhc Sphrlx fuo-,1, brby Asklepicls, a r)cw !lo(l for

ultcrirrivc rrrood i11 larc lifth-ccrlrtlry vesc pitilltill!i stcrns lr()ln thc l)olvgnoten (iroup lncl lts lrrastcl, r'il thc Klcophorr ancl l)inos l)xilrtc-rs llTl r,r":l:_r,,orc robrtsi, r,irilc, rllorlurllclltrl in;rspirarion, btlr not dcsrirlccl lirr:l co,irp:rr:rt1y clisringrtishcd follou'inil. Thc spirit is cxprcssccl in thc sonr''rvh:t irrrpfroprintc Mcidiau stylc ofrlrlu'rng by Aristophllcs rnd Aison. rs wc havc
'I hc t17




\/... r r





ri'1l,tlrr ) lly,l'ir I'f Iht .\/irJi,rr llrir,t, /l'lr it,lri,l Btl',tr IILttllL, att,l //r'rui,/ri //. jr'r

rsi/,1,,,r irJ l,fi,,r,l

l:ly,Lia t'y

tt \I'ili,rr

/),rnrlr1 '11'ltr'ln

rnL 'l'htti\


()irr!/r,! l,) /h tl, i,li,,' l)tiiitt)


rturai) tl.tlii

r,,i,r t, rs,).r .1ttli,


ttt,l .trlt,tt,r r//i,/i (i,rrrr'

t,/)) lri.rfl,lt,,,r,, Hrr,ri./l



trt t t:rl ht l,A/ifr,d,,. I/i,rL/,. Jrri Nf',,'l

irr r l,r/,1i,,, ,, rri , '1tunr\ , rl .\l!ir,,1

)r1., L.\trrio


.9t.t. () t ir tuhy

,r: I /l!!1rJ ir,/ l']tuI h,.l

-rt t llit tr\ r,,/ ' r', \i',i:

,94 H)al'in hf th(

Pdttkt.l tht Ldtlittu h Ilnl( \11 .il l\itr


.Sflr/ /,ltfi,j l, ), .li\d" Ah)r:r r""nhy. +1. tE \

rri ,',i) \ r,x,1 l,t th, 1 ""t,, ,l tht 1tl,b I ii,tt{ |in,,

r, i ri,rr (nrrilrr hy tlr h1rtut ,tl .ltlbt\


t r ' tr\t

r lt,t l,1)tltr l)r tlt, t\tr \t rl tlr I t ulhri t ,l.)tlt, , r r

:96 l\11 thti ntar 1h. 1)di'1t( nl th( ,4th. \ lt (llin!. lltqtl cltt

ir, /-.l.J.qd,/i[.\./;

hy ttu




l.l.i't. li!tt'nl?

Pdntu\'. Athtu\lht d d tlhto


Cdllr.?tuf i,, th( ntltr\ il tfu




nr (


td ,,f tht ll.idins l'dhLIrr. ()ilil'r\


th( lplthtx



]\i (. Oi\\hot it th. trdt l.t .l tht ^1(ilir L,khir, h uritl

tt .i. i th( trn tt tl tfu 1.1&1n1\ hti ttt. ttt i , ' tluriot h, ! 1,), Pollior d,/ //.,/t/(,3or r, , rrl s_ .., rd/[/. H 3.j

1'.t-., ,.a1t1. . ..t.rtlt. \1..1..l-rr' Ij..1.-.. Lrl!r,- .t t,-1t. -'

it-'54,,tr n[)Jr,'\

r1 th trntlr't \ltitl \l,tht l',tir tt H to.5

, t

rl t1,r1 ll,tn





jd,{ 1,/tr,oriJL,j



r),rr. H.i nt( t ]\ittt. .{\ l.\)) n l Pdtis


lrohtt otht hy t\1lio . I4n

ix.: tttatul


()lyhlt \


tln Hti rrl dk lalitttt.,\11hIr,

lrhrr.) (htrth.. ta ttttl i rl


tlnlt.t\ flh ,,'ith


&il Lttt)'.1 u!)

t\tinttt- ,'l1,.llt) n tl .\1d|J\r! ( ,

Llllt. thtn


th. Ktl t

, I

,i t tti, l,) tlr Kdtrn,\ l',tiulLt Hdi^(/,r rA(i /ioD lti\ l) trtl lttk

IL :rt


Ilyhin hr lh


I\itntt flr..!.,ir li,, /)r,J(o,,.r


(:1ttr l,y tln

l\ti ttt il 1l t. t t.rti ]L'\'ilo








\,\ pdi d. Hoau.r vrrilirc,

I)tlboyhu anl rht, hrnatnt

l] I al,i4,\ ddr.,. (irLr ,/,,,,J

r5 (tilht. I ,r, ,ril 1\1r ) H)lr t t,y lttl l'tiiht ,l 1 \rllt I tt.,tl,, )t|). 't riptolLno od Halt:

rr6 .Sll,fl,or. lhoris


nlit IL


Lr, l)inosPuiutcrhiDrsclfProb.rblvuorkcclrvcJliDtothchst,qrrrllcroithc Lrr r . l)ot.tox is urr .rrtist crplblc ofboth rlerrll!rvc inl:lqinition | ;06 | rrld !lr;1cc of lr J. (illssic.rl. vct x(lvir)ccd in lris rlrlrl'irrg stylc Flc olfcrs i nc\\' \'ic$' his ()lvrlrPLrs. hirrrsclftiorrr drrggrng rlrttrrkcrr god thc ll,r rristos'rctunr to

L I rrg u,ith l)ion,vsos to\\'itr d\ HcrJ, ilnPris(nrc(l oll hcr rrlrgic throrlc, tlnnccl ,' ,'irrn ll(r61. l'hcrcisrrruch of thc purc Olrssic:rl \tlll in thc work of 'h'\'


, ,. rl

, rrri rr. 1 hc I It rst,qrv rxtr P,qtvt t'tt (l to,l'l .rnd pcrh.rps l.;09l) drvclls orr drc Hclcn r . .rnrl thc tlqurc of l'citho re.jcctctl, orr thc lcfi of l log l, is e rricc ifnlivc rvly . r irrg thlr thc rccorrcili:rllorr of I Iclcrr rnd Mcncllor it is Aphrotlite. thc





ot I'citho (l)ctsurtsion) thlristiccisivc


of rrrvtll sccrrcs oll l.lrgc vrscs, incltlding lr1'_lri;ri, solnc thc ficld. LlLrt hts hlatlrcs erc rchtivclv still llld sccorrrl, , ,,r rntl clr)wrl l,oscrl up
Lrlicrs rt goo,:l r.trrgc


..1:. T..\., 1,.,1 ,..,,,1,.t.

l hc inscripri"rrs, ',1, Ilcshorvsltrcrrr:rrklblcirrlcrcstirlthcMlrsvirss!oryIl]ol. uhicll lrlly tcJJ doricislDs scvcrrl h:rnd, bctr:r,v his or,r,rr L\rLrnJbly tionr I of clrirvirrq' 'thc nor his:tvlc if Lrpbrillging ,,fr.rhir1a lbour thc p:ri]ltcr's , . ,.,orr1iirar,v vit\c which irrcvitlblv cvokcs Aristr)plrrr)cs llirrlr (protltrccd irr

r:r cr/1r ., rrr /'r rrr N',/,r, /irur^,

thc cnd of thc ccr)tnrv, it scclrls, thoLlgh rhc dr:1\\'irrg l\ {)ld . rioncd ;r11. pcrhrps p:ovirrci:r1. lr ir on vrscs oithis rr.tclirion s'c scc rnorc cul! lrrd spccltlcrll,v Athcni'rn' r I iotic thcnrcs. I hcy contribrrtc rlluch to thc strlrjcct lll:ltlcr of v'tscs lrorrt , rtrtcrs rvlrosc cillccrs rlllt on irrro lhc fbtlrrh cclltury but lvhosc sr)'lc o\\'cs lrt l r:rorc to thc Mcicli;lr. Thcir rvolks llck thc slrbtlclv ol coDlpo\ition xDCl r .,.Lrtion xpPxrcnt ir thc Mcitlirs l);rintcr brlt tlrcy oliir Ilrucll ofibs()rl)lnq
I bclongs

rrr'rc\tti)r'tlc'stLrdcDtof(lrcckrDyth,alrlt:rrldthcthc:rrrc'.tlttlsonlcsccncsh'rvc shich ovcr-c()lttcs thc rltllcr c.lstlll tl)rlrncl irr u'hich tlrc fignrcs:lrc ,[.1\yn ilr]d orrlllr)lcl)rcd. It lrll,v rvcll bc drlt thc Illorc rllll of_-thc-lnill Prl)cl


of thc dl1' rcsclrblc thtir rr',rrl's, i-trt rhul .rr. frr ti"rrr


hicvcrrrcnts ofthosc lr.r.ior prirr!crs. l'rrrrll;rsiosorT-cLrxis,rvhou'crccrcltitl{ r('rl'trirdltloll lhich rvrts t() Llctcr-rlllllc lhc aotlrsc of tllcir ilrl lirr ccntulier ttr

Ihc NI(rAs I),ltsrrr l;r9 t12l is Ir.rIrrcd firr tltc pottcr lvho signs hinrsclf \ikr;rs. xrr ol l Icrnroklcs. citizcu of An:rphl,vstos (irn Atti. distr-ict) lnd thir lr,rIlrc pridc is lusrvcrcd by rlllny ofthc p:lintcr's scelras. \:1crifiacs' l()cirl clllt ind irvth. c'\cculcrl ilt x corrlPclcnt, 1-rirl) Dorr-tilss,v st,v1c.:rrld rvith I totrch ofrvhrt rre. rnd probrbl,v thc tiftll-ccrtrtlry Arhcrrrlrr, uotlld rculrd ls hLrnrotlr l.lzll'

trl O n\hr( by


Pdiittl (i tn Ilttrktts

nt a

a\tnn ttkrili kik

q Nilll

thc.rrrcliclrcc: lll) inlprclsivc Llisple,v botli fi)r'irs.rnliqtlrrirur tlcrril rntl firr rhc \\.rv r! sccnr\ to disp1.r,v I pl:ryblll of thc r)pc to hcconrc llrorc ltrllilirrr liorn Sorith ltelirn (Aprrlirn)vrscs ofthc lorrrth ccrrrtrry (l?1l.S/.! p r:,Oh:rptcr4)'ltis ,()rlrpo({ 1 tw() rcgisrcrs:lnd thc drcss of thc fiqrlrcs displeys in lr-rrthcr r\.rgljcrirtccl lortrr thc ncrv intcrcst lll fettcrn;thcrc is lilvish tlsc ofl(l(lc(1 $'hitc ',,

iln Athcrlirrr thc.rtricel sccrlc. r'r'ith irclor\ 'lll(l ,.rnrc-r'.rsc ofthc tirrrrrcr ,.rtvr-plilycrs, rllc ll()co!r.lll qlrcst-Pipcr l)lonlrtllos, rtrd l)iorlysos r'vith Ari;rdrrc
lr,,l-ll scts

lrc PtoNouos rn(1 l Al ()s


INTFRs l-12.1


ilc nlorc irl)rbitious rrtists

l hc

tllc Argoiirutlj cxpcclitiorr (l thcrtrc itsclf t'irr I n:urll of thc l)olygrr,I,rrr pcriod, by Mikon). Thc wouror's clrcss is Mcicliarr, thc acldiriollal plrftcrrr its llr,rt ofthc Prolronlos vasc, arrd thc rvhitc lrd brorvn on Telos' bocly a .qoocl artcrrl,t to rnltch thc fi.rllc'r palcttc ofthc rnuralisr ir tlcpictiirq thc, cxpirins, brrzcr) ljr,rnI Wc rlay casily irtragi:te such I figurc as thc ccntrcpiccc of :l pillcl plinll)li, rvhcthcr or r)ot thc scclc was hlrthcr dcvclopcci in a friczc. Elrlic'r lrejor rrp/down conrposirions on vrscs h;rd :rvoidcd rllc sLrbjc(l ol Ciigrru ror n lch y, but drcrc is a ncw intcrcst in it rrorv, pcrhlps crrcouragctl by ,r nrrjor work- I'lrc ptintinq wichin rhc shicld ofthc Athcna parthcnos is olicrr cltcd in this contcxr, lncl thc corrrposiri<)n of'thc sccnc oD l t'iagnrcnt irr N:rplcs l-;:7], by a prirrrcr closc ro rhoscjusr nrcrrtiorrcd (ifnor orrc ofthcnr), rnight sccrr tojustify tilc srrggcstion, rhouglt ir is h rrJ ro scr hu,,,, ,, ronrp,,.rri,n corrl,l hevc bccn dcployccl withir:r shicld nrlinly occupicd by a coilcd srrrkc ((iS{ll, fi,q. ro6. c1. roS). (liants in thc lowcr scglncnt storrr ln Olynrpian hclvcn, witlr I Iclios rising in bis cbrrior. A finc up/dolvn colrrposirioIl lor rhis sLrbjcct appc:r r \ on a pclikc by thc l)ronomos P:rrntcr, but tlrc bcst is sccn on a largc nccli ernphora {-i:91 by thc Surssur,l l)arurrn, of u,hich ficc rcpltcas :rppcar orr firgnrcrts ofr volurc [-7,10]ancl cllyx cratcr by othcr, rnorc crrcful ariists.'l'lr. ncu, frccdonr of postllrc lncl dctlils of shacling srrgucst e letcr sourcc ol irspirrrrion than rhL- l)rrreis wlrich erc [hoLrght to ]ic bchircl thc carlicl

iind colour in rhc plcturc, as elso on thc f:rcc\ ofthc ht,tdlcs, ,,vhilc tirc p:r lrrrt r tr.,, lnd lcal_-lnd dert p:rttcrn ol thc ncck show hor,u,irr arl,ry ilrc thc Ilowinq lL)r,rl berds of :r ccntury bcforc.'l-hc Talos l)airrcr's nanrc vAsc (,;241, lnd hc rc1x,,ru cLc rbenrc) Lrscs thc vitriablc groturd lirc ancl, with its rvcalth ofn:rrrativc rlt.r,ll entl furniturc, lrlust con)c closc to sotrrc mrjor trcatrtrcrrt offhis sfrangc cpisorlr,


r,r rtcls u,hich irrcluclc

I uoluen, Atrhntl, thcrcforc with hcr lovcr Mclcaqcr

I rir, llrrcolulrrr;rrrclbcllcr:rtersrrcnllillydcvotccltol)ionysiacsccrlcsllndhc

firnclrcss lorfigLlrcsin oriclltill clrcss with scvcral of h is contcm por'r ritsintcriors, itr cd)llrlon with tllc bcsl ofodlcr Pilintcrs ill lllcsc yc:trs, h,rvc I lr rl,, rr liqurc-tlccorarcd torrcli borclcrcd by e [rsilrrcd wrcilth A corlllorl sr;[-ljccr t ,, l,rr .rrr,-l his succc'ssors' t(ntcli is sirtgle-frgtrrc sttrdies ofgods or divinc'qroupsr )rrr\rrlc his cLlps, encl on thc b:rcks ofv:lscs, thc fiqllrcs;lrc gcncrally vcry poor ,,,,1 ,'r lrcst wolk is brrclv lllorc lhrD c()nlpctcllt. Ftr bcttcr was thc lcss prolili(: l'\r\ rrn ()F r HL N[w Y()!{K (]TiNTAURoMA(lHY rvho lras lcfi fiaqnlcllrs of trvi'

I r,,..r

, Lrp

rLnrcltxl volrrtc cr rtcrs wiLh s()lllc cliilll lo nill rirtivc cllcrlly l1igl, and thc '\rNr)rrrANT()s l)AlNTI]R. lvhosc p()tlcr (Xcnoph:rlltos) sigrrs hinlsclf'Athcrri'rrr' ,,,, , l,rrgc squrt lckythos, \i'itl);ricrrtil lDd olhcr subjccts rcndcrccl rnitinly in L\\ reln'f l;ol. Itciicf iigurcs likc thcsc hevc bccn :nct itrlcrnrittcntly bcfi)rc 1, , Ioo, r;1); wh olc sccr)cs n I ust bc in sp irc'l by rclicf rltllwork


,J tlrcse

bccorlc sliahrly conlnloncr hclcrltcr xlthough pJirlliDg will rerlr'1ill

1,, ,lLrrrinlut tcchniqrrc

of clccoraltioll firr anolhcr htlfccrrttlry'

llrcrvorkofothcrpairttcrsofcralcrsinthcscycarsrallqcsf_ronlthcslovcnlyt() , rb,vsnrll wich l fc'w irrclivicluals ()f Irotc lllorc for thcir srrb.jccts thrtrr thcir ,,1., tl," Tlrrts l)ArNrFR l-?41], rvith l)iorrysiac er)d syrnPosior sccncs on bcll ()xr()Rn , r LL..s, Dow ednrilrin!i whitc cvcD l'or ecllrlt nlalcs; chc PatNrnn or rIIF subjcct lourtll-cclltrrry ( ,r\ r\)MA(iHY is ro bc it P()pul;rr [.;4.u I irlrroclucing wh]t

* rr,r flshion:ttrlc'oricntal'trvjst

thc gritlirr-frghts ofthc frozcn no)rh; thc

lirr()r'rn)l)AINrltnl-;43lr,r'iththcinsiclcorttcycsofsorrlcoflrisplai figrrrcs'rncl ,, llt acx fttvtsus liarNrrn l-111]. cxplainccl by his nanrc Thc It'ttrc;tll'tElr :rrrd
()LN()MA()sl)ArNTF.Rstlenlclll()rlblclbrthcirn:rlllcv:lscsl3-50,-J-5llandlhcrui\'r qod or llcro' ,.r.s ofplliD wolk nlitinlv (,1 bcll crltcrs. '(lotlrt' sccncs ofi lrr,,rysos oll 1344,.;171, Hcrak)cs orr l.;16,.1-5-;1, u'ith itttcnd:rrlts or othcr dcitics placcd ttp;rnd clowrr 'iround thcnr, bcgirr to br, ,,t tr",o"r, *ifit ",, by P:r1r1tcd votivc P rc'ls' Thcy plcscnt rnspircrl \ ( r Y p()pr11ar rlow :rrrd :rright bc ,,,'glc-t, up/c1own corrrpositio s, ttnlikc thc frcc-rrngiug b:rttlc friczcs of

A:rrazorrornachies lrrd (lcl)tauronachics. Or is it that ve\c-plilltcrs :rrc n()ul qivcrr rnorc to closc irnltacion ofcach othcr's work? Ifso. thcrc was a nlestcrr-lcsigncr bclrincl thcsc vascs. Thc

AcropoJis1,1.;rl.(Thrtitdocsaorcopyrhcpcclirlrcr)rqrolrp C.SCIr-f q.77 s:ryr, soDlcthirig aborrr paintcrs'lbility or rcldiDcss to copy iiotn rtrajor sculpturc.) Thc bcrscrk Lycurqrrs lr-ij2| is in a rclarc(l sryic.'l hc Srrr.rrlr, lrarurrR's narnc vasc l-r-l-;l has Hcr:ncs bcaring thc prcrllxrLrrc baby l)iorrysos fronr his nrothcr

ncck-inlphora is an uncxpccrccl shapc for such ,r friczc. :rnd othcrs by thc Sucssull l)airtcr are rnorc modcstly corrrposccl. -fhc MrK()N l)ArNrEt (his nlmc nr:ry bc EuEMpoR()s) ollcrs a ficc vcrsitlrt of ;r Perthcnon subjcct, Athcna llqhting l)osr-idon, ()n a vasc dcclicarcd on thc

, r licr

cups irr rhc cu]y Pr\rNTI]R l-1,58 36,:l is rhc tlonrirr'rnt clccotato offrlgrrrr lrrr irr fincl r sirrslc lrorn ls krrou'n ofhls l,,Lrrfh ccntury. Mosr ',r'ork ,r h.rt nrust hlvc- bccn ;1 sitop il) or llcilr drc Athcnian pottcrs' quartcr 0Dodcrn




rrivill followcr ofthc I{aclmos I)airtcr, witlr sonrc Artic scorcs l1;41. Wc turn row to p:lirrtcrs rvhosc sclJe .rnel \ubjrLt\ alLJrl) durivt ti,rrrr thosc -just discusscd, encl whosc work bclorss u,holly within thc first third of rhc

Scnrclc, blitzcd by Zctrs (thc rhunclcrbolt is ovcrhclcl). Thc KlxRops I)ArNrER rs.r

thrt dcrivc frorr thc dcepcr skypiroi ofthc filih ccnrrrry rathcr rhiln thc
ereccful 'kylikcs'). I lc taics his irarnc ir , 'nr

lolrrth ccDtury. At rhcirhcld is thc MI:TEAGER PATNTTR lj-r-s 3.;dl, who dccorltcs widcr renqc ofshapcs thar nrost! inc]ucling cups lncl stcrrlcsscs (durrpy cups

b.r ,,f u.rr., wrth


rrr groLrps

rrcs St.). I Iis tondr lrc riftcrr peirrtccl u'itlrirr ivy rl'rcedrs but I fcrttrrc ofthc cup iutcriors with slirlnpcd Pxtlcrus ofovulcs' l,r'r'ioc1 is thr- clccor:rtiorl ofbhck jn ofllrctllu'ork (rhis nlainly oll srcnllcsscs, 11o! inrit;rlion tirc likc, l,.rlrrcttcs rD(1 ,,,,1in.rry cups). Thc otltsidcs ofhis cLrP\.rr( vtry p'rrrly dcct'r'rruel rr')t llwrys of a llrgc , .,r.iirrly by tirc sitrr)c hirrcl, and it rr .lc-,r th.rt hc s rs rhr: nr:rnrr'ry hrnrsclf' painrcr fhc' vc'sscls' qtleliry low proclucirrg ilcrlcrally ',,,rrkshop thc to ofR'i ilqurcs ltlrcl subjccts lntcrcstiDg olli'rs :rrttl lvilll .1r"* l,,,ru"u.r. c,ruld ,llc.try horclcs ofyouths, wol1lcll, sllyrs alld r\l:rcllacls rh:rt pcoplc'lll()st ofthc rDd thc , Lrps. A corl1penion, Pcrh.!ps thc slrrrc arlist, is lhc l)l()MED PATNTTR lj6-ii];
I Icr



(] l)ArNr,R lta,6 -l6,ilisrircorrl,v,rthcr disrirrgrrisheblccLrp-pirinrcr ofnotcrr




TlrrouqltoLrt rhc ionq fcriocl survcvc(l itr rhis cllrptcr tltcrc rvlrs;t brrslr of rrorc trivirl liqurc-rlccor:rrcd v:rscs. Nolrn enrphorlc .rrr,l .r \'.lrlctv ()f oil)()choc \hirpcs do ,or rrr.ri.tniD thc \tirldrrcl ofticcoi.tio,.ftlr,.rr frcdc(cssors. An odcl pitcnonrcn()n of thc ctr(l of tllc ccl)r1rry is tltc cl:rss ol 'I);rrr;ttltcl.tic oil)ocllo;ti'. rlrcir bodic, lrkr slrrrr ncek-.rrrr1,lr.r.rt, rrrrh Arltcrr,r,s alr.rr-ior on tlrc bodl rrd son)ctrncs u.ith tlrc qodrlcss or) tllc ncck t()o. I,l)crr r\ .lln) rr) cntclr.lirinq crop ofsnrlll oinochorri (rlor,s) u t thc cnrl oithc li filr ccutLrr 1 l.rrgclt ricvorcd &) sc(.rcs ofchil(lrcr) rr ph,v or xc!ing rdulr riru:rl 1169, yTirl 'flrcsc nr.l\'hrvc bccrr irrr ur)u\Lrirl c()nccs\ion to thc r)rerkct tirr chilcji.,ri,s a,vr,

Liivcsonrclndicirrionot-irsrrsc(rLicdfislruntl ;r.dip'?). 1hclestofthcrcd fisrrr,. c,vlindricrl lckythor crrr' rvo.c, or N ik.i, urrl s.r,c cvc, h.rvc stclc scc.cs lik. thcirrvlritc-r1rountikir.1'lrcpoorcrcLrpsrrriqnifvrhcrl;robc,rltonrloborrlcrs.r,r nr;rkc do uith trlprcsscrl dccot.ltion. r.,,,hilc crtcrior.s c.rrry tlull llv iigurcs, rl .rn vli)ins.

phgucs swcpt Athcrs) nrry rccell thcir c;rrly lur ticiprtion in thc ti,srrvirri,s 'I hcsc rrc rr linlv firr ritc locll ntrrkct. bLrt n)rr)c oltlrc lcs\cr shrpcs lvcrc popu Lrr ()\'crsc:r\. Squ.rt lckltltoi prollt'crltc. dccot-trtcd r,"ith hctrls or r,vlrolc figurcs,,l rvoutctr. lnri thcsc pcr\jst ilto drc lirurth ccntLlry, l1l()rc oltcrr u,ith lnirrr,rl rutr-iccrs A htch scl]t to Al Milt:t givcs:l Ilit tc to otlc of thcir p;lintcr.s. Sprl)ir, r,r rhc rorth Atlriuric. collcctc(l ntitly ofrltc oil roch ol i rri(l sccrtrs rlnr,r,rr r,, rrr()nopoliTc oor kr)ou,lcdqc of stc llltcd pl.ttcs. rvirh hc.tds. brrsts or ,rrr .ccusiorrl l,li frq.rc '.r'itlti, ;r rn:tcerrder or llorrl bo:-clcr. A co,tpu:-.ti'cly rrc* rh;rpc. tire tlsh-plntc l-;71 ], e nr,,rc l,roLfic errcl colourfirl rccc,..l ,, , ,l".u.rr.,l vcssclil) Sorrth It.rlv (l?l-,!tS pp. l6-t, r69,1{J._1o7. 194).ltisconrrrroncrrnpllirr bllck but, rr hcu dccor.rtc,.1. flsh ;rrc rhc llrnost irrvurilirlc subjccr rntl this nrLrrr

bLrt rhcv rvcrc prob;tbly xt thc silntc tlltc qifis firr chilrlrcn to corlllclnor:ttc I lr(. An tlrcstcrjil \prir){ lasrivrl .lrd its rlrinkrrq nritchcs. Tlrc ti,strvxl (rhouqh rror tlrr boozinE) rv;rs ouc in which c\rcn rhrcc vcilr old\ c()Lrl(l trkc |lrt. ihc chr,,.r tiruntl ir thc qllvc\ ofahc vcr-v \,oLu)q (srrrcll.thc flrst vjcrirrrs r>f thc rcctrrrcrrr



llnth .1

triJih. it\


H. n.,'


t itrt tnto ht th h.rt'ttt.\ P'littt.r (tt.rrt r.. l'trt I t tt'. t . l, .r '1. II

/)n!,f!)i ,r/,,,1! i.(d,r.ri,1( ,r'nr/),r fi.,)'.,J

arr,/ d./orJ, n,rirftlnlq

rt.t l.l t tr t) lrl 1lt, 'I lr: P )ititn llta , t,i , r:1.: t lltlit ) l\1 1.



tid th l\,\r\tt,\ l\tirlttr (:i.it1t!. nhy

t2; (nlrot) O,tl),t tt i lr ,, I th l\ri. N: t\ti td.


-r, r


,4rr.r,/ i,), rl,( S,r.,i,,i,i l',rrrrtr

.t]t Phn li lk



io V.l . n!(r t ()i$


Alkr lr l l\tlitl

th l,liliL\l l)nit(.

.tit t):kr


tt i'ir by !l( So^tt Pdntnr (nnN n!.) stnth )' rt .ttrfti.d.lJ [y H0 .\,

aud rltL


N.,l d,rlrDlr l') tht .\1.1k\t' l\ti ttt



a d i\1(k,\{0 H. (t.g

tr Btll att<t hy tltt ]lLl1,ltt Pturtt!. 1l.ll,'





hi\.t;utitt) tt'htt''t t') I)n'r)"'j d''il

t:t t:n\,, nalu

t.. h1,p\, I



aul 1tu lrtll,

tht Ktk \t\ Pri tu (nr t( tult).




lry tha



tur. Didtt.24.i

.j11.2 ht!nh:


t t t',t a t hk\r lcli) Rtli.l





l&ylo\ hr tlt Xot.thdlno! Irrin.t- P6id !; n h

M'ter.q(t t r|1no.





craw by rlte TtlD\ Pdol.t. ApoLlo

n aucn.


l-tiln! rtutu li [y rt! t\urtt,,1 ttL Nt,, york Cu nM\ tthy

r ,
't lt.t- .r,.,',l'.,t,.,, t|. t.1-t,:t)t "-,,).


\ ,rdlrr. l\r,' lL t a I'ttil


trtili,L, r'itlt

t|.t lr,ll trdkr hy tht Bta.k Th),^it\ htitt(t

rj6 Lltll

uru ht !h. htilh rl ldhL (;

id,r. Aad^/.]

it'tl,li rtitl l',lart H),hit Diat)'"

1ti B,ll ,

, l,) tln R.t rt,1l t\,rt,

.il3 U.ll

t) !

bt tln

Ltl\tr l,,trttri.



I tit\ thld'lrt ttu lj)hi!t1nit td\'). Ithiro|i.t rt | " :r ith Ptl,tu\, ()ftrr(, (nt( Antt\ H. 1,

ttn L)til ,t.itti rl tlr. lrtlltltt.t t;r,,ttt

BL t,.l)lj,tt rjtt ttjt thir tt,j

ttrt l,ttir,



$6 Calyx oater,- Dio'lltos h

a tMPfu

tj, (dhtu hfi) Cdlyx.tdttt

Pdntut o[ Radin
1060 .)5.1


kb.* rirht) B.ll udtct bt tht Lrba.h I'ditLt!t. Herakb: aul Apolh'

t5a (Lal) Beil uatu hy the Pantu! rt La da r 64. Nit( ./ri,.r 1Lr.l/,r /,'


(b.ldt) IStll ndtu hy thc Ptitlitt

al Loldon



61. Il(tun(iliatiok ol

arul AtaUa

t, t:dly,

mter. Trlqhos taLt\ thc .hiLd\ rilht) I'y



t ak


a Pdi ct


ti t) Cur lt. hy the Je d Pai


(thNC)()tt ht tlk.l.1


)6t lLli ) h lik. hy tht .1t1,1 l\littr. ( )r,tt, ldtttktr hdn) tunl t:hkhn dt tlt tohlh ul


tly th.

lar Pri tr Pti\ ttu! Ihh

H. 1l

t tt





,a Oh.A. (:hiLfun

tdl:( n

])idty!ir. y\6sn


lldtpl( d tl tnrt


Ory ht th( Dioh


l)antut (1n


u\() Dn\ d.\

jit Cltt


th Dio tl


ki' Eto\

ith a thtl)



k tfu Dio hl lrni't(.




th( Q

lrnrr.r \i"r

i67-t Cr1, by th. Q l,a

t0. lt,ll,

16,{.s/r,rl.jj (rl, by

th Q Prj ttl


Ln(n\' .l t6..t

\ i t)iJt tli : bnan, rcl n tlld, ttth, norpilu fi\h. Dhn. y

Chapter Six


.r r \ dl sccnc rcl:rtinE to u,h:Lr rppc:rrs to bc a rccclrrly lev()Llrcd Attic crrlt. 'l'lrcrc rr rll bc l fcr. Drorc vitscs clisplaying tlris local intcrcst bnt irost arc clcvorcd ro r(rrc or to stock tvpcs of l)iouysiac or othcr nlythical but rron narrrrrvc
lrr'rllc\. l'lrc pc)rkc is onc ofthe nrorc iurportltnt Kcrch sl:rtpcs rnd thc carlier oncs rre .rLll buxonr virscs ofiirin!l:r finc srvclling flcld tor:lulti figurc sccncs- Thc llrR^t<urs 1.126,.1771 and l),tsrrur,r l.lZ,9, -lZ9l P^rNrrRs (thc lattcr rrernccl lor ;r llcspcrid ou [17.!]) continuc thc trlclition of thc bcll cr:tcr [rJintcrs of thc l,{)rLs gencr:1tiol, or) thc dllli'rcllt shlpc. {.;tol hils a sfiritcd vclslon ofthc

rr rrlr wlr-rr

.rny rcel brcak irr produccion ofvcsscls ofcpaiiry :rf,". Or" fiu"r..rifl".-,ri".,,,,,,,t

"t"ur;n, lllr rr.1\u rr) thc Lr\c ,,1 (,,1!,1n, rc)icf:rnd gilciitq, rnd occasiorr:rlly sont!. vrr \ finc dr:ruehrsrrrenship. l)c6nition ofJ rr. rvirhin-'th. ,.ri.,-;r ,,", .1r"."fr,, ,f,, clrlicr vrscs cenl-rc sccu ro dcvclop nrtur.rll; fr.rr Ar. *,,.f .li fr..,lr',. ,,,,,f cratcr peirrtcrs ofcariicr in thc ccntlrry; and it rnly bc cloubtcci *fr"Or* 11r.,. *.,,

Itgtrr,.r rr,.r*.r, lound (rrrostly no\\- irt rhc Hcrnric.r{u Muscrrnr irr f_.rr,,,g..1.Tf 'A"o.,,,.,,,f charirtcrjsric ofthc fincr vitscs is r rcrlr r t(, .rr(i hrr rhr.r .l"ir,,r-"r,i.,1 .i,f. r,yr,, ,,frht Lttcr 6trh rcrcrrrv-JU(onrp l,rcd by.lrrr" ,., i.i;;il';,;.i;;;r,,,,,, ,


his ctraprcr brings us ct) rhc crrd ofrcd figurc in Athcns. lt is largcly corrcelrrlrl r', rl[,] rlru Krr, lr \ryl,.. r r , , r , , I I r , , , , r r i,, ,ir.,,, rl,. t ,,,,,,.,


riLr,N^ l,()pLrlur AriDrJlp-griilin ights. Ilydrili artl .rirtcrs lttribrr!cd !o i l'\rNrER llti i,s3l b,v Schctlld (thc rvorks arc ncrt assignecl by tlcezlcy) urc . r!.ahtly nlolc rnlbitioLls in clr:rrving thouqh not sutrjccr rlettcr. I'hc vcilcd

,lrnccr Ii.e;] is

r ferliliar sculptunl typc. Ihc l]otkin


corrrposition ir thc flith ccDtury DrlrnDCr, cLrt oll'fiilrrrcs rnd rJl, brrr rD rlrc ncrv Kcrch tcchnicluc: l livcly (lalycloniln bolrhurrr. ()thcr h yclril paintcrs.


offcrs rn


ti$,,f.lllcrrnrcrlu(nLUwlsb"i,rgatt"rrpt"d,r,,,,,,fr.,,f,, lr\r,rl,j,,rrr.rr.ortrrr.rvh.rv,.lrrrgur,.l llr,.,trrlrorrrrlrcpr rir.l r.L*.lr-nu,r,.r,.l r,, \llrr,.l rolll,\.rr. r,,tu(. rv.r,.r.i,lt\. lrp, ll.rru.Lrr.l ,,,,,tlrrrrSrlt.trh,,dic,,h.rrr,llL., curl- Thcrc is nor thc ornlrcr)css ofrhc,nrajor South f,"h",,,rulr, .,riiir.,,,,,f" rcrlly satisfying *,ork is cxccu!crl irr rhc rrrclirional ,"arr;qr" *i,ir', ii,r., f;,,..,,, .tr lc'. lrtrlt r!L.Ln \( to ,,,. hitc p.urrt, ,l)d only nroclcs! cor."ir;,r,rr_,,,

1i.i:-i.lil, .lttrn)pt l{ tr. ll)c liJlu\r wt,rL lulkrws, ccDtring oD rhc vases of thc M.rrry.rr l'rrr,,r.r.r',.u:lriv,,frhL.rrrid(L.rrrLrr.),,r lrrrl,.....rlrcr: l,,li,.rrLJ h1 f,;r|r,,",fi,,, f,r,,(,rr,rr.,, .,f rlrir,l r.rrL r,,,rl .r. u..ll .l\ \,,,1r. lr.r,,,.rl ..,p.,i,,,.,,i. *,,1, tcchniq.c lrcl colo.r rvhich xrc nrorc prcrcrltious. It cotrrcr rvcl bc chat no rr.,r



.rrurthc(lRouporl.orr:xrNIi:.3o1.;,96l,cchororncofrhcincrligLrrc-clrawirgof .rraists yct to bc tliscusscd. 'l'hc MARsy,\s PArNTln s rvork lEt I .;g; | 'includes nrost ofthe rlrrstcrpicccs ()f ,\tric firLrrth c('ntrrry v.rsc-lrJintinq in l]c:rzlcy's vic,"v, but rvc start rvrdr.r r,:rsc l,crrinq a Marsvrs sccnc n()t rtrributcd to thc pxiDtcr by lJcezlcy, but u.hich hc , rll,.'tl 'thc flncsr. I chink. of;rll l:rtc Artic v;rscs - lt ]s r fi rqrrrcntrry ercl lirqc celvx , r ltcl ir Oxforcl. fiorrr A1 Mirl l.;,!7]. l'hc- corrrposition is hclvy lrrcl fornrel orr Ll)c nl()nunrcntrl shlpc (6r cnr high) bLrt thc dnrrv:ng oiindivrrlurl ll!lurrs is ,'..quisitc, rlrc bcst linc drlrvin{ in lny survivinq nlcdiurr ofthc pcriorl, but ,,vith lrrcs too fint to bc c:rrrqllt rcldily bv lhc c,ullcl.r. Thc Mrrsy:rs l):rintcr's nlrstcrpiccc is x lclrrs qrnrikos fronr Kcrch with e briclrl princip:rl '.crrc l.;tti]. Whitc is rcstricrcrl t() hlrl)irr.rrc, Erotcs aud thc flcsh ofrhc
figurc, whosc (lrc-ss w.1\ P;rirrtcd ovcr ir) r l:1tt coloul ilr co tr;lst thc orLliniry rccl flerrrc ol tllc othcr w()nrcD. l)ctails offirrniturc r:c gilr trut \\h.rt ort othcr vrscs sccnrs rncrctrici()us onrrnrclrt herc cnhrnccs thc qcncrxl ri)pc.rrlDCc llld focrrscs itt!cntiorr on thc rr)iir) flsrrrc lvrrhorrt .rppc.llin,; ti.rrlboylnt. lhc figuras rlrc st.ltrasqlrc, clrsy, rcllxcd rnd lsr.rrcd jn thcir poscs; lincs :rrc bold :rnd nr)t rs dcllscly scr rs on thc Al Minx vesc. lror:rrc thcy xs tinc rlris is ln cxccplionill fclrtuc of thc cratcr rccrlllrrq lirrc ctchirrq or silvcrfoirt r,rthcr thrn rhc cnrphltic lincurity of nrost rccl figurc (lnd cspccirll,v thc clrly r,1icf lirrc). I hc big pclikc lvith l)clctrs .lrd l hctis l3qo I rlso rrscs coloLrr with rcstrrirt rnLl iirr nrrrrtivc cnlphilsis; xnd it incluclcs trvo nuclc studics cll_ wor)rcn of .rn racor)rplishrl]cnt urrrrrtchccl ol cerlicr vrscs- Thrcc-quirtcr vicrvs ofbodics eDd
,\ phr oditc-1ikc



.,a:rl,l',":-ll')n,1.,)i.,rr\r\prc\\sonrthingofrpr.oblcrrr.lrrthcr9-1o,sKrrrI i( riciL'io pLl n n\hcr1


i r rl,err h.rrr,ll< 2,,r,,.,. flr..tnrrrr..r.,rr.rrrr,.',.r,.Ir;..11,.,,.,r, clrboratc Elcusinier sccrc ofiniti;rrion (ti,r hcr otr.1 .rrrJ f", fl"ri; , .,.,i.lilZ,

.,*.,,i.rr, rr rtlr rrr,rrr r.lrr,rl rr.rrrJ.. . Ofthcc:rrlicrpainrcrsthcl,ouaulrrparrrL_rrl37:,-;7il.rn.lrhcp!,(]^ l)tt.i trr, lr-.,,l.lL.,.r.rrl l,,.ll, r.rrL.r. .r .1r., n,.,1,r, h.:g,,,, i,, q,.,.,, "i 1,.1,,,,,, i., ,,, i. '.t,n ,.rl) r , r.rrur'. .rlr, b,.,,rrrrrr1..lrlrrrrcr. rr,l r.rJl,r..rrr,l Dr(.\(rr.rr l',1,,,,, |',,Li.rrrrI,I.'I,,,rr.'"||\

cntircly, includinq scvcr:rl of thc

('l /rr r\ii.l,rl,q \.\.r.rl ,,t

prrrrL.r\inLi Sn,up\. llc.Lzlcv t t,r

forlrLn t In r,n, rg.ilphs orr thc Kcrch stylc arrd dcfincd sort rr. cr c.l rhc sanrc ground oDly iD his sccond cditiorr

lr..l.,l.l., .,rrt,r,. I,rrr

tAr,,rr{ \,nr( llr,,l,l.\ v(r) ti)c\r r.,r"r, ,uli,.l, f,.inl,,i"if.,,,


rlc rchicvcd ficcly lorv.rnd lltlrough

thc- tc-chniquc

still n)i1i!;r!cs:l!!.rn\t


()rnpositions ir dcpth rhe firllncss :rnrl rorundity ofiudividuel figLrrcs is pcrfi'ctly , rIrcssccl clcsprtc drc bleck qloLurtl. I'hc clurlity oftlris dre\\,iirq rniqht Icrd oDc lo think thirt thc pxintt.r(, u,crc prxctiscd in ochcr, rr.tjor r:rctlir, rrroonlighcing


pxiirting. l'hisisshownbythccercdcvorcdtoornrnrcDr(irlwrysaliallrc,rl Ilr, bcftcr peirrting on Artic vascs) anrl rhc disrircrivc trrolcj iraud ofnracrruticr .rrr,l cllcqucr squ:rrcs uscd li)r qrouncl-linc-s olr scvcrrl of thc vrscs. rrLrci: rrr rlr, rrrmrcr of rhc besr Mcirlian, brrt tighrcr, lussicr.
.labou l'hc.EfrusrNrAN l)AlNrrn [392, rct I rrr,l -;q1f nray h:rvc sccrncd to llcez]cy

in thc pottcrs qurrtcr, bLrr lhc vasc,s Llisphv:r pridc ir porting too whicL sLr1i1i, rr , ther this is:t gcnrrnc ifsltorrlivcd rcvrv.l oii,tc-rcst_i, chrlcrrfc:rrcl tcclr,,,,1rr, rvhich Iifrs it lbr a whilc frotn rhc pcdcscrianisnr ofrlost fbrtrth_ccntLrr y r,,r,,r


slr.rpc b:rrcly


so 1irr,

but bcurin!l somc ofthc nrost cherecrtriscrc

appcars on scvcrll Kcrch vascs (:rn.1 rr:r: [,;47]); .rn ctltcr luhrcvud l.rt by sirrr 1,1, linc, as ofrcn hirhcrto on vascs, bu! b) r.,nrhin.rrr.,n t,iubirc lor thc figrir,, ordinery rcd figrrrc arrd rnert paint. Thc buuch ofdrcss caught bctwccn hcr kr rr,r.,, is lDothcrpopular r)rorjfofthc pcriod, for,.r,",, .r. *.r,,,"u i.1-. l4uzl). Sonrc ol rlrr vascs artributccl by Schcfold to his l)AtNrFR (rF rHE Wn)DrNG pRitcr.ssror.r 111,; rriqht dcscrvc :t hcrc for thc qn;r liry ot tlEu rc dr r wins th,ugh ttrc styl. r, _pllcc gcnerelly crowdc.1 and slapclash if clctailcd. It is casy, pcrhaps roo casy, to scc in drc figurcs end dress on rhc\r .npc, Ko1 lr vascs, rcflcctions ofthc sculptural stylcs .,f rhc il ry. Lr A chcns. rh rs ir rhc ocrioil oI Prrxitcics' nudc Aphroditcs and ot thc htavv.rntl eorltphcrt(d dr.rpcry ti,r worrrcn ar)licipatillll thc llcllcrrisric. fhc drc,ss lr lcast cer bc nratchci on tl,, vescs whctc it gcnerally appcars lightcr and clinging, tbllowing carlicr stylcs irr vlsc-p;rinting, rvhilc thc- ftu, nudcs sccrrr clcciclcii)y rrol_l)raxitclcar. l,:rrr,.l p-rirrrrrrr,. .r, ir, rlr, trlrlr ,,.rrrrr). r\ rrror. Irkclr rn h rvc hcurr r rrr,,dr.l, ,rrr,, ,rithi'trgh colurrr rnd chi.rroscur,, wcre bcyorrcl thc vasc_paintcr's capaciry lirr inritlrtion, rhcrc was a conti.,ing tracliriotr in I rtrorc lincar. (:ontorrr.(l trcelrrcnt in rltiljor pailrtinq, tlloLlgh \\,c hlvc rojudgc it rnorc lrom clcscrlprr(,|l rhan fronr cxrrnt work which ncvcr hints ar tl)(, display oflincar derail sccn orr thc vlscs. Ar occrsional tclicf nrctal vesc, ,iuch ai ti," 1"t". l)crvcni crltcr, :rpprolchcs tltc stylc ofthc vilsc scclcs, bu! tnost arr, lcss dctailccl (ls lrc tlrc inciscd fiqrrrcs or gilr silvcr vascs). Cioscsr, pcrh.rps, rru rhc incrscrl fin.rr.r,,,, brouzc trirror covcrs. On lhc vascs to,, rhr. i, srrli us..ntirJly.r Jrrr.rgi_rrsnrln,s stylc, not r pseudo-sculpturai one, for ell tlre facilc ioritation of tri,ial rclict orrrlrrcDt lnd figurcs drac certainly lpc tl]ctalwork and will cvcntu:rllv PrcoccLlPy thc Portl'r.

rvclk'bcsiclc rhc Marsyas Peinccr, ard his filaurcs arc indcccl sonrcwh:rt rvc,,l,, nrorc crowclcd, bur hc t.o rcc:rlls tlrc Mcicliln, hls a.ochcr cl.rb.r.rr, Blcusinien sccnc on r )argc'pclikc errd an uncxpcctc-d vicw ofZcus wirh I.lrt.rrrr,, plortinq thc lroj;tn War 139-11. His r,",ork on bilck figurc prnarhcnlics pl;rc,,r lrr, Iloruir bctirc thc rrricl ccnttrry. ()rhcr vascs ofthc'qLrality of[hoscjusr r)anrcd incluclc rbc work ofschcloLl,r PoMpE P^rNTtt: a chous 13941 r',,ith : r,:lrrcil l)iurrlsos ubsurvrrg l,orrrl,r pcrsonilicrriol of lhc proccssion, rnd,r skyph,rs 1.r,hrpc rrrcJl gra.c.l wrrlr dccc'nt drawilg in rhis pcriod) with rvorrcn arrd saryrs, r,r.cly uotiy th. r,,,,,, harrd|7951. fhc Po mpc is a good cxa rnplc ofa fi surc with rrarrrp".1.,,, t .lr"rr, ,,,,, l,

dccoracccl lid. ',,r rr,rllydcvorcdtosccucsof\\,orlcn ancl lvcddings. l hcsubjcctsrccallthoscof lrL .rtcr fitth ccntury, rlrd thc Erotcs and occirsiolil roplcssrrcss ofthc princip:r1 lr.Lrc nriry solnctinlcs lclvc- us lvondcrirg uficthcr lvc ltavc lr ntortel or ,\l,lrrotlitc (prob;rbly rr rlclibcratc anrbiguity or conrplinrcnt on thc pirrt ofthc L 't). 1'hc drtrvin!r ls ruthcr sl.rck and (lry thoullh chborerc; both shepc encl ,1, , r,r.rtion havc rruch ofrhe 'chocol:rtc box' lbour thcrn. Thcsc :u c of llclzlcy's ( ) rl r rrr (;Rorrt, l-r92, -19,r1. Most ofthc sccncs on !hc lck:r1id.s ofthc n1rirl qroLrp lrLrc lilrr conrponcDts: scilrcd \iJonrrr) with Eros; sc:rtcd wor)r:t1r tn(l mJid; .L rlrd u,ollrilll; rLlnninq rlai.l. ()rhcr t-xrrnplcs lrc nrorc cxplicitly uLtptitl iD 'Lrl,icc! I.l9.ll u'ith wcrltling vascs shown. Ihc latcr cxrnrplcs rcducc thc ,1, , o::rtion to four ligurcs enci otlrcrs ccononrizc with sinrplc hclds or ednrit thc

l(, ,lr dccorrtion. is rhc lck:rnis. rirc ilet rould bowl rvirh


,'11.11q 1l .11!11,

rrc xrc nluch ilivcrl to c()loLrr rnd ()rnxrllcllt, othcrs arc grossly rcpctitiotts. 'l hc A ,()LLoNIA (lnoup llo.l,.lo-51 oiiirs sccncs of Aficrrs' Adonis lcstiv;rl on i hydriil r r,l sqnlr lckytlroi, i sh:lpc rot fbrgottcn for thc occ:rsionrl niljor sccnc. On 1,,'11k:ri rhc AuazoN l'arr.r'r'rrn 1406, 107 | lcrcls us into rlrc lanrilier letc Kerch worlcl ,,1 Anrazons,qrit ns, hc:rds :rnd busts, bur crn ofli'r s()nlc fiEhts ofcrtrclc vigour.

lhc rcrneinirg


r [;0,' .70.r]. oflhc Kcrch stylc lrc nllllcrous but rarcly xrllbil,rLt\,

li. tlkcs

sornc tr()Llblc wirh, btrr crowcls thc or'rlarilcnt, plugging thc rrcr

l,, rr,vccrr sccncs unclcr thc pclikc h.ndlcs \\,ith big trlunt prlnrcttcs. Thc pclikri of t irrour, (i(ril1rn) [40.!,4r4] erc rlso larqcly dcvotcLl to tllis pcriphcrel :rrcnl, rvidt

rrornrtcd Arin:rsps fighring grillins, fiehts rvith Amrzons tncl othcr oricntrls, lrc laccr pclikti bcconring quitc thin-ncckcd and crudcly figurcrl. To rhc sanrc ;lxrup []crzlcy :rssigDed r scrics ofbcll crltcrs, with sinrilrr sccllcs, ()r syIrp, '\i.r. r,rrher old-firshionccl; end e ii'w bcll crrtcrs ofspccixl li)rnr ('Fr1eicfl Typc') rvirh lrish fl.rring lipr l4 r1l. llc11 cr:rtcrs by thc Fror-rRANo Parnren [4r6, lrZ] xdd to r hc oricnr:rl erld synlposi(rl rcpcrtory nlorc old-fishioncd sccrrcs of l)ionysos Ln cl thc konros. ()lvx crltc'rs ofthc L.C. Grrrtur, (hrr Letc Cr:rtcrs) bcconrc tall and cnlrcirtcd l/l' li2], dccorrtcd with t'i'w br.rt sonrctinrcs u.cll-drarvn, rall figrrrcs, cspccially rl thc work of dlc ER()T()srAsrA PATNTaR I+r,9, .1r91. TIrc poorcst irc siti\6cd rvith nrcrcly onc or two ligurcs on thc l'rorrr encl surlrrlrary rllilntlc figurcs


()n rrinor shapcs thc dccoriltion is cvcn nrorc clispiriting. l hc F.B. Grroue (for Irat []oy) ofoinochoai (ancl a f.1rv poor skyphoi) is clcvotcd to appalling youths .rnd :rthlctcs [4:-;, 4:4l. Thcsc rrc rhc figrrrcs too ofrhe cxrcriors ofcups in rhc YZ (lRoup ('thc crtcl of thc rccl-figurcci cup') but lclding sorrc wonrcrl! Erotcs ind Nikri [7,r,s]. l hc intcriors rccrll rhc fiqurcs oD cLrps crrlicr in drc ccrrrury, brrt ,:rudcly drewn wirh laross bordcrs, or solllctirDcs nonc at all [rcyoncl onc or twcr
rcscrvccl hoops, occasion:tlly rvirlr a dcgcncracc vcrsion of thc vinc wrcatlr .lrourld thc tolrdo and rcdLrcing thc figurc to a siDglc hcad. Askoi hrvc orierrral



\Lrbtcct\ rrrd hcutls lq-u6]; p,vxiclcs .rrd srr):rll lcbctcs c.rrrrikoi hirvc dcgcrr, r.rr, vcrsiorrr of thc u.cclclirrg sccncs 11.:71. I'or hor.r. lorg tlrcsc virscs \\,crc bcirg Pilirrtecl ishltr11 to tcll- ThoLtgh tlrcrc rr, nr:iny ofdrcrn, rnd wcll-distril)uted roLrnd thc Mcditcrmrrcerr (thtrtrqh ftu' Ir. s into thc l]l.rck Scr, uhiclr rrtlv hevc bcctr it rrtltlcr ofrlslc;trrd (lcrrrll)J rrlllr( I thrn rlltc), thc pcriod of lr()(luctioll rn.ry l)lvc bccn short if livcl,v. Thc llst v;rsc u,c corlsider-is rirthcr l)cttcr, onc ofthc htcst l() xtlcrrrPt qtl rlll\ .rnd lrorn thc ncrv city irr u,hich nruch oithc firtlrrc o1 (lrcck ;rttd u'csrcrtr .tr I rr ., to bc firlgctl Alcxlrrrlrir. A slrnr-ncckcd h,vtLl:r, uirh il Jtrdlacrr)crrt ol l).rrr', l1:,s1. Ihc lcrl-tlqtrrcd uork lirr thc;rltcr)drrrt filaLrrcs ir surtrtnrry, btrt iirr rlr, fr{urcs tllerc is r:rrrch gilt rclicf;tucl thick nlltt p.rint. It sccrlls L() rcPr(\( rrl lror.rcvcr. bountl to succuttrb () thc tilstc of :r Dc\\':tgc ltl which, it \(.t'rr)' shorlriy hurrrl-p;rntcd vrscs o1-c1.ry u'crc (u rr tlcntlnth bl,v)l tr dgccl irrfirior r,, rl,, fl.rirr printcrl,.rnd irr rvhich lhc rrrrss rrrlrkct \\'its t() l)c.()lllc rrrorc rc.rtlrlt \,ttisfrcd h1)n) thc rrroulcl rh:rn by tltc brtlslr.
rhc cxh.rus!iotr of l sr,vlc ;rrrd tcchrriqlrc n hich, Lrut :r firv yc:tls bclirrc. lll(l n', rr \()r)rc lcviv.rl ofpridc in dr]Lrghtsllr.trrship rrlrl rcslriir)t ill dccorxti()ll l'hc ( r.rll


Lttt ty ttu ])irtttl.\ ]\titlt, tttuIht tnr ti(\ Prl,]irk\t



I Btll thtn lrl tk lryr ]\rrtL1Hthftl6,.1tlk t, lt1,\



,ntLr. llilu' ml ian lnt t.ttrt




. iiit Lt tlt Horktt\ l"ti t,\ 'l r,h'.1 .'1tltutit,

.tIt l\'lil! [y tli 1),^itlttr l\tittd. ]\ t. Hl'n|1,' t"tl

i( 1.lil.


ttu Honkh: l\1;t

o 1'tnrt\ ln tt\: Ztlt',








th. httl



Nl'rrh ,{)j. (iypo


Ir. ,3,

,8t Cdlyx otttt Pntit n d H(Lo1

Hyntu. Pos1h d


tt,trt antl btlLrr) Olyr tntu )trlh dn M,t\a:; ddnil, I,/ntlyr\ l l. tjl

.,.'t (ldll!.trr.r. ll]dk|! dt.t! i|



llydtjn.l tit. (') q il t.o tlo t:.2io.


tt )


l\lik bt I i\l.$li\ l\ti //,, ld,l/ M ,r),,rr/


,r trlrk n l ti\ltt) t\lil! \! l\ti1rt(t. P(hr\ t l ''\,r\

l)J thl




//,r ,1I,,:\lnj /lti,rtur lvtltlitl.t 1ft1'dnnfit\

gt (ti!'ht) tlknnis litl



tl| lh^yr\ t\1i


tr: lhtldr) t\'likt l,y ttu t:h iit 1\titlttt. r\, l)io t\r\ r tl th. rtiti t llurklt\

)/ (l/rirj. llrrlI



r, , /r l,,rf.)

Sl)1fi,j I/




L)' tlk

lllt ii in |di k1 Ztt:, t'ho :

9b Hyltin.ti
attrt ..1rhLna

Zr\ dil tutt


/ l,.r.l I-rlnriij

litl ')l tht

(rthtt (;,orP t)id1.,1.(

ns tl).lt)n,) Ltkr,li\ lnl ol th ()tlnt ()t1\t|- 1)irn ,.1.[

, r /)..

J./. H,

t' .''t t1-r- ' 't'. t. rtt- tl"'


t' 't



litt by

ttu t\ti ttt tll ttu /?/iJn'( L'li'iJ'

4, Ltkatli\

l11 ttl

ttu ()lrtl il tlk t it llr l'(l!



r..r /.,1,r (rrli^r.r.

l/. rl

)t t tl lrr ) H), htr ,l tlt,


lar' l; ,r,tl

jr t | ,t\ it


/),'/iLr /))

tlt( 1 rl--rtt l\li kl

t 1\hL,


th 1nl


I tiitht


l).lil. rrlllii




Atitlnt\l rt l

jo9 t1,liL.

oi().rp (;

1:ilht n,ilh

.tto Ptlik

ol().|t (;



d ().ut O.



tt: ?tlil:t


(;h\tr c


tta t:aldi4l h(ll

nt.t,tl (;n\tt, C. O'WMtuh)'; Di.,t!,J. H.



Btll n1t{ [), !h. 1:ibtttlto t\tittt.t

$5 H)\hn i..t Ctri4t (; t:i.tl1t



.ltti tull ndt(t by

th l.ilo turn' Ptirtt\' 1)h\[ruii n t Nil'l

t-.._.-, .'rE Nz

4ryCal)'rnd tt)l tir t. (:. Lltrrl,. Ikhrkl.\d tl .'hlt.rd




rr. ii.A. Crory. H-



Askr\ Dl thr


of thc


o t),u, l.ti1t -ly^,tut,t ,tthr 1.1.. t-."t.Hialh' r ,l Hnp,;i \- H a5

(dhat d'ti rirht)Otl

a,! \al'r1t)CdLy) tarct 'Itht t.L. Ct,ur.. Tli- \ d ti \antrt) t a,, llLJi) t dly.\,tdtlt rl th I C Ct
tr5 tt,


(io l

YZ. A]'1rlh

#.t (hL\\t)On\,(ho(.f ttu r.B Ctuup. Il. t7.i

1.7 khnNt

.l ritht) I'yxi' ol tln (:l?lki ()tu\lP

Chapter Seven


Irr Chssicll lrtd latct rcd fir:nrc rhcrc ltrc r;1lhcr fcwcr nlrin lirlcs of stlbjc'ct iutcrc-st displlyccl by tltc vlsc Plintcrs, eccorrlparricLl by llrc;rlcr divcrsifrc.rtron oflcsse:-thcrrrcs. I his is perticullrly epplrcr)t irl lhc Dlyth sccDcs, tllc sourccs fi)r

$ hich r,r,c shrll hrvc- to consiclcr. Thc chlngcs of crlrplllsis, iIl sccncs cirhcr of rcrlity or nryth, xrc grrdtlal, elthouglr sirlglc cvcllts nlr.ltl solDctinrcs hrvc proviclccl thc stinrr.llus f()r l rtcu' irrtcrcst. Tircy slrotlJcl be lblc ro tcll us io,rcthing.ibout thc chanqcs in fortutrcs aucl prcocctlpatlons ofthc Athcrrirrrs lor rvhorn thc v;rscs wcrc tlccor:rtcd, ltrd to a tlloclcsr dcgrcc rhcy sccrlr to' rhou!lh rlthcr inclircclly end thcrc rrc llo rc:r11y cxplicit rcfcrcnccs to Arhcll\' l()ss ofcnrpirc lrrcl dcfclt, though thcrc rrc scvcr;rl ro Arhcns'pridc. ()n thc whoJc
thc- viclv wc rrc givcll of Athcni:rn lifc orl rhcsc lltcr rc-d fisr.rrc vlscs is tar lcss rich thlrr it h:rd bccn in rhc Archlic pcriod cxccpt irr r'r'hrt

wc rrrLlsrjudgc thxl

rlr.r ,lr,,r. u,,,r rlr( lit ois.,rrrirr.


'l'hc mcrrrs ofcorrr:rrttrric:rtiotr throLlqh dlc pictLlrcs wcrc as rhcy h:l(1 ;rlweys l syrtax of stock fiqtlrcs :lrtd irror.lPs, iclcrlrificd by atrribucc, posttrrc or sor)rctinlcs inscriplion, brrt chiefly rcli:rrrr tlpoD I krlowlcdgc alld cxpcctltlion on rhc p.rrt ofthc custorllcr tl)ilt wc lllxy not llways bc lblc to sharc. Pttrposc nlttst ofic'n blvc clcrcrrlirrccl snlrjccr, :ttrcl ntrttcrs considcrcd irl (lhaptcr Nirlc nrltst bc borrc in rnincl. Inecuiorrs surlgcstions that xll thc dccorllcd clay vescs u'crc intl'nrlctl for thc ronrb (sincc t:rlnv, bltt not rll, arld lllost llot ill Grcccc lt all, n,crc hrund thcrc) or that thcy lrc dcdicltor,v (fbr tonlb or tcnlplc) subsritutct firr rrct:rl vrscs (grins.rid by thc ilct that nlanv show signs ofrcgultr trsc rntl rcprir lr,-1 rhrt nrlny erc fourrd in lrouscs) rrccd occtlpy tls no lonqcr thln this r",,t",,.., l'r.,t thcy hxvc bccn ftrtrrtd to sllit sonlc of thc queintcr cttrrcrr[s of
nroclcrn sr:hollrship. orvl

Anirnals hltl :r1rc:rdy ccascd to bc subjects in thcir own light (drc Athtrri'rrr is tlrc rnrin cxccPtion 196, 971) end thcrc is olrly tllc occ:rsiorrll olcl-f:rshionc-rl rninrrl friczc in thc trldirionrl positiotr on colLlnlll cratcr lips;:rrtd notc [4.!1. ()rnlnrcrrr obscrvcs lorrg f:rrnilirr pitttc-rlls fbr hlrlcllc palmcttcs or blncls of rnecrnrlcr end sqnlrcs. l'hc llttrrcl trcath u'irls bcll cr:rtcr 1ips, lnd cups rrley sport e colourtirl ivy u'rcerh rourrd rondi or i silnPlcr leurel. Ily thc frrrrrrh ccntur y pri:rtcrs rvho takc troublc ovcr lhcil ()rlritnlc t rrc cxccPlionill A li'w r'.rscs arc sinrply p:rttcnrcd [99] lnd thc ir:rprcsscd pattcrns which bcconrc .onrrDon oD thc PlaiD bllck v:tscs:rrc to bc lotlnd orr thc intcriors ofsor:lc groups


2 t'7

att Hynrii. Iu\o\\tt i] h it. H 6t:

Thc vescs rrc still a irrportaDt sorrrcc of iDlortnltion about contcntporary lifi';rncl conducr, rlthough ll,c arc sorlctinrcs balllccl by an:rdjoD or objcct ancl thc motivetion for sonrc of thc sccnc\ r\ ()pao r,r v-rryrlj inrcrprct.rtiorrs. By 'sccncs of rc:rlity' I tncln, of coursc, sccncs with 69rrrcs which arc not idcntiliably nryrhical or divlnc. Thc 'rcal'sccncs no lcss than rhc'rrrythicll' erc suL-rj cct to forntullc atld con vcllti()ns, .1rirl rhi- rr ntcss.rgcs nr.t y bc rro lcs su btlc lor thc apparcnt ordinarincss ofthcir scttings. Morcovcr, wc shrll sollrctirres find thc nrortll essociatcd with thc clivjnc. Tlrcrc arc othcr linritations too; peintcrs lntl thcir custonrcrs wcrc not iDtcrcstcd in picturcs of thc oiliciel civic lifc of Athcns. Most ofthc sccncs arc privxtc.'Ihosc that arc'public', likc sport arrd frghcinrt, rrc qcncralizcd, or rrc conccnrcd with public clr:rclrncnt ofcult wc

shown Do M ystcrics or thc actuai rircs ofitritiltioD end cvcn thc rit( j

rvhich :nlrkcd e younq Atlrcnian's growing-up erc barcly hirrrcd at, for:rll rhc crthusi:lsnl u,irh which thcy xrc pursucd and hopcftrlly idcnoficd by sonrc scholars- This rcrnjnds us of thc Icvcl .rnd r\f(r r.rri,,r)\ nf thu \o( rcry 6 ,r which thc vrscs wcrc nradc, and it wes for thc sanrc rllrkct ther rhc rlany sccncs of Dlyth wcrc crc:rrcd. Tlrcy too must bu rhrrUglls 5,, h.r,,r hrd. p,,tcnri.,11y. sonrc conr)i o11 nlcssaqc, And thc rcar-1y rrringlirrg ofdivi:rc anci rrrort;r1 for sorrrc rrainly donrcsric subjcccs is a furthcr indic;rtlor of thcir conrnton appcal which is dilfc'rcnt front th:rt of'lrajor'or stltc- rrld culr-sponsorcd art, on tcntplcs and sk)iti. Wc artl dcallns with picturcs dcsigucd tq appcal t6 thc pcople, end though srrcc ancl cult proplglrrde nray wcll intrudc (n1orc in thc ptst than r)ow, tt lcast on vlscs) it nlust bc tt thc lcvcl at r,vhich it w:rs gcncrelly lcccptcd ancl urclcrstood. This grvcs thcsc sccncs I docllnlcrltary intcrcsl which ls cliffcrerrr t'ronr drat ollircd bv lirL-riry toxts. hr thc rcst ofrhis chaptcr, I firllow lpproxiruetcly thc ordcr ofOhrptcrs Scvcn :urrl Eiqht of AIIFH I, to u,hich thc rcaclcr shoulcl turn for lullcr eccourcs of subjccts of contintirrg inportance

da l)dr-jd.qr

tllcy \\ crL- r)o! rlweyr thc foc ilr otlr pcriod, ;uld b,v ptcscntilrg thclr sonlctinlcs 1n r ciorlcstic sltuetioir rhc plintcr is olii': ing sccncs ullitrlliliar to the Court slylcs ofthc l)crsirur Ernpirc, rnd onJy othcrr'virc;rpplrcrlr "vithirl thc Ernpirc ill arcls lulorc thJn:r littlc hcllcllizccl (sourhcrrr Asi;r Minor)' ln sr.rbjcct nrettcr, lhc nrain chlrlgc colllcs with nlorc detailccl irltcrcst in thc lifi ofrvonrcn. Thc rc:rsorls for this arc rlot obvious btlt, sillcc thc vilscs sccm lo ()n thc strtr-ls ofwoll)' rr irl h:Lvc bccrr nrlclc end rrterkctccl by nrcll, it Il)tlst rcllcct soll1c schol'lrs' usc of lhis by stlggcsrccl wrly irr thc socicry, thollllh nor elways nrt)rc illtercs! th:rn tllc is ofLrr lilc c()trrlcsal's thc rcd 6ilurc l:t ciarlicr cviclcncc. houscrvifc's. but rror,v rhe \\rolllcn's prrlotlr L-rccotllcs lt c()nln)()D sctlillg' cspccielly for dccoletiorr ofvcsscls rvhich wc lnay sltPPosc to bc for $'ollltll'\ tlsc py*iclcs lrd hyclrirc. Thc wool b:tskct ([al,alo-r [9r]) :rncl spindlc lzogl arc conrnron furniturc. Ihrl nlctl visit cln qivc risc lo sPcculrtion thrt $'c erc obscrviug e Madxnrc in :r clonlcstic nlonlcllt. lllld purscs lrc solnctinru\ ill cvidcncc; this is lrossibly lrtlc forsonlcsccncs tlut unlikcly for nlost' l'hcladics rnry b!'rnLrsical, or playlul, rvith chllclrcn ()r cech olhcr' APert frorll donrcstlc xcli;ity lhcrc rrc rlrorc: lld lllorc sccllcs of wolllcrl clrcssilrg, \\'ith lincry lrrd Tlris is show by thcJcwcll;ry, Dot lor thc bordcllo, it sccnrs, but for ru:rrrirgc g;1111ikos) lcbcs .lllcl (lourrophor()s llo ' z-11' 'z 15 , z1-1, p."r"uc.: ofl,l.r..i"gc v:rscs sonlctinlcs by lr)d ofEros edmission by thc ]rc conrpiinlcrrls I Ieroic Pili.l lgSl. ,u1,.',,,"n,r"1 itlcrriific:rtiorls. Whcrc thc larly is parl ll:lkcd wc nrly susPccr tha! Aplrroclirc's owrr toilct is ollircd ls rlrc parrcligrrr' Thc r'vcclding on lz.;-sl br:corucs srtpcrrrrtttr;rl only rlrrough thc lcldition oftllc n;lnlcs ofAlkcstis as hridc .urcl scvcrll qocldcssci lrrd llynlphsl illld lroticc Flcrilklcs'lrtrrri:rgc orl l4r,4ool'
:rrc fc:rrrrr'cs of Mcilclierr vilscs xlrcl ofthc u'cddillg scctrcs otl Kcrch vlscs ofthc ni(l follrth ccrrtury. llittrrl occrlsiolls, such as thc proccssion ro !!ci watcl for rhc 'hrnd orr br itl:rl blth, or thc lc:rdirg ofthc bridc by thc groorrr ttr hcr ncu' hornc rvhtl rlrrcrl;rtls Ilrc wrist', or thc Prcscntarion ofgilts:rt rhc Ep:rtrlil.;lll rpircxr' 's cttlt of r'r'ortlc thc ,:lcvotccs:ltltl i." Athcnian clencc for l)iolysos'iur"gc

l)ct:rils oijcivcllcry

:rrr cl

clrborllc hair stylcs fcrr thc rvonrcn in rhc boucloir



'l hcrc rrc rr'r signilicarrt chrDqcs in tlrc clcpiction of drcss :rltlrough plttcr Dinrr ovcr rhc wholc ller1l)cDt or fbr wiLlcr hctus bcconrcs rrrorc cllboretc. Mllc dress is thc- rlost coDscrvativc. Trevcllcrs ancl youths \!,car ol)ly chllnrys cloak, pct;r\os sunhrt, rncl boots with prrttccs: thcy Lrsu:Llly cirrry two spcars. Thcrc lrc still e lcw huntine sccllcs, for dccr or []oar Igo, z l6], but thc lristocratic prlacstra sccl)cS of c()Llrtir)q lncl convcrsatioD erc l]o l)lorc! lncl lhc sct-Ics ofgroups of ,vouths arrd :ldrlctcs erc ecncrallyjust convcllicllt sptcc filk-rs- l hcrc lrc :r fcw qr.ricr scencs ofl)crsialrs, irpplrcDtly kilgs or satraps in (lrcck Asil Minor l;,zol; 2rll

Acbnis is shor,v (scc bclor,r'). l)rnccs rrngc fronr thc stirtcly [,u r, ro5l, juvclilc 112'!, ].r81, t<) thc nrorc ccst.ltic, withlhc nrutllccl figurc l-lE:,4r7l bccorDirrg a t'cilltrrc of th' lrt'r' (llrssicll sccucs. Yortrlg girls arc tlughr to c tlcc ir vcrsion of !hc r'r'arrior's 'pyrrlric', or ,rroullcl, or thc oric lxl o&/'lrrrra likc I (loss:rck cllrlcc' bur t]rcsc.rrc to bc displevs for r rrrrlc:rLrdicncc li5;,.1:ol' Ohilclrcn ut pl.ryt with qo-crrts lnd:rninr.1ls..rppcx1 on thc l:rtc-filih ccnrury thocs [-;69]. l lrc..' ir; an occnsion:rl chvrrf lrzo] btrt thcrc xlc il('rrclally fi'wcr .ini il"r, cxccpt ofl)crsi:rns, with lhcir solt hats, slccvcs :rnd trotlscrs, rlrld "tl,,,i. looscj.rckcts. ancl Thcsslllen drcss h:rd bcconrc lhshiorrrblc lir thc cn'rlii'r cl.rss [661. Architccnrrll dctlil ]s Iro lrrore c()rrrrlr(>rr than hithcrr. end usurlly lc\s irriirDl:rtivc cxccpt as I silrniflcl ti)r a tcnlplc or pxllcc, btrt drcrc xrc ,1ct:rilr'd studics of clonrcs!ic firrtriltlrc, throrlcs. ch:rirs itlrLl stools'



Relig ion

claborutc rypc is thc rnoclcllcd body-corsclct. Thc (lorinchirn hclnrct rs bccolnlnq olcl-fashioncclancl the conrnorlcst typcs arc thc Thrlcian, with pcak

Thcrc is:r gcncral tcndcncy for lcss lrnour to bc worrr, olccrr nonc at rll exccpt for l hclnrct ir thc lcti()n sccrlcs. Ihcsc are usu:tlly hcroic in colltcnt but thc lack of arrrour pcrhaps only slighrly cxaggcrares contct)tporary pracricc. Thc allDlctrl corsclct is conlplctcly rcplaccd by olc of lincn or lclthcr lDd thc only


chcckpicccs, :rnd the Artic, with opcl facc lnd hrnEcd chcckpieccs.'fhe poirrrcd pilos:rnd widc, wavy-brinlnlcd pclllsos may bc sccn on fighting rncn. Thc-sc typcs are csscrrri:r11y oflcethcr or woveD lnatcr-jal brrt nrctal vcrsions havc bccD lcruncl. Thcrc arc thc usual grcavcs but no othcr lcg ar )our. Thc hoplitc's thnrstinir spcar is uscd nrorc oftcn thrn thc sword (jlbbing or cutless narlraira); chariots rrc cxccptional, rncl appcar onJy itr rraclilional myrh sccncs, but thcrc is

r:rorc cavalry. Scythi:rn drcss

rbrn don ccl.


This ls a lar richer 6c'ld, cspccially in sccncs rclatcd lo Atllcnian fcstivals, with orhcr stock sccncs of sac fice 142, 60, |E1l xnd sorr)e dcvorcd ro mythical occasiorls (irs [.1];t), and wc firld lesscr cliviuitics so engaged: Nikc or Eros {84, l,l /, -r4J l. Morcovcr, in lhc ncw range offcstival scclcs Athc]la hcrsclfsccms to bc ig:rored rud tlrc greetcsl ofthc AlhcDiall fcslivils, thc Pallathctrrca, can hrrdly bc rccognizcd.'Ihc closcst wc gct to such :rn ()lynlpiarr occasion is in !hc flne proccss;D ro Apollo in his tcnrplc o[ [r7r]. Thctc is a srnall nunlbcr ofsccncs of thc Adonis fcstivel for Aphroditc [404,405], at which Athcnian wonlcn atrcnd thcir shorr-livcd Aclolis-glrdens, potrcd arlcl sct ol1 housc roofs, syrrbols of buri;rl and rcslrrrcctiorr (comparc toc, thc phallus gardcn of [zr-7])' Thir is 'r lorcign. cxotrc cult ind thcrc arc othcrs, es for l3cndis' I Thraciln Arr''nrir (pcrhaps scen on IrrEl), and thc erstcrrr l)ionysos, Sablzios (perhaps sccn on
i,t bcttc. scrvcd. Thc nrask-idol rcnlaiDs thc centrc Piccc For rirrrals nracnrd d:rrrccs by wonrcn and winc-lasrillg, usullly associatcd with irvolving rhc Lcneia lcstival lz,/, ,77].'l hc rrlask alonc is sccn ill a winl)owing fan on {23;l' Lr thc spring fcstivrl Arrthcstcria thc god, inrpcrsonatcd by thc' archon, is rirttally nrarricd to his consorr Basilirrn:r; cl lt6j, zal Thc sanrc fcstivel involvcd a drirlkinll contcst in thc cley c:rl1cd aftcr it Chocs. The chous shipc ofjug oftcn .lrrries iiollysiac sccrlcs but thc' Illosr intcrcsling arc the scrics of nlilliatures of thc latc fifth ccntLrry and for I whilc thcrclftcr, with thcir sccrrcs ofchildrcn at pliy or irnit:tting idulr ritcs lS6S, szol- Thc Maypolc on Ir74, cf' 370] is lbr ir)otircr spring fcstival, lvidr its cldcrly chorus. Classicll Aihens was tnlrch cottccrncd with ncw rclilliolls or with thc nrorc cxotic fringcs of thL- Olynrpirn. Thc promisc ofinrnrorta)ity achicvcd throtlgh iriti:rtion it Elcusis aucl Pxrticipatiorr irr thc Mystcrics 'lcqtrircs spccial sigrlificer)cc, and thcrc are scvcral scc:tcs devotccl lo thc dcitics ofthc sirc' and rtr gioups inclu.ling initiltcs, but hcroic figurcs, Hcraklcs or thc l)ioskouroi, rrthcr il,au ,r'rcr.t"l.. J'hcsc arc cotrrtroncst il) thc fourth cctttury 1172,'l9z] A fcw vascs show spccial occesiols such as thc l-hcoxcnia I-l l2l, prcpararion of .1 conurlr-1t1ior) fcast with thc divinc; ancl thc'court' sccllcs, with Apollo, l)ionysos or Hcraklcs:tt lhc cclltrc, inlply al lcast some conrnrtrniotr wirh rvorshippirrg nrortals llthough thcy arc oftcn pc-oPicd wilh othcr inln)ortel

archcrs (and Anrazous)



I,:zl). ' 'i)i,rnys,r.

t r5, t7:, r7 5, cf- r4ol. Thcsc ;rrc cluict, srlric sccnc:j ofno!ab1c digrriry poignanr roo, no doubt, in a city a1:rost col]tinuously at rvar lnd in which thc'war dcad wcrc lrcirlq sil)glcd oL]t fior espcclil hollonr end hcroisrrio:r et st.r!c gravcs and in .tl)Dr,rll hulcrrl or:ttiolts.

fignrc rppcer lcss oftcn. Thc. scc:rc of ! warrior lcevi:rg horlc is crpccially iivorrrcd in thc fifth ccnrrrry; wifc, lrothcr:rnd lerhcr cirn oltcn bc i.lcDrified; x libltion is pourccl or rcady xncl il colunrrl rlrry dcsignetc thc honrc porch l-;, 7,

Fiqhting sccncs follow rrrditional schcnrcs rncl chcrc is still no cxplicir dc-nronstration of a hoplitc renk rarhcr thm irrclividual clucls. Fiehts witll l)crsirus [:9] show thc opponcnt in rhc cxpcctcd drcss bul somctinrcs inclucling picccs of Grcck artnour, ancl wc tuly lvr:rndcr whcthcr tll arc n)cant for rcal l)crsi:tns or for (lrccks scrvirg ncrv rlrxstcrs. ['ltc arming sccrrcs ofcarly rcd

Work and play, public and private

Ihc syrrrposion end konros rcnmin popular thcnrcs l_or e ll'.hilc, qcnerrlly in thc rr;rdiclonal schcrrcs anci rvirhout innovariolr or cvct) xs l)luch dctail rs hithcrro_ l)ocs dris inclicltc:r sonrcwlla! l()wcr socill lcvcl ur thc cxpccteLl nltrkct for clay vcsscls dcslqncd for fc;rsts? l)robably it clor:s, illl cl at thc sanrc tintc:lccounts for thc dis:rppc;rrarrcc of pehcstrr lud odrcr athlcric sccncs, cxccpt for oddirics llkc $r iunov;rtivc contcst forj:tvclin-throwing xr tirgcts arom horscback [375 | (cl-,q. -jo4-z), unci rhc torch raccs which nray bc associated with thc rcorqanisatior of thc'Hcph:ristcia fcstiv;rlin,1:r/o [.119 ]. I]ut ifthc qcncrll r.rrrr] ofsuch sccrrcs dor.s indic.,rtc ;r rhifr ,lo,"vn rnarkct in choicc it is pcrhtps surprising rh:rt sccncs ofrraclc and conrucrcc should also virrually clisappcar. Thcjoys of scr irrc soid()rll now cclcbratcd, is thcy hid bccrr in thc Archaic pcriod.

figurcs. For thc rlcrcl, thc laying (1lro/ LiE, cl ,r3l l) antl iauctrt arc confincd lo vascs ofshapcs rpccific to thc cvcllr ()otttropiroroi: thc hydriiL typc for wontcll, thc arnphota typc for nrcrr). Thc grave lckythoi dcnronstratc acrsofpicty at thc

r,r,,,b ,,1t", thc btrrial radrcr llral thc luncral titcs tilclnselvcs Thcir rcflectivc chrrectcl is in kccpirlg wilh rhc colllPilr:rb1y low-kcy rc:rdcring ol, for instirnce, \\lrli()rs lc.lvinq ho,r,", a)I tlr" sccllcs oD gravcstollcs. l-or llrc sccllcs ()rl lhe lckyrhoi scc Ohaptcr Four.

SCENES OF MYTH 'I'hc vesc printcr's sourccs fi>r his sccncs ofnryth in rhis pcriod rre nor cesily tlcfircd. Much clcrrlv rlcpcldct1 on whrt wes alrcldy irr thc rcpcrrory, trut thc s()ck Archaic sccncs rrc grrdurlly rbrndoncd rnd thosc thilr rcplxcc thcul irr(' rot IcfcirtcLl with thc obscssivr' rcgrLlariry obscrv;rbic bclorc-. ()tlrcr;rrtrrti, nrcclir sccnrctl rrot to hevc bcc-r r nrrjor soulcc ir thc Archeic pcriocl, or rethcr, thcrr ilionr wirs not so difli'rcnt frorn dr;tt ofdrc v:tsc-pitintcr, nor wrs his (r,rti rrcccssrrilv so irfirior or his rirnirc ofectiviry linritccl to work on clay. L) thc (lllssicll pcriocl drc vlsc-peintcr is rrorc of ;r spcci;rlist, ;lllcl ol.tcl lbr il n;lss rnilrkcr. !Vc hevc sccn hou, hc r,r,rs opcn t() ilrflucrlcc tionl thc c()nlpositiul irn(l .rppcirrirrcc ofthc rlrulal piirrlillgs ofElrly Olassical Athcrrs but, lpart lrorrr thc obvious ADrazonor:rnchics lllrd thc likc, \\'c canr()t say thrt thcir strbjcct martcr
dictlrccl his srock ofsccncs :rnd ir cle:rr rhet hc clirl not nrcrcJy copy; ifthcrc h:rtl rruly bccn l rlrrrkct for rcplicls or sollvcr)ir\ ofrDrjor works ofrrt irr hllrnblcr nrcclle',r,c rvould h:rvc lound enlplc cvidcncc frrr it lncl thcrc is virtullly norrr' bcyorrd thc vaqricsl c-chocs.

,rr.1it ir by uo n,";ru, ciclr lvhat protlucrit)11, if;rny, it cclcbratcd Wc locus on thc frgurc ofthc gucst:trtisl, thc PiPcr l'rotrotuos, ill rhc 1'orcgrorrrld, but ifhc hed ,,,,t 1,"", ua,r".l rtrd knowu frorn othcr sollrccs, thc sccnc woulcl hlvc bccn trkcn lbr e dctlllcd study ofl)ionysos end corrsort lttcndccl by tbc c:rst ofl play, 'lhc satyr-p1rys of Acschylus cJrlicr in lhc ccnttrry ',vhich is besic:rlly :rll lr is. lirurrd scvcral cchocs on vrscs. fhosc ofhis sttcccssors' Sophoclcs lrrcl Etlripirlcs, lrc lcss rc:rclilv idcrrtiliccl, attcl in our pcriod solrlc vxscs sccln to dcpict Acschylclrr s:rtyr-play strlrjccts, cidtcr wirh a satyr'clrortrs'such ls Prollrothcus

l.;.u.;l is tlrc bcst

dcnronslration oflheir drcss and nl;rsks, bLtt llso lbout dlc letcsr,

thc frrc'-givc'r lrSt], or wirhotrt, such is !hc rccovcry ofl)antc in hcr flo'rtirrg chcst by fishcrnrcn or Poscidon's pursuir of Anryrlo:rc l3t6] Sophoclcs wrolc a Pan,lrrri or Hantrcrcrs, which nrly iltspirc thc sccllcs of rn c'nlcrllcllr goddcss rrtcnclcd by satyrs r,r,ith lrlllcts lr60, ;771. And it is always possiblc tbrt rht' jDtroducc satyrs .rnllogy ofsrryr-play wls c[onth to givc' I peintcr thc liccncc t() bclow whcrcincljcarc I shal1 uor. stilgccl or scttings, whcthcr in "p1rri,pri.,t.:,r'rytl, b" thcrughr tir rchrc to a knowD or slrspcctcd satyr-pl:ry, tragcdy, rcc,i.:r,riiglrt corucdy ot clithyrlrnb. of Stagc' ,,ri1, pussibly Iravc hld an influr:ncc on drc Pxintcrs inclcpcndent wiih oftcr p:rltcrtrcd costlrnlcs, hcavy, thc ,p.'cil,. p..r.l,r.tio,is. It nright cxp)airl troots. fionr thc cnd of thc ccDtr'rry or1, and thc growing tcndcrlcy ro dcpict Trojln fiqurcs in oricntal or Pcrsilrr clrcss. Spccific allusiolls to thc'stallc sccn) to rlic out cirlplctcly in thc lburrh ccntrrry ancl thc subjccts of Middlc ancl Ncw (iorrrcdy havc no rppcal lor rhc p:rinrcr. This is an arca in which tirc v:rscs of Sourh Ilrly satisiy oirr clcsitc ibr scigc ilhrstr.ltions; but scc [?24, zzEl lt is perhaps surprisiurl rher O1d Cornccly in particullr clicl llot irlspirc vase sccllcs- fhcrc ts rll rurusual slnall class ofpolychronrc (rrot rcd 1'rgtrrc)jugs oflatc irr rhc ccrrrtrry l4z9] rvhich nright alludc io sonrc tbrrn ofconric pcrfcrrnrrncc, arrd thc apparcntly Arisopharic [;rq] is cxccptiolal Not all dlc perody or btrrlcsquc clcrn'nts irr ,,r,,," ,.",r., ..a,, bc,-,tc.l to thc irtflucncc of satyr-plays, perhaps; for irstrucc, thc sir!yr coufrontilrg a trcc ltrll ofjugs likc Hcraklcs bcforc the rr(rc of tlrc Hcspcridcs with its srrlkc [.;11, or rhc corric Flcrak]cs drivcn by Nikc in e charlor rlr:rwn by bouncl ccntaurs, lcd by lvhet looks likc e comic ector f;zr l' T'hc usc of,nyih as a parrblc for thc fortuncs oflhe statc (or its lcadcrs) end tcr providc .jusrificntior'rt lnitia; fir. ncw cults wrs wcll appxrcnt in thc Archair: pcriod. As Athcni.rn hcro par rrrt /l'rrre, Thcscus had !akcn ovcr from I Icr:rklcs fifih ccntury bul cnnlot bc seirl to clominatc thc icolography of irv thc ""r)y .1.'rr oct.rtic and itnpcriel Athens. I'hc ctlft ofrhc individual survivcd lollgcr irr politics, cvcrl irl a dc:rnocracy, than in rnyth, allcl thc illlPorlant st<xics rciatcd to Athcns' ftrrtu,rcs which arci most firnililr fronl lhe architccttrral sculpturc of l)criclcan Athcns ((iSCP Cheprcr TweJvc) havc a nrorc gcneralizcd focus' and thc honours rrc disttibutcd rnorc rvirlcly anlong lhe carly kings end hcrocs of Atric hisrory whose tratrtes accordingly appcar thc morc frcquently in lppropriltc vesc sccncs, notebly rhc Amazotlornachics'

'I'hc p:rintc: is uo :rrorc likc1y to luvc lurncd to lhc writtcn word fi)r irspir';rtion thln hirhcrro. Evcn ifhis s()cicty was sorncwhrt rnorc litcrltc (ln(l rhis cln bc rruclr cxaggcratctl), thc stock ofstorics cerricd by orrl rradition wxs
rro lcss irflucrrrial, and hc woulcl incvit:rbly bc influcnccd by voliucs stirDuhtc(l by rrcrv hyruDs or odcs, and cspccilJJy by statllc prodltctior\. Wc arc wcll providcd rvith titlcs oififth-cc-rrtury Athcrri:rn pleys but hrvc vcry fi'w tc\rs. Il hrs rot provcd dilficulr, thcrciirrc, fcrr dcdicetccl scholars to find tlrc st;rgc bchirr,l

nritrly or n)ost of thc ncw rDyrh sccncs in rlrc rcpcrtory. To sonrc dcgrcc tLis ccrrriuly hlppcnccl, but thc p;rirrtcr clocs r)ot prcscnt 'olr strqc' sccncs, nrasks urrtl
costunlcs arc qcncrelly ignorccl, cvcn lctr tl)c \at/r-phycrs (scc ,4.ltFH I p. -:34). lnd so ccltlinly is rhc numbcr ofrctors (only thrcc irr 'rc;rl'trlgcd,v)- Bv thc cr,l ofthc ccntury so:rrc scolcs:rrc prcscntcd \^, ith n,hat scclr to bc srrgc 'props', strclr )\ !hc.rrch-c;rvc u,hich is thc sctting ft)r thc bound figurc of ;r l)rorrrcthcus or Androurcrll. Thc othcrwisc incxplicrblc prcscncc ofa tripod rright bc thor.tglrt

of lhc story clcpictcd won r prrz. Soructlrncs thc r/ra,r,r/i-\ p(rJo/r.ia sccnr to rcpc;lt thosc ofil kl)own production, but thcy itr c jrlsr ;rs likcly to includc othr'r rtppropriltc frgtrrcs, encl, es tinrc passcs, dcitics rhouglrt to lrrvc:rrr iDtcrcst, fil bcyold thosc u,ho night hlvc bccD proclucccl orr sreqc t'r rrtarltirt,r. Scrutrrrisirrg ncu \loric\ otr v:trcr,rr rctrcwctl pofuhrity t'irr storics, en,:1 conrp:rring thc drtcs ofknown prorlLrctiorrs, lhcrc ere tirLrrrd to bc vcry fclv instenccs in which thc sccncs appcar rvitlrin a sigrrificarrt
:rn irrlicurlon !h;rt :t strrqc prorluctiorr

llpsc of rirnc. Wc cxpcct thcrn irrrrnccliltcly, btt oitcn thcy 1:rg by twcncy or nrorc ycars rncl thcn rhcrc colrld bc othcr cxpllnltiorrs lor thcir lppcarencc (rrot. gcrcrllly, rcpcrrs ofthc st:tgc productiorr. rvhich rvcrc vcrv rlrc in thii pcriod). S:ltyr-plxys:rrc thc rnost rcadily rccognizcd, iincc sltyrs hrd virnrally no function il lnyrh nrrrxrivc offlsragc (scc,4/l.irlI I p. 214)- fhc Pronomos vrsc

inrroduced. It may bc rcrnlrkcd th:r inseriptronr rd.rrcifying figuri:s bccorrc progrcssivcly Jess conrr]ron, although chc Mcidian uascs quit., i,rf<,.nr"rru", lnd thcy arc rrost wclcomc whcrc a figu.c pcrsorificarion ".. appcars which would othcrwisc bc quitc anonymous. Nor all cxanrplcs illustracJarc citcd Ircrc; scc In thc scctions chat loliow thc readcr will do wcll to bcer in mirrd w.hat was slid iD ,4RFH I Chaptcr Eight, whcrc rrlany of chc fiqurcs and storics wcrc



| or thc chastiscmcnt of NiobidJ [4] or of Tityos lj5), whcrc rhc woman who protcctcd from his arrows by a clod ofcarth nray bc (ic, Tityos' mothcr,

thc Indcr

The Gods
'l hc sigrrai honour peid ro rhc Olynrpian firmily es such in Athcniau architcctural sculpturc is rrot cchocd on lhe vascs. Libation sccncs bctwccn dcitic,s. which bcean in thc eariy fifth ccntury, coutinue for a whilc gz], cvcn sor)ctrmcs rn

Trojan lvar, is cxceptional.

:tn lpparcrrdy tcrrcstrill sctling of a blazing :rltar. Thcy sccnr to place thc rclationships of rlre gods on tltc samc footing :rs that of tnorrals, howcvcr iucongrucrt thc act. Pcrhaps all such sccncs werc thought ro show thc gods visiting c:rrctr rhough not nrixing with nrortlls. This was air ac!jviry rcscrvcd for hc'roes (ir nryth, rlor xrr), d)c oursjdcr l)iorlysos, for Arhcna visiting hcr folk (ARFH,q. ror), rnd for Eros in thc boucloir. ()n vorivc rciicf; (and thc Parthcnon friczc) whcrc mortlls occupy thc sanrc fic1d as gocls, thc mortrls rrc clituilishcd in sizc, a lcarurc not marchcd o1l vascs whcrc: thc honoured dcitv nlay tttcnd'itr thc llesh' trur csscntially es an inc:rrnation ofhis culr st.Ltutc. Frorr thc 4l3os to thc,+2os pursuit sccncs ofgods or goddcsscs with boys or qirls sccrn to acqtrirc a spccial status; not, so lirr aiwc canjirclgc, froln arry htcr.rry or stallc inspiratiot. Thcy scrvc to illustritc thc intcrcoursc of divinc and Ircro/nrorcai, though this is not likcly ro havc bccn thcir only or prinrc furrctron. Bringirg drc sods 'down !o carth' mighr bc thoughr frn.ri,r,, of rnuch in " Classical Crcck culrurc. Accolnnrodation ofan OJympian prcscncc iu rnulti fiqrrrc sccnes of myrh is casicr, arrd thcy cxn bc usccl to rcllccr cithcr thcir spccial irltcrest in whar takcs plilcc, or thc nlood oa the cvcrrr, although ,,rrr"ii,r.. thc rcasols for their prcscncc are obscurc. Thcir position in thc winss of rnany lltcr Classical multi_ figurc sccncs nlay bccon)c sinrply convcntioral. Zeus rcnrains an ilrlatigablc prrrsucr of (jdril/ncdt 177, Ezl ard ofa worran, soDlctirncs idcntified as Ai.qindljgl,iito tb c Classicll pcriod. [n librrion sccncs hc is with Nikc (rr is it lris?), Arhcnt or Hcra_ A Lltc Manncrist rcvcrts ro thc old schorDC oathe Birth of Atheno with thc dirrinurivc goddcss crncrging frorn his hcad frgql. Europa <>n thc Zcus buli i\ \rrll lcrn Iru3], r suhjc.t in hcr'own right with Zctrs irnplicit in the story rarhcr rhan cxplicit. i)thcrwisc Zcus is mainly an orrlooker ofappropriatc sccncs and his corrrrcil wtth Tltemis 139-71 planning thc
Aporr-o l:ccorncs incrcasingly popular. Wc havc i)tct hirrl rccciving worship pcrs It Zr ]. He is an occasionll pursucr of worucn andjoins his sisrcrin libatio:r


infanrs lzz, ,261. His'hcrm'is turncd to a'livc'Priapus on lt55l. l)r()Nys()s rcmains a dorninant figurc and his cult is that most conrnronly shown on vascs. His birth fronr thc unforrunatc Serre/t, blastcd by Zcus, is shown [3331, as wcll as his sccond birth fronr Zctrs'rhig]r 146l and dclivcry by Hcrnrcs to thc nymphs and Silcnos for cducation lzz, t z6l. Aftcr thc Classical pcriod (pcrhaps firsr on thc Parthcnon; CS{:P jg.8o. r) hc appcars as a young, rathcr cflcnrinetc god, but rctains his sctriority for sornc dnrnkcn sccncs or thc traditional proccssions rcttrrning Hcphaistos t() Olympus Ir6zl. FIis consorr Ariadne appcars with him most oftcn in thc Latcr Classical pcri<td lj4, jj7l. cspccially in thc common 'court'sccncs whcrc thc god is attcndcd by satyrs and macnads 1r78, r8o, zzgl- I hc oldcr sym posion scrtirlg, som crirncs with Hcraklcs, is not ncglccted [zo4l,'Ihc Latcr C]assical elso shows him in morc cxotic bchaviour, riding an animal-charior or on x panrhcr [-r79l. Hrprrarsros is rclativcly unimportant, dcspitc his cult in Athcns, cxccpr for his rcturn to Olympus and rolc at thc birth of Athcna. [)osrrDor.r molcsts Amyrnonc still JJ,6, ,8Jl xnd somctirncs confronts Athcna, as on rhc Partlrcnorr [33] l. Anns is still mcrcly an cxtra. Thc cult of As<r-rlptos was introduccd to Athcns in 4zcr and thc infant god is sccn on l-;o5l in thc arms ofhis nursc Epidauros (homc ofhis original cuJt in Grcccc), attcndcd by Eudaimonia ((iood Fortunc) and anorhcr pcrsonification. Ar+rrra is somcwhat Icss promincnt than wc nright havc cxpcctcd. FIcr birtl) nray havc dorninatcd thc front pcdimcnt ofthc [)arthcnorr but no longcr much

Athcns in 425). 'fhis may account for thr L.rrcr Classrc.rl sc.ncs ofhinr irding a swan or a griflin lSlS, +zSl, thc lattcr pcrhaps through his associariorr with thc Hypcrborcans and thc northcrly honrc ofthc griffins. His contcst with Marsya_r is pronrincnt fronr thc mid fifth ccntury into thc fourth ljto, 1E7, j891.'lhc pipcr-satyr had challcngcd thc lyrist god and is, ofcoursc, dcfcarcd, bur vascs oftcn show him playing thc lyrc himsclf, and it sccrns that his convcrsion ro rhc instrunrcnt rnay havc bccn thc thcmc of McJanippidcs' play orr thc subjcct, which scrvcd to introducc thc instrumcnt to thc dithyramb, an cvcnt which Dray have bccn cclcbrated in sculprurc too (ci CSCPl4s- 6r 4, thc last a rcd figurc vlsc). On 13rol both thc stagcs in thc story arc shown, contcst and convcrsion. Mousaios and Lirros arc rnusician-hcrocs 1r44, zj7l. HERMES pursucs womcn [39] and has still to dcal with Argos for Zats176l. As lcadcr ofsouls Qtsychopompos) ancl intcrn.rcdiary bctwccn rhc worlds hc appcars on frnrcral vascs- Othcrwisc hc is attcndant and bystandcr, or carricr ofdivinc

rathcr than Lcto, Apollo's mothcr, who had bccn attackcd by f ityos. His rolc with thc Musc-s bccomcs nlorc promincn t]now 14, 206, cf. t 44, z6zl.Lttcr, thcrc arc 'court' sccncs ofhim with appropri:rtc atcndants, probably including Muscs, and oftcn his sistcr Artcmis and mothcr Lcto, thc l)clian rriad probably acquirirrg somc cuh importxncc in thcsc yc;rrs (l)clos was 'purificd' again by

iutercstcd vasc-pailtcrs Ir99]. Her civic rolc, acccpring youn g Eriththo os frott Cic. is rnorc inrportanc 1218, z5o, jzzl, and chcrc are othcr pcculilrly Athcni:rn sccncs (as with the lrirnr, building rhc Acropolis Iz4El) atrcnding Artic hcroes or kings 1106,334]. Shc still stands by Hcraklcs, rnd hc by hcr on C)iympr.rn
sharcs scrmcthing ofhcr brother's popularity and hcr harsl.r !r catrncrrt rc'rnains a popular Classicll thcmc l,Jl; bis tr.nslarion inro aninrll fornr_bcgins to bc shorvn It-5: ]. Hcr huntrcss rolc bcconlcs morc pronrircnc l-776 |

.rn islrrrd rnissi['.

A grc.ttcr ranqc of lcsscr dcitics ilrc r]lo\\,cd to Join thc

Scvcrrl mrnor clcirics illld upilldccl hcrocs arc givcrt Olympirn stitt(rs irl our Ror, soDs ofZcus bul r)rortel LxcoDiln hcrocs who lllxy still Lrc sccn r-.rpin9 rhc drughtcrs ofLcrrkippos 1t67,:,171, lrc lorrrrd irr rIr Olyrrrfirl \L'ttilr!r, or in Illcusilierr iniri:rtion sccncs. Thcy erc drcssccl xs tr:rvcllcrs, oflcn \\'cirirtg thc poinrcd pllrrr h:rt :rDd oD horsclreck, sontctiDlcs ovcr sce I t p, 4t6], ;rrrrl lr l tlr'olrrla on I-1,?1. l)AN, rvh() hild:tcLlLlircd ir llrxiDly htrnritrr Phy\iqLlc (,4RfH l-/iq. 335. r) sctrles for u huntlt Lrppcr prrl with e goarish lrornccl hclcl ,rnd goer lcqs :rnd tlil l.;q7, end cl'. -t, (961. I Icjoirrs drc l )ionysil. rrldnrr end mirv .rtrend vrri()ns rr) yrhicrl cvcnts. cspccirlly rhosc sct ln lhc outdr)ors. IRIS is scldorll idcnriflrblc uftcr thc nlicl fifth ccrrrtrrv but Ircr lookllikc Ntxn, is cvcryrvhcrc, .rttcrrdinu victors l:r)2, 226, 212 , cf . rlg l, dr ivirtg chrriots I i 9.: l, crccting :r rrophy possiblc), slcrificrrrg l-;11, ollcring libetioDs (rll1crc corfirsioD with I s bccorrles -fhc circssing of his bridc' on Olyrrrpus. I fi.rris rolc is r,r,ith I Icrlklcs, rlr 1.r"1, I. srrbjccr lor sontc l)ANr)()nA by thc gods:tnd hcr ctrrc:-gcncc Llporl carth is rhc l)lrthcrros Adrcrr.r ([-s, :rncl lor thc blsc ofl)hcidirs' vrscs luo, ci Cl.rssicll 7-]l; (;.SCl) pP. r ro, r74).

pcriorl. fhc l)tosxou


of Aktdiox

:rrrd shc rl)ily

ridc a fawn, qritlln or dccr, Lrut thc

Izr-5 ].


not lorgottcn

rvirrgcd Misircss of Anirrrals

. I)-l,r'rErnn and l)rnslrrroNr atc inrportant ftom thc rnicl 6fth ccntury rhrough thc fourth and thcrc arc scvcral Cllssical sccncs ofrhc young goddcss rising fro-:l lrcr sojorrrn in FI:rdes to carrh (thc d,?o//oJ | 1121 , 160?l). 7'rlparlrn or on his wi:rgcd drrouc brinqinq agriculturc to rnenkincl rnay appcar with rhc, goddcsscs or on his orvn I ro, 3l-5, 372l. Elcusinian initi:rtion is a subjccr for fourrh-ccntury vascs, .s
wc h:lve

For lJcrscpholc in thc undcrworld scc

'l'hc principal Olyrrpiarrs lrc nor so ot'rcrl now sccD togcthcr in council but thcir fight agaillst tltr: giants, vcry popu)ar irr carlicr deys, n:mlins :tn important thcr)rc, lnd its prornircncc in lrajor:Lrt sugecsts that ir convcycd ,i,."rrg. " arc still irbout thc r rrlc ofllw or clominarcc ofrhc ()rcck panthcon. Solnc qiants drcssccl as hoplitcs, but tlrcy bcconrc uildcr crerturcr, nrkcel or -wrrh .rnimll skins and rhrolving sloncs. Fcwcr individual ducls arc shor,o; thcy arc fiorc olicn scr sidc by siclc in a lricze [6,9, ,0, ?,58,2dg]or sprcacl in thc firrc up/dowrr conrpositions ofthc latc fifth ccnrury ljz6, -127, 1z9,11ol.Zctr\, wirh boit lnd chariot, sornctinres drivcn by NikL., $ith Ath.n:r .,nd bL,$D1rD Hcraklcs. : crlalns thc loctrs; goddcsscs rvicld spears, thc Eleusirrilns thcir torchcs, ApolJo iulLl ArtcDris tlreir bows, Dionysos (sourcrirrres backcrl by sarvrs l3zl) his cnt:rnglire vinc and anintel ftrniliars, Ilcphaistos throws coals, poscictrn rrscs

pcriod, girls [:o;].

coDlrnonly wirh hcr child Etos, achicvcs a rr rhe Classical pcnocl, Sccncs ofhcr birtlr, arising fionr dtc ground [.!6,3771 or, lcss cotnmonly, crncrging fronr thc sc:r in a shc1l, now appclr. Shc, arld cspcciirlly Eros or a pluralicy of Erotcs, etcrlds sccncs ofbridll preparations; hci own lovc lifc is dcpictcd in sccncs wirh rhe luckicss,4dorris l.z.!51, r,,,ho rvrs ro bc killcd bv I boar. bur u,hosc clrstcrn-inspirccl ctrlt r,,,lrs ul nroru nlorrcnt in Atherrr (iuc rb,rvc), or rcjrrvcnatcd Plnott lr6t, jool, rhc harrdrrnc boaoran ofLcsbos. Shc:nay ridc a goosc [67] or, ls Epitn!jia, a solr; hcr charior is drawn by pothos rnd Flcdylogos (l)csirc:rncl Sr,vect-trlk; l-104, cf-. .2861). Wcighing Erotcs in a balancc G,/oto_vdJi.r) is puzzLng; ltcilhcr qujtc rrrorllizing nor nlcrccnary [4rgl. Eros rcntains :rdolcsccnt, oftcn alonc rl,idr ntorrrl \\,omcn but rvith r boyish lifc ofhis owrr, hunting 1364], with anirnlls or ar plly l;071, or in a nrorc scrious rolc, at s;rcrificc I ;+s I or ldnritrcd ro thc L)iorlvsirc rroupc. I lc pLrrsucs boys and, il thc Classicrl

Witlr thc ucrv irtcrest in

chc lif-c of worrrcn Ap n()r)rr[, ucw sratus and inrportrnuc. cspcti.rlly

1r,94, z-i91.

Big f ights

ificr thc Archric period. wl)c-11 thcv wcrc- llililrly ccDtrcd or) llcrrklcs. 'lltcscus bccotncs thc ccllo;ll figLlrc. thouth not ulrvrys rcerlilv idcntifr;rblc. rnlcc thc battlc bccorDcs thlt for AlhcDs
AN{AZ()N()MA(:Hlfs t:rkc on ir Dcw sigrrifrcxrlcc

irsclf.rrrd not an ovcrscas cxpctliriorr; in tlris ir is petcrrtly uscd its il Parilblc f()r lhc l)crsiln irrvesions ofAtticl lttl rcpulsc, fir-st it Mrrrthorl, thcrt frorrl (lrcck soil

;lttcr the sa.k\ ofArhens, victotics in \\,hi.ll Athcrts took cspccill pridc-.'l'hc (lrccks:rrc oftcn irlcrrtificd :rs Attic trj[rrl or ]ocel hcr-ocs. Thc Anlrzons lrlly sllll lrc drcsscd ls (]rcck hoplita\ or ;rrchcrs. but corrtc- to bc givcn l)crsilll clrcss. rrr.rking thc ponlt of thcir rolc thc clcrlcr. Most of thc sccrlcs xrc (lllssicJl,
thc tbrrrth ccntuty- Atnezons wcrc rcsPccrcLl fi)cs ilrrd ciln bc sh()\\'n nt ;lrnrjn!I or cirsc lt-lJ, 222, 2.161(lrNTAURoNrAcIIIfs:rlxr involvcd Thcscns, hclpirrg his cotnradc l'cirithoos .rqilirst rhc bcusts who hrcl tlistLrrbcd-his u,crlcling. 'l his stol y t(x) sccnls to hrvc hclcl l urcsstqc lbr rhc Arhcnirns. th()Llgh nr()rc obsculc, Pcrh:lps rcllcalrng oll thc b;rrblric bch:rvjoLlr oflrorthcrn (irccks tlr.rrirrg thc l'crsiln trottblcs. Wc scc rhc fight rt thc tc.rsr lj-0, ro's, 1:l91 rrd thc subscqLrcnt batrlc (incltrrlirlg rhc b:rtrcrinq ofiiairlrrs llTl),lnc1 corHarions oftl)c t\\'o. Thc,v dcclirrc in nurlbcrs Llcclinrrg


in thc fi)urth ccllltlr'-v. A ncrv frght. cxclusivc t() thc loLrlth ccnlury, is thc (iRYP()MA(:IrY l-l+2,.r,sd, ./0,'1, +L/1. lri,r.rrl)-\, showrl rs olicrtrirls, ltrught drc gtillirrs who gtrerdccl gold. l'hc fights rrc slrow:r,:lnd lorcplrls ()fthc bclligcrcrrts. C;rc NIr)MA(illlrs hirvc trccn considcrcd rvith tlrc Gods.



'I'hc nrost:rctivc lnd popul:rr ofrhc Arch;rlc Ircrocs cuts r vcry dilli'rcnc ligurt ru thc Cillssicrl pcriod. Vcrv icrv oflris b.rsic Lrbours r:rd orhcr cxploirs :rrc shou,n, .lnd thcn scldonr, rvlth thc uotublc cxccpri()n oalhc Hcspc.ridcs L:rbour, ',vhich chruqcs chilrilc!cr in ,l signillcrrlt nlrrnrcr l2dZ, .t76', +.?ol. Instcrrl oftlrc fight rvith thc snekc suardins thc trcc, or thc hcro sLlppor!in!l thc \\'orld lor Atlls, hc srrs t,r strurrls qLrictly obscrvinq rhc rreiclcns slthcriDq thc lpplcs for hirr. lhc :rpplcs qulrrntcc irnrrortilry lncl hc is oltcn shorvn .rLcld)- rLjrrvcr)rtcd, in I ulrdcn ysirrnr. Thc lltcrnrtivc storv olhis lpothcosis, his sclf--inr rr olation on i pyrc, torturcd by rhc poisonccl robc serrt (not hundcd ro hirl ls on lz r:l) by I )ci:rrrcrr.r, rurrrl rsccnt tlrcncc by chlriot to ()lyrrrpus, sccrtrs to ltavc bccn r cotrlp:Lritivcly l:rtc irvcntion. lhc pyrc is sccr) in rhc.16os, thcn ,,l,jth rlrc risirg chrriot, drivcn

-'llth'a on rn Archrlc vesc (b,v M.rkron) but rhis is nol likcly to bc hcr. Latcr, whcrc thc u,or:un rlrops r cup orjue, shc is Mr'dr'a. irrrcnt on poisorritrg hitrt rrrtriJ h is rccogrition Lry his t'rthcr ,4 r,qlrrr, sonrctinrcs:tlso Prcscl)r (ct-. [ 164l). I lir rolc irr A ru lzonorrl.tclt y lrtd (lcnarurorrrlclly hls bccn Dotcd tbovc.

The Trojan Cycle

ofTroy ls qrritc r.vc11 scrvcrl, ifrvith r sorlrcwhitt di$i'rclt r:tnire of Oi!hc prclinrinrrics, Pr'lr'rr pulsuing Il./iJ l-l9dl end \\,cddinq hcr:rrc \rlll sho$n lEg,1.17, t12l.thc-lttdtt tttt rrl irarls (thc gocllcsscs srill drcssccl tncl l):rris ot'icrr en oricntrl) l.l+, z++,2g.t,296, +2E], errd rhcrc erc donrcstlc sccrrcs of ['rris r,vitlr Htlttt lzqq, -]0,s, -i6r,.il'rl. In crnrp, ,'1rlrr1lt't is xn inrport.nt fiqnrc, irrr)lir)g, or I)ciDg Ic;tr rrrctl by I lrctis rncl ltcr ltrcnrhnt Ncrclcl sistcrs, orl tiot I t,r,
l'lrc story

$lrcrl lvith drc sh:rdorvy t'jgurc of.P,r/oirrrol. His s:rcri6cc :lt thc rock alt;rr of (-'lry-v,, on his jourrrcy to 'l roy, is irnothcr rovclty, pcrlraps irspirctl by :rcw Arlrcni:rn lntcr cst in Lcrr nos l.1r3l. Sonrc ofthc oklcr. t'irrili:rr subjccts r-ccur, rnLl ncu,is his rcscuc ofThcscu\ (or l)cirithoos) lrorrr Haclcs (la7l, ci [18;, zra]). llc is usu:rl1y shorvrr nrkcll now. Lrut li)r tlrc liouskin, lrcl his u,c:rptrr rs invrrilbly thc clrrtr; I ncrv occlsionll lttritrutc is e cornucopi;r l-irJ.;1. I Ic is nrorc oftcn bclrcllcss, cspcci;rlly ar thc. cnd ol lris c:rrccr, lvith thc I Icspcridcs or.on thc n ly to ()lyrrrpus. ancl hc sornctirncs rcrrirs hls Archric rolling cyc. I lis cult in Attic;r rvls inr portlnt :rncl thcrc ;rrc sccncs (on votivc rclicfi loo) ofbirn scrtcd rt e srnrll colurnn:rr shrinc 1.116, -;35l. l'hcrc:rrclnallyclrlyfi)rrrth ccntury sccl)cs ()1' his'court', r,',irh thc hcro sc:ltcd ccllrr:lllv lnd bciug houourcd or scrvcd by vrrious clciricr (Athcn:t end Nikc:rrc prornincnt) or s:rtyrs alcl ntlcrlrJs [.146, 3-5,1, .t74, cl'. t.ttl. IIc is ofrcrr rvith J)ionysos.

by Athcnr or Nikc, rdded. lcevins bchind r)nly his rrortel hnsk, indicrtccl by e body-corsclct [.1r r i; rhcn, into thc firrrrth ccnlrlry, rhc chirriot drivc eLlrc l.;4d, ()r I , r ] hc is introduccd ro Zcus by Arlrcnr, on foor, in thc Archlic schcnrc, .15+ l:rud on [4oo] nrrrricll to Hcbc ar ar Ol,vnrpian rcccptionMorc rtttcution is peicl to his curl,v lili': rl, rcstlir)q thc snJkcs in his cr:rcllc I r96l, iroilq ro school l6i,'1, nr.rrrying llt ], rvith rvifi':rnd child. Thcrc lrc sontc qroups ofspcciirl sccncs. His intcrvcrtion rvith Irrolrt,t/rrrrs in thc l:rtc 6fih ccntury rr:ry bc sragc-inspircd. Atrout thc satltc tilltc bcgin sccncs with hirtr crrrying or rt rclldirrq in old nr]n \\'irh :r cornucoPil [.;7-t ], pcrheps rcl:rtitrg to I ncr,v or rcviv,:'cl

tr I or wiltclboflrc l.r 1r, .1661. His nrLrtfled figtrrc orr rhc firrrlcr rccill\ lhc cerlicr 'silcrrr' Achillcs (,'1RFH I ,hlg-r. r116,:7o,3o,t.r,312).Mostofhis,endothc-r'fr,ij,rrr ightinlr sccncs disappclr, but drcrc is lrr odd rrcrtrucnt of hls clc:rth lrortr rllc rurrou,dcflctcd by Aprnlo to his lrccl l.ri. Ihcrc is e gcncral dctrlh ofecti,,u rccncs but fi)l sonrc ofl)rolrr'/c-r (ertl Orly-r-v'rt-r) stcrlirrg thc I)rllacliorr lrorrr Troy l-t6;1. Thc S.rck ofTroy is no loDqcr sho\!rt as i cyclc.iftcr drc nlid-ccntury, bul irdividull sccrcs sLrrvivc, notrbly thc rcscuc of"1il/rr,r, rrpc of(iar-rartdra lr l, :rrrd
,l'1./r{'/ir()r rccovcrins Htlut lt t9,.ldgl. Altcr thc ,1:os rhc Troy story virrr'r:r11y .c;rscs to iDtcr-cst tbc virsc-p:lirltcr. l'lrc s!ory of Iplti.,4r:tria in T,lrrris 1,1-5ol is surcly

iupirccl by ir phy,
subscqucrrt problcDrs


is On-vr'-r' :tllctdrncc rt his fulhcr's rornb l36il lncl rt l)c1phi u'irh rhc Furics I r 9,9]. His killirrg ofAigisthos [;6]

ln oLlcr thcnrc. 7r'lr'llorscizingthcinlirlt()rcstcsitshostigcl.l5Tlrlrtrstrlsobc

stl ilc-rn sPircLl. 'l_hc Or)yssEy f:rrcs

llo Lrctlcr, !virh sccncs c()nccntr:ltilrg ()r1 Ocl,vsscus' Narr-rir',ra lrgll. his visit to thc rrndcrworlrl lr,;ol, his lrorrccorrinq to l)cnclopc lzq6, zq7l.
rdvcnrur-cs or



Other heroes and cycles

Thcrc rrc fcrv sccncs lroru drc TrnneN (lvr:rr: Po/yaril'r-r bribirrg
scnd Anrphi;rr.ros to Thcbcs lzd].

Errl ylr to Athclr withdliwine inrnrort:llity (Alhrn:rsia) liorrr drc crnnibll 7j,r/rrr l:itl, tllc nalac xl lhcbcs lr,;1. triadrrros'crlcour)tcr


llrc ncu,cyclc ofdccds crc:rtcd at thc cn.1 ofthc sixth ccotllry is prcscrtcd rs:r still tlntil lrtc i11 thc frfth ccntLrry l,t/, l8t, .:,10]- ()firrcliviclLlirl sccncs (,liy rhc crlcorlntcr rvrtlr thc bull of Milr:lthorr sLrrvivcr thc Clrssicrl pcriod er ali strorrely [-l-;;1,:rnr] thc Minoreur is llso singlcd ol:rt l-292.1 , lldl, olicrr rn.rn intcrcsting erchitccttrrll sctting sullqcstirlg thc Le[ryrinclr. In tirc Classica] pcriod, drcssr'cl es I trtvcllcr, lrc pursues rvonrcl. Hc htcl attrckccl his ntorhcr

with tlrc scrpcl)t is xnorh cr 'l'hcb:Ln srory, sccn on (lhssicrl v.rscs I lg, ct-. to-31, as is ()i,i/7rrrr conlronting ;rrrd killing thc-I'hcbrrr Sphitrx I r r I , .103], rDd ls itrr irlf:,trri drarr hithcrto- Thcrc is-/asorr I r rol. I'hc AR(;oNAU ts arc slightly nrorc PopLrl:Lr

rvirh thc flcccc [4 i l. thc cpisodcs rvirh thc brrzcrr gierrt ] a/o-, in Crcrc, bcrvirchcd by Mcdcr J.;:Jl, encl rvith thc l)orceds driving.rwry lhc robbcr Ilarpics lrorrr I)/rirl,rr-r'reblc. ,4n7lrrrl.i 1l!thts Pclcus (rrrisrrrrcd Hipponrcrrcs on Ir4i]) lt thc ganrcs firr l)c1ils (rrd ci ldE l) lncl in a Lruiqtc sccnc PlcParcs for lhc f:rrnotrs lootncc I r 79 l, u lrcrc shc rvill bc disrrilctccl by thc goldcrr lpplcs, hcrc'trcing givcl by Aphrrxlitc


to thc lilturc victor, viil Eros. In abonr 4oo shc is sccn with huntcr conrpalrols,
iuclucliug Mclclgcr [-,t36], pcrhaps irspirccl by Euripidcs' trcltrnc'rrt ofthcir lovc-

ChaPter Eight

nrrtch, rrnrl thc Calydonim lloarhrnt ts rcvivccl in l finc fourth-ccntury conrposirrn [1.94] shc :rppc:rrs top lcft rs en oriental, rvirh hcr bow. Noricc also thc hlrlrtrcss on l2r 6l.



Borcas pursucs Orritlryia still iu thc Chssicrl pcriod l;ol, as docs lo-r thc huntcr Kr,plralirsorsclrooJboy'1itlnnos16t,91, rr:1. Ou It-ir] thc prclinriuerics for thc futrl rlcc bctwccn l)clops errcl Oirronr;ros rccell thc grcat cest pcdinrc:rt:rt Oly:rrpi.r (CSCI,/ig. r ii) in subjcct on1y. ,4arlrorrrrla, thc su['rjcct of plays by both Sophoclcs :urcl Iuripidcs, is stekcd out for thc rlronster to trccs or r rock on 6fthccnlnry v:rscs, but l)crscus is rrot oftcn sccn with hcr ltz5, t66, r691. Hc is, hou,cvcr, iound still ls an irfint rvith his rrothcr, c:lslaways ir l chcsr Ir:7], arcl ric:rling rvith i conlperrtivcly hunr:ruizcd Mtdusd 1t16, r97l and t pctrific'cl I)olyclckrcs lz r 7l, who hecl scrrt hior orr rvhat shoulcl havc bccrr rhc fital rrrissrorr. /Icl/r'und P/rriro-r lttcrnp! to cscnpc on thcir sca-going rlrns fronr thcirjcalous stcprlothcr Ino 1167] a ncw story for vascs-fhc dcrrh ofOrllcrrr is srill shou,n in rhc Clessic:r1 pcriod l6q, I22, cf. Itg j, rnd ro drc cncl ofthc ccrrrrrry, drc blincling ofrhc barcl 7}arrryra-r byjcalous Muscs It65). Btlltrophon is l rlrity Ii7, -i49] drcrc was :r sculpturc group ofhinr rvirh thc chlnrecra on thc Acropolis (CSCP p. r7o). Lylorl'gos l-yzl, likcl)cnrhcuson cirlicr vascs, rvls clrivcrr rrrrcl by l)ionysos.

Other figures
ebstrlctiorrs. rrormllly by figurcs of urcnrcrr ;rncl only a tclturc of(llessical ald ll tcr vlscs. Usually rbcy strit thc rroocl of:r sconc' or hclp positivcly ifclnrlsily ro inrcrprct it (as Ath:rnrsr:r orr l.zr,il arcl l)citiro on [;09]). Thc hcavcnly boclics too cnjoy corporcaliry: Ilclios [:96] rnd Sclcrrc h;rrl lorg bccrr showrr rvith chrr-iots, ol thc lirtcr otr horscblck,lrrd thcy arcjoiucd by verious sters Ir4-iIlrld pl:lrcts. l'hcrcrrcxlso l'crsonific:rrions


In ir trldition ofpot!cry-dccorerion irl which frgurc scc:rcs p)ayccl r virrl rolc ir is not surprisin!! tiret tltc ovcrall aPpcrr.lncc of thc vascs should dilicr markcdly fionr tliosc oir:,thcr culturcs whosc Pottcry u,c prizc (thc g)lzcd warcs of(lhine .rndJrpln. tirr cxarnPlc) lrd lhat lcchrriqtrcs shotrld bcerr clcviscd to lbcr tlrc .ifrl,".1cc,r,-"t,rr. Colortr bccotnc's oflcss importancc thlrn clcar dcfrnitrorl "imi ofLlccorrtion. xncl lhis rvls trtttclt clrhanccd by tlrc lbility ttl producc a vcry flnu, rund irrrcnsc bleck ptirrt which is rJso glossy but without sucir I highly rcllcctirrg srrrirrcc thrr clctlil :rrrd colltrrsl ilrc obscLtrc-cl. Jhc tccllrliqucs wcrc dcvclopcd in jn thc thc (lrcck llrorrzc Agc, bul pcrltctcd nr tlrc sixlh and fifib ccr)lurics 1r(: scrvicc of thc bcst figurc-clrawrrrg. fhcrc rvrs good pottcrs'clay ill nllny P:lrts of(lrcccc, ill)d notttlly iD Articr' rvhich is otrr prirrrc conccrn hcrc lhc scclirncllrrry bccls producccl a clay rich irr i:on which givcs rhc cherlcrcrisric rttciclirlcss ofthc fircd clay itnd llso assists thc arc wl,itc (klolin) enrl usctl l,roclLrction ofthc black gloss. l)rinrary cl:rys which firr thc body '..lfvrscs, only nor ttscd bill .lscrvhcrc fbr porcclrin u'crc lvlil:rblc sliPs. or tirr spccial cilccts lhc thror,ving ofr v;lsc oD thc whccl is a proccss fillliliill to llrost oftr\;rllll

itlcntifirble by inscriptiorr, lrc

prectiscd il :Lncialrl Arhcns rvirh no cspccill tricks thlt lvc can clctcct' Sol]lc vasc :-cprcscnt,ttiolls shorv thrr rhc rvhccl rvls ttlrDccl by xn assislelll squatlil)g bcsidc ir


sonrc lcss obvious pcrsonili cerior rs ofpllcc (Phylc [3,1-5]; Spartc j.165l) ;rncl (i.Lnrcs ltgl. Thandtos rrcl Hyprros (Slccp :rrrd l)crrh) rcnrovc chc clcad froru rhc brttlcficl,:1, ()r !o il grirvc! iud (-'rdli)r, drcssccl in a skin cip llld coarsc tLlrlrc, lirrics thc clcrcl on firrcrel vrscs. lrJll is clcvorcd *hc>Jly to urdcrworid fisurcs.

1)qrri('-!. sonrctin)cs carclully chrrrctcrizcd iLs dwerti, fighr thc Crlncs Iro7, ,1r r l, as thcy hacl on nruch cilrlicr v:rscs. Sa/yrs hlvc cltlngr:cl litrJc in rhcir rlrry of lit'i':rnd :rtriruclc to rnlcnirds 165, 168, 160l silcc thc Archlic, but in rbc tburrlr ccrrrury thcrc is il tcrrdcncy l'or thcir t'ixlr to bccorrc rrrorc go:rtish th:ln

cLluillc, sorlctilrrcs with 5hortcr goilt tirils, and cvcn tiny horns, perhaps jnflucnccd by thcir ncrv con)parilorl, l'ln. Of thcir rrnlucky Arretoli;lr cousius M:rsyes h;rcl problcrrs r,vith Apollo (scc abovc):rrcl Silcrros ficcs Midrrs [139] u lto sports drc donkcy cers rvhich wcrc cithcr inflictcd on hirn by Apoilo or arc irD iDLlicxtor of l)is own s:rtyric cllirllctcr. 2lo

thc vasc wonlcl bc thror,vn scp:rrltcly tlrc llc-cks oflrnphortc ;rld hyclriei' thc lict ofstcnrnrcd ctrp\ rDd it is likcly that thc Portcr r)ra'lc scvcral inclividtral prrrs iD orL'bxtch, :rnd drcrr fitrcd nccks, fccl xnd licls to boclics- A goocl Poltcr ;cqrlircs n() tcnrphlcs or nlcchlnical itials to rcproLlucc siTc and profilc trll a vcry high clcgrcc ofconsistcr)cy- Tlrc asscnrblcd vl!c, by now lcathcr-herd btlc nor l,.itrlc. ,rx rl,cr r"t,rruc.l to thc whccl fbr drc tnrnilg, in which c)ay wrs percd rrrvry, cspcciell-rr rt ftror and lip, to procltrcc thc fiuc clcfinirion ofproiilc which u,c ,nislcrdirg crll rnctrllic. l-hc rcchrriquc is thc carpcrrtcr's wirh his llthc, u rnsfirrcd to illy for this rcfincnrcnl ofshlpc, :rs it wls cvcnttl:r1ly (irr thc sccorrd h.rlf of thc filth ccrrtury) to rDctal vrscs

clccoratrol, strch es u'ls rlccdctl ir) lrlxny othcr pirts ofGrcccc- On rrleny ofthc trncr Athcnllrr vrscs, h()wcvcr, lttrd cspccially in thc Archaic pcriocl, thc srrrfacc \\.irs coirtcrl with rcd ochrc (lrrcicrlt rtrlltos) bcforc thc dccoration wls ltpplicd' l'his inrcnsificd thc rcr!rcss ofthc clay bttl is scldonl Prcscrvcd otl thc vrscs rls lvc

Attic clrry rcquirccl no


slip to proviclc a qood sllrfi'c fi)r


\cc thcrll todry. Whcrc ir is, rhc d;rrkncss of tltc rcd is surprisilg sincc it trnsiclcrlblv rcduccs thrt colltr:rs! oithc cJa,v grourrd rvith thc bl:rck u,hich, irr nrodcrrr photosrrphy, rvc incrclsc torv:rrds ln llntost bhck lnd u,hitc cfli'ct. I hc bhck qloss p;rirrr is in irct :r slip, of tltc srnrc brsic corrposirion as thc clay bodv bur rnolc rcfinccl ()cvir:rtccl) lnd possiblv orhcrrvisc trcrrcd so dritt rliiJ rrun contcrl! linvc ftrll vrluc to thc rlcsircd lrllck uncicr conrrollcd firinq. A spccial 'irrcrtionrl or'corll' rcd ls rnct in thc Archlrc pcriotl, es l blckgrouDd t() sonrc bl.rck fiqr.rrc (,48F// pp. 57. r116, ,h,gl. ro.+.1, r70). cxccprioritlly for rcd fiqurc (.'llll:H I p- r ii) bur sonrcrilrcs rcpl:rcinq rhc- black rounrl rhc intcrior tondo orr lccl frgurc or rvhitc grorrnrl I io,9l cups tx bcrrclth thc liqurc friczcs outsidc thcnt (ibid.,pp. to,5fi, rlr,-/i{.26.r),or)cccovcringthcwholcofr}rcboclvofavolutc cr':rtcr. lnd irr occ:tsioD:r1 usc lbr spcciiri vescs dorvn ro thc ruicl-filih ccDtury. It is e rrlossv or,rnqc rccl irr !orrc', sotDctintcs qultc dccp rcd, ipplrc:tt1y eqeitr thc rcsull ol c:rrcfLrl lcvi{jr1!i()n of rlrc bocl,v clity t() r Llcqrcc sliglrtly colrscr tlun ther
rccluirctl firr llrc black qloss- Whitc, proLltrcccl by rhc usc of:r prirnlry clay, corrld llso bc uscd irr b:nrcls on cups, es r,"ith corel rcd. but rnorc frcqucntly as a brckrrrotrucltobhckfigurc(,4IiFHpp.-15, r06. i47 jo: ,11l.lrHIpp. rj, rt, j6), exccpti(r1.rllv tirr rcd figrrrc (ibid.. p. r7,.liq.4), trnd, ir) thc lifth ccnrury, as blckgrounrl to outlinc dritwiDlr, irs o11 thc lluulcr()Lls rvhitc lckyrhoi, lllblstrl, rnd a fi'rv othcr shlpcs (',1RFH I pp. lr:+, rJ2 l, t19, t8rl, r9j; :rnd rhovc, Ohlptcr Four). ()frhc colorrrs cnrpJoyc(l ovcr thc whirc:r rlnllc fronr brou n ro vcllow colllcl bc lchicvcd by vrrvinq the h:rctnacitc contcrrr of tltc usLtal btrt thirlrtccl rnix tirr bllck gloss. bluc is frorrr porvclcrcd glass frit, grccn fionr:r .oppcr cornpollrd. Tlre u,hitc urrcl purplc rcd orr bllck figurc is lionr prinr.rry cl:ry :rnd rcd ochrc rcspcctivcly, nrost ficcly uscd in thc incisirs'Six rccluriquc' (,lB/ll1p. r7s, l1qr.3o9 r4;,1.1?FHIpp. r8,16,6rl).(;illlir)sissccuoccesionally rrr rhe Alclreic pcriotl (,1RFH I p. ja, and rgain lrorrr thc cud oftJrc fitih ccnrtrry. Ilclicfencl frgttrc vitscs rrc nrldc 6ont utoulds, rctorrchccl by hllcl. rvith thrown ii'ct or lips lcldcd, :rncl nrouldcd rclicfi c:rrr bc eppJicd to thro\\,ir vlscs. I hc p:rints. or slips, u,crc rpplicrl [r,v brisrlc bruslrcs, brord arces bcirrg plintcd rvith drc v:rsc turrrinir slorvly on thc rvhccl, enci figLrrc u,ork with chc vrrsc in thc



dippcd lrc ctrlnbcrsoDrc rnri do not.ldcqultcly ll]slvcr r,r,ltet \\rc sc-c ol1 tirc vascs. I blick fiqurc rirc p:lintcr coulcl nrrkc I suiclinir skctch by brush or light incisron; irr r cd fieLrrc by light incision. or r.trhcr by qcrily bntisiug thc srrrficc ofthc vesc. Ihc lincs arc rcrdily sccn. csPccillly rl,hcrc thc ochrc rvesh hes gonc, ind rhcy bctral chrngcs ofconrposition by thc paintcr bcibrc hc pickcd up rhc Lrrush. 'lhc bl:rck/rcd cll.ict, prodrrccd b,v brsic:rlly thc sartc clly for bocly rncl slip, ricpcnclcclor c;trcful lirilg. In a clcan, oxiLlizirtg irtrtosphcrc, bodr turncd rcci. A srrloky, rcdrrcillLt irtrno:iphcrc wes thcn inttoduccd lt thc kiln rvhich tunrccl both bl:rck. l'hc rcintrrtrluction ()filn oxidizing rtnrosphcrc rcturncd thc bocly ofthc

r:,t9),probebly uith r thir lrrist]c, althouqh I syri:rgc hes bccn suegcstcd. or I hair, in thc p:rirt.tnd lrid ol thc vlsc ncithcr tcchticl.rc sccnrs problblc; both

bclorc il rlli-ctcd thc bl:rck prinr slip, thouth ovcrfiring cotrld rtrrn it brck to lcd itlso. i1 rrristxkc sor)rctirrrcs to bc obsctvcd on vrscs, wllich lls() 11lay r1lspley sorlc Lurcvcrrrrcss ill cololltiorl throLrirh drltughls or bld circulatiorr ,.,i thc qilscs irl thc kiln. A:rothcr kihr nrishlp, rhrough rllo$ing vilsl's to touch, is thc;lppcrrincc of ghosts', rvhich ltrc p;rrrill trxnsicrs ofthc decorrtion ofonc vrre ort to its lrciqhbotlr. Whcn vxscs, r.rsLttlly oPCn shxPcs likc cuPs, lre steckcd rvithiu c.rch othcr iD thc kihl l() srvc sp.rac, ilrc:rs wirhiu I vcsscl covcrcd by tltc tirot of :rnothcr \\rill rror rlweys frrc propcrly an(l slay an oxiclizccl rcd. Thc prr:rcipr l cbitrirctclistic of Achcnlen vese nrlking in thc sixtlr lncl frlih ccntrrrics is thc clcrr cvidcncc for thc Pottcr's rcitdil)css to takc infitritc PaiDs ovcr prcpirxtiorr ofclly, slips rnd pienrcnts lrrd his rttcntidl to clrcful iirirrg. It hls t.rkcn rro,:lcrn scicncc lolq to discovcr rhc csscntial sintplicity of thcsc rcchniqucs, r)rcticLrlotrsly applicd, rethcr than ofeny obscurc lorlnLlhc, lllyslcry c()rrrpounds ()r rr)ultiplc Proccsscs. It is rcnterkrblc tllet dlcsc tcchnlqncs wcrc rppliccl ar whrt bccilrlrc:l rlrirr()r cr:tf!, l-rLtt rvc tntrst rccll] ther rhcy wcrc first dcvclopccl lir rhc rvork oiarlists whosc clratl!!htslnrl)shiP on Potlcry ll)tlst hrvc rrr,:rllcd th:rt on lrny otllcr nrcdiutrt ofrhc cily for ils firlcssc. A r,r,or,:l shoulcl bc rddcLl hcrc rbout rcslorxtions lnd forgcrics. Vcry rniny of tllc vllscs wc scc in public collcctiorrs or-rtsidc (;rcccc wc'rc collcctcd clrly irl rhc hst ccntu:-y Jrlcl subJcctc(l to cxtcn\ivc rcst()r:tliorl lncl rcp:rilrtirrg, \oll)cairlrc\ uirh rhc rddition ofcolours rnd inlcriptior)s, :rud thc plinting of wholc rrcw fiqrrrcs or perts offlgurcs o11 nlissirrq, Plistcrcd erces. No! illl srlch rcstoriltiorl\ hlvc b('cn rcr]lovc,:l rrd sornc can still nrislc'lcl us although stlmaicrrl cxpcrltnc(] in looking xt thc lcrl thing is Ltsullly xdcqtrttc sllisurrLl. l'hotographs, horvcvcr, c:rn crsily dccclvc- Like thc vascs irr thc c:rrly collccti()ns, Iltost llcw rcqtrisitioDs by collcctors lrrd g.rllcrics arc rlso frorrl Italirn tonltrs,.nld ir largc plopolrion havc probab)y bccn illicirly cxportcd, tldrotrgh thc rcnr;irkrhlc rvc;r1rh of olci prir,:rtc collccrions srill stocks lllxny :r srlc roollr. Modcrn nlcthods ofrcstor:rtioD rir)gc ti ()nr thc uctcrly honcst, whrch shows pl:rstcr ts pl:rslcr elld rcpilirlts ro rlrorc th;trl lhc ()ccllsiorrt] ct ilck, r() it rotal coLllrlcrlcit (as is cor:ttlrotr r'vith oi1 plirtil]gs) of whitt wxs rhouqht to havc bccn on thc vilsc originelly. 'I'hcsc rrc not so clsy to dctcct. Morc()vcr, thcsc ncw lccluisirions nittllr'.tlly hevc llo strrcLl provcnilicc itrd rnrong thcllr thcrc citn clsily bc forgcrics. Elrly ti>rgcr lcs rr-c usrrrlly cilsy to iclcrltiiy, with cxpcricncc; tcchnlqucs arc iDedcqultc fbr rhc frring rncl thc dr:rr,virrrr incpt. Moclt'rn lorgcrics, howcvcr, arc oftcrl tcch:ricllly pcrlcct itnd thc sccncs trpon thcnr :rrc c:rrcfrtllv rcsc:rrchcd. VrrioLl\ difiircnt lhctors nruy irolisc strspicioD xnd support oDc's irrstinclivc r.'xctioD .rgiriDsl too iloocl ;1 'rlcw' varsc. l{cpllcls, es wc havc sccll, xrc nlosl ullcollrDlol) in Atlrcrierr rctl figurc, btrr thc forlicr i\ rc.rLljly tclrlptcd to copy or to cor)rblrrc copiccl rrroclcls. Sonlclirlrcs hc is roo clcvcr rvith his iconogrlphy, or f:rils co rIiilltri coDsistcncy oftreetnrcrlt lnd dctlil irt e singlc sccnc. Wc can say tlris of drosc thrt wc rlisnriss; odrcrs rrr:ry p:rss thc tcsts :Lrld still bc !vro1q. I would not bc srrrpriscd if lr lclst onc of lhc v:rscs I h:tvc llltrstrlrccl iu thcsc hendbooks is
virsc !o rcd

r)rodcrn. !hoLrlall lno:it thxl I hlvc cho\cr1Ilirvc trccll lollg kDo\u lhcrnlohlnllnbtrr if csccncc le!!s cil_Il incliciltc thc epproxinlrtc dxtc llt u'hiclt chy hils bccn fircd; illl ancicrlt vtsc hls bcco rcfirc.l i,, rccellt linlcs, t() rcstorc its colour, it rvill bc thr: rlcchrccl nodctn. Alld irllcielll vilscs lrright bc rcp:rintccl rnd firccl to bclorv e in nrdl Dor, etrcictlt; tcsts ls p:rss dlc crtrcirl tcrtrpcrxtul c so thit lheir bodics irr fbrgtl tirc of i1lllcnLrity thc rvc ull,:lcrcstinlrtc shor.tltl rnlrkct, r'".,u 1.r.."ti.," irr,rcliating his product so:ts t() conltlsc thc tcsr''llrc nlorc soPhisticltccl tcsts lttc

Etruscrn tonrLrs, our principal source for corrplctc vrlscs. '\Vcdcling scrs'of lcbcrcs eerlrikoi, pyxiclcs:rnd 1ck:rrridcs nray rJso hrvc bccn providccl, for horrc lncl for cxport to thc lllack Sca; on thcsc tlrctc u,ls nor rnally congruity ofrhcnrc .rr eDy riltc. Othcrwisc grlirs ofvascs, or srnell scts (likc thc Sotaclcal Iroo, ro-2, ro-;l), can bc idcnrificcl, with con:plcnrcntary sccncs. llcplicas (anrl nonc oftlrcrn lirrc for-linc rcplices) arc c\ccptionrl lzgo 9t, -1zq 1o); enorircr rcason for cioubting thc cxistcrcc of anything Jikc pattcnr-books usr-cl by prilrtcrs.

n)orc sccrlrc but cxPcrrsivc. I hvrrrg consiclcrcd how lhc

tlriy rvctc trraclc. Thc Athcnitll Pottcrs' qtlilrtcr, thc Kcrrnl'_:kos' lly ',,lrcr" rrrrl rvcst ofthc (lllssicrl Agor:r (rrrerkct placc), rvithil1 thc rvalls ncer thc north l)ipvlon (iatc end hlcl oncc occupiccl rhc Agorr lr cr itsclf-'-lt gitvc its nelrc to thc ,lisiiict (lcrnc) I(crlnrcls, which cxtcrrclcd otrrsirlc rhc u'llls' I'hc u'orkshops of ,r,,. p"ri,,.l hrvc rrot bccrr c\altv;ltcd (thc'Kcr:rrlreikos cxcivalions'arc'ofthc ccnrctcry thc gete). btlr I lro:rrcl ofJcnl l)aitrtcr vescs n'e_s ftrurrd in the xrcil (r11odcrn Hcrnrcs St.) and wes pcrh:rps frolu I slrop Classicrl kiLls havc llso bccrr firrrncl otrtsiclc Atllcrts'nortll gltc (thc Achrrnirtrl). so tllc erc'r o'cLlPlccl by thc irrclustrv rn:ry hrvc bcclt grcittcr. or lcss cotrccntrrtccl, thlln \\'L lnllgillc fhc alry .",,," f.,r,,t ,,,ty of rhc rich bcds oursiclc Arhcus; thosc rr AnrlroLtsi (rrr thc .,r",1 r,, Mt. l'cntclikon) rrc still tlscd, lncl thcrc rves frncr clry:rt C;rpc Koli:rs' rrerr l)helcrotr. Thc kllns lrrcl shops 1ey :rlainly rvirhin thc citv. it scclns Thc roul]hcst of c.rlctllations suggcsls tl:tt thcrc cotllcl hrvc bcctr xt lclst I h!rrdrcll vlls(:-p;riDtcrs rt $,ork ar:iny inc tirDc iD tirc hcy-cl:r-v ofprodtlction, cl()$'ll to thc (llrssic.rl pcriocl (dcclirrile corrsirlcrlbly thclc:rftcr) But nrrrry rrrLrst hivc bccrl p.rrt"r/p"i,,r"rr, ln.t all rriicd rlot hxvc sPcrlt 111 thcir tinrc'p:rrrrring pots rrrhcr ihun wells, or rvooclcn ptllcls, or' rhc bcttcr oftircnt, bcirrg cllglrgc':l irl sorlrc

v:tscs \vcrc lrledc alld dccorarccl rvc lrlay considcr

othcr creli. Wc idcrrtill' thc spcci;rlists by rhcir plcutltirl cxtrnt prodrrtri"r'' pcrhrps b;rrclv onc pcr ccltt ofthcir torel ()tltpur, il! bcsr thrcc pcl celll Vasc,."u.r rhutui,,'q 1,.rttc-rs studios hrvc tirclrl quitc popLllons. bul \\'c Dcccl n()t t;rkc

It h:rs bccl suggcstcd that fincr vascs uerc bespokc for spcciel occeri,rrrs (symposirr) :rnd thcn cxportcd, sccondhlnd. This nriEht bc Lruc of sonrc; rvc celrrot rcll. lt rvrs ccruinly lruc ofthc Prnrthcrlaic Prizc vascs ('4BFH ch. 7). Bttr thc.rc rvas llso nrlss cxport ofbetchcs ofthc srrnc shapc arrd rvorkshop, as wc can judgc from fincls in shiprvrccks or irncss f:-ont thc oclcl pattcrn ofdisrributi,,n in rcrrotcr pllccs. (lrafliri on vlscs (gcrcrally on thc fcct) sccm to inclic.rtc batchcs, or qivc coclcs for irdlvidull tridcrs, and sonrctinlcs indic:rtc pricc. Wc nray issrulrc thlt e nrcrclranl \\,ould rDxkc up part ofl crrgo by purchrsc itr rhc poltcrs' qrtartcr', arrd hinrsclf(or his rgcnt) lccortrpatty it artd odrcr conlnloclitics ro thc iDtcnclcd nr:rrkct, irr (irccce or ovcrscas. A 'hoar,:l' ofcr atcrs by I CIlssictl peintcr lound in drc l)ir:rcns rr'rey bc a nrislrid c>r chnragccl cotrsigtrtncut. Thc nrcrchaDts r)r igh! nor bc Adrcuiln, or cvcn Clrcck, tojudgc fronl onc or two prcfrred peintcd inscriptions in Etruscen (onc incliclting:r gift) which scenr to havc bccn bcspokc irr Atircns. Thc vrscs rvcrc packcd in rubbish ancl sh;rvirrqr. probrbl,v in beskcrs, and nrany slupcs conld bc strckcd, rs tllcy bccrt in thc kill, or snrlll vrscs plckccl rvirhin hrgc oncs, for sccurity arrd ccorroury ofspecc. Thc cvidcucc about priccs is skirnpy. It scerns likcly thlt:r surallish clccorrtcd vxsc a lckythos or cup uriuht cost orrc drlchnre; a largcr onc a hyclri:t twtr or thrcc. l'hc vcry largc and claborrrc v:tscs r)rLl!l hrvc bcctr trruch tlrorc cxpcnsivc; thc snrall, nrlss-proclucccl, problbly dozc'Irs to a clrlchnr:r (!vhich rl'es vcry roughly onc dry's wegc). Thc clctcrrnining irctors rvcrc problbly vzc (ditlculty of drrorving rnd firr:rg) end nunrtrcr of figurcs (conrp:rrc thc

thcrrr litcr:r1ly. T'h"r.,n.,., hlvc bccn snrr11 firlily cstlblishlncnls. rnci sonle prcstigious riorkshops crlploying (rrcrt pcrh:rPs rlwr)'s rt drc s:rrrrc linrc) scvcr:rl l1ifi...'ut a.rirtr, ;ts rvcll as ,rress-pIotl.rcrio" unils likc thc l'cllthcsilcrrr rvorkdrop. ln thc pcriod dcilt with irr this volLrnrc therc lrc lcwcr siqnrlrrr'\ r)l' dru rhey ''l crc irr thc lr,rtt"..l.r, l,riut".s:rtltl thc tl:tnlcs sccrn lcss ilrfornlrlrivc
Archaic pcrio.l (IRFH I pP- 9 lo); wc hitvc obscrvcd thc pir:tcy ofthc nenrc ol thc liDrous rrrLtrelist l)oiygrrotos by rhrcc PxiDlcrs- lhc lcw Pottcr/P'rirrt' I ()rnc cl'rrr'rrl signrtur cs u,hich intlicltc Allrcrriel birrh rnight. I inregi:rc, irrrply

p.lyn)cnls pcr ligurc for sculplulc (rr rhc Erechthcion, C.SCP pp. t48 9)Crlculltions bascd orr rhc rvciqht oftht vlscs ltrrcl thc volunrc ofcargo spacc thcy r,r,oulrl havc occupicd inclicatc th:rt rlccor:rtcd poltcry corlpxrcd lvcll i:r absolutc vllrrc u,irh:rny ofthc othcr staplc conrnrodirics oftrrdc oil, lvinc, conr. Thc dill'lcultics irrvolvctl in thc transport and plcking suggcsr drrt drc profits rrrr.rst hevc bccrr rvcll r,vorth thc troublc. I his is rt any ratc clcdr lrorr thc ntlrnbcrs rnd

tlistribution of thc vrscs in lnd outsiclc tht- (ircck u,orld. Thc raw rrralcri;rls involvcd in nr:rking thc vilscs \\,crc incrpcnsivc (c1:ry lrrd firc), and tbr nrost of


Athcni,r,, conlpc!ilion ilr thc poltcr's LlLlilrtcr'or in thc trlclc' [\'ocluction mus! hxvc bccn ptilu:rrily lbr thc krcrl ll:rrkct lnd thc potttrs rnust hirvc tlispl:rvcd tllcir warcs. Lrut thcrc u'as 'l brisk cxport trlarkct tr'' ' 'dinrlcr st r r r' t considcrc(l bclou'. 'Scrs' of vrsc's lvcre rro dotltrt providcd' A no rrlorc thrrr 'r is l)tlt thir thclncs. nriqht hrvc bccrr clccorrtcd u'ith rclrrctl rcc()glri/'' rrr til us to 'scrviccs' lrilvc survivcd nt)t to sccnl .urci thc pllusiblc gtrcss

this pcriod Arhcns crrjoyccl e nronopoly in thc proclucr. Thcrc rvcrc sonrc fccblc rvlrcs, sornc iruitarirrg Athcnran rccl ligrrrc, in othcr parts ofclcccc, :rnc1 thc South lrrlian rnd Sicllirn nr:rrkct (a Circck colonill ltc:r) wes losr oncc thc locll rvorkshops rvcrc in full producriorr in thc sccon,-l halfofthc fifth ancl thc hlrrtir ccnnrry (scc RF.S1.S).

Altcr rhc Archaic pcriod, [rnrri:r rcnlrlincd i] rrrrjor ilrporrcr of Athuni:n

23 5

2:l '1

Chapter Nine
vascs but thcrc was a markcd dcclinc in thc third quartcr ofthc fifth ccntury followcd by an almost complctc halt cxccpt in thcnorth whcrc, at SPina, import was strong frorn thc Early Classical pcriod on to thc cnd. Thcsc vascs had travcllcd up thc Adriatic and not through thc straits of Mcssina. Etrlrria was


rnaking hcr own rcd figurc vascs, though not many, and thc dcclinc is thc rcsult

of worscning rclations and tradc with Grccks in gcncral, not Athcniarrs in particular- Thc valuc ofthc vascs to thc Etruscans is indicatcd by thc way thar
miny ofthcm wcrc mcnded with lcad clamps aftcr accidcnts cn routcor at hoDlc lar morc than wc obscrvc on vascs which staycd in Athcns. Thcrc is somc dcclinc in cxport to Spain and Francc aftcr thc mid fifth ccntury, but a wrcck off Mallorca wes carrying a lot of poor fourth-ccntury Athcnian red hgurc and black vascs. In thc fourth ccntury thcrc is a surgc oFcxport to thc (lrcck citics of thc Black Sca coast and to Cyrcnaica, a symptom ofthc ncw importancc ofthcsc arcas to bulk tradc in foodstuffs. In homcland Grcccc thc vascs arc wcll distributcd, rnd thc finds in thc houscs ofthc north Grcck city ofOlynthus show that thcy wcrc not simply bought as gravc goods, though cvcn thc tomb of l)hilip II ofMaccdon, Alcxandcr's fathcr, containcd a simplc Athcnian rcd figurc askos and black vascs besidc thc gold and silvcr. Vasc shapcs of pcculiarly Athcnian significancc gcncrally did not travci, but thc whitc funcrary lckythoi
and thc small chocs arc found in quantity at Eretria, whcrc Athcniarrs had scttlcd. Cups arc thc favourite cxport shapc cvcrywhcrc cxccpt in Sicily which sccms to havc bccn grccdy for lckythoi. 'fhc cxport ofAthcnian pottcry sccms to havc bccn only nrinimally affcctcd by Athcns bcing in a statc ofwar, citlrcr with thc Pcrsian bloc or with othcr Grcck statcs; a furthcr indication that much of thc rradc and carrying was probably not in Athcnian hands. It is clcar, howcvcr, that thcrc was an ovcrall dcclinc in production throughout this pcriod, only partly offsct by a risc in thc production ofplain black vascs (mainly thc smallcr shapcs). Thc volumc oftradc suggcsts no mcrc disposal ofsurplus production, so if thcrc was dclibcratc production to mcct thc dcmand wc might ask whcthcr thc

Thc rpproech ro Athcnian v:rscs in !hcsc volurncs hls bccl dircctcd nrainly to thc (lcrronstriltioll of thc work of iuclividual cnftsrncn iuld thc stylc lnd subjcct r:rlttcr ofthc dccorltion. 'fhc vcsscls thcrusclvcs havc bccn trcatcd as rrtclacts, sonrctiDlcs cvcD es 'works oflrt' (in thc rr1oclcrn scnsc; lhc dcscriptiol] is virtually nrclrilqlcss in rcrms of Cl:rssic:rl rntiqLrity). fhc clcvclopnrcnr of shlpcs wls discusscd in scpararc chaptcrs in ,4Ill-H (ch. 9) ,rnd ,4 R1-1/ I (ch. 5). In thc pcriod tlc:rlt wirh in this volumc no iniportln! ncw shapcs:rrc ilrtroduccd lld rhc chlngcs irr forrl lrc edcquarcly dcscribcd in clrlicr chaptcrs lncl rcfcrrcd tcr bricfly lt thc cncl ofthis onc. It is pcrhlps ]norc uscful hcrc to consiclcr thc ran!!c ofuscs to which thcy rvcrc put, to considcr horv thcsc mighr hrvc dcrcrnrincd or

rlii'crccl rhcir shapcs,:rnd

to what cxtcnt rhcsc shapcs wcrc traditiorral


dcmand affcctcd thc product. This was truc in thc Archaic pcriod, whcn Erruscan shapcs wcrc dclibcratcly copied for thc markct (,4BFH p. 64)- In rcd figurc thcrc arc rarc copics ofSouth Itelian native (not Grcck) shapcs, and somc sitcs sccm to havc favourcd unusual (but Athcnian) shapcs, such as Spina and its rcception of stcmmcd platcs ofthc latcr fifth ccntury. 'fhat subjccts wcrc choscn for dccoration with thc ovcrscas customcrs in mind sccms unlikcly. 'Ihc popularity ofthc obscurc story ofthc Arimasps who Iiought thc grifiins might indccd havc bccn inspircd by the ncw Black Sca markct, sincc thc myth was placcd in thc distant north, but ifso thc vascs dccoratcd with this subjcct wcrcnot rcscrvcd for that markct- Thc sccncs simply joincd thc standard rcpcrtory and thc vases so dccoratcd travcllcd south to Africe as rcadily as they wcnt north. Somccxotic subjects may havc bccn choscn orbcspokcn individually, by donors or dcdicator., to takc ovcrscas, but that is anothcr mattcr. It might cxplain, f()r instancc, thc l)crsian and his camcl from Egypt ltoll.

influcncccl by ochcr rncclia. Arr cxtrcnrc rcccrrt view on thc l:rsr topic has tlrcnr nrcrc slavish copics of v:tscs in prccious nrccal, so thcrc is c:r11 for rcnrc qruct rcflcction on shrpcs end uscs, lncl consiclcra!ion ofthc rolc ofthcsc cley vascs, thc nrost vrricd irncl plcntifrLl nlatcrial tcstinlonia that wc havc ftrr Classicll Athcns. Mosr clry sh:rpcs wcrc traclitionrl arcl tlrcir clcsigns lvcrc dcvcJopcd to:ncct spccific lturctions storeqc, pouring, clrriagc, cltinking, nrixing. Most wcrc dictitcd by thcjr r)lccliunr ls wcll rs drcir hrnction, end thc rcarly rlallcability of cl:ry, totcthcr widr thc pottcr's-whccl tcclrrricluc which f:rvorrrcd thc strictly clrcular ln plal. Sawn wood favours thc rcctilinclr, for chcsts, boxcs, ard dccorativc p:rnc1s, lrut whcn wood wes workcd on a ]athc, as ir hld bccn lirr ccnturics tbr both vcsscls and ftrrniturc, it proclucccl forrrs vcry likc rhosc casily .rchrcvcd irr clay. Woocl rnust lie bchind many familiar vasc shapcs, cspccially platcs rnd rouncl boxcs (whosc n:tnrc, pysrdr,s, rcvcals thcir origin in boxwood), end pcrhaps cvcn l:rrgcr vcsscls sr.rclr !s lhc carlic\t bcll cretcrs rvith thcir lug hlncllcs a u.oodcn h;rrl rhotrgh rhc vcsscl's shlpc itsclfrriglrt clcrivc frorn brskctry. l hc turnin!! ofwood or1 i lxthc is nrost closcly rcl:rtcd ro drc tr.rrlring of vrscs, to rcfinc mouldint:s rnd dct:ril. l-lrc claboration of thc urrclcrsidc of clay pl.rtcs clcrivc,-1 fronr this rcchniquc which was, fronr thc sccond hllfofclrc fiftlr ccntrrry, llso lpplicd to nrctrl virscs, so rhat therc wes considcrablc sirlil:rrrty in rrcrtnlcnt of tllis fi'lturc in clav arcl rnctel (encl, wc Dray bc surc, woodcn)

l)unrpy and srgging shepcs, thc round arlal1o-r, prllkr (rs [8r]) and a-rlo-r l3r 7, ;.:6], probabJy dcrivc fronr skin vcsscls; thc rltyton tlkcs thc shepc ofa horn;


blskcrry suggcstctl vlriotrs rottnd boxcs rnd srraight-sidcd Ialallror; rhc

,r1,rr.r-vr(rr, in rr;rttrc attcl iPPcerxllcci rccells irs ligyptierl stoDc PrototYPc Mctll r,:rscs rvcr c obviously tir rrlorc veltublc irl rnticluity, rncl thcrclore fur r;u cr, lncl cvcn yct rirrcr in thc :trchlcologicrJ rccorcl sillcc thc nlercritl corrld bc

\o rc.rdily rc-uscd in

vcsscls ,rrc thc nrosl cfficicnt sirlcc dlc r'lvcltinil or s()l(lc'rir1g rogclhcr ()fparls can bc r sourcc of r,vclktress, ;ts c;rn slurp corncrs, bllt lttxury nlrtcrial cnconrrlicd


rvey rhrt Potrcry cilrillol Onc-piccc hattltllcrccl or


hrrurv rrertrttctrr, rtrd llrhoueh llrtlch silvcr, fbr instlrlcc, r'vts liirly sulrllrl:rrily rvorkccl irrro convctricnt shrpcs (drc plrnrltJ virru:rlly rs btLlJiorr, tlblc rvrrc was elrborrtcd \i/ith cdst or hlrtttncrcd dcteils rpplicd rclicf dccoratrorr' flqtrc
huucllcs, rncl thc likc. l'hc rcchniqucs of rlrakinq lhc clst fi'xturcs wcrc blsicelly thc silr)lc rs thosc fi)r nlilkir)g nloLllclcd detllils for clly vescs, btlt in thc Cllssical

rruqs. bu! rhcsc erc rrcvcr shou'tr usccl firr drilrkinq. ar lcest et lhc syn)posioll, :lnd rrc qcrcrelly cllsscrl lvith oirrocho:ri (pollrcrs) thongh thcy clo llot ha\rc P()tlring lips. l'hc cups providctl fiiczc:rnd circulrrr flckls ftlr clccoration etrd sonlc lrc ,,.r." iirr shorv thlr usc (c.g., tlrc Pcnthcsilce l)aintcr's cr.tps l8o, '91l, 43 rud 7:' cnr rcr oss). Orclinrry stcttrtttcd cnps erc gcncr:rlly littlc over .lo clll rcross bur only liur or tivc ccrrtirncrrcs tlccp; rhcrc nlust hlvc bccrr I lot of spilling' 'fircrc ltc sotrrc spccial fornrs, such ls covcrccl cups with strrillcr llloulhs (lrdI'l_r ,rrc uscd f_or rnixing tlrc r,r,inc elld rvrltcl; il) vasc sccDes thcy solnctjnrcs :lPpclr itt rhc syl)posion, but rhc cup-boy is conrllronly sho*n 1c:rvirrg thc perty to fi'rch ruorc rvi,rc, rn.l it ls likelv th;rt rhc rrrlxrlle u'ls usu:rlly clonc ill thc illltcroorll or

pcriorl thc cl:rv lorrls rook thclr lcrtl frt)nl thc rnctrl, solllctitlres, it scclls, cvcn irsing nroulrls takcn flonr nrctll oriqirtlls. Lillcrr dccorrtion on nlctll, by ircisiou, is:rs thc bl:rck ligurc tcch:tiqnc on vlscs, cltt:nsict ltld lc'ss stlbrlt thln rvhet coLrlcl bc:rclricvc<1by I brrrsh etrd by var,ving lnixcs ofplillt rrlcl pigllrcnr' l)ccor:rtion bv inrprcssirrt or- purrching rvls a vcry rlld tcchniquc ill clly but, as wc scc it oll sorrrc (lllssicrl vascs, it scctus to follou' rrlctal. l_hc lllc!:ll vas('s wcrc .rs opcn to irtSucncc fronr othcr rtrcdil:ts wcrc lhc cl:Ly xlld lhcrc rrc harcll-v rny b:rsic chv vrsc forrus r,r,hrch sccnr cssctttiltlly lnctll-iuspirc-rl (thc lcbcs/dinos I r r 6, rTdl is lrr obviotrs cxccPlron), rhough irl (lrcccc sotllc tlcrivc froll ftrrclglr pr()rotypcs irr nrct;rl (tirc plri:r1ei lrrcl s()nl('lhytr end iqLlrc vlscs, shrpcs i,,t,odui"d fiorr thc cnst irr clrlv drys but rvith frcsh inspirariol 1'rorrr fifthccntLrr,v I)crsiitn boory). 'fhii is rlrc plecc tti nrcntiorr :rJso thc pllin bleck vrscs ('bhck g1:rzc') u'hich ucrc bcirrq lrrrdc in itrcrctsirtg ntttrtbcrs tlrrotlgll rhc fift)r lncl lourth cclrttrrlcr, thou!lh thc gclrrc hitcl bccrr lortg firuililr, lnd not ollly in Adrcns. Shlpcl rlrc as tirl thc dccolntccl v:rscs! c\ccPl f()r solllc vcsscls $'hich dcrivc front llrcliLl c g , 'srlt ccll.rrs'rrrd 'bolsrls' (tlccP stcnllcss aups, llrnrcd lttcr spccilncns in RoLrqne .urc1 Srlonicl). Thc pirttcrr)s, Prob'lb1y ofnrctlllic inspir';lrion, b'sr 'uit thc bl;rck vlscs lnd lppc:tl sorrlclirncs oll drc dccorrrctl (cup llltcriors) Merly arc linc)l pottcd, thrn-u,:rllcri, rrrtl qrritc closc to nrctel sh:rpcs. l hcv u'crc ofcotlrsc chc,rp.:r th,rn .lccorltccl vesc:. Wc :rdnrirc thcir lalrt shlpcs and trrstcrc bleckncss but ncccl not bclicvc tJr.rt frtih ccnttrry Athctriltls rvcrc'silnillrlv rlrovccl' Thci:' sh.rpcs rrrrl thcir glossy blackncss ol c rrruch ro rhc rrrodcl of rrrcul (silr'cr) v:rscs, btrt thc lbsur c1 clccltrctiorr thrl silvcr vrscs tvcrc dclibcraccly nlrrlc or lcfr blrck irl Cl.rrslcrl Athcns is cirsilv rclirtcci. irrd rhc history of drc bl:rck clrty shepcs errd thcir dccorltion lrrs ro bc tttttlcrslood irl :r broltclcr c()Dtcxt,:ls r'r'c llltvc scctl' Wc turrr norv to ttscs. A high proportion of Athcnirrr dccorltcd vrtscs rvrls nrrclc for usc ilt thc fi'rst.;rtttl ttol so rllrrch fir ltrr drinking thc syrrrlovorr. It is odrl tlr:rt (lrccks shottltl hevc coutjnnctl to itvour trvo_h;rntllcd cups tirr clrinkirrg, rrivcrr th:rt. rcclirtirrg orr e coLrch firr;r svnlposiorl, orlly orrc h.urd is crsily .rv:rihblc lirr h:rndling a cup. l'lrcrc:rrc onc-h:rndlcd shrpcs, likt'

lor cooling ll'ine (thc ln Llsh roonr-sh rpctl l-'syltt'r, E:rrly Cl.rssic:rJ pcriocl- Thc l/a,rrro-r is thc only irt thc sct iri i.rirtcr) cliseppc.rrs uinc-rnixirri: shlpc r,vhich ntay bc liLidccl llltl its ltppcarrncc itr sotllc titrLal l)ionysinc sccncs [.u.1, 17l] sL1!a!{csts sPcci;11 usc (possibly, at lcast otr occrsion, ftrr urrrrlrcd r,r,inc). 'l hc porrrcr oirior'loar cxpl:rirl lllcrllsclvcs, arlcl llrc vlricty of sh:rpcs (cl. Al?[Hlp.zo<11 lzg,76, zrg z:41) suggcsts I v:rricty ofirrflucnccs, not:rbly rrcral, cs1'rccielly firr lhosc wlth bcrk-likc spours. 'l Sonrc vcsscls rrc' dcsigncrl fcrr spccill (i.c., not bulk) srorlgc. hc anrplnrn ts sonrc inricrtt lerqc lllcl vcry Archlic cxirlllplcs;rrc rhc obviotrs erirrrrplc. Mlrry s!or:rrrc sh;rpcs (pointcd Ir I lrrd Prnethc-rrric) irnd so nlry hlvc hc]d rl'irrc or oil (ci ...lBFH.,ilg. z r ;). Snrallcr cxenrplcs iburrcl !hroLrqb thc rl'sl ofthc fifth ccntury (thc shepc virctr:r11v clisappc:rrs irr chc lourth) nright hlvc hcld various rvct or dry .,rur,,,,rditl"r. l'hc ncck-rnrphouc, notlbly drc snlall Nolal xnlphorac' hrvc qroor,es u ithir thc lip lirr :r lid or stoppcr lrrcl it is cltlitc problblc thar tlrcy t crc t'xportcrl rvith corrrcnts oil, olivcs, frnc winc. TIrc2r'/itt u':rs cspccirlly for oi1, to .lLrclgc lr'onr vlsc \ccncs (ABFH .1,t. : l z) errd irs sugltcstivc s:rgging shepc' l'ortrblc oil-cLspcnscrs rvcrc prob:rbly gcncr:rlly of skin (part of rrr rthlctc's strudrrd cquiprrcrt) r:rc1 thc sqaat /r'[ytlros rvls lor t]rc rablc rathcr rh:rn for sLrspcnsion fionr tlrc u,risr. lhc tall lckythos, rvhich hcltl lcss rhen appc;rrcd. is lirr rhc cLcssing tlblc, $'hcrr nol fi)r thc k)nlb (scc bclorv) 'I'hcrc arc elso courrvlrd. l'hc
spccr:r1 sh:rpc



vcr-sions: acorn lckythoi lz97l errrl srn:r11 tlqurc vescs l'hc iydrirr is csscrti.rllv tirr carrieqc rncl pouring (\\'ltcr) blrt thc largcr oncs arc Probrbly rririn ly tirr rlisplry rnd thc vcry srnell oncs fbr:rrry Jiqtrirl. Thc worcl /ralp i-r is uscd to rlisrirguish thc onc-Piccc (llrssicel typc frorrr thc lnguler Arclr:ric hyrlril' A l'crturc ofthc rlccr)rili(nr ofvrscs fi()lll thc Olassic:rl pcriod on is lhc nrrlnbcr tlcvorcrl to sccllcs oflhc lilt ofu'onrcn They rppclr orl lppropriatc shapcs, rinrrl (scc bclow), or t'irr thc boucloir littlc boxcs (pyrrrlr's It9, 91, ]99' 4,71. /t'larrir 'r, sruell h ydriri, r'pirrrtra (kucc covcrs firr c:rrdinq t ooi [2 r 5 ]). Thc Poltcrs lr,rd idcntilicd r trcrv nrrrkct. subsranti:rl if not rs rcliatrlc es that fi)r thc svnrposion, ltrcl rhcil tccogDiriolr of it sitys s()nlcthirlg (diflcrcrtt thillgs lo rlifti'icnt scholrrrs) rbout chinqin!a.tttiturlcs to $'orncn in thc filth ccrlttlrv' l hc lck.rniLlcs, liddcd or rlot. irc :t ncu' or rcvlvcrl shlpc, virttlllly iguorccl in rhc

c,rrlicl flfih ccrrrtrry.



I'hc finclr orr thc Athcniarr Acropolis show thit rny vxsc shepc, rynrP,,rr'tt, fi'nrininc, c,,,cn sonrctirlrcl fulcrcal, rrrigJrt bc Lrscd fbr clctlic:rtiol. Wc hrvc fi'rvcr cxerrrplcs fronr rhis sourcc in our pcriocl sincc thc rclJly rrch finds rrc Archeic, qcucratccl by thc durrlpins ofnrittcrial llicr thc Pcrsiau sack in 4lto/79. Chy p1lqLrc-s, irniteting woocl or st(nc. ilrc vcry rarc. Oi1 lves uscd itr ltttrcral r ircs, end oil flasks u,crc buricd rvith thc clced, rnd phcccl rt thc ()nrb irl Poslbrrrill cc: crnorrlcs. Wc hevc sccn in C)hlptcr Four how rhc whitc lckythoi c:rrrrc to scrvc thesc purposcs, encl thcsc- o lv. Thc /orrrrol/loro-s 1134, lgll :rDd lt',r's ,qarrrl,o-r l1o, .;d,i, 1o;tl scrvc nrrrri;rgc rilcs (thc f-ctching arrd stor.lic or hc:rtilg of rvltcr fbr rhc brichl This is lpprrcnt froirl thcir ilppcxrr:rcc iIr v:tsc sccncs rud chc dccoration ofdrc vascs lhcrr)sclvcs (we musl not think ofblrlring by inrnrcrsiol, but thc poLrring ofwrtcr ovcr helcls, fi'ct, pcrhrps hcad {-1qr l). Thc lotrrrophoros is:rlso:t grlvc vlsc [1o"] rnd conlcl scrvc as a grrvc nrol)Lrrrcn! [2671. This rrccorrrrts lbr thc funcrary lnd blttlc sccrlcs ()Il sorr)c, rvhich rn:ry be



t t h

ao h,.qi

t t!

tl, :


Jdhtl'tuh Lltt dd

IBI: .,tIl I


/ri(,,? Irinj, t Hanthook lLyt+)


,1tlui,ur Itlork

atuhinloli\h( lrttil,t\


.1( 1.,1

rcrrlrclcdesconrrncrrlorrltivc,orrppropri:tlclailtsforthctonrbIit1,cf.r76l.Thc Hugc Lckythoi l.u.r1] rrc cxccptioDal rs qravc nrarkcrs. Wc considcrcd iIr thc hst chrptcr lhc rnodcst cxtcnt to rvhich shepcs nr:ry hevc bccn influcrrccd by drc ,'\('r\('.r. rr.rd( 'rr .l.cnr"r,d p,'ttcrt. Thc clcvclopnrcnr ofindiviclLrrl shrpcs hls bccn cliscusscd in carlicr chlptcrs. Tlrc rnost notlblc chenqc is rhc rcdrtctlon in both rrumbcrs anci vlrictics ofshape dccoratcd in thc fiur'th ccrrtury: ncck-enrphor ac clis;rppcrr, ls clo cratcr sh:rpcs cxccpt thc bcll (lhough this roo dccliDcs) and c:rlyx,lrrcl tall lckythoi; tlrcrc is lcss
vericty !oo irr oinochoc fornrs, ancl cups erc tnorc co:rrnronly stcrlrlcss;ol1ly rhc lck:rnis flnds ncu, 1ifi. Thc gcncrrl tcnclcncy to clonqetc for:ls, sprcad lips arrd blscs, rncl intunr h:urdlcs, is epparcrrr on rneny shrPCs, rnd thc ovcm1l Iloriclity of lorur lnd dccoration rccord r chtngc oftasrc whiclr wc shorrld not intcrprct rs:r sisn of dccadcncc sinrply bccausc paintccl Porrcry is in dcclinc, sincc rt is .rs rclclily:rpprrcnt in odrcr. costlicr rrcdia, rvhich probably gavc thc lcacl.



l). llcrzlcy, lllit Bl,tk l.r tt I ,rJrl rr.^ (r956) 1,,/,dn,/1,.(il., I).ih), 4 tiL\1t (l)tk 4tr anl konooaphy (.d W a;. MooD, rest) ANft .laitu1l .l Atht.oto,Jy


I.Mral ,'l HtllIi. srut\,\ l).C. Kuftz, .Attu id lfhit( /-.lyrlroi (re7i)



(.r^,r.r L;J.,


l.txto S


,\'1),rh,/r'(i,r Cl rIInd. idr

llthndl I\,t ry ((d. H.A.(1. lirUdcr. reila) J. ln,rtulnrrr, Ath0i,u l?ul t:i.tu',tl l'a\,\, ttu Atuhdn l\an\l r

)1rn (h.k r i

A.S. Murr:rv rr)d A.H. Smith,


Athl,ll l.rn! ii th! biti\lt

t h .\k n h i ltr1t lt\titrt! it Ulin

J rht \]k li




J.l). 8..,1.y. AiiL Rkl .h{n lirn,l)dnrdi (.d. tr. r16l) Btll0i't A 1tkt: ltt:tir ht.C tul1Ltit dL awsponta*t hrllhi,yt Ll) (:skcy r)d J.D. B.rzlcY. Atti\ l'dlt1r1it1ttt.<\ 11t tfu :i|!1,

O,li\ tu .| A|JL


l) llcrzlc), h1n14 u r \ry1t)

E.l'fihl. Mnlrfti r"d ZinxwN

ltchtcr/ Hrll lli.zlcr


1 :,lh\t.

fut (iiuh(t (i,rj) (;.M.A. Ilichr.r rnd L.F. Hull, R.d.l,s"hd Atht idll t',1\'\ i| th.

.4n tnl

tI ttu i,'itith Str'l

Mdtuplna Mr!1 il ,1n (tt)tr)

W. lliczlcr, ll,i'iJt(,,,,/it.,r/iJ./r.


(:l'/1 ,'l \\'(;r?,. trll

(;s.1P a;sCP

(aot]rt\ l',1\\1t"t ,1 tiqmnm



Ir. /i)?,, Ci(r. (..[] (1. Kurt2 r,d ll A Sfirk.s.


A.l). Trurd!11, Ttu R.d 1:irN. T",^(i,r.s.rrr hdly a Ll Snil)


Stlldi$ ttob.ftnnr.
A. Furrw:nrglcr i,,(l

A.l). Tr.,rdill ind T.B.L.

Wcbsrcr, lllirJrd/rr,s ,,I t)tdntd (te7t)

K. ll.i.hhold, (;rnli,liil,(


(;r!'[ l1llrr,, tl.htl


L'dw,,[/d.i (reol ]:)




K. SchctblLl,
,1t, Kd,n

Ii ntirh r.q. :r rd rd$i (rel+)

l,.lrdi. I']or!/


rrrrr. Ct..k sdt',wt, th:


J. llorklnrrD.

(ll,riJnrr/ ]1./nr/

()rttk strlpnn, tlt

(r 98 5)

J.l). ll.!rlcy. Ahn l;o!\ i /lt ttitrt Xfisrr: (tyttl) T.l].L. Wcbstcr, n .l Pdt i

h (:lds'nnl ,7th0! \19j2)


$9 t)dylLto t..]n \. l\l(t t r),nry it uilt ah(l{s

k ofu\1L.



(iltt)UNl) ANI) LEKYTH()I I)portut !)urc.r tar pichr.\ ir. W. lticrl.r, Lv.i\\.{nnkli!( rt!. l,.k)ahtr, (r9 r+)i A.S. Muny rrd A ll \r, r,. ll1, l',.,..,,,4r"8..1/ !.i,,/'\'\. I'rirbrrks. l//i,' Wltit. ltkythoi (re07. 19r1)i l.
(:Iah tint\ att M,rlJri, (r919).Ilcx,lcy.AttiL

lns.hor. ,'1rl. I-.1),rr., d.r l' (19:j) rI)d

I .rnr

ind.btcd to l)ornrl Kurtz IiJr rcrrlnrg rhc r.xr .ri)rl jugt.\rn,g \c\cr!l inlprovcnrcntsr ii)d r() ArF

Hrt-t.r, Drr [r.ri,L,Vdl.r (rel]e): ll.A. Follnrir)n. l).1 l\t1'l1dh1 (re.8) -ro ri. Ii!dlrli,,r. r, Kn;,,r iv,7r r (M lrob.rtnn))i I). \Lhil,rrdr, r/rc Tful?in |, Ll \t (te1r). Ittrl /)rrli,J \\ir Hn,.,d i. iir O/),,I/xrJ !. xiiii L V.rr).u1('.
llvhbrsch..St,rrf ar arr11r1trth

l,l.l,'d..'j,,,,',.'r,.'.ll1, r[.r-1,.'r.,,-. '..r.,drin)g I h. list\ bclow Ncrc .los.d' ir) Mr.h

/r// lxxxy. 9+lll (D.xi].or: il.,1 rrl7. rra ll.,r(ori,rr\' irnnb)r l'jrnrihcnri.\ -!ul.'+rl 7: N.
t)\'itr tphrn


NoN-411r( nro r r(L


ll$,1.\"s:1/? l'h!\ lirll li\* olprrrters. ivrfi mdcrcs to prcvcnicncc. nrvth, nruscunr, &r/,r nrnrcs. It is tpplcn,crtcd u, hr /|ralr2oaoar (tyzr) rrLl rddr rionrl rci-crcD.cs k) vrs.s listcd rr thcsc books uc
s1!.r) iri B.d--

ll. (;lrrrr. reii:i ((t. : .orrtilc(l bv '1.H. r9N!). (ll'..1 rcrrrrnrs rl,c li,ll.\r \cque,,(. of roru,,,r\ ,lev{)tc(l r() vx\c illustriti(nr rnd.rn bc\t ilc nsc(l \1rh T.H. (lrrt(iit.r, Sr n dy C i& n' CI'A

1,'t .-l

J./.,,/d (..t.

.orntilcLl l)y I-. lJurrl

1i.,,, Pr],,te. K. (lcx Morgcnfirlcr. .-1,(\xi\. rlilt:r.t q.,l v, r7r1i (wh[c gurnd)r N(,rrh (irr.k Ij. (;iouri, iD K.,,oi(I]c\t. l}]krlikis. rrTr) .iL I. M.r.l'jh.. propos.s i riorogr.rph on ,,or-Attic rcd figurc.


It.i.,.,r.c\i,, Mr(l)oDrld,,{/llxx\v. r\!fi:i


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Kcrcli stylei thc prrrcurl illtrsmtctl urrccs tc ,ril' .rrrd r A, \ (. 1.., t\ \.1r.r,..1 t,.rt t't .1:.

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J,rt.rb,sc rccorullrg

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d,/ ,.r Ciiirll,, 1re.,a). ()dy$ct" F. llronrmer. O'rt,JJ.rJ (r9ilr) ()idiPus .1.-M Morcr,


O ,l)l'(rr8a). l'].rscus K. SchrucDburg, l',r (r96.)). PIri iros n!ii,. /?r.n,^.rrr.Mra.x,r ci, rli: F. Brommcr, 1ir.fl,J (r9li2).

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HqrrTirtoj vii/viii, I25li: Abil;ty t() rcproducc shrpcs o.ll. Intpcy.nd M. 1,o1lurd, OJ..1 iv, r j7lI. Ciral rcd volltc ffetcr Mrlibu. Ghosts K. Sch:rucnburg, ,41 r974, r56li: I Iair rclicflhc (;. Seitcrle.,4rtilr W(h \ii. 2fr. I'rclinrirrry skct.h 1,.f. r .,r1,-r. /r/.i l\\\\. r,,H. ir, r..r rrd 1.J.rr. c\ccpturil, Cll,4 Ausfi) i. pl r-1. r.

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bibliography nr ,,1R/rH I :r9 and T.l l. (l.rp(ntct, Su t toty ()riir h C r, (1981) for an indc\ t() .h.'p,* w. 11 U" *" ,.., ,jj r.'ll/. \. ", 'l\'. -. ,.r1 , rr

lnnogr.r:6R. frou lnno!.'ir


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