KOREAN WAR

Organized Crime?
Part 2: North Korea, Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), & Special Interests

By William P. Litynski

Modern Korea: Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace?

South Korean tourists tour the Demilitarized one !DM " as South Korean soldiers in the rear and #orth Korean soldiers in the fore$round $uard the Korean %order. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&yeo'atzup&()*+,*-.*)&" /he Demilitarized one !DM "0 the -km 'ide %uffer zone separatin$ #orth and South Korea is anythin$ %ut demilitarized. Both countries are still technically at 'ar0 the ceasefire and armistice that ended the fi$htin$ 'ere ne1er follo'ed 'ith a formal peace treaty. /he 2oint3Security 4rea is a ro' of %lue and 'hite huts straddlin$ the Military Demarcation Line di1idin$ the peninsula 'here armistice talks continue to this day.

“War is peace. Freedom is slavery. Ignorance is strength.”
– eor!e "r#ell (ori!inall$ %ric &rth'r (lair ()orn *'ne 2+, ,-./0 died *an'ar$ 2,, ,-+.)), 1rom his no2el Nineteen Eighty-Four (p')lished in *'ne ,-3-)

4he North Korean &rm$ displa$s a set o1 artiller$ ho#itzers d'rin! a militar$ parade in P$on!$an!, North Korea5

Left photo: 5nited States President 6eor$e W. Bush tours the Korean Demilitarized one !DM " in (..(. !4P Photo" 7i$ht photo: 5nited States President Bill 8linton appears at the Korean Demilitarized one !DM " in *))+. !4P Photo"

Left photo: President 6eor$e W. Bush and t'o unidentified 5.S. 4rmy officers 1isit the Korean DM . !White 9ouse photo %y :ric Draper" 8enter photo: 4 female #orth Korean soldier looks out from %ehind a %ar%ed 'ire fence around a camp on the #orth Korean ri1er %anks across from 9ekou0 northeastern 8hina;s Liaonin$ pro1ince. !Photo: http:&&'''.democraticunder$round.com&discuss&du%oard.php?az<1ie'=all>address<+,)?@,.,A.)" 7i$ht Photo: 4 #orth Korean soldier %randishes his rifle.

5nited States President 7onald 7ea$an looks across the Korean DM at 6uard Post 8ollier0 South Korea on #o1em%er *+0 *),+. !Photo: 7onald 7ea$an Presidential Li%rary"

5.S. Secretary of Defense Donald 7umsfeld meets 'ith South Korean 4m%assador to the 5nited States 9an Sun$ 2oo !center" and MaB. 6en. Moon Coun$ 9an !left" inside 7umsfeldDs Penta$on office on Ecto%er *0 (..-. 9an Sun$ 2oo is a mem%er of the /rilateral 8ommission. Donald 7umsfeld is a former mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations. !Department of Defense photo %y Master S$t. 2ames M. Bo'man0 5.S. 4ir Force"

4merican President 6eor$e W. Bush spoke to military personnel0 their families and ci1ilian employees at 8ollier Field 9ouse 'hile 1isitin$ 5.S. 4rmy 6arrison Con$san in Seoul0 South Korea on 4u$ust G0 (..,. Con$san 6arrison 'as a former Hmperial 2apanese 4rmy $arrison durin$ 2apanDs occupation of Korea from *)*. to *)-@. /he K4/5S4 !Korean 4u$mentation /o the 5nited States 4rmy" pro$ram allo's Korean men 'ho speak :n$lish fluently to ser1e in the 5.S. military instead of the Korean military. !Photo: 5.S. 4rmy0 Hnstallation Mana$ement 8ommand0 Korea 7e$ion0 Pu%lic 4ffairs Effice"

Hn her first official trip o1erseas as Secretary of State0 5.S. Secretary of State 9illary 7odham 8linton 1isits the 8om%ined Forces 8ommand at the 5SFK headIuarters on Con$san 6arrison in Seoul0 South Korea on Fe%ruary (.0 (..). /he 8om%ined Forces 8ommand !8F8" 8ommandin$ 6eneral Walter Sharp !ri$ht" and his deputy 6en. Lee Sun$3chool !left" appear 'ith Secretary 8linton. !5.S. 4rmy Korea Efficial Hma$e 4rchi1e"

5.S. 4rmy 8ol. Kurt /aylor !left" %riefs 5.S. Secretary of State 9illary 7odham 8linton !center" and 5.S. Secretary of Defense 7o%ert 6ates !ri$ht" at the truce 1illa$e of PanmunBom0 in a demilitarized zone !DM " north of Seoul0 South Korea0 2uly (*0 (.*.0 as a #orth Korean soldier 'atches throu$h the 'indo'. /he DM has separated #orth Korea and South Korea since the Korean War. !Photo: 5.S. Department of Defense"

5.S. Secretary of State 9illary 8linton and 5.S. Secretary of Defense 7o%ert 6ates look from the o%ser1ation post on 2uly (.0 (.*. in PanmunBom0 South Korea. 9illary0 'ill Boin Secretary of Defense 7o%ert 6ates in talks 'ith South Korean President Lee Myun$3Bak. !Photo: Pool&6etty Hma$es"

From left to ri$ht: Forei$n Minister of South Korea Cu Myun$3h'an0 5.S. Secretary of State 9illary 7odham 8linton0 5.S. Secretary of Defense 7o%ert 6ates and Defense Minister of South Korea Kim /ae3youn$ speak to mem%ers of the press outside the /( %uildin$s in PanmunBom0 Demilitarized one !DM "0 Korea on 2uly (*0 (.*.. !Photo: 5.S. Department of Defense"

5.S. Secretary of State 9illary 7odham 8linton and 5.S. Secretary of Defense 7o%ert M. 6ates look out o1er #orth Korea from E%ser1ation Point Euellette durin$ a tour at the Demilitarized one that separates South and #orth Korea on 2uly (*0 (.*.. !5.S. Department of Defense photo %y 8herie 8ullen"

65S5 Secretar$ o1 State 7illar$ 8linton and 65S5 Secretar$ o1 De1ense 9o)ert ates loo: 1rom the o)ser2ation post on *'l$ 2., 2.,. in Panm'n;om, So'th Korea5 7illar$, #ill ;oin Secretar$ o1 De1ense 9o)ert ates in tal:s #ith So'th Korean President <ee M$'n!=(a:5 (Photo: Pool> ett$ Ima!es)

/he Korean Demilitarized one at PanmunBom. !Photo: Flickr"

:ntrance at 8amp Bonifas0 South Korea0 headIuarters of the 5nited #ations 8ommand Security Battalion

North Korean soldiers e?amine the other side o1 the Demilitarized Zone at the 4r'ce @illa!e in Panm'n;om, Korea #ith their )inoc'lars5 (Photo: Alic:r)

4 Jisitors Declaration Form for tourists 1isitin$ the /ruce Jilla$e at PanmunBom0 Korea

(an: o1 Korea (한국은행 B7an!': %'nhaen!C), the central )an: o1 the 9ep')lic o1 Korea that is located in Seo'l, So'th Korea, #as o11iciall$ opened on *'ne ,2, ,-+., ;'st ,/ da$s )e1ore Kim Il S'n!Ds North Korean 8omm'nist arm$ crossed the /E th Parallel and in2aded the 9ep')lic o1 Korea5

Kim 8hoon!=soo (le1t), the c'rrent o2ernor o1 the (an: o1 Korea and a 1ormer economic ad2iser to President <ee M$'n!=)a:, tal:s #ith President <ee M$'n!=)a: (ri!ht) )e1ore a ca)inet co'ncil at the presidential (l'e 7o'se in Seo'l, So'th Korea on Ma$ ,/, 2..E5 (9e'ters)

Federal 7eser1e 8hairman Ben Bernanke !L" shakes hands 'ith Bank of Korea 6o1ernor Kim 8hoon$3soo at the %e$innin$ of the 63(. Meetin$ of Finance Ministers and 8entral Bank 6o1ernors durin$ the sprin$ HMF3World Bank meetin$ in Washin$ton0 D.8. on 4pril (+0 (.*.. !7euters"

Bank of Korea 6o1ernor Kim 8hoon$3soo !L" talks 'ith 5.S. /reasury Secretary /imothy 6eithner in front of Bank of 2apan 6o1ernor Masaaki Shiraka'a !8" durin$ a reception at the 6(. Finance Ministers and 8entral Bank 6o1ernors meetin$ in Busan KPusanL0 South Korea on 2une -0 (.*.. Finance ministers and central %ankers from the 6roup of (. 'ealthy and de1elopin$ economies $athered in South Korea to $rapple 'ith :uropeDs de%t crisis0 financial reforms and efforts to re%alance the $lo%al economy. /imothy 6eithner is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations and a freIuent Bilder%er$ Meetin$s participant. !7euters" http:&&'''.daylife.com&photo&.Ari.Mm,mFde5? I<kimMchoon$Msoo

Par: e'n=7$e (le1t), the da'!hter o1 en5 Par: 8h'n!=hee, !reets So'th KoreaDs President <ee M$'n!=)a:5

Par: e'n=7$e #as elected So'th KoreaFs 1irst 1emale president on Decem)er ,-, 2.,25 She is the da'!hter o1 1ormer President o1 So'th Korea en5 Par: 8h'n!=hee5 In this March 2..E photo, Par: )'rns incense 1or her 1ather5 (*%"N G"6N =7&N>&AP> ett$ Ima!es)

/he skyline of Seoul0 South Korea

Korean K/N e?press trains appear at Seoul Station in Seoul0 South Korea.

Dorasan /rain Station in South Korea0 near the Demilitarized one

South Korean army soldiers $uard the entrance of the Dorasan /rain Station in South Korea.

South Korean army soldiers $uard the entrance of the Dorasan /rain Station in South Korea.

#orth Korea: WorkerDs Paradise or 8oncentration 8amp?

4 $roup of Korean 'orkers a'ait the %e$innin$ of the *..th Cear Kim Hl Sun$ Birthday 8ele%rations in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on 4pril *+0 (.*( !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&A*+,.(@)**&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

4 $roup of Korean students in Pyon$yan$ prepare to cele%rate the *..th anni1ersary of the %irth of Kim Hl Sun$ on 4pril *+0 (.*(. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&G))@,))-AG&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

Korean 'orkers con$re$ate outside an industrial factory in 9amhun$0 #orth Korea on 4pril *,0 (.*(. 9amhun$ is located on the eastern side of #orth Korea %y the shores of the Sea of 2apan. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&A*@@.@,,-.&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

Korean passen$ers ride a local commuter train in the Wonsan39amhun$ countryside of #orth Korea on 4pril *,0 (.*(. /he #orth Korean cities of Wonsan and 9amhun$ are located on the eastern side of #orth Korea %y the shores of the Sea of 2apan. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&G),,GA@-.(&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.(&"

4 $roup of farmers are seen plantin$ in a field in the Wonsan39amhun$ countryside of the eastern coast of #orth Korea on 4pril (.0 (.*(. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&A*+,.(*.++&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

4 #orth Korean 'oman 'ashes clothes in front of houses alon$ the %anks of the Calu 7i1er near the #orth Korean to'n of Oin$ 8hen$ on Septem%er *(0 (..,. !7:5/:7S&Da1id 6ray" http:&&'''.%oston.com&%i$picture&(..,&.)&recent=scenes=from=north=korea.html

Kaeson$ Hndustrial Park0 located in #orth Korea appro?imately *. kilometers from the De3Militarized one !DM "0 is a desi$nated #orth Korean Pspecial economic zoneQ 'here South Korean %usinessmen are encoura$ed to Pin1estQ in Pcheap la%orQ0 open ne' factories and stores0 and pro1ide Bo%s for unemployed Koreans li1in$ in the totalitarian 8ommunist state.

#orth Korean 'orkers are seen 'orkin$ on %icycle tires at Kaeson$ Hndustrial Park. Korean 'orkers at Kaeson$ Hndustrial Park are not paid directly %y South Korean %usinessmenR South Korean %usinessmen are reIuired to $i1e the 'orkersD paychecks to a #orth Korean %ureaucracy %efore Korean 'orkers recei1e their PsalaryQ.

4 primary electric plant in Pyon$yan$ is eIuipped 'ith 1ery old So1iet steam tur%ines !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&kern%eisser&-()GGG-A+*&in&set3A(*@AG(+.A..,@G.-&"

/aehak Street in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&kern%eisser&-(GAA+,*,+&in&set3A(*@AG(+.A..,@G.-&"

:ric Laffor$ue: SPyon$yan$ 1ie'0 taken from Can$$akdo hotel. Cou can find a famous satellite picture on the net sho'in$ a map of the Korean peninsula %y ni$ht0 'ith a hu$e difference %et'een the north and south. Hn #orth Korea0 there is no pu%lic li$htin$0 and people use 1ery lo' 'atta$e %ul%s in their houses. /he #orth Korean capital is as surreal %y ni$ht as it is %y day. Due to the fuel crisis there;s hardly any traffic to %e heard after dark0 and ni$htlife is 1irtually non3e?istent. Enly monuments are lit durin$ local festi1ities. :1ery hour0 on the hour0 from G am to midni$ht0 loudspeakers %last out a patriotic son$. /ourists are totally for%idden from lea1in$ their hotels to 'alk around to'n0 e1en thou$h Pyon$yan$ is safe0 that;s the rule.S !T :ric Laffor$ue" http:&&'''.%oston.com&%i$picture&(..,&.)&recent=scenes=from=north=korea.html

Monument to the Foundin$ of the #orth Korean Workers; Party in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&G),)G((.,-&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

4 female traffic police officer is seen s'eepin$ a portion of a hi$h'ay in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on 4pril *+0 (.*(. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&G),,G-.,*(&"

4 hi$h'ay in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&G),@)(,.-,&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

4n o1ercro'ded Pyon$yan$ tram appears in Munsu Street in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&kern%eisser&+-*)A(,-.@&"

4 Korean man takes a stroll on an a%andoned street in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea. !Photo: http:&&'''.infrastructurist.com&(..)&.-&.A&$allery3north3koreas3secret3infrastructure&"

4 female #orth Korean soldier deli1ers a lecture at the Jictorious Fatherland Li%eration War Museum on 4pril *+0 (.*(. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&G),G+)()@(&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea !Photo: http:&&su%Buncti1e.net&klo$&(..@&.)&"

Pyon$yan$0 near the main rail'ay station

Pyon$yan$ 8entral /rain Station at ni$ht

4 su%'ay station in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea

8ommuters 'alk throu$h a su%'ay station in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea0 on March *.0 (.**. !4P Photo&Da1id 6uttenfelder"

E1er *..0... participants perform in the Mass 6ames held in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Wednesday0 4u$ust *+0 (..,. !4P Photo&Wally Santana" http:&&'''.%oston.com&%i$picture&(..,&.)&recent=scenes=from=north=korea.html

4 $roup of Koreans sit on a %ench in front of the statues of Kim Hl Sun$ !left" and Kim 2on$ Hl !ri$ht" in do'nto'n Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on 4pril *-0 (.*(. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&A*+@+@G(@A&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

Koreans in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea %o' their heads in front of the statues of Kim Hl Sun$ !left" and Kim 2on$ Hl !ri$ht" ridin$ on horse%ack on Sunday0 4pril *-0 (.*+. !7:5/:7S&Kyodo"

4 Korean man in 8ommunist #orth Korea is detained %y mem%ers of the #orth Korean secret police.

Wonsan39amhun$ 8ountryside in #orth Korea on 4pril *,0 (.*( !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&G))+*@+,AG&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

#orth Korean 'omen 'ork in front of a %uildin$ 'ith a picture of late leader Kim Hl3sun$ in the city of 9yesan on 4pril @0 (..). !7euters&7einhard Krause"

/he /umen 7i1er0 at the %order %et'een #orth Korea and 8ommunist 8hina0 and the %rid$e 'hich crosses the /umen 7i1er into #orth Korea. /he picture 'as taken from the 8ommunist 8hinese side of the /umen 7i1er at /umen 8ityR the city of #amyan$0 #orth Korea is across the ri1er.

4 #orth Korean man paddles his %oat alon$ the %anks of the Calu 7i1er in front of one of the destroyed %rid$es that once linked 7ed 8hina and #orth Korea0 near the to'n of Oin$ 8hen$0 located around @. kilometers north of the 8hinese %order city of Dandon$ on Septem%er *(0 (..,. !7:5/:7S&Da1id 6ray" http:&&'''.%oston.com&%i$picture&(..,&.)&recent=scenes=from=north=korea.html

:ric Laffor$ue: S/he hi$h'ays in #orth Korea are hu$e and carless. Planes could land there. Cou can e1en see kids playin$ in the middle of the road. Security is a maBor pro%lem %ecause children and old people are not used to seein$ cars0 so they cross o1er the roads at any time0 'ithout 'atchin$ out for oncomin$ traffic. /he only cars you can see sometimes on hi$h'ays are military ones0 and most of them are stopped %y the side of road0 %roken do'n. Er you can also see %rand ne' Mercedes cars %elon$in$ to the #orth Korean officials passin$ %y at 1ery hi$h speeds.S !T :ric Laffor$ue" http:&&'''.%oston.com&%i$picture&(..,&.)&recent=scenes=from=north=korea.html

Portions of the 8ommunist 8hina3#orth Korea %order remain porous. 4 8ommunist 8hinese $uard 'atched as t'o men crossed into #orth Korea at Enson$. !Photo: Du Bin for /he #e' Cork /imes"

4 photo of a #orth Korean entry&e?it card and customs form

4 #orth Korean soldier o%ser1es Penemy actionQ 'ith a %inocular at the /ruce Jilla$e at PanmunBom0 Korea.

#orth Korean currency !Photo: Flickr"

& photo o1 8hon!;in, North Korea in ,-E+5 8hon!;in, located on the eastern coast o1 North Korea, is the third lar!est cit$ in North Korea5 (Photo: http:>>###5retrodpr:5com>2.,2>,2>,-E+=chon!;in=cit$5html)

& photo o1 8hon!;in, North Korea in ,-E+5 8hon!;in, located on the eastern coast o1 North Korea, is the third lar!est cit$ in North Korea5 (Photo: http:>>###5retrodpr:5com>2.,2>,2>,-E+=chon!;in=cit$5html)

9esidents o1 8hon!;in, North Korea ride on their )ic$cles on their #a$ to #or: on *'ne ,-, 2.,/5 (Photo: http:>>###51lic:r5com>photos>zar':a>-,H.HI2E3->in>photostream>)

4 1ie' of SinuiBu0 #orth Korea !%ack$round" and Friendship Brid$e !left" from Dandon$0 8ommunist 8hina !Photo: Flickr"

4 1ie' of SinuiBu0 #orth Korea !%ack$round" and Friendship Brid$e !left" from Dandon$0 8ommunist 8hina !Photo: Flickr"

SinuiBu0 #orth Korea and the Calu 7i1er

#orth Korean na1al 1essels !Photo: Flickr"

SinuiBu /rain Station0 #orth Korea !Photo: Flickr"

SinuiBu 7ail'ay Station0 #orth Korea !located %y the Calu 7i1er"

4 #orth Korean soldier points a $un at a photo$rapher on the %anks of the Calu 7i1er near the %order to'n of SinuiBu0 across from Dandon$0 8ommunist 8hina on 4pril *@0 (..). !7euters&Strin$er"

4 $roup of #orth Korean construction 'orkers are seen pa1in$ a road in the %order to'n of SinuiBu0 #orth Korea0 located on the Calu 7i1er0 on 4pril (+0 (.*(. !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&BosephferrisAG&A@)-A(,GG-&in&set3A(*@AG()@+(-.)A.("

& )order poster displa$ed at the 8hinese=North Korean (order at Dandon!, 8hina (Photo: http:>>###51lic:r5com>photos>;oseph1errisHI>I--+I23.I2>in>set=H2,+HI2-+/23.-H.2>)

& )order poster displa$ed at the 8hinese=North Korean (order at Dandon!, 8hina (Photo: http:>>###51lic:r5com>photos>;oseph1errisHI>H,3,H,,.H->in>set=H2,+HI2-+/23.-H.2)

& )order poster displa$ed at the 8hinese=North Korean (order at Dandon!, 8hina (Photo: http:>>###51lic:r5com>photos>;oseph1errisHI>I--+I2/II2>in>set=H2,+HI2-+/23.-H.2>)

& )order poster displa$ed at the 8hinese=North Korean (order at Dandon!, 8hina (Photo: http:>>###51lic:r5com>photos>;oseph1errisHI>I--+I2/E22>in>set=H2,+HI2-+/23.-H.2)

/'o Korean 'omen are 'atched %y a #orth Korean prison $uard inside a concentration camp. !4P Photo"

4 #orth Korean prison $uard kicks a prisoner and tortures prisoners in a concentration camp.

Mental h$!iene in North Korea: Koreans in 8omm'nist North Korea are ta'!ht to #orship their JDear <eaderK Kim *on! Il and JDear <eaderK Kim Il S'n! and ta'!ht the J2al'esK o1 8omm'nism and Mar?ism5

Social h$!iene in North Korea: North KoreaDs JDear <eaderK Kim *on! Il and his 8omm'nist cadre contin'e to )'ild their militar$ machine #hile Korean children in North Korea s'cc'm) to star2ation and disease5

North KoreaDs JDear <eaderK Kim *on! Il appear at a 8omm'nist Part$ meetin! in circa 2..-5 Kim *on! Il and his 8omm'nist cadre contin'e to promote e'!enics and !enocide in the name o1 8omm'nism and Jnational sec'rit$K5

North Korean Prison Camp Survivor: Starving Women Coo ed ! "te #heir $%n Children
(ill$ 7allo#ell "ct5 2,, 2.,, ,2:,+pm Kim 7$e Soo: s'11ered 'n)eara)le pain and emotional s'11erin! #hen she #as detained 1or 2E $ears in a secreti2e North Korean concentration camp5 (r'tal e?ec'tions, star2ation L e2en mothers :illin! and eatin! their children to ens're their o#n s'r2i2al L #ere re!'lar occ'rrences5 Kim L #ho mirac'lo'sl$ escaped 1rom the (':chan! prison camp )ac: in 2../ – !ranted 8(N Ne#s #ith the 1irst &merican tele2ision ne#s inter2ie# to disc'ss these horrendo's conditions5 She no# li2es in So'th Korea, #ith the details o1 her escape remainin! classi1ied 1or sec'rit$ reasons5 4his s'mmer, she released a memoir entitled, J& 8oncentration 8amp 9etold in 4ears5K Mhen she #as ,/=$ear=old, her tra!ic tale )e!an5 4he $ear #as ,-H+ and in the )lin: o1 an e$e the $o'n! !irl #as capt'red alon!side her entire 1amil$5 &1ter $ears o1 s'11erin!, she didnDt taste 1reedom 'ntil she #as 3,=$ears=old5 Kim e?plains: JM$ entire 1amil$ #ent to prison5 Some #ere ta:en to the mo'ntains0 others #ere p't in di11erent la)or camps all )eca'se o1 m$ !rand1atherDs one mista:e: he escaped to So'th Korea d'rin! the Korean Mar5K 4oda$, Kim #ears dar: !lasses to ens're that her identit$ remains concealed5 Mhile she lost se2en 1amil$ mem)ers in the re= ed'cation camp, she c'rrentl$ has t#o sisters and a )rother #ho are still imprisoned5 She descri)ed a t$pical da$ at the camp: JI attended indoctrination classes in the mornin!5 In the a1ternoon the children #ere sent to p'sh trolle$s in the coal mines, o1ten #itho't an$ sa1et$ !ear5 People #ere d$in! in the mines5 4here #ere n'mero's mine collapses, so man$ in;'ries, people #ho lost their le!s, man$ #ho #ere )'ried ali2e5 It #as horri)le5 I #as treated li:e a sla2e and #orse5 I hardl$ slept5 It #as inh'man5 ('t I ne2er complained5 I ;'st 1ollo#ed all the r'les5 I had to 1ind a #a$ to s'r2i2e5K Kim claims that the conditions #ere so terri)le that she tho'!ht a)o't committin! s'icide Jh'ndreds o1 tho'sands o1 timesK d'rin! her 2E=$ear detention5 ('t )eca'se there #as al#a$s someone #atchin! her, this simpl$ #asnDt an option: J%ach prisoner is assi!ned to #atch 1o'r or 1i2e other prisoners5 So i1 an$thin! happens, the other prisoners #o'ld alert the !'ards )eca'se the$ didnDt #ant to !et into tro')le themsel2es5K Mhile her descriptions o1 e?ec'tions are a)sol'tel$ horrendo's, nothin! is more dist'r)in! than her memories a)o't those indi2id'als #ho she sa# :ill their children in an e11ort to sta2e o11 h'n!er5 In one instance, she recalls a mother &oiling her '( year(old daughter5 In another 1it o1 desperation, a %oman illed her )*(year(old son+ chopped him up and too him to a &utcher to o&tain some corn in e,change5 Kim admits that these details are di11ic'lt to share, )'t she )ra2el$ proclaims, JI #ant the #orld to see these ima!es and to hear m$ testimon$5K In descri)in! the conditions in the isolated and 2olatile nation, she sa$s, JI am li2in! proo1 that there are no h'man ri!hts in North Korea5K In Septem)er, she #as in2ited to Mashin!ton, D585, #here she testi1ied )e1ore a con!ressional panel a)o't the conditions she 1aced5
Source: http:&&'''.the%laze.com&stories&(.**&*.&(*&nkorean3prison3camp3sur1i1or3star1in$3'omen3cooked3ate3their3o'n3 children&

4merican e1an$elist preacher Billy 6raham 1isits #orth KoreaDs dictator Kim Hl Sun$ in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on 4pril (0 *))(. !Photo: http:&&'''.holdme3Besus.com&(.*(&.G&noord3korea3en3de31er1ol$de3kerk.html"

Left photo: 4merican e1an$elist preacher Billy 6raham 1isits #orth KoreaDs dictator Kim Hl Sun$ in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on 4pril (0 *))(. 7i$ht photo: 7e1erend Sun Myun$ Moon and his 'ife Mrs. Moon meet 'ith #orth KoreaDs President Kim Hl Sun$ in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea in *))*. !Photo: http:&&'''.familyfed.or$&a%out&inde?.php?id<("

#he -amily o- .ictator Kim Il(sung %ere devout Christians ($ *oseph G'n <i=s'n &pril 2E, 2.,,
The parents of the Father of North Korea were well known to Korea’s Christian community in the 194 s! To eliminate religion an" impose his cult of personality# as or"ere" $y %talin# the &eternal presi"ent’ repu"iate" his parents an" turne" them into Communist heroes! 'owe(er# $efore an operation# he aske" a "octor to pray together to )o"!

Seo'l (&siaNe#s) – 4he parents o1 Kim Il=s'n!, !randparents o1 c'rrent North Korean Dictator Kim *on!=il, #ere de2o't 8hristians5 4he son, later :no#n as the Neternal presidentD o1 North Korea, had to rep'diate their reli!ion, p'shed )$ the So2iets, in order to eliminate all o1 the co'ntr$Ds reli!ions and replace them #ith his o#n c'lt o1 personalit$5 7o#e2er, this #as not 1'll$ accomplished since e2en Kim the 1irst, )e1ore a s'r!ical operation, pra$ed #ith his doctor5 Some North Korean e?iles that 1led so'th ha2e made these re2elations5 4he 1oremost o1 them is certainl$ Kim 7$'n=si:, #ho toda$ teaches at Gale 6ni2ersit$ a1ter spendin! /E $ears at P$on!$an!Ds most presti!io's colle!e5 &ccordin! to him, )oth Kim 7$on!=;i: and Kan! (an=so: (Kim Il=s'n!Ds 1ather and mother) #ere not onl$ 8hristian, )'t #ere also de2o't5 (an=so: is act'all$ the Korean name 1or Peter, #hich #as also !i2en to )a)$ !irls5 In North Korea, people are or!anised in +, classes5 4he top three are the most lo$al to the Kim 1amil$ and its c'lt o1 personalit$, #hich reO'ires #orship 1or the Neternal presidentD and his son, the Ndear leaderD, as the co'ntr$Ds onl$ deities5 &n$one practicin! another reli!ion or 1o'nd #ith reli!io's material is treated as JhostileK and )anned 1rom the co'ntr$Ds p')lic li1e5 %2en tho'!h Kim Il=s'n!Ds #as 2er$ close to his parents, he #as Jcon2incedK )$ Stalin to crac: do#n on their reli!ion5 Still, in his a'to)io!raph$, the president ac:no#led!ed that the$ attended ch'rch, al)eit Jto ta:e a rest (at a ch'rch)5K 4he$ )ecame #idel$ :no#n amon! North Korean 8hristians the ,-3.s0 ho#e2er, their li1e #as e2ent'all$ 'sed )$ the ne# re!ime 1or propa!anda p'rposes5 7is mother in 1act is cele)rated toda$ as Jthe mother o1 8hos'n #ho !a2e )irth to and raised the reat <eader o1 re2ol'tion, indomita)le 8hampion o1 the 8omm'nist 9e2ol'tion,K the Jchampion #ho cond'cted the 8hos'n #omenFs mo2ementK5 7is 1ather )ecame Ja !reat pioneer o1 Mar?ism, 1i!htin! his entire li1e a!ainst capitalism, sa2in! his homeland5K 7o#e2er, there is e2idence that the process o1 historical reconstr'ction did not entirel$ rid Kim Il=sin!Ds o1 his 8hristian past5 Some #itnesses sa$ that prior to an important s'r!er$, Kim pra$ed #ith a doctor5 Indeed, #hen the doctor o11ered to pra$ )e1ore the s'r!er$, Kim Il=S'n! responded, JPra$ 1or me5K 4he$ then pra$ed to!ether5 Since the insta'ration o1 the 8omm'nist re!ime in ,-+/, some /..,... 8hristians ha2e disappeared5 4he co'ntr$ has no more priests or n'ns, :illed perhaps d'rin! the #a2e o1 persec'tion5 &t present, a)o't ,..,... lan!'ish in la)o'r camps 2ictims o1 h'n!er, tort're and e2en death5 Aormer North Korean o11icials and prisoners ha2e said that in re=ed'cation camps and prisons 8hristians are sin!led o't 1or harsher treatment5 <i:e#ise, no one :no#s the 1ate o1 the co'ntr$Ds 8atholic )ishops5 &ccordin! to the Ponti1ical Gear)oo:, the capitalDs )ishop is still in his post5 P$on!$an! claims that the co'ntr$ en;o$s reli!io's 1reedom, !'aranteed )$ the constit'tion5 "11iciall$, there are ,.,... ('ddhists, ,.,... Protestants and 3,... 8atholics re!istered #ith reco!nised associations5 In P$on!$an!, there are three ch'rches, t#o Protestant and one 8atholic5 7o#e2er, so'rces ha2e told *siaNews that 8atholics are no more than 2.. #ho ha2e not attended an$ reli!io's ser2ice 1or decades5 So'rce: http:>>###5asiane#s5it>ne#s=en>4he=1amil$=o1=Dictator=Kim=Il=s'n!=#ere=de2o't=8hristians=2,3.-5html

P9"AI<%: Kim Il S'n!
Kim Il S'n! #as )orn to a 8hristian 1amil$ on &pril ,+, ,-,2 in So'th P$on!an pro2ince in toda$Fs North Korea, #hich then #as 'nder *apanese occ'pation5 Kim Il S'n!Fs maternal !rand1ather #as a pastor and )oth o1 his parents #ere acti2e mem)ers o1 their ch'rch5 Mhen Kim Il s'n! #as E $ears old, his 1amil$ mo2ed north to Manch'ria in Northeast 8hina5 &t ,H, he ;oined a 8hinese 8omm'nist or!anization and )e!an 1i!htin! the occ'p$in! *apanese arm$5 &t 2E, he escaped to the So2iet 6nion #hen the *apanese arm$ chased him and a 1e# h'ndred men o't o1 8hina5 4he So2iets trained and made him a captain in the 9ed &rm$5 Mhen the *apanese s'rrendered in ,-3+, Stalin sent Kim into the Korean penins'la and )'ilt him an arm$ #ith So2iet arms5 In ,-3E, Kim )ecame the Stalin=anointed Prime Minister o1 North Korea5 In ,-+., KimFs comm'nist arm$ in2aded the democratic So'th Korea and spent the ne?t $ear ad2ancin! and retreatin! t#ice a!ainst the 6S=led 6nited Nations 1orce5 Aor the s')seO'ent t#o $ears, his arm$ settled into a trench #ar more or less alon! the pre=#ar )order at the /Eth parallel5 Mhen the Korean Mar ended in ,-+/, Kim re)'ilt North Korea as a comm'nist state, 'sin! the So2iet 6nion as a model5 7o#e2er, he #as disappointed that Stalin hadnFt come to his aid #hen he #as retreatin! d'rin! the #ar, and cozied 'p to the 8hinese, #ho had sent its arm$ to resc'e him5 Mhen 8hina e?perimented #ith its disastro's 8'lt'ral 9e2ol'tion d'rin! the ,-I.s and ,-H.s, Kim cozied )ac: to the So2iets5 &nd #hen the So2iet 6nion later disinte!rated, he #as )ac: in the 8hinese corner5 Kim Il S'n! married t#ice5 7is 1irst #i1e died in ,-3H #hile !i2in! )irth, and he married his second #i1e in ,-I25 7e 1athered at least - children, incl'din! some #ho #ere ille!itimate, and died o1 a heart attac: in ,--3 at E2 $ears o1 a!e5 &1ter a period o1 mo'rnin! that lasted a mere / $ears, Kim *on! Il made his 1ather the President o1 North Korea P1or eternit$P5 Kim Il S'n!Fs )od$ is em)almed in a massi2e ma'sole'm in P$on!$an!, the capital o1 North Korea, the onl$ co'ntr$ in the #orld #hose head o1 state is a dead )od$5 So'rce: http:>>###5north:oreanchristians5com>:im=ils'n!5html

Koreans in P$on!$an!, North Korea J#orshipK Kim Il S'n!, North KoreaDs 8omm'nist leader and 1ormer 8hristian

Do#nto#n P$on!$an!

*'che 4o#er, a s$m)ol o1 8omm'nist propa!anda, in P$on!$an!, North Korea

4he &rch o1 4ri'mph in P$on!$an! #as )'ilt to commemorate the Korean resistance to *apan 1rom ,-2+ to ,-3+5 4he str'ct're is modelled a1ter the &rc de 4riomphe and #as deli)eratel$ )'ilt to )e sli!htl$ lar!er than the one in Paris5 (Photo: Alic:r)

4he &rch o1 4ri'mph in P$on!$an!, North Korea (Photo: Alic:r)

N"947 K"9%& & IN4%9N&4I"N&< DIP<"M&8G

North Korea’s dictator Kim Il Sung (center, smiling a!!ears "ith #ao $se%tung and Chou Enlai (seen standing to the right side o& Kim '

North Korea’s dictator Kim Il Sung (isits North )ietnam’s dictator *o Chi #inh in *anoi' Kim (isited North )ietnam at least t"ice in secret'

8ommunist #orth KoreaDs Prime Minister Kim Hl Sun$ !ri$ht" and 8ommunist 8hinaDs Premier 8hou :nlai 'a1e to cro'ds after arri1in$ in Pekin$ KBeiBin$L0 8ommunist 8hina on a state 1isit on Decem%er *(0 *)@,. !T Bettmann&8E7BHS"

Jice38haiman and Jice3Premier /en$ 9siao3pin$ !Den$ Niaopin$" !left" ha1e a cordial and friendly con1ersation 'ith #orth KoreaDs 6eneral Secretary and President Kim Hl Sun$ on Septem%er )0 *)A,. !T Bettmann&8E7BHS"

#orth KoreaDs 8ommunist despot Kim Hl Sun$ presents an a'ard to 8u%aDs communist despot Fidel 8astro !left" in *),G. !Photo: http:&&'''.akfa.or$&modules.php?name<Pa$e>p<photos=sun$"

8u%aDs 8ommunist re%el 8he 6ue1ara !left" $reets #orth KoreaDs despot Kim Hl Sun$ in *)G..

&r!entina=)orn 8')an 8omm'nist terrorist 8he 'e2ara meets #ith North Korean Secretar$= eneral o1 the Mor:erDs Part$ Kim Il=S'n! in P$on!$an!, North Korea in ,-I.5 4he #oman at the ri!ht o1 the pict're is the translator5 (Photo: 6ni2ersit$ o1 Miami <i)raries5 8')an 7erita!e 8ollection) http:>>merric:5li)rar$5miami5ed'>cdm3>itemQ2ie#er5phpR 8IS"9""4S>c')anphotos&8IS"P49S,+-&8IS"("TS,&9%8S,

Kim *on! Il !reets 4anzaniaDs leader *'li's K Nierere5

Cu$osla1iaDs 8ommissar 2osip Broz /ito stands ne?t to #orth KoreaDs 8ommissar Kim Hl Sun$.

#orth KoreaDs despot Kim Hl Sun$ $reets 7omaniaDs ruler #icolae 8eauUescu in #orth Korea in *)A*.

#orth KoreaDs dictator Kim 2on$ Hl shakes hands 'ith 7ussiaDs President Jladimir Putin durin$ an official 1isit in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on 2uly *)0 (.... !T :P4&8or%is"

7ussiaDs President Jladimir Putin shakes hands 'ith #orth KoreaDs dictator Kim 2on$ Hl upon Putin;s arri1al at an airport in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on 2uly *)0 (.... !T Htar3/4SS&:P4&8or%is"

#orth KoreaDs dictator Kim 2on$ Hl !left" and 7ussiaDs President Jladimir Putin !ri$ht" inspect the #orth Korean army at an airport in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on 2uly *)0 (.... !T H/473/4SS&PEEL&:P4&8or%is"

9'ssian President @ladimir P'tin, ri!ht, listens to North Korean leader Kim *on! Il, d'rin! their meetin! in Mosco#, 9'ssia on Sat'rda$, &'!'st 3, 2..,5 (&P Photo>I4&9=4&SS> Presidential Press Ser2ice) https:>>ai)o)5#ordpress5com>2.,,>,2>2+>:im=;on!=il=,-32=2.,,>

North KoreaDs dictator Kim *on! Il meets #ith 9'ssiaDs President Dmitr$ &natol$e2ich Med2ede2 ()orn Septem)er ,3, ,-I+) on &'!'st 23, 2.,,5 Kim *on! Il died in North Korea on Decem)er ,H, 2.,,5 (Photo: Presidential Press and In1ormation "11ice)

North KoreaDs dictator Kim *on! Il meets #ith 9'ssiaDs President Dmitr$ &natol$e2ich Med2ede2 on &'!'st 23, 2.,,5 (Photo: Presidential Press and In1ormation "11ice)

North KoreaDs dictator Kim *on! Il (le1t) !reets 8omm'nist 8hinaDs President 7' *intao in P$on!$an!5

<e1t: North KoreaDs despot Kim *on! Il !reets 9ed 8hinaDs 8ommissar *ian! Zemin5 9i!ht: North KoreaDs 8ommissar Kim *on! Il (le1t) and 8omm'nist 8hinaDs 8ommissar 7' *intao inspect the North Korean arm$ at the airport in P$on!$an!, North Korea5

*apanese Prime Minister *'nichiro Koiz'mi (le1t) sha:es hands #ith North KoreaDs JDear <eaderK Kim *on!=il prior to their s'mmit tal:s at the Pae:h#a#on state !'estho'se in P$on!$an!, North Korea on Septem)er ,H, 2..25 Koiz'mi #as in P$on!$an! 1or tal:s #ith North KoreaDs JDear <eaderK Kim *on!=il that *apan hopes #ill lead to a normalization o1 diplomatic ties and ease sec'rit$ tensions in the re!ion and the #orld5 *apan does not maintain diplomatic relations #ith North Korea $et5 4he North Korean !o2ernment 'nder Kim Il S'n! :idnapped n'mero's *apanese #omen and !irls in *apan and sm'!!led them to North Korea d'rin! the ,-H.s, mostl$ #ith the assistance o1 the *apanese 9ed &rm$, a *apanese terrorist or!anization5 (Photo: Pool> ett$ Ima!es)

Left: 7ussiaDs President Jladimir Putin meetin$ 'ith #orth KoreaDs PDear LeaderQ Kim 2on$ Hl in Mosco'0 7ussia on 4u$ust -0 (..*. !Photo: Presidential Press and Hnformation Effice" 7i$ht: From 7ussia With Lo1e: #orth KoreaDs PDear LeaderQ Kim 2on$ Hl kisses 7ussiaDs President Jladimir Putin. !http:&&media.photo%ucket.com&ima$e&putinV(.kimV(.Bon$V(.il&Hron8ross*),@&putin=kim.Bp$"

#orth Korea;s Forei$n Minister Pak 5i 8hun !left"0 'ho pre1iously ser1ed as #orth KoreaDs 4m%assador to 7ussia0 $reets 8ommunist 8u%a;s Forei$n Minister Bruno 7odri$uez in 9a1ana0 8u%a on May -0 (..). !4FP3Conhap"

8ommunist 8u%aDs President 7aul 8astro shakes hands 'ith #orth Korea;s Forei$n Minister Pak 5i 8hun in 9a1ana0 8u%a on May -0 (..). !7euters"

So'th KoreaDs President Kim Dae *'n! (ri!ht) !reets North KoreaDs dictator Kim *on! Il5 (Photo: http:>>###5!lo)alsec'rit$5or!>militar$>#orld>dpr:>:im=;on!=il5htm)

So'th KoreaDs President Kim Dae *'n! (le1t) cele)rates #ith North KoreaDs dictator Kim *on! Il5 (Photo: http:>>###5!lo)alsec'rit$5or!>militar$>#orld>dpr:>:im=;on!=il5htm)

South KoreaDs President 7oh Moo3hyun0 ri$ht0 and #orth KoreaDs dictator Kim 2on$ Hl0 left0 inspect honor $uard to$ether in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Ecto%er (0 (..A. !4P Photo"

South KoreaDs President 7oh Moo39yun !L" shares a toast 'ith #orth KoreaDs PDear LeaderQ Kim 2on$3Hl durin$ a luncheon hosted %y Kim for the t'o Korea Summit in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Ecto%er -0 (..A. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

PSunshine PolicyQ or appeasement?: South KoreaDs President Kim Dae 2un$ and other South Korean $o1ernment officials are seen cele%ratin$ 'ith #orth KoreaDs communist despot Kim 2on$ Hl. !Photo: http:&&'''.$lo%alsecurity.or$&military&'orld&dprk&kim3Bon$3il.htm"

South Korean President 7oh Moo39yun !8"0 his 'ife K'on Can$3Suk !L" and #orth KoreaDs PDear LeaderQ Kim 2on$3Hl toast durin$ a luncheon hosted %y Kim for the t'o Korea Summit in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Ecto%er -0 (..A. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

Park 6eun39ye !박근혜0 朴槿惠, second from left"0 the dau$hter of Park 8hun$3hee0 the former stron$man of South Korea0 appears 'ith #orth KoreaDs PDear LeaderQ Kim 2on$3Hl !center" in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea in May (..(. Park 6eun39ye 'as elected as the ne' President of South Korea on Decem%er *)0 (.*(R Madame Park 'as inau$urated as President of South Korea on Fe%ruary (@0 (.*+. !Photo: http:&&terrorpolitics.%lo$spot.com&"

President o1 So'th Korea 8h'n Doo 7#an !reets North Korean en2o$s 7o Dam (le1t) and 7an Se 7ae (center) in a mansion near Seo'l, So'th Korea in ,-E+5

So'th Korean 8I& chie1 <ee 7' 9a: secretl$ meets #ith North Korean JDear <eaderK Kim Il S'n! in Ma$ ,-H25

N"947 K"9%&N MI<I4&9G M&87IN%

Female soldiers and their antiaircraft artillery parade throu$h Kim Hl Sun$ SIuare in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea0 /uesday0 Sept. )0 (..,. #orth Korea marked the G.th anni1ersary of its foundin$ /uesday amid ne's reports that the communist country;s leader Kim 2on$ Hl did not attend a closely 'atched parade amid recent speculation that he may %e ill. !4P Photo&Kyodo #e's" http:&&'''.%oston.com&%i$picture&(..,&.)&recent=scenes=from=north=korea.html

/his file photo from Ecto%er (..@ sho's #orth Korean People;s 4rmy soldiers marchin$ at Kim Hl3Sun$ SIuare in Pyon$yan$ in a military parade to mark the G.th anni1ersary of the Workers; Party of Korea. !K8#4 1ia 4FP&6etty Hma$es"

Kim 2on$ Hl and his 8ommunist re$ime display their military 'eaponry in a military parade in Pyon$yan$ 'hile the people of #orth Korea continue to suffer from star1ation0 malnutrition0 and famine.

#orth KoreaDs dictator Kim Hl Sun$ !left" appears 'ith his son Kim 2on$ Hl in an undated photo. !8E7BHS SC6M4"

In this ima!e made 1rom K94 2ideo, and made a2aila)le 1or the 1irst time 4'esda$ &pril H, 2..-, sho#in! the la'nch o1 a missile in M's'dan=ni, North Korea on S'nda$, &pril +, 2..-5

& missile 1ired 1rom North Korea #o'ld ha2e to tra2el 3+.. miles )e1ore it reached the 65S5 state o1 7a#aii5 http:>>###5dail$mail5co5':>ne#s>#orldne#s>article=,,-/-3,>North=Korea=plan=missile=la'nch=7a#aii=Independence=Da$5html

<e1t: North KoreaDs 4aepodon!=2 missile, #hich has a ran!e o1 3... miles5 7a#aii is 3+.. miles a#a$ 1rom North Korea5 http:>>###5dail$mail5co5':>ne#s>#orldne#s>article=,,-/-3,>North=Korea=plan=missile=la'nch=7a#aii=Independence=Da$5html 9i!ht: & North Korean political propa!anda poster

North Korea L Korean 8entral Ne#s &!enc$ said to restore its pre2io'sl$ disa)led n'clear 1acilities a1ter the$ O'itted si?=part$ tal:s and sent the I&%& inspectors home sa$in! JMe #ill ta:e steps to restore disa)led n'clear 1acilities U and reprocess 'sed 1'el rods that came 1rom e?perimental n'clear reactors,K5 (So'rce: http:>>ne#ss'm5com>2..->.3>,3>north=:orea=to=restore=n'clear=1acilities>)

& 2..2 satellite ima!e o1 the Gon!)$on n'clear reactor in North Korea5
(Photo: http:>>###5san1ranciscosentinel5com>RpS,EE/E)

North KoreaDs JDear <eaderK Kim *on! Il inspect the command o1 the H th In1antr$ Di2ision o1 the North Korean PeopleDs &rm$5 http:>>###5dail$mail5co5':>ne#s>#orldne#s>article=,,-/-3,>North=Korea=plan=missile=la'nch=7a#aii=Independence=Da$5html

7epresentati1es clap their hands durin$ the *(th Supreme People;s 4ssem%ly of #orth Korea at the Mansudae assem%ly hall in Pyon$yan$0 communist3occupied Korea on 4pril )0 (..)0 in this picture released %y the #orth;s official ne's a$ency K8#4 on /hursday. Kim 2on$3il appeared at his first maBor e1ent since he 'as suspected of sufferin$ a stroke last year 'hen parliament re3elected him the country;s supreme military leader on /hursday.

North KoreaDs despot Kim *on!=il 2isits a militar$ )ase at an 'ndisclosed location in North Korea5 (9e'ters>K8N&) http:>>###5a)c5net5a'>ne#s>photos>2..E>,.>,2>2/EE+H35htm

& militar$ parade in P$on!$an!, North Korea (Photo: Militar$ Photos)

& militar$ parade in P$on!$an!, North Korea (Photo: Militar$ Photos)

& militar$ parade in P$on!$an!, North Korea (Photo: Militar$ Photos)

& militar$ parade in P$on!$an!, North Korea (Photo: Militar$ Photos)

& militar$ parade in P$on!$an!, North Korea

& militar$ parade in P$on!$an!, North Korea

& militar$ parade in P$on!$an!, North Korea

& militar$ parade in P$on!$an!, North Korea

/his file handout picture dated (@ 4pril *))( sho's a #orth Korean communist military unit of missile carriers durin$ a military parade in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

#orth Korea launched a series of missiles in May (..). !4FP: Korean 8entral #e's 4$ency0 file photo"

#orth Korean soldiers0 carryin$ a lar$e portrait of late #orth Korean tyrant Kim Hl Sun$0 march durin$ a $rand military parade to cele%rate the A@th foundin$ anni1ersary of the KP4 at the Kim Hl Sun$ sIuare in Pyon$yan$0 P#orthQ !8ommunist occupied" Korea on 4pril (@0 (..A. #orth Korean dictator Kim 2on$ Hl inspected the parade. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

/he #orth Korean communist army marches in a parade in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Ecto%er *.0 (..@. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

9i$h3le1el #orth Korean officials take part in a mass meetin$ cele%ratin$ the country;s G.th %irthday in this picture distri%uted %y #orth Korea;s official ne's a$ency K8#4 in Pyon$yan$ on Septem%er ,0 (..,. /he portrait in the hu$e #orth Korean national fla$ is the state founder and S6reat LeaderS Kim3Hl Sun$. /he ri$ht side letters read0 S8ele%rate G.th %irthdayS. #orth Korea;s foundation day falls on Septem%er )0 (..,. !7:5/:7S&K8#4" http:&&'''.%oston.com&%i$picture&(..,&.)&recent=scenes=from=north=korea.html

#orth Korean citizens and soldiers participate in cele%rations for the G.th anni1ersary of the foundin$ of #orth Korea in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Septem%er )0 (..,0 in this picture distri%uted %y #orth Korea;s official ne's a$ency K8#4 on Septem%er *.0 (..,. !7:5/:7S&K8#4" http:&&'''.%oston.com&%i$picture&(..,&.)&recent=scenes=from=north=korea.html

#orth Korean soldiers parade throu$h Kim Hl Sun$ SIuare in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Septem%er )0 (..,. !4P Photo&Kyodo #e's" http:&&'''.%oston.com&%i$picture&(..,&.)&recent=scenes=from=north=korea.html

4 8ommunist Party rally in do'nto'n Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea

International &tomic %ner!$ &!enc$ (I&%&) Director eneral Mohamed %l (aradei (<) tal:s #ith So'th Korean President 9oh Moo=7$'n d'rin! their meetin! in Seo'l, So'th Korea on *'l$ ,,, 2..H5 65N5 n'clear inspectors are e?pected to arri2e in North Korea on *'l$ ,3, 2..H to 2eri1$ a promised sh'tdo#n o1 the co'ntr$Ds n'clear reactor and so'rce o1 arms=!rade pl'toni'm, the head o1 the I&%& said5 (Photo: Pool> ett$ Ima!es)

ElBaradei: N. Korea has nuke weapons
P')lished: &pril 23, 2..- at ,.:2- &M

(%I*IN , &pril 23 (6PI) == North Korea has nuclear %eapons and the a&ility to deliver them, sa$s International &tomic %ner!$ &!enc$ chie1 Mohamed %l(aradei5 Spea:in! in (ei;in!, %l)aradei told reporters, “North Korea has nuclear %eapons+ %hich is a matter o- -act. I don/t li e to accept any country as a nuclear %eapon state &ut %e have to -ace reality+” 4he 4imes o1 <ondon reported Arida$5 0l1aradei said the addition o- North Korea as a 2-ully -ledged nuclear po%er2 ma es nine countries in the %orld that have the capa&ility o- launching a nuclear missile. #hey include the 3nited States+ 4ussia+ 1ritain+ France+ China+ India+ Pa istan and Israel. 7is comments came as 9'ssian Aorei!n Minister Ser!ei <a2ro2 #arned a1ter meetin! #ith North Korean Aorei!n Minister Pa: 6i=ch'n that there #o'ld )e no eas$ road to pers'adin! P$on!$an! to ret'rn to ne!otiations aimed at )ro:erin! a n'clear disarmament5 PMe do not 1oresee an$ )rea:thro'!hs,P <a2ro2 told 9'ssiaFs Inter1a? ne#s a!enc$5 P4his is a complicated process and #e m'st not !i2e in to emotions5P North Korea has said it #o'ld end all ne!otiations and #o'ld restart its n'clear #eapons pro!ram a1ter it #as cens'red )$ the 65N5 Sec'rit$ 8o'ncil 1or testin! a missile earlier this month5 So'rce: http:>>H35,2+53H5,/2>searchROScache:H&=m"Go)rT!*:###5'pi5com>4opQNe#s>2..->.3>23>%l(aradei=N=Korea=has= n':e=#eapons>6PI=HE,-,23.+E//EI>Vel)aradeiVnorthV:orea&cdS,&hlSen&ctScln:&!lS's

From left to ri$ht: 7ussia;s Forei$n Minister Ser$ey La1ro10 South Korea;s Forei$n Minister Cu Myun$3h'an0 5.S. Secretary of State 8ondoleezza 7ice0 8hina;s Forei$n Minister Can$ 2eichi0 #orth Korean Forei$n Minister Pak 5i 8hun and 2apan;s Forei$n Minister Masahiko Komura pose for a $roup photo %efore a meetin$ %et'een forei$n ministers of the si? party nations and 7ice on the sidelines of the 4ssociation of Southeast 4sian #ations0 4S:4#0 7e$ional Forum in Sin$apore Wednesday0 2uly (+0 (..,. !4P Photo&Ji1ek Prakash0 Pool"

9yundai 6roup chair'oman 9yun 2un$3eun0 third from left0 poses for the camera 'ith #orth KoreaDs PDear LeaderQ Kim 2on$3il0 fourth from left0 durin$ her 1isit to the #orth Korean port city of Wonsan0 Saturday. From left are 9yundai 4san e?ecuti1e Cuk 2ai3heeR Lim Don$3ok0 an official of the #orthDs 8ommunist PartyR 9yunR KimR 9yundai 4san 1ice chairman Kim Coon3kyuR and 9yunDs dau$hter 8hun$ 2i3hee. !Conhap"

North KoreaDs despot Kim *on!=il met #ith 7$'n *eon!=e'n, the 8hair#oman o1 the )oard o1 7$'ndai ro'p, in North Korea in &'!'st 2..-5 7$'n tra2eled to North KoreaDs capital to see: the release o1 the 7$'ndai #or:er as #ell as disc'ss ;oint pro;ects the )'siness !ro'p has p'rs'ed in the North that ha2e stalled amid sharpl$ hi!her inter=Korean tensions5 (K8N&, 2ia 9e'ters) http:>>###5n$times5com>2..->.E>,H>#orld>asia>,Hiht=h$'ndai#e)5html

North KoreaDs JDear <eaderK Kim *on!=Il (le1t) appears #ith 7$'ndai e?ec'ti2es in ,--E5

Left to ri$ht: 5.S. 4ssistant Secretary of State 8hristopher 9ill0 #orth Korean en1oy Kim Kye 6'an0 7ussian en1oy 4le?ei Boroda1kin0 7ed 8hinese Jice Forei$n Minister Wu Da'ei0 South Korean en1oy Kim Sook0 and 2apanese en1oy 4kitaka Saiki Boin hands durin$ Si? Party /alks on the #orth Korean nuclear issue in BeiBin$0 7ed 8hina on 2uly *.0 (..,. /he 5nited States0 #orth Korea0 South Korea0 7ed 8hina0 2apan and 7ussia participated in the talks. #orth Korea has declared it has produced appro?imately -. kilo$rams of enriched plutonium since *),G and has %e$un dismantlin$ its nuclear production facilities. !Photo %y 6re$ Baker&6etty Hma$es 4siaPac"

5.S. Deputy Secretary of State 2ames Stein%er$ !L" 'atches as 7ed 8hina;s Jice Forei$n Minister and chief 7ed 8hinese en1oy for #orth Korea Wu Da'ei !8" shakes hands 'ith 5.S. special en1oy for #orth Korea Stephen Bos'orth durin$ their meetin$ at the Ministry of Forei$n 4ffairs in BeiBin$0 7ed 8hina on 2une @0 (..). 2ames Stein%er$ and Stephen Bos'orth are mem%ers of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations. !7euters"

North Korea ! Special Interests:
8o'ncil on Aorei!n 9elations and Mall Street (Ne# Gor: 8it$)

5nited States Secretary of State Madeleine K. 4l%ri$ht toasts #orth KoreaDs dictator Kim 2on$ Hl at a dinner in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Ecto%er (-0 (.... Madeline 4l%ri$ht is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations0 a pri1ate forei$n affairs or$anization in #e' Cork 8ity. !7:5/:7S&8hien3min 8hun$&Pool"

Kim 2on$ Hl !ri$ht"0 the PDear LeaderQ of #orth Korea0 and 5.S. Secretary of State Madeleine 4l%ri$ht !left" 'alk to'ards a conference room at the Pae Kha 9a'on 6uest 9ouse in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Ecto%er (+0 (.... Madeline 4l%ri$ht is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations0 a pri1ate forei$n affairs or$anization in #e' Cork 8ity. !4P Photo&Da1id 6uttenfelder0 Pool"

Kim 2on$ Hl !left"0 the PDear LeaderQ of #orth Korea0 shakes hands 'ith 5.S. Secretary of State Madeleine 4l%ri$ht at the Pae Kha 9a'on 6uest 9ouse in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Ecto%er (+0 (.... !4P Photo&Da1id 6uttenfelder0 Pool"

Former 5.S. president Bill 8linton !seated L" and #orth KoreaDs despot Kim 2on$3il !seated 7" pose for a picture in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on 4u$ust -0 (..) in this photo released %y #orth Korean official ne's a$ency K8#4. /he man standin$ in the center is former White 9ouse 8hief of Staff 2ohn Podesta. 2ohn Podesta is a mem%er of the /rilateral 8ommission. The Clinton administration provided North Korea with two light-water nuclear reactors during the late 1990s. !7euters"

2o Myon$ 7ok0 first 1ice chairman of #orth Korea;s #ational Defense 8ommission0 1isits President Bill 8linton at the White 9ouse. !Photo: #e' Cork /imes" !Source: http:&&'''.mishalo1.com&northkorea=u.s.html"

Jice 8hairman of the #orth Korean Defense 8ommission 2o Myon$37ok !left" meets 'ith 4mericaDs President Bill 8linton at the White 9ouse on Ecto%er *.0 (.... 2o 'as the hi$hest3rankin$ #orth Korean official to 1isit Washin$ton0 D.8. since the %e$innin$ of the Korean War. !T 7on Sachs&8#P&Sy$ma&8or%is"

Former President 2immy 8arter recei1es a $ift from #orth KoreaDs dictator Kim Hl Sun$ durin$ his 1isit to #orth Korea in *))-.

/his photo$raph 'as pu%lished in the *))( 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations 4nnual 7eport.

Former President 2immy 8arter 1isits #orth KoreaDs tyrant Kim Hl Sun$ in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea in *))-. Kim Hl Sun$ in1aded South Korea in *)@. and killed thousands of 4mericans durin$ the Korean War. Kim Hl Sun$ li1ed from 4pril *@0 *)*( until his death on 2uly ,0 *))-.

Ne# Me?ico o2ernor (ill 9ichardson (<) meets #ith North Korean Airst Secretar$ M'n *on! 8hol at the !o2ernorDs mansion in Santa Ae, Ne# Me?ico, 65S5&5 on *an'ar$ ,., 2../5 4he North Koreans met #ith (ill 9ichardson a)o't P$on!$an!Ds n'clear threat since he has had e?tensi2e dealin!s #ith the comm'nist co'ntr$5 9ichardsonFs role is to listen to the North Koreans and report )ac: to 65S5 Secretar$ o1 State 8olin Po#ell5 (ill 9ichardson is a mem)er o1 the 8o'ncil on Aorei!n 9elations5

Ne# Me?ico o2ernor (ill 9ichardson (<) is !reeted )$ North Korean o11icial 'pon his arri2al at an airport in P$on!$an!, North Korea in this pict're released )$ North KoreaFs o11icial K8N& ne#s a!enc$ on Decem)er ,I, 2.,.5 (9e'ters)

8o'ncil on Aorei!n 9elations & So'th Korea

Former 5.S. Secretary of State 9enry Kissin$er !left" $reets South Korean President3elect Lee Myun$3%ak durin$ their meetin$ in Seoul0 7epu%lic of Korea on Fe%ruary (*0 (..,. 4 Korean independent counsel cleared Lee of financial fraud alle$ations that had clouded his rise to hi$h office on Fe%ruary (*0 (..,. Lee Myun$3%ak 'as inau$urated President of the 7epu%lic of Korea on Fe%ruary (@0 (..,. Lee Myun$3%ak 'as the Mayor of Seoul0 South Korea from (..( to (..G and a former 8hairman of 9yundai 8onstruction. Lee Myun$3%ak0 a de1out 8hristian 'ho $re' up in po1erty0 'as %orn in Esaka0 2apan on Decem%er *)0 *)-*R his parents 'ere li1in$ in 2apan as Korean mi$rant 'orkers !P$uest 'orkersQ". Lee Myun$3%akDs presumed colonial 2apanese name is P4kihiro /sukiyamaQ !月山 明博". !4P Photo3Pool"

South Korea;s President Lee Myun$3%ak !8" is inter1ie'ed %y 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations co3chairman 7o%ert 7u%in !7"0 a former 8hairman of 6oldman Sachs %ankin$ firm and former 5.S. Secretary of the /reasury0 at the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations in #e' Cork 8ity on Septem%er (*0 (..). !7euters"

Korean President Lee Myun$3%ak speaks at the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations in #e' Cork 8ity on Septem%er (*0 (..). !4P Photo"

Secretary of Defense 7o%ert 6ates !left" 1isits South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak at the Blair 9ouse in Washin$ton0 D.8. on 4pril *,0 (..,. !7euters"

5.S. Secretary of State 8ondoleezza 7ice shakes hand 'ith South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3Bak %efore their meetin$ at Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on Saturday0 2une (,0 (..,. !4ssociated Press 1ia 5.S. Department of State"

5.S. President Barack E%ama !7" looks as South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak speaks to 5.S. 7epresentati1e to the 5nited #ations Susan :. 7ice durin$ a meetin$ at the Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on #o1em%er *)0 (..). Susan :. 7ice is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations and a 7hodes Scholar. !7euters"

5.S. Secretary of Defense 7o%ert M. 6ates !left"0 5.S. Secretary of State 9illary 8linton !( nd left"0 President of South Korea Lee Myun$3%ak !center"0 Forei$n Minister of South Korea Cu Myun$3h'an !( nd ri$ht"0 and Defense Minister of South Korea Kim /ae3 youn$ 'alk to a dinner in the presidential house in Seoul0 South Korea on 2uly (*0 (.*.. !Photo: 5.S. Department of Defense"

South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak !L" $reets former 5.S. Secretary of State Madeleine 4l%ri$ht at the presidential Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on 4u$ust (+0 (..). 4l%ri$ht 'as in Seoul to attend the funeral of the late former South Korean President Kim Dae3Bun$. Madeleine 4l%ri$ht is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations. !7euters"

South Korean President Lee Myun$3%ak !7" talks 'ith 5.S. Deputy Secretary of State 2ames Stein%er$ !L" at the presidential Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on 2une -0 (..). 2ames Stein%er$ is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations and a re$ular Bilder%er$ Meetin$s participant. !7euters"

President Bill 8linton 1isits South KoreaDs President Kim Coun$ Sam !김영삼0 金泳三" in Seoul0 South Korea in 4pril *))G. Kim Coun$ Sam 'as the President of South Korea from *))+ to *)),. Kim Coun$ SamDs colonial 2apanese name is PKosuke KanemuraQ !金村康右". !T Wally Mc#amee&8E7BHS"

Secretary of Defense 7o%ert 6ates !left" shakes hands 'ith South Korean President 7oh Moo39yun durin$ their meetin$ at the presidential house in Seoul on #o1em%er A0 (..A. !6etty ima$es"

Paul Wolfo'itz0 President of the World Bank0 meets 'ith 7oh Moo3hyun0 the President of South Korea0 in Seoul0 South Korea on May +.0 (..G. !Photo: Kim 2ae 9oon&World Bank"

Secretary of State 8ondoleezza 7ice meets 'ith South Korean President 7oh Moo3hyun at the presidential house in Seoul0 South Korea on March (.0 (..@. !Photo: 5.S. Department of State"

/reasury Secretary 9enry Paulson !left" shakes hands 'ith South Korean President 7oh Moo39yun durin$ a meetin$ in Seoul0 South Korea on March A0 (..A. !Photo %y Son$ Kyun$3Suk3Pool&6etty Hma$es"

South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3Bak !7" shakes hands 'ith former 5.S. Secretary of State 8olin Po'ell !L" durin$ their meetin$ at the presidential Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on #o1em%er A0 (..,. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

5.S. Secretary of State 2ohn Foster Dulles !left" entertains South KoreaDs President Syn$man 7hee at a dinner in Washin$ton0 D.8.0 5.S.4. on 2uly (,0 *)@-. /hey are sho'n chattin$ on the terrace of the 4nderson 9ouse used %y the State Department for official functions. !Bettmann&8E7BHS"

5.S. Jice President 7ichard #i?on !ri$ht" $reets Dr. Syn$man 7hee0 President of the 7epu%lic of Korea0 in the 'ar3torn capital of Seoul0 South Korea on #o1em%er *,0 *)@+. #i?on presented a letter from 5.S. President D'i$ht :isenho'er to Dr. 7hee. !Bettmann&8E7BHS"

President D'i$ht D. :isenho'er shakes hands 'ith South KoreaDs President Syn$man 7hee at the White 9ouse in Washin$ton0 D.8. on 2uly (G0 *)@-. !Bettmann&8E7BHS"

Secretary of State 2ohn Foster Dulles !left" chats 'ith South Korean President Syn$man 7hee !center" at the presidential mansion in Seoul0 South Korea on March (*0 *)@G. 4t ri$ht is Walter S. 7o%ertson0 4ssistant Secretary of State for Far :astern 4ffairs. 2on Foster Dulles and Walter S. 7o%ertson 'ere mem%ers of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations. !Bettmann&8E7BHS"

4rmy 6en. Ma?'ell /aylor $oes for a test run in an 4merican Beep as South Korean President Syn$man 7hee $oes for a ride. /he 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations undermined 6eneral Dou$las Mc4rthur and Syn$man 7heeDs plan to unify Korea and eliminate 8ommunism on the Korean peninsula.

8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations 8hairman Peter 6. Peterson listens to South KoreaDs President 7oh /ae3'oo at the 9arold Pratt 9ouse on Ecto%er *)0 *),,. !Photo: 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations 4nnual 7eport"

!Photo: 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations 4nnual 7eport"

!Photo: 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations 4nnual 7eport"

Kenneth W. Dam0 4lan 7om%er$0 Kon$ Sa Duk0 Park Sil0 and 9an Soon 2oo meet to$ether at the 9arold Pratt 9ouse in *),A. !8F7 4nnual 7eport"

9o)ert all'cci (le1t), 1ormer chie1 ne!otiator 1or the ,--3 North Korea N'clear &!reement, and o2ernor o1 Ne# Me?ico (ill 9ichardson (ri!ht) are inter2ie#ed d'rin! tapin! o1 NMeet the PressD at the N(8 st'dio in Mashin!ton, D585 on *'l$ -, 2..I5 9ichardson and all'cci spo:e a)o't the recent missile tests o1 North Korea5 9o)ert all'cci and (ill 9ichardson are mem)ers o1 the 8o'ncil on Aorei!n 9elations5

President (ill 8linton (le1t) !reets Secretar$ o1 %ner!$ (ill 9ichardson5 (ill 8linton and (ill 9ichardson are mem)ers o1 the 8o'ncil on Aorei!n 9elations5 (So'rce: +etween ,orl"s- The .aking of *n *merican /ife )$ (ill 9ichardson)

Left photo: Dr. William 2. Perry !8o3Director0 PDP and former 5.S. Secretary of Defense" meets 'ith Son$ Min3soon0 the Forei$n Minister of the 7epu%lic of Korea0 in Seoul0 7epu%lic of Korea in Fe%ruary (..A. Dr. William 2. Perry is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations. !Photo %y De%orah 6ordon" http:&&%elfercenter.ks$.har1ard.edu&pu%lication&*A(A*&pdp=principals=lead=us=dele$ation=to=korea.html 7i$ht photo: Left to ri$ht: Park 6eun39ye !#ational 4ssem%ly Mem%er0 former 6rand #ational Party leader0 and dau$hter of Park 8hun$3hee"0 Dr. William 2. Perry !8o3Director0 PDP and former 5.S. Secretary of Defense"0 and 6eneral 2ohn /ilelli0 2r. !former 7EK35S 8om%ined Forces 8ommand&5.S. Forces Korea" meet in Seoul0 South Korea in Fe%ruary (..A. !Photo %y De%orah 6ordon" http:&&%elfercenter.ks$.har1ard.edu&pu%lication&*A(A*&pdp=principals=lead=us=dele$ation=to=korea.html

5.S. special en1oy for #orth Korea Stephen Bos'orth0 left0 is $reeted %y former South Korean President Kim Dae3Bun$ durin$ their meetin$ at the KimDs house in Seoul0 South Korea on Saturday0 May )0 (..). Stephen Bos'orth is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations. !4P Photo" http:&&'''.army%ase.us&(..)&.@&us3south3korea3stand3%y3si?3party3north3korean3talks&

2essica :inhorn !left"0 Dean of the Paul 9. #itze School of 4d1anced Hnternational Studies !S4HS" of 2ohns 9opkins 5ni1ersity0 $reets former South Korean President and #o%el Peace Prize Laureate Kim Dae 2un$ !center" as Don E%erdorfer !ri$ht"0 Director of the 5.S.3Korea Hnstitute at S4HS0 looks on upon arri1in$ for a discussion 'ith Korea e?perts at the school in Washin$ton0 D.8. on Septem%er (.0 (..A. 2essica :inhorn and Don E%erdorfer are mem%ers of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations. !7euters"

Former President of South Korea and #o%el Prize 'inner Kim Dae32un$0 left0 meets 'ith former President Bill 8linton durin$ the 8linton 6lo%al Hnitiati1e 4nnual Meetin$ in #e' Cork 8ity on Septem%er (G0 (..A. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

7a%%i 4rthur Schneier meets 'ith South Korean President Lee Myun$3%ak in Seoul0 Korea on May +0 (.*(. 4lso present is Korean First Lady Kim Coon3ok and 7a%%i SchneierDs 'ife :lisa%eth Schneier. 7a%%i 4rthur Schneier is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations0 a pri1ate forei$n affairs or$anization in #e' Cork 8ity. Both Hsrael and South Korea $ained their independence in *)-,0 and diplomatic relations %et'een the t'o countries 'ere esta%lished in *)G(. !Photo: http:&&'''.1osizneias.com&*.@)-*&(.*(&.@&.,&ne'3york3korean3president3and3local3ra%%i3cele%rate3fifty3years3of3 diplomacy3%et'een3israel3and3korea&"

Park 6eun39ye !ri$ht"0 President of South Korea0 talks 'ith /homas Donilon0 the 5.S. #ational Security 4d1isor0 durin$ their meetin$ at the Blue 9ouse presidential office in Seoul0 South Korea on Fe%ruary (G0 (.*+. Park 6eun39ye is the dau$hter of former South Korean President 6eneral Park 8hun$3hee. Park en$a$ed in a flurry of diplomacy on her second day in office0 holdin$ meetin$s 'ith se1eral 'orld leaders. !Photo: 8hun$ Sun$32un&6etty Hma$es"

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5.S. President Barack E%ama shares a lau$h 'ith South Korean President Lee Myun$3Bak durin$ a %ilateral meetin$ at the Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on #o1em%er *)0 (..). !7euters"

5.S. Secretary of State 9illary 7odham 8linton !L" shakes hands 'ith South Korean President Lee Myun$3Bak !7" durin$ their meetin$ at the Blair 9ouse in Washin$ton0 D.8.0 5.S.4. on 2une *@0 (..). !Photo %y 4le? Won$&6etty Hma$es #orth 4merica"

8zech 7epu%lic President Jacla1 Klaus and :uropean 8ommission President 2ose Manuel Barroso !a Bilder%er$ Meetin$s participant" shake hands 'ith South Korean President Lee Myun$3%ak %efore their meetin$ at the Presidential 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on May (+0 (..). South Korea and the :uropean 5nion !:5" held a meetin$ in Seoul to discuss unresol1ed issues of a %ilateral free trade a$reement !F/4". !Photo %y 8hun$ Sun$32un&6etty Hma$es"

Britain;s Prime Minister /ony Blair !left" $reets South KoreaDs President 7oh Moo3hyun as he arri1es at Do'nin$ Street in London on Decem%er (0 (..-. !Scott Bar%our&6etty Hma$es"

South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak !L" is 'elcomed %y British Prime Minister 6ordon Bro'n at Do'nin$ Street in London on March +*0 (..). Leaders from the 'orld;s leadin$ industrialized nations met at London;s :?8el 8enter for the (..) 6(. Summit on 4pril (0 (..). !Photo %y 4ndy 7ain 3 Pool&6etty Hma$es"

South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak shakes hands 'ith 8anadaDs Prime Minister Stephen 9arper at the 63(. Summit in Pitts%ur$h0 Pennsyl1ania0 5.S.4. on Septem%er (@0 (..). !7euters"

South Korean President Kim Dae 2un$ !L" meets 'ith :mperor 4kihito !7" at the Hmperial Palace in /okyo0 2apan on 2uly (0 (..(. !Photo: Koichi Kamoshida&6etty Hma$es"

South KoreaDs President 7oh Moo3hyun !L" is $reeted %y 2apanese :mperor 4kihito durin$ 'elcomin$ ceremonies for 7oh at the 4kasaka Palace state $uesthouse in /okyo0 2apan on 2une G0 (..+. !6etty Hma$es"

President of South Korea 7oh Moo39yun !L" and Prime Minister of 2apan 2unichiro Koizumi !7" attend a Boint press conference held after their %ilateral summit in H%usuki0 2apan on Decem%er *A0 (..-. Koizumi met 7oh as /okyo faced mountin$ pressure from the pu%lic to impose sanctions on #orth Korea for failin$ to fully account for 2apanese citizens it kidnapped decades a$o.

Left photo: 8ommunist 8hinaDs Premier Wen 2ia%ao !left"0 7epu%lic of Korea !7EK" President 7oh Moo3hyun !center"0 and Prime Minister of 2apan 2unichiro Koizumi meet prior to their trilateral conference in Bali0 Hndonesia on Ecto%er A0 (..+. /he three leaders met on the sidelines of the 4S:4# Summit. Kne'sphoto.com.cnL http:&&'''.chinadaily.com.cn&en&doc&(..+3*.&.,&content=(G)A,+.htm 7i$ht photo: 7e1erend Sun Myun$ Moon !left" and his 'ife Mrs. Moon meet 'ith So1iet President Mikhail 6or%ache1 !center" in *)).. !Photo: http:&&'''.familyfed.or$&a%out&inde?.php?id<("

South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak !7"0 a mem%er of South KoreaDs 6rand #ational Party0 shares a toast 'ith 2apan;s Prime Minister /aro 4so0 a mem%er of the Li%eral Democratic Party0 durin$ their dinner at the presidential house in Seoul0 South Korea on 2anuary **0 (..). Lee Myun$3%ak is a Pres%yterian 'hile /aro 4so is a 7oman 8atholic. !7euters"

South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak !L" $reets 2apanDs Prime Minister /aro 4so at the start of their talks 'ith %oth countries; dele$ates at the premier;s official residence in /okyo0 2apan on 2une (,0 (..). Lee 'as on a day 1isit to 2apan to discuss key issues such as :ast 4sian security and #orth Korea. !Photo %y Pool&6etty Hma$es 4siaPac"

9ed 8hinaDs President *ian! Zemin (<) and So'th KoreaDs President Kim Go'n! Sam re2ie# the PeopleDs <i)eration &rm$ d'rin! arri2al ceremon$ at the reat 7all o1 the People in (ei;in! on March 2E, ,--35 (Aorrest &nderson>4ime & <i1e Pict'res> ett$ Ima!es)

8omm'nist 8hinaDs President 7' *intao (8) accompanies So'th KoreaDs President <ee M$'n!=)a: to 2ie# an honor !'ard d'rin! a #elcomin! ceremon$ in 1ront o1 4iananmen SO'are in (ei;in!, 8omm'nist 8hina on Ma$ 2H, 2..E5 (Photo )$ 'an! Ni'> ett$ Ima!es &siaPac)

8omm'nist 8hinaDs Aorei!n Minister Wian Wichen (1ront, ro#, third 1rom le1t), 8omm'nist 8hinaDs President *ian! Zemin (1ront ro#, 1o'rth 1rom le1t), and So'th KoreaDs President Kim Go'n! Sam (1ront ro#, 1i1th 1rom le1t) #atch their aides si!n an a!reement in (ei;in!, 8omm'nist 8hina on March 2-, ,--35 (Photo )$ Aorrest &nderson>>4ime <i1e Pict'res> ett$ Ima!es)

8omm'nist 8hinaDs President *ian! Zemin (le1t) toasts So'th KoreaDs President Kim Go'n! Sam in (ei;in! on March 2-, ,--35 So'th Korea esta)lished diplomatic relations #ith 8omm'nist 8hina and se2ered ties #ith the 9ep')lic o1 8hina (4ai#an) on &'!'st 23, ,--25 So'th Korea maintained diplomatic relations #ith the 9ep')lic o1 8hina (4ai#an) d'rin! the Korean Mar, @ietnam Mar, and the 1irst Persian 'l1 Mar5 (Photo )$ Aorrest &nderson>>4ime <i1e Pict'res> ett$ Ima!es)

South Korean President 7oh Moo3hyun !L" meets 8ommunist 8hinaDs President 9u 2intao at the 6reat 9all of the People in BeiBin$0 8ommunist 8hina on Ecto%er *+0 (..G. 7oh 'as in BeiBin$ for a day of talks 'ith 8ommunist 8hina;s leaders concernin$ #orth Korea;s recent nuclear test. !Photo: Pool&6etty Hma$es"

8ommunist 8hinaDs President 9u 2intao !7" toasts South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak after a meetin$ at the 6reat 9all of the People in BeiBin$0 8ommunist 8hina on May (A0 (..,. /he South Korean President arri1ed in the 8hinese capital on /uesday for a four3day state 1isit. !Pool&6etty Hma$es"

8ommunist 8hinaDs President 9u 2intao !7" meets 'ith Park 6eun3hye0 en1oy of President3elect Lee Myun$3%ak of the 7epu%lic of Korea !7EK"0 in BeiBin$0 8ommunist 8hina on 2anuary *A0 (..,. Park 6eun3hye is the dau$hter of 6eneral Park 8hun$3hee. !Ninhua Photo"

:uropean 8ommission President 2ose Manuel Barroso !left" 'elcomes South Korea;s special en1oy Park 6eun3hye0 the dau$hter of South KoreaDs former stron$man 6eneral Park 8hun$3hee0 %efore their meetin$ at the :uropean 5nion !:5" 8ommission headIuarters in Brussels0 Bel$ium on Septem%er +0 (..). 2ose Manuel Barroso has attended the Bilder%er$ Meetin$s in the past. !7euters"

e'n 7$e Par: (le1t), chairperson o1 the rand National Part$ ( NP) o1 So'th Korea, !reets Prime Minister o1 *apan *'nichiro Koiz'mi at his o11icial residence in 4o:$o, *apan on March E, 2..I5 (%2erett Kenned$ (ro#n>&AP> ett$ Ima!es)

W'een %liza)eth II o1 reat (ritain deli2ers a speech )eside her h's)and Prince Philip, D':e o1 %din)'r!h, and President o1 So'th Korea Par: e'n=7$e (le1t) d'rin! a state )anO'et at ('c:in!ham Palace in <ondon on No2em)er +, 2.,/5 (Photo )$ Neil 7all = MP& Pool> ett$ Ima!es)

B5S9 F4MHLC > SE5/9 KE7:4

Former 5.S. President 6eor$e 9.W. Bush !L" talks 'ith South KoreaDs President 7oh Moo39yun !노무현0 盧武鉉" at the presidential Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on 4pril *@0 (..+. Former President of outh Korea !oh "oo-#$un committed %suicide& at his home near 'usan (Pusan)* outh Korea on "a$ +,* +009 after his famil$ was accused of accepting -ri-es. !Pool&6etty Hma$es"

President 6eor$e W. Bush !7" shakes hands 'ith South Korean President 7oh Moo3hyun in the E1al Effice of the White 9ouse on 2une *.0 (..@. Bush and 7oh discussed the #orth Korean nuclear 'eapons pro$ram. !5PH Photo& Kamenko PaBic"

South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3Bak !center ri$ht" 'alks 'ith former 5.S. President 6eor$e 9.W. Bush !center left" at the Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on March *(0 (..,. !7euters"

President 6eor$e W. Bush !left" and South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak !이명박0 李明博" ride in a $olf cart in 8amp Da1id0 Maryland0 5.S.4. on 4pril *,0 (..,. !4P Photo&Manuel Balce 8eneta"

5.S. President 6eor$e W. Bush !L" shakes hands 'ith South Korean President Kim Dae 2un$ !김대중0 金大中"0 a de1out 7oman 8atholic0 durin$ a summit talk at the presidential palace in Seoul0 South Korea on Fe%ruary (.0 (..(. Kim Dae 2un$ 'as a'arded the #o%el Peace Prize in (...R Kim Dae 2un$Ds colonial 2apanese name 'as DaichW /oyota !豊田大中". !Pool Photo&6etty Hma$es"

South KoreaDs President 7oh /ae Woo !노태우, 盧泰愚" and 4merican President 6eor$e 9.W. Bush reach across the ta%le to shake hands at a meetin$ in Seoul0 South Korea in 2anuary *))(. 7oh /ae Woo 'as the President of South Korea from *),, to *))+R South Korea esta%lished diplomatic relations 'ith 8ommunist 8hina and se1ered ties 'ith the 7epu%lic of 8hina !/ai'an" on 4u$ust (-0 *))(. Former South Korean presidents 6en. 7oh /ae Woo and 6en. 8hun Doo 9'an 'ere con1icted of treason and %ri%ery in 4u$ust *))G %ut 'ere pardoned %y South KoreaDs President Kim Coun$ Sam in Decem%er *))A. !Wally Mc#amee&8E7BHS"

Neil ('sh (third 1rom le1t), the son o1 1ormer President eor!e 75M5 ('sh and )rother o1 1ormer President eor!e M5 ('sh, appears #ith 9e2erend S'n M$'n! Moon (second 1rom ri!ht) in Para!'a$ in 2..+5 (Photo: http:>>###5democratic'nder!ro'nd5com>disc'ss>d')oard5phpRazS2ie#Qall&addressS/E-?/,E/E,3)

<e1t photo: eor!e 75M5 ('sh (second 1rom le1t) and his (ar)ara ('sh (le1t) appear #ith 9e2erend S'n M$'n! Moon (second 1rom ri!ht)5 9i!ht photo: 9e2erend *err$ Aal#ell (le1t), a lon!time ('sh 1amil$ s'pporter, !reets 9e2erend S'n M$'n! Moon5 9e2erend S'n M$'n! Moon died in So'th Korea on Septem)er /, 2.,25

President 7ichard #i?on !left" meets 'ith 7e1erend Sun Myun$ Moon. 7ichard #i?on appointed 6eor$e 9.W. Bush as the 5.S. 7epresentati1e to the 5nited #ations in *)A*. !Photo: Democratic 5nder$round"

Some ((0... couples of 7e1erend Sun Myun$ Moon;s 5nification 8hurch are 'ed en masse at the Madison SIuare 6arden in #e' Cork 8ity on 2uly *0 *),( as 7e1erend Moon !ri$ht"0 his 'ife !left"0 and other church officials are on raised platform in %ack$round. !T Bettmann&8E7BHS"

Left: Dr. Syn$man 7hee !7i Seun$man0 이승만0 李承晩0 4pril (G0 *,A@X2uly *)0 *)G@"0 the President of South Korea from *)-, to *)G.0 appears on the front co1er of the Ecto%er *G0 *)@. of Time ma$azine. Dr. 7hee0 'ho 'as a 8hristian0 earned a Bachelor of 4rts de$ree from 6eor$e Washin$ton 5ni1ersity0 a Master of 4rts de$ree from 9ar1ard 5ni1ersity0 and a Ph.D. from Princeton 5ni1ersity in *)*.. 7i$ht: South KoreaDs President 6en. 8hun Doo 9'an !전두환, 全斗煥" appears on the front co1er of the 2une ()0 *),A edition of Time ma$azine. 8hun Doo 9'an 'as the President of South Korea from Septem%er *0 *),. to Fe%ruary (-0 *),,. 8hun Doo 9'an 'as the Director of the Korean 8entral Hntelli$ence 4$ency !K8H4" in *),.0 and assumed the presidency in a military coup dDetat.

Left: Kim Hl Sun$ !left"0 the dictator of #orth Korea0 appears on the front co1er of the 2une *+0 *))- of Time ma$azine. Kim Hl Sun$ died on 2uly ,0 *))-. Kim Hl Sun$ !김일성0 金日成R *@ 4pril *)*(X, 2uly *))-" 'as the Premier of #orth Korea from *)-, to *)A(0 PPresidentQ of #orth Korea from *)A( to *))-0 and 6eneral Secretary of the WorkersD Party of Korea from *)-) to *))-. 7i$ht: Kim 2on$ Hl !김정일, 金正日0 %orn *G Fe%ruary *)-*"0 the dictator of #orth Korea and son of Kim Hl Sun$0 appears on the front co1er of the 2anuary *+0 (..+ of Time ma$azine.

Modern Korea: Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace?

56)7: 8ear o- the Sna e
/he (.*+ :conomic :m%ar$o on #orth Korea !March34pril (.*+"

#orth KoreaDs 8ommissar Kim 2on$35n !center" 1isits a lon$3ran$e artillery su%3unit of the Korean People;s 4rmy 5nit G-*0 'hose mission is to strike Baen$nyeon$ Hsland of South Korea in the 'estern sector of the front line on March **0 (.*+ in this picture released %y the #orth Korea;s official K8#4 ne's a$ency in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on March *(0 (.*+. South Korea and 4merican forces are conductin$ lar$e3scale military drills0 'hile #orth Korea is also $earin$ up for a massi1e military e?ercise. #orth Korea has accused 4merica of usin$ the military drills in South Korea as a launch pad for a nuclear 'ar and has said to scrap the Korean War armistice. !Photo: 7:5/:7S&K8#4"

“Political po%er gro%s out o- the &arrel o- a gun.” 9 :ao #se(tung

Kim 2on$35n !center0 holdin$ a %inocular"0 the communist ruler of #orth Korea0 'atches a fli$ht e?ercise and a paratroopin$ drill of the 4ir and 4nti34ir Force and Lar$e 8om%ined 5nit G+. of the Korean People;s 4rmy in an undated photo. The .nited Nations* on -ehalf of /merica and Communist China* has proposed to impose additional sanctions on North Korea in earl$ "arch +01, following North Korea0s nuclear weapons tests that was conducted on Fe-ruar$ 1+* +01,. The North Korean communist regime has responded to the proposed sanctions -$ threatening to terminate the 191, armistice effectivel$ on "arch 11* +01, and engage in preemptive nuclear warfare. !Photo: 7:5/:7S&K8#4"

Former professional %asket%all player !and 8hica$o Bulls re%ounder" Dennis 7odman !front ri$ht" applauds as he sits ne?t to #orth KoreaDs 8ommissar Kim 2on$35n !front left" at a %asket%all $ame in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea on Fe%ruary (,0 (.*+. !Photo: 4FP&JH8: Media&2ason MoBica"

/his undated picture released on March *(0 (.*+ sho's #orth Korean leader Kim 2on$ 5n inspectin$ a lon$3ran$e artillery su%3 unit of Korean People;s 4rmy 5nit G-* at an undisclosed place in #orth Korea. !K#S&4FP&Hma$es"

#orth KoreaDs 8ommissar Kim 2on$ 5n !'earin$ a dark coat" meets 'ith his army officers inside an o%ser1ation post in an undated photo.

#orth KoreaDs 8ommissar Kim 2on$ 5n !'earin$ a dark coat" o%ser1es military trainin$ e?ercises 'ith a %inocular at an o%ser1ation post in an undated photo.

#orth Korean students attend a political rally supposedly held to sho' their P'illin$nessQ to enlist in the army on March *-0 (.*+. !K8#4 Photo"

In this 1ile photo released Monda$, Ae)r'ar$ 2+, 2.,/, )$ the Korean 8entral Ne#s &!enc$ (K8N&) and distri)'ted 4'esda$, Ae)r'ar$ 2I )$ the Korea Ne#s Ser2ice, a Korean PeopleFs &rm$ artiller$ 'nit participate in a li2e 1ire drill #hile North Korean leader Kim *on! 6n, 'nseen, inspects the 'nit at an 'ndisclosed location, in North Korea5 <ate leader Kim *on! Il ele2ated the militar$Fs role d'rin! his ,H=$ear r'le, )oostin! troop le2els to an estimated ,52 million soldiers, accordin! to the So'th Korean !o2ernment5 4he militar$Fs ne# s'preme commander, Kim *on! 6n, !a2e the Korean PeopleFs &rm$ a sharpened 1oc's this $ear )$ instr'ctin! troops to )'ild a Jn'clear arms 1orce5K (&P Photo>K8N& 2ia KNS, Aile)

&n 'ndated photo o1 a militar$ trainin! e?ercise cond'cted )$ the North Korean arm$ in 2.,/

&n 'ndated photo o1 a militar$ trainin! e?ercise cond'cted )$ the North Korean arm$ in 2.,/

&n 'ndated photo o1 a militar$ trainin! e?ercise cond'cted )$ the North Korean arm$ in 2.,/

&n 'ndated photo o1 a militar$ trainin! e?ercise cond'cted )$ the North Korean arm$ in 2.,/

#orth Korean soldiers patrol alon$ the %ank of the Calu 7i1er in SinuiBu0 #orth Korea across from Dandon$0 8ommunist 8hina on 4pril -0 (.*+.

#orth Korean soldiers 'ith military do$s take part in drills in an unkno'n location0 on 4pril G0 (.*+. !K8#4&handout&7:5/:7S"

#orth Korean soldiers attend military drills in an unkno'n location0 on March (.0 (.*+. !K8#4&handout&7:5/:7S"

#orth Korean soldiers 'ith 'eapons attend military trainin$ in an undisclosed location in this picture released %y the #orth;s official K8#4 ne's a$ency in Pyon$yan$0 on March **0 (.*+.

Kim 2on$ 5n 1isits the Wolnae Hslet Defence Detachment in #orth Korea;s 'estern sector near the disputed maritime frontier 'ith South Korea. !K#S&4FP&Hma$es"

Kim 2on$ 5n !center" carries a pistol in his ri$ht hand as he inspects the second %attalion under the Korean People;s 4rmy 5nit *)A+0 honored 'ith the title of SE 2un$ 9up3led Ath 7e$imentS0 on March (+0 (.*+0 in this picture released on March (-0 (.*+.

#orth KoreaDs 8ommissar Kim 2on$3un presides o1er an ur$ent operation meetin$ on the Korean People;s 4rmy Strate$ic 7ocket Force;s performance of duty for firepo'er strike at the Supreme 8ommand in Pyon$yan$0 on March ()0 (.*+. !K8#4&handout&7:5/:7S"

4 #orth Korean army officer and his soldiers %randish their 'eapons in an undated photo.

Hn this 4pril *@0 (.*( file photo0 #orth Korean soldiers march in front of flo'er 'a1in$ ci1ilians durin$ a mass military parade in Pyon$yan$;s Kim Hl Sun$ SIuare to cele%rate *.. years since the %irth of the late #orth Korean founder Kim Hl Sun$. #orth Korea;s military0 founded ,* years a$o /hursday0 is older than the country itself. Ht %e$an as an anti32apanese militia and is no' the heart of the nation;s Pmilitary firstQ policy. Late leader Kim 2on$ Hl ele1ated the military;s role durin$ his *A3year rule0 %oostin$ troop le1els to an estimated *.( million soldiers0 accordin$ to the South Korean $o1ernment. /he military;s ne' supreme commander0 Kim 2on$ 5n0 $a1e the Korean People;s 4rmy a sharpened focus this year %y instructin$ troops to %uild a Pnuclear arms force.Q !4P Photo&Da1id 6uttenfelder0 File"

Park 6eun39ye0 the ne' President of South Korea and dau$hter of former President of South Korea 6en. Park 8hun$3hee0 salutes durin$ her inau$uration ceremony in front of the #ational 4ssem%ly %uildin$ in Seoul0 South Korea on Fe%ruary (@0 (.*+. !Park 2in39ee&6etty Hma$es"

5nited States President Barack E%ama 1ie's the De3Militarized one !DM " from E%ser1ation Post Euellette at 8amp Bonifas0 7epu%lic of Korea !South Korea" on March (@0 (.*(. !Efficial White 9ouse Photo %y 8huck Kennedy"

South Korean President Park 6eun39ye !left" and 5.S. Secretary of State 2ohn Kerry shake hands %efore their talks at the presidential Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on 4pril *(0 (.*+. !7:5/:7S&Kim 2ae39'an&Pool" http:&&ne's.yahoo.com&north3korea3likely3launch3nuclear3missiles3u3spy3.*.G.G,)@.html

5nited States Secretary of State 2ohn Kerry !left" $estures to South Korea;s Forei$n Minister Cun Byun$3se shortly %efore the arri1al of South Korean;s President Park 6eun3hye at the presidential Blue 9ouse in Seoul0 South Korea on 4pril *(0 (.*+. !7:5/:7S&Paul 2. 7ichards&Pool"

6nited States President (arac: ")ama (ri!ht) sha:es hands #ith President o1 So'th Korea Par: e'n=h$e (le1t) d'rin! a ne#s con1erence at the %ast 9oom o1 the Mhite 7o'se in Mashin!ton, D585, 65S5&5 on Ma$ H, 2.,/5 (Photo: &le? Mon!> ett$ Ima!es North &merica)

President o1 So'th Korea Par: e'n=h$e (le1t) sha:es hands #ith President o1 9'ssia @ladimir P'tin at the 2. S'mmit in St5 Peters)'r!, 9'ssia on Septem)er I, 2.,/5 (Photo: Presidential Press and In1ormation "11ice>Kremlin)

President o1 So'th Korea Par: e'n=h$e (le1t) and President o1 8omm'nist 8hina Ti *inpin! sha:e hands a1ter the si!nin! ceremon$ 1or M"6s on )oostin! )ilateral cooperation at the reat 7all o1 the People in (ei;in!, 8omm'nist 8hina on *'ne 2H, 2.,/5 (Photo: 8heon! Ma Dae)5

President o1 So'th Korea Par: e'n=7$e (le1t) and W'een %liza)eth II o1 reat (ritain raise a toast at a State (anO'et at ('c:in!ham Palace in <ondon on No2em)er +, 2.,/5 (&AP>Pool>Neil 7all)

Prominent 2ale .niversit$ 3raduates and Their 4ccupation in +01,

6ary Locke B.4. Cale *)A( 5.S. 4m%assador to 8ommunist 8hina !(.**3present"

Samantha Po'er B.4. Cale *))( 5.S. 7epresentati1e to the 5nited #ations !(.*+3present"

2ohn For%es Kerry B.4. Cale *)GG 5.S. Secretary of State !(.*+3present"

4shton B. 8arter B.4. Cale *)AG Deputy 5.S. Secretary of Defense !(.**3(.*+"

#eal S. Wolin B.4. Cale *),+ 2.D. Cale *),, Deputy Secretary of the /reasury !(..)3(.*+"

7o%ert PBo%Q Wood'ard B.4. Cale *)G@ Washington Post reporter !*)A*3present" and %est3 sellin$ author

7o%ert W. Ka$an B.4. Cale *),. 8olumnist for The Washington PostR 8o3 Founder of ProBect for the #e' 4merican 8entury

2effrey Be'kes B.4. Cale *)A8hairman and 8:E of /ime Warner !(..)3present"

Fareed akaria B.4. *),G :ditor of #e's'eek HnternationalR Director of 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations !(..-3present"

4nderson 8ooper B.4. Cale *),) 8## reporter !(..*3 present"R anchor of Anderson Cooper 360° !(..+3present"

Da1id L. Boren B.4. Cale *)G+ President of 5ni1ersity of Eklahoma !*))-3present"

Stro%e /al%ott B.4. Cale *)G, President of /he Brookin$s Hnstitution !(..(3present"

W. 2ames Mc#erney0 2r. B.4. Cale *)A* 8hairman and 8:E of Boein$ !(..@3present"

Da1id M. Schizer B.4. Cale *)).R 2.D. Cale*))+ Dean of 8olum%ia La' School !(..-3present"

Mary :liza%eth Ma$ill B.4. Cale *),, Dean of Stanford La' School !(.*(3present"

4le?ander 7. Jersh%o' B.4. Cale *)ADeputy Secretary36eneral of #4/E !(.*(3present"

Stephen W. Preston B.4. Cale *)A) 6eneral 8ounsel of the 8entral Hntelli$ence 4$ency !(..)3(.*+"

Bill #elson B.4. Cale *)G@ 5.S. Senator !D3Florida0 (..*3present"

Sheldon Whitehouse B.4. Cale *)A, 5.S. Senator !D37hode Hsland0 (..A3present"

Sherrod Bro'n B.4. Cale *)A5.S. Senator !D3Ehio0 (..A3present"

Prominent Cale 5ni1ersity 6raduates and /heir Eccupation in (.*+ 8orporate :?ecuti1es and La'yers: W. 2ames !2im" Mc#erney0 2r. !B.4. *)A*" X 8hairman and 8:E of Boein$ Kairplane companyL !(..@3present" 2effrey L. Be'kes !B.4. *)A-" X 8hairman and 8:E of /ime Warner Kmedia companyL !(..)3present" Frederick W. Smith !B.4. *)GG" X 8hairman and 8:E of Federal :?press KFed:? 8orp.L !*)A@3present" Stephen M. 8utler !B.4. *),(0 2.D. *),@" X :?ecuti1e Jice President and 6eneral 8ounsel of 2P Mor$an 8hase > 8o. K%ankL !(..A3present" 6o1ernment Efficials: 2ohn For%es Kerry !B.4. *)GG0 S>B *)GG" X 5.S. Secretary of State !Fe%ruary *0 (.*+3present" 4shton B. 8arter !B.4. *)AG0 7S" X Deputy 5.S. Secretary of Defense !Ecto%er @0 (.**XDecem%er +0 (.*+" #eal S. Wolin !B.4. *),+0 2.D. *),," X Deputy 5.S. Secretary of the /reasury !(..)3(.*+" Donald Jerrilli 2r. !B.4. *)A)" X Solicitor 6eneral of the 5nited States !2une )0 (.**3present" Stephen W. Preston !B.4. *)A)" X 6eneral 8ounsel of the 8entral Hntelli$ence 4$ency !(..)3(.*+" 6ary Locke !B.4. *)A(" X 5.S. 4m%assador to 8ommunist 8hina !4u$ust *0 (.**3present" Da1id 9. /horne !B.4. *)GG0 S>B *)GG" X 5.S. 4m%assador to Htaly !(..)3(.*+" 8harles 9. 7i1kin !B.4. *),-" X 5.S. 4m%assador to France !(..)3(.*+" Samantha Po'er !B.4. *))(0 2.D. 9ar1ard *)))" X 5.S. 7epresentati1e to the 5nited #ations !(.*+3present" 2oseph Jerner 7eed 2r. !B.4. *)G*" X 5nder3Secretary36eneral of the 5nited #ations !*))(3present" 4le?ander 7. Jersh%o' !B.4. *)A-" X Deputy Secretary36eneral of #orth 4tlantic /reaty Er$anization !(.*(3present"R 5.S. 4m%assador to South Korea !(..@3(..," :lisse B. Walter !B.4. *)A*" X 8ommissioner of 5.S. Securities and :?chan$e 8ommission !(..,3present"R 8hairman of S:8 !(.*(3(.*+" Bill #elson !B.4. *)G@" X 5.S. Senator !Democrat3Florida0 (..*3present" Sheldon Whitehouse !B.4. *)A," X 5.S. Senator !Democrat37hode Hsland0 (..A3present" Sherrod Bro'n !B.4. *)A-" X 5.S. Senator !Democrat3Ehio0 (..A3present" 4my Klo%uchar !B.4. *),(" X 5.S. Senator !Democrat3Minnesota0 (..A3present" Lamar S. Smith !B.4. *)G)" X 5.S. 8on$ressman !7epu%lican3/e?as0 *),A3present" Sheila 2ackson3Lee !B.4. *)A(" X 5.S. 8on$ressman !Democrat3/e?as0 *))@3present" 2ohn Carmuth !B.4. *)G)" X 5.S. 8on$ressman !Democrat3Kentucky0 (..A3present" Mark Dayton !B.4. *)G)" X 6o1ernor of Minnesota !(.**3present" 2ohn S2ackS Dalrymple !B.4. *)A." X 6o1ernor of #orth Dakota !(.*.3present" Barrin$ton D. Parker 2r. !B.4. *)G@0 LL.B. *)G)" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. 8ourt of 4ppeals for the Second 8ircuit !(..*3present" 7ichard 4. Posner !B.4. *)@)" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. 8ourt of 4ppeals for the Se1enth 8ircuit !*),*3present" Brett M. Ka1anau$h !B.4. *),A" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. 8ourt of 4ppeals for District of 8olum%ia 8ircuit !(..G3present" 6eor$e B. Daniels !B.4. *)A@" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the Southern District of #e' Cork K#e' Cork 8ityL !(...3present" :d$ardo 7amos !B.4. *),(" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the Southern District of #e' Cork K#e' Cork 8ityL !(.**3present" 2ames Knoll 6ardner !B.4. *)G(" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the :astern District of Pennsyl1ania KPhiladelphiaL !(..(3present" Dou$las P. Woodlock !B.4. *)G)0 S>B *)G)" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the District of Massachusetts KBostonL !*),G3present" 7o%ert Michael Do' 2r. !B.4. *),A" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the #orthern District of Hllinois K8hica$oL !(..A3present" 7ichard 6. See%or$ !B.4. *)A," X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the #orthern District of 8alifornia KSan FranciscoL !(.*.3present" Myron 9er%ert /hompson !B.4. *)G)0 2.D. *)A(" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the Middle District of 4la%ama !*),.3present" 2ohn W. Lun$strum !B.4. *)GA" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the District of Kansas !*))*3present" Denise Pa$e 9ood !B.4. *)A-" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the :astern District of Michi$an !*))-3present" 2ames E. Bro'nin$ !B.4. *)A," X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the District of #e' Me?ico !(..+3present" Dora L. Hrizarry !B.4. *)AG" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the :astern District of #e' Cork !(..-3present" 2ames :manuel Boas%er$ !B.4. *),@0 2.D. *)).0 S>B *),@" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the District of 8olum%ia !(.**3present" Ke1in 8harles Mc#ulty !B.4. *)AG" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the District of #e' 2ersey !(.*(3present" 2esus 6il%erto Bernal !B.4. *),G" X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the 8entral District of 8alifornia !Decem%er *(0 (.*(3present" 7aymond Paul Moore !B.4. *)A@0 2.D. *)A," X 2ud$e of the 5.S. District 8ourt for the District of 8olorado !(.*+3present" 8olle$e 4dministrators: Da1id L. Boren !B.4. *)G+0 S>B *)G+0 7S" X President of 5ni1ersity of Eklahoma !*))-3present" 7ichard 9. Brodhead !B.4. *)G,0 Ph.D. *)A(" X President of Duke 5ni1ersity K#orth 8arolinaL !(..-3present" Ste1en Knapp !B.4. *)A+" X President of 6eor$e Washin$ton 5ni1ersity !(..A3present" Mar1in Krislo1 !B.4. *),(0 2.D. *),," X President of E%erlin 8olle$e KEhioL !(..A3present" Ste1en :. 9yman !B.4. *)A-" X Pro1ost of 9ar1ard 5ni1ersity !Decem%er (..*3present" Michael 4. Bernstein !B.4. *)AG0 Ph.D. *),(" X Pro1ost of /ulane 5ni1ersity !(..A3present" Da1id M. Schizer !B.4. *)).R M.4. *)).R 2.D. *))+" X Dean of 8olum%ia La' School !(..-3present" Mary :liza%eth Ma$ill !B.4. *),," X Dean of Stanford La' School !(.*(3present" 2ournalists and Er$anization :?ecuti1es: 7o%ert 5. PBo%Q Wood'ard !B.4. *)G@" X Washington Post reporter !*)A*3present" and %est3sellin$ author 7o%ert W. Ka$an !B.4. *),.0 S>B *),." X 8olumnist for The Washington PostR 8o3Founder of the ProBect for the #e' 4merican 8entury 7o%ert 6reeley Kaiser !B.4. *)G-" X 4ssociate :ditor and Senior 8orrespondent at The Washington Post !*)),3present" Fareed akaria !B.4. *),G0 S>K *),G" X :ditor of #e's'eek HnternationalR Director of 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations !(..-3present" 4nderson 8ooper !B.4. *),)" X 8## reporter !(..*3present"R anchor of Anderson Cooper 360° !(..+3present" 7ichard :. Salomon !B.4. *)G-" X Jice 8hairman of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations !(..A3present" Stro%e /al%ott !B.4. *)G," X President of /he Brookin$s Hnstitution !(..(3present" 8arl 6ershman !B.4. *)G@" X President of the #ational :ndo'ment for Democracy !*),-3present" #ote: S>B<Skull > Bones0 7S<7hodes Scholar0 S>K<Scroll > Key

#4/E Secretary 6eneral 4nders Fo$h 7asmussen !left" 1isits South KoreaDs President Park 6eun3hye0 the dau$hter of the late President 6en. Park 8hun$3hee0 in Seoul0 7epu%lic of Korea !South Korea" on 4pril *(0 (.*+. 4nders Fo$h 7asmussen is the first #4/E Secretary 6eneral e1er to 1isit the 7epu%lic of Korea. !Photo: #4/E"

#4/E Secretary 6eneral 4nders Fo$h 7asmussen !center" 1isits the Demilitarized one !DM " at PanmunBom0 Korea on 4pril *(0 (.*+. 4nders Fo$h 7asmussen attended the Bilder%er$ Meetin$s in (... and (..+. !Photo: #4/E"

5nited #ations Secretary 6eneral Ban Ki3moon !left" and 5nited States Secretary of State 2ohn Kerry !ri$ht" speak to the press at the State Department in Washin$ton0 D.8. on Fe%ruary *+0 (.*+. 2ohn Kerry and Ban Ki3moon discussed %ilateral issues includin$ the situation 'ith #orth Korea. !Photo: Mark Wilson&6etty Hma$es #orth 4merica"

5nited #ations Secretary36eneral Ban Ki3moon !center"0 HranDs President Mahmoud 4hmadineBad !ri$ht" and HranDs Forei$n Minister 4li 4k%ar Salehi appear at the openin$ ceremony of the *Gth Summit of the #on34li$ned Mo1ement !#4M" in /ehran0 Hran on 4u$ust +.0 (.*(. !Photo: 6lo%al 7esearch"

Ban Ki3moon !left"0 Secretary36eneral of the 5nited #ations0 and his 'ife Coo Soon3taek !ri$ht" meet 'ith Oueen Beatri? of the #etherlands durin$ the official photo session at the 7oyal Palace 9uis ten Bosch in /he 9a$ue0 #etherlands on 4pril A0 (.*+. !7:5/:7S&/oussaint Kluiters&5nited Photos"

5nited #ations Secretary36eneral Ban Ki3moon !left" meets 'ith 5.S. President Barack E%ama at the White 9ouse in Washin$ton0 D.8. on 4pril **0 (.*+. !5# Photo&:skinder De%e%e"

5.S. Secretary of State 2ohn Kerry meets 'ith 8hinese President Ni 2inpin$ at the 6reat 9all of the People in BeiBin$0 8hina0 on 4pril *+0 (.*+. 6ary Locke !left"0 the 5.S. 4m%assador to the PeopleDs 7epu%lic of 8hina0 is seated ne?t to Kerry. KState Department photo& Pu%lic DomainL http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&statephotos&,G--+A(G,+&in&photostream

5.S. Secretary of State 2ohn Kerry !left" meets 'ith Prime Minister of 2apan Shinzo 4%e durin$ his 1isit to /okyo0 2apan on 4pril *@0 (.*+. KState Department photo %y William #$&Pu%lic DomainL http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&statephotos&,G@(-@+*G,&in&photostream

#orth Korean men 'orkin$ for ShinWon0 a South Korean clothin$ maker0 prepare $arments for production at a factory in Kaeson$0 #orth Korea in Septem%er (.*(. #orth Korea says it 'ill recall @*0... #orth Korean 'orkers and suspend operations at a factory comple? that is the last maBor sym%ol of co3operation 'ith its southern ri1al. (Jean H. Lee/Associated Press)

4 Korean truck dri1er dri1in$ a Dae'oo truck arri1es at a %order crossin$ in South Korea from the near%y #orth Korean city of Kaeson$ in 4pril (.*+.

/he $ate'ays to the #orth Korea;s city of Kaeson$ are shut do'n at the Hnter3Korean /ransit Effice in PaBu0 South Korea0 near the %order 1illa$e of PanmunBom0 /hursday0 4pril -0 (.*+. #orth Korea on Wednesday %arred South Korean 'orkers from enterin$ a Bointly run factory park Bust o1er the hea1ily armed %order in the #orth0 officials in Seoul said0 a day after Pyon$yan$ announced it 'ould restart its lon$3 shuttered plutonium reactor and increase production of nuclear 'eapons material. /he letters at top read SHnter3Korean /ransit Effice.S !4P Photo&4hn Coun$3Boon"

4 South Korean truck transportin$ products made in KH8 !Kaeson$ Hndustrial 8omple?" passes throu$h a $ate at the South;s 8HO !8ustoms0 Hmmi$ration and Ouarantine"0 Bust south of the demilitarized zone separatin$ the t'o Koreas0 in PaBu0 north of Seoul0 4pril ,0 (.*+. #orth Korea said on Monday it 'ould 'ithdra' its 'orkers from the Kaeson$ factory park Bointly run 'ith South Korea and temporarily suspend all operations there. /he si$n %oard reads SHnter3Korean /ransit EfficeS. !7:5/:7S&Kim 9on$32i"

South Korean army soldier stand $uard on 5nification Brid$e in PaBu0 South Korea0 near the %order 1illa$e of PanmunBom0 on /uesday0 4pril *G0 (.*+. #orth Koreans danced in plazas and snacked on peanuts as part of holiday festi1ities 'hile the Supreme 8ommand led %y #orth Korean leader Kim 2on$ 5n offered more of the fiery lan$ua$e that has made the international community 'ary of an imminent missile launch or other pro1ocation. !4P Photo&4hn Coun$3Boon"

4 South Korean army soldier mo1es a part of %arricade for the media to enter at 5nification Brid$e0 near the %order 1illa$e of PanmunBom0 in PaBu0 north of Seoul0 South Korea0 on 4pril )0 (.*+. !4ssociated Press Photo"

Kaeson$0 #orth Korea

Hn this March *A0 (.*+ file photo released %y the South Korean #a1y 1ia Conhap on March *,0 (.*+0 South Korea and 5.S. 'arships participate in their Boint military drill SFoal :a$leS in South Korea;s West Sea. Hn its latest account of national defense efforts0 8hina said /uesday0 4pril *G0 (.*+0 that the 5nited States is desta%ilizin$ the 4sia3Pacific re$ion %y stren$thenin$ its military alliances and sendin$ more ships0 planes0 and troops to the area. !4P Photo&South Korea #a1y 1ia Conhap0 File"

4 1ie' of a hi$h'ay that runs throu$h the Demilitarized one near PanmunBom0 Korea

4 South Korean $uard post !left" and a #orth Korean $uard post !ri$ht" are seen on the road leadin$ to #orth Korea;s Mount Kum$an$ resort0 in the demilitarized zone !DM " separatin$ the t'o Koreas in this picture taken from the 5nification E%ser1atory0 Bust south of the DM 0 in 6oseon$0 a%out ++. km !(.@ miles" northeast of Seoul on 4pril **0 (.*+. /he late #orth Korean 8ommunist ruler Kim Hl3Sun$;s %irthday0 called Sthe Day of the SunS0 'ill %e cele%rated in #orth Korea on 4pril *@0 (.*+. !7:5/:7S&Lee 2ae3Won"

6eneral Satellite 8ontrol and 8ommand 8enter some'here in #orth Korea on Decem%er *(0 (.*( !Photo: http:&&'''.militaryphotos.net&forums&sho'thread.php?(.)G,G3/he35nofficial3Korean3People3s34rmy3/hread&pa$e*-"

5nha3+ missile on launch pad in #orth Korea in 4pril (.*( !Photo: http:&&'''.militaryphotos.net&forums&sho'thread.php?(.)G,G3/he35nofficial3Korean3People3s34rmy3/hread&pa$e*-"

#orth KoreaDs 8ommissar Kim 2on$35n smokes a ci$arette at the 6eneral Satellite 8ontrol and 8ommand 8enter on Decem%er *(0 (.*(. !Photo: Military Photos"

4 #orth Korean soldier stands in front of a launch site 'ith a 5nha3+ missile !Photo: http:&&'''.militaryphotos.net&forums&sho'thread.php?(.)G,G3/he35nofficial3Korean3People3s34rmy3/hread&pa$e*+"

#orth KoreaDs 8ommissar Kim 2on$35n smokes a ci$arette at the 6eneral Satellite 8ontrol and 8ommand 8enter after the launch of the 5nha3+ !Milky Way +" rocket carryin$ the second 1ersion of K'an$myon$son$3+ satellite at West Sea Satellite Launch Site in 8holsan county0 on Decem%er *(0 (.*(0 in this picture released %y the #orth;s K8#4 ne's a$ency in Pyon$yan$ Decem%er *+0 (.*(. !Photo %y K8#4" http:&&'''.militaryphotos.net&forums&sho'thread.php?(.)G,G3/he35nofficial3Korean3People3s34rmy3/hread&pa$e*,

8losely escorted0 #orth KoreaDs ne' 8ommissar Kim 2on$ 5n 1isits the 8ommand of Lar$e 8om%ined 5nit GA* of the Korean People;s 4rmy in this undated picture released %y the #orth;s K8#4 in Pyon$yan$0 on 2anuary ((0 (.*(. !Photo %y K8#4"

4 1ie' is seen of a parade of the Worker3Peasant 7ed 6uards and a mass rally in Pyon$yan$ Septem%er )0 (.*+ in cele%ration of the G@th anni1ersary of #orth Korea in this picture released %y the #orth;s official K8#4 ne's a$ency on Monday. !7:5/:7S&K8#4"

#orth Korean troops march durin$ a military parade at Kim Hl Sun$ SIuare to mark the G@th anni1ersary of the country;s foundin$ in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea0 Monday0 Sept. )0 (.*+. !4P Photo&2on 8hol 2in"

#orth Korea;s leader Kim 2on$3un !8" attends a parade of the Worker3Peasant 7ed 6uards and a mass rally in Pyon$yan$ Septem%er )0 (.*+ in cele%ration of the G@th anni1ersary of #orth Korea in this picture released %y the #orth;s official K8#4 ne's a$ency on Monday. !7:5/:7S&K8#4"

#orth Korea;s leader Kim 2on$3un !8" attends a parade of the Worker3Peasant 7ed 6uards and a mass rally in Pyon$yan$ Septem%er )0 (.*+ in cele%ration of the G@th anni1ersary of #orth Korea in this picture released %y the #orth;s official K8#4 ne's a$ency on Monday. !7:5/:7S&K8#4"

#he "rrest and 0,ecution o- Kim ;ong 3n<s 3ncle ;ang Song #hae

*an! Son! 4hae:, center, 'ncle o1 North Korean leader Kim *on! 6n, #as detained d'rin! an emer!enc$ meetin! o1 Mor:ers Part$Fs 8entral 8ommittee in P$on!$an!, North Korea on S'nda$, Decem)er E, 2.,/5 *an! Son! 4hae: #as e?ec'ted on Decem)er ,2, 2.,/ 1or treason and other crimes5

People #atch a 4@ ne#s pro!ram at Seo'l 9ail#a$ Station, So'th Korea, Monda$, Decem)er -, 2.,/ sho#in! *an! Son! 4hae:, center, 'ncle o1 North Korean leader Kim *on! 6n, )ein! !ra))ed d'rin! an emer!enc$ meetin! o1 Mor:ers Part$Fs 8entral 8ommittee in P$on!$an! the da$ )e1ore5 North Korea anno'nced Monda$ it had sac:ed leader *an!, lon! considered the co'ntr$Fs No5 2 po#er, sa$in! corr'ption, dr'! 'se, !am)lin!, #omanizin! and !enerall$ leadin! a Pdissol'te and depra2ed li1eP had ca'sed P$on!$an!Fs hi!hest=pro1ile 1all 1rom !race since Kim too: po#er t#o $ears a!o5 (&P Photo>&hn Go'n!=;oon)

North Korea says ;ang Song #hae + uncle o- leader Kim ;ong 3n+ e,ecuted
Decem)er ,2, 2.,/ S%"6< (9e'ters) – North Korea said on Arida$ *an! Son! 4hae:, the 'ncle o1 leader Kim *on! 6n and pre2io'sl$ considered the second most po#er1'l man in the secreti2e state, has )een e?ec'ted a1ter a special militar$ tri)'nal 1o'nd him guilty otreason5 P4he acc'sed *an! )ro'!ht to!ether 'ndesira)le 1orces and 1ormed a 1action as the )oss o1 a modern da$ 1actional !ro'p 1or a lon! time and th's committed s'ch hideo's crime as attemptin! to o2erthro# the state,P the NorthFs o11icial K8N& ne#s a!enc$ said5 4he o11icial 9odon! Sinm'n ne#spaper on Arida$ carried a photo!raph o1 *an! in handc'11s and )ein! held )$ 'ni1ormed !'ards as he stood trial5 %arlier this #ee: North Korea stripped *an! o1 all posts and e?pelled him 1rom the r'lin! Mor:ersF Part$, acc'sin! him o1 criminal acts incl'din! mismana!ement o1 the state 1inancial s$stem, #omanizin! and alcohol a)'se5K PArom lon! a!o, *an! had a dirt$ political am)ition5 7e dared not raise his head #hen Kim Il S'n! and Kim *on! Il #ere ali2e,P K8N& said, re1errin! to leader KimFs !rand1ather and 1ather, #ho #ere pre2io's r'lers o1 the d$nastic state5 P7e )e!an re2ealin! his tr'e colors, thin:in! that it #as ;'st the time 1or him to realize his #ild am)ition in the period o1 historic t'rn #hen the !eneration o1 the re2ol'tion #as replaced5P 4he e?ec'tion caps a spectac'lar do#n1all o1 the h's)and o1 leader KimFs a'nt5 *an! had pre2io'sl$ s'11ered p'r!es )'t 1o'!ht his #a$ )ac: to the po#er circle to hold in1l'ential positions in the r'lin! part$ and the militar$5 (9eportin! )$ *ac: Kim0 editin! )$ &ndre# 9oche and *im lone$) So'rce: http:>>ne#s5$ahoo5com>north=:orea=sa$s=;an!=son!=thae:='ncle=leader=2,+I2/H/E5html

North Korean leader Kim *on! 6n, second le1t, #al:s #ith his 'ncle *an! Son! 4hae:, ri!ht0 his chie1 secretar$, Kim 8han! Son, second 1rom ri!ht, and @ice Marshal 8hoe 9$on! 7ae, 1ar le1t, as he to'rs the ne#l$ opened Aatherland <i)eration Mar M'se'm d'rin! e2ents mar:in! the I.th anni2ersar$ o1 the end o1 the Korean Mar in P$on!$an!, North Korea on *'l$ 2H, 2.,/5 North Korea anno'nced Monda$, Dec5 -, 2.,/, it had sac:ed leader Kim *on! 6nFs 'ncle, *an! Son! 4hae:, lon! considered the co'ntr$Fs No5 2 po#er, sa$in! corr'ption, dr'! 'se, !am)lin!, #omanizin! and !enerall$ leadin! a Pdissol'te and depra2ed li1eP had ca'sed P$on!$an!Fs hi!hest=pro1ile 1all 1rom !race since Kim too: po#er t#o $ears a!o5 (&P Photo>Mon! Ma$e=%)

So'th Korean President Par: e'n=h$e sha:es hands #ith International Monetar$ A'nd (IMA) Mana!in! Director 8hristine <a!arde (le1t) )e1ore their meetin! at the (l'e 7o'se presidential palace in Seo'l, So'th Korea on Decem)er 3, 2.,/5 (9%64%9S><ee *in=man>Pool)

President o1 So'th Korea Par: e'n=h$e (ri!ht) sha:es hands #ith 65S5 @ice President *oe (iden )e1ore their meetin! at the (l'e 7o'se in Seo'l, So'th Korea on Decem)er I, 2.,/5 (&P Photo>&hn Go'n!=;oon5 Pool)

North Korean leader Kim *on!='n (ri!ht), #al:s past his 'ncle North Korean politician *an! Son!=thae: d'rin! a militar$ parade to mar: the )irth anni2ersar$ o1 the late leader, Kim *on!=il in P$on!$an!, North Korea in this 1ile photo ta:en )$ K$odo on Ae)r'ar$ ,I, 2.,25 (9%64%9S>K$odo>Aile)

North Korean despot Kim *on!=il (center) 2isits a militar$ 'nit in this 'ndated 1ile pict're released )$ the NorthFs K8N& in P$on!$an!, North Korea on Decem)er 2E, 2.,,5 Kim, #ho r'led isolated and impo2erished North Korea 1rom ,--3, died on Decem)er ,H, 2.,,5 KimFs )rother=in=la# *an! Son!=thae: is seen in the )ac:!ro'nd5 (9%64%9S>K8N&)

8hinaFs President o1 8omm'nist 8hina 7' *intao (ri!ht) sha:es hands #ith *an! son!=thae:, 8hie1 o1 the 8entral &dministrati2e Department o1 the Mor:ersF Part$ o1 Korea, in (ei;in!, 8omm'nist 8hina on &'!'st ,H, 2.,25 (9%64%9S>8hina Dail$)

*an! Son! 4hae:, North KoreaFs 2ice chairman o1 the po#er1'l National De1ense 8ommission, attends the third meetin! on de2elopin! the economic zones in North Korea, in (ei;in!, 8omm'nist 8hina on 4'esda$, &'!'st ,3, 2.,25 (&P Photo>Tinh'a, <i Tin, Aile)

Ceonpyeon$ Hsland Hncident !#o1em%er (+0 (.*."

/his picture taken on #o1em%er (+0 (.*. %y a South Korean tourist sho's hu$e plumes of smoke risin$ from Ceonpyeon$ Hsland in the disputed 'aters of the Cello' Sea on #o1em%er (+0 (.*.. #orth Korea fired dozens of artillery shells onto the South Korean island on #o1em%er (+0 (.*.0 killin$ t'o people0 settin$ homes a%laze and tri$$erin$ an e?chan$e of fire as the South;s military 'ent on top alert. !6etty Hma$es"

South Korean 'ar 1eterans %urn #orth Korean fla$s durin$ an anti3#orth Korea rally on #o1em%er +.0 (.*. in Seoul0 South Korea. South Korean and 4merican military forces %e$an 'ar $ames e?ercises Sunday as tensions %et'een the t'o Koreas remain hi$h follo'in$ an artillery e?chan$e on the disputed island of Ceonpyeon$ on #o1em%er (-. !6etty Hma$es"

Protesters holdin$ placards pray in silence for the 1ictims durin$ a rally a$ainst #orth Korea in Seoul on #o1em%er +.0 (.*.. Some @. ci1ic $roup mem%ers held the rally a$ainst #orth Korea;s %om%ardment on South Korea;s Ceonpyeon$ island on #o1em%er (+. South Korea deployed rocket launchers and e?tra artillery on a frontline %order island %om%arded last 'eek %y #orth Korea0 as Seoul;s leader 1o'ed on #o1em%er () to make Pyon$yan$ pay for any fresh pro1ocations. !6etty Hma$es"

#orth KoreaDs ruler Kim 2on$3il !center" and his son Kim 2on$3un !left" appear in an undated photo. Kim 2on$3un succeeded his father as the Supreme Leader of #orth Korea on Decem%er *A0 (.**. Kim 2on$3il died in Pyon$yan$ on Decem%er *A0 (.**.

4 South Korean protester holds a %urnin$ #orth Korean fla$ durin$ an anti3#orth Korea rally in Seoul0 South Korea on 2une G0 (..A. /ens of thousands of South Korean acti1ists and 1eterans sta$ed a protest a$ainst #orth Korea;s nuclear 'eapons on Memorial Day0 'hen the country remem%ers those killed in the *)@.3*)@+ conflict. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

South Korean protesters hold up placards durin$ an anti3#orth Korea rally in Seoul0 South Korea on 2une (@0 (..A0 to mark the @Ath anni1ersary of the out%reak of the *)@.3*)@+ Korean War. /he protest comes amid a flurry of diplomacy to push for Iuick pro$ress on a si?3 nation deal on disa%lin$ #orth Korea;s nuclear 'eapons pro$ram. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

South Korean protesters %urn a #orth Korean fla$ durin$ an anti3#orth Korea rally in Seoul0 South Korea on 2une ((0 (..-. !Photo %y 8hun$ Sun$32un&6etty Hma$es"

Protesters %urn communist #orth Korean fla$s at an anti3#orth Korea protest opposin$ the planned inter3Korean summit near the presidential Blue 9ouse in Seoul on 4u$ust )0 (..A. !7euters&Lee 2ae3Won"

South Korean protesters hold placards 'ith pictures of #orth Korean dictator Kim 2on$3Hl durin$ an anti3#orth Korea rally in Seoul0 South Korea on 2une G0 (..A. /ens of thousands of South Korean acti1ists and 1eterans sta$ed a protest a$ainst #orth Korea;s nuclear 'eapons on Memorial Day0 'hen the country remem%ers those killed in the *)@.3*)@+ conflict. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

South Korean acti1ists hold anti3#orth Korean placards 'ith pictures of Kim 2on$3Hl durin$ a protest outside a lu?ury hotel 'here inter3Korean ministerial talks 'ere held on 2une *0 (..A. /he slo$ans demand #orth Korea scrap its nuclear pro$ram. /he four3day meetin$ %roke do'n o1er the delayed shipment of rice from South Korea. !4FP&6etty Hma$es"

South Koreans condemn #orth Korean tyrant Kim 2on$3Hl. !Photo: http:&&asap%lo$s.typepad.com&photos&uncate$orized&(..A&.G&*@&shoo=+()@@*++=Gao.Bp$"

South Korean 8hristians and conser1ati1e protesters carry hu$e fla$s of South Korea and 5.S. o1er their heads in front of 8ity 9all durin$ an anti #orth Korea rally as part of the South Korean Memorial Day in Seoul0 South Korea on 2une G0 (..A. South Korea today marks the @(nd anni1ersary of the Memorial Day for those killed in the *)@.3*)@+ Korean War. !6etty Hma$es"

South Koreans read e?tras reportin$ the death of #orth Korean leader Kim 2on$ Hl at the Seoul train station in Seoul0 South Korea on Monday0 Decem%er *)0 (.**. /he headline reads P/he death of #orth Korean leader Kim 2on$ Hl.Q !4P Photo&4hn Coun$3Boon"

Pyon$yan$ residents react as they mourn o1er the death of #orth Korean leader Kim 2on$ Hl in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea0 in this photo taken %y Kyodo on Decem%er *)0 (.**. !7euters&Kyodo"

North KoreaDs ne# leader Kim *on! 6n (3th 1rom le1t) sal'tes as he and his 'ncle *an! Son!=thae: (/rd 1rom le1t) accompan$ the hearse carr$in! the co11in o1 late North Korean leader Kim *on! Il d'rin! his 1'neral procession in P$on!$an!, on Decem)er 2E, 2.,,5 North KoreaFs militar$ sta!ed a h'!e 1'neral procession on Mednesda$ in the sno#$ streets o1 the capital P$on!$an! 1or its deceased Pdear leader,P Kim *on! Il, read$in! a transition to his son, Kim *on!='n5 9i Gon!=ho, 8hie1 o1 eneral Sta11 o1 the Korea PeopleFs &rm$, sal'tes on the ri!ht5 (9e'ters>K$odo)

4he )od$ o1 the late North Korean leader Kim *on! Il lies in state at the K'ms'san Memorial Palace in P$on!$an!, North Korea on Decem)er 2I, 2.,,5 (9e'ters>K8N&)

So'th Korean arm$ soldiers patrol alon! a )ar)ed=#ire 1ence in Pa;', So'th Korea, near the )order 2illa!e o1 Panm'n;om, on 4'esda$, March 2I, 2.,/5 North KoreaDs militar$ #arned 4'esda$ that its artiller$ and roc:et 1orces are at their hi!hest=le2el com)at post're in the latest in a strin! o1 )ellicose threats aimed at So'th Korea and the 6nited States5 (&P Photo>&hn Go'n!=;oon)

&nti=North Korea protesters chant slo!ans as the$ )'rn e11i!ies o1 North KoreaFs 1o'nder Kim Il=s'n! (9) and late leader Kim *on!=il d'rin! a rall$ to mar: the /rd anni2ersar$ o1 the sin:in! o1 So'th Korean na2$ ship 8heonan near the 65S5 em)ass$ in central Seo'l March 2I, 2.,/5 So'th Korean na2al cor2ette 8heonan, #hich #as )elie2ed to )e torpedoed )$ North Korea, :illin! 3I sailors, san: on March 2I, 2.,. o11 the so'th (aen!n$eon! Island, near the disp'ted sea )order #ith the north5 (9%64%9S>Kim 7on!=*i)

In this 4'esda$, Ae)r'ar$ +, 2.,/ photo, n'clear po#er plants, Kori ,, ri!ht, and Shin Kori 2 are seen in 6lsan, So'th Korea5 North KoreaDs #eapons pro!ram is not the onl$ n'clear headache 1or So'th Korea5 4he co'ntr$Ds radioacti2e #aste stora!e is 1illin! 'p as its n'clear po#er ind'str$ )'r!eons, )'t #hat So'th Korea sees as its )est sol'tion – reprocessin! the spent 1'el so it can )e 'sed a!ain – 1aces sti11 opposition 1rom its &merican all$5 (&P Photo>&hn Go'n!=;oon)

In this Dec5 E, 2.,2 1ile photo, 8hinese paramilitar$ policemen )'ild a 1ence near a concrete mar:er depictin! the North Korean and 8hinese national 1la!s #ith the #ords P8hina North Korea (orderP at a crossin! in the 8hinese )order to#n o1 4'men in eastern 8hinaFs *ilin pro2ince5 8hina is tr$in! to p'nish all$ North Korea 1or its n'clear and missile tests, steppin! 'p inspections o1 North Korean=)o'nd car!o in a cali)rated e11ort to send a messa!e o1 8hinese piO'e #itho't 1'rther pro2o:in! a test$ P$on!$an! !o2ernment5 (&P Photo>N! 7an 'an, Aile)

65S5 President (arac: ")ama 2isits 65S5 militar$ personnel stationed at ")ser2ation Post "'ellette alon! the Demilitarized Zone, #hich )orders North and So'th Korea, o'tside Seo'l, So'th Korea on March 2+, 2.,25 (9%64%9S><arr$ Do#nin!) http:>>###5e'rone#s5com>pict're=o1=the=da$>2.,2>./>2+>o)ama=2isits=:orean=dmz>

President (arac: ")ama and President <ee M$'n!=)a: participate in a press con1erence at the (l'e 7o'se in Seo'l, 9ep')lic o1 Korea, on March 2+, 2.,25 ("11icial Mhite 7o'se Photo )$ 8h'c: Kenned$)

6nited States President (arac: ")ama deli2ers a speech to &merican soldiers, sailors, and airmen at Gon!san arrison in Seo'l, 9ep')lic o1 Korea on No2em)er ,,, 2.,. (@eteranDs Da$)5 &)o't 2E,+.. &merican soldiers are stationed in So'th Korea as a le!ac$ o1 the ,-+.=,-+/ Korean Mar that ended in an armistice, not a peace treat$5

So'th Korean militar$ policemen stand at attention o'tside the con1erence hall at Panm'n;om @illa!e at the De=Militarized Zone5

South KoreaDs President Lee Myun$3%ak speaks at the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations in #e' Cork 8ity on Septem%er (*0 (..). !Photo: 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations"

South KoreaDs President Park 6eun3hye !ri$ht" meets 'ith 5.S. #ational Security 4d1iser /om Donilon at the Blue 9ouse near Seoul on /uesday0 Fe%ruary (G0 (.*+0 one day after President ParkDs inau$uration. /om Donilon is a mem%er of the 8ouncil on Forei$n 7elations0 a pri1ate or$anization in #e' Cork 8ity. !Photo: 8hun$ 9ee3cho&/he Korea 9erald"

4he S#edish %m)ass$ and 1ritish 0m&assy in P$on!$an!, North Korea are located in the same )'ildin! that ser2ed as the headO'arters o1 the 1ormer erman Democratic 9ep')lic (%ast erman, D9) %m)ass$5 (Photo: http:>>###51lic:r5com>photos>:ern)eisser>3//.,+2/2I>)

& placard displa$ed at the (ritish %m)ass$ in P$on!$an!, North Korea

7ussian :m%assy in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&kern%eisser&-()GGG-A(+&in&set3A(*@AG(+.A..,@G.-&"

5#H8:F office in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&kern%eisser&-+*,.-@,,@&in&photostream&"

8u%an :m%assy in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&kern%eisser&-+(-*-*AA)&in&photostream&"

:m%assy of the State of Palestine in Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&kern%eisser&-+(-,A@,*-&in&photostream&"

Furious over sanctions+ North Korea vo%s to nu e 3nited States
($ 7G6N =*IN KIM and %DI47 M5 <%D%9%9 &ssociated Press March H, 2.,/ S%"6<, So'th Korea (&P) L North Korea 2o#ed on 4h'rsda$ to la'nch a pre=empti2e n'clear stri:e a!ainst the 6nited States, ampli1$in! its threatenin! rhetoric ho'rs ahead o1 a 2ote )$ 65N5 diplomats on #hether to le2el ne# sanctions a!ainst P$on!$an! 1or its recent n'clear test5 &n 'nidenti1ied spo:esman 1or P$on!$an!Fs Aorei!n Ministr$ said the North #ill e?ercise its ri!ht 1or Pa preempti2e n'clear attac: to destro$ the stron!holds o1 the a!!ressorsP )eca'se Mashin!ton is p'shin! to start a n'clear #ar a!ainst the North5 &ltho'!h North Korea )oasts o1 n'clear )om)s and pre=empti2e stri:es, it is not tho'!ht to ha2e mastered the a)ilit$ to prod'ce a #arhead small eno'!h to p't on a missile capa)le o1 reachin! the 65S5 It is )elie2ed to ha2e eno'!h n'clear 1'el, ho#e2er, 1or se2eral cr'de n'clear de2ices5 S'ch in1lammator$ rhetoric is common 1rom North Korea, and especiall$ so in recent da$s5 North Korea is an!r$ o2er the possi)le sanctions and o2er 'pcomin! 65S5=So'th Korean militar$ drills5 &t a mass rall$ in P$on!$an! on 4h'rsda$, tens o1 tho'sands o1 North Koreans protested the 65S5=So'th Korean #ar drills and sanctions5 PNo# o'r enemies are tr$in! to ma:e additional sanctions a!ainst 's, )'t #e can ne2er accept this,P said 9i K'm Il, a P$on!$an! citizen at the rall$5 PMe #ill ma:e a preempti2e n'clear attac: a!ainst o'r enemies #here2er the$ are and t'rn their stron!holds into a sea o1 1lames5P 4he 65N5 Sec'rit$ 8o'ncil is set to impose a 1o'rth ro'nd o1 sanctions a!ainst P$on!$an! in a 1resh attempt to rein in its n'clear and )allistic missile pro!rams5 9'ssiaFs 65N5 &m)assador @ital$ 8h'r:in, the c'rrent co'ncil president, said the co'ncil #o'ld 2ote on the dra1t sanctions resol'tion 4h'rsda$ mornin!5 4he resol'tion #as dra1ted )$ the 6nited States and 8hina, North KoreaFs closest all$5 4he co'ncilFs a!reement to p't the resol'tion to a 2ote ;'st 3E ho'rs later si!naled that it #o'ld almost certainl$ ha2e the s'pport o1 all ,+ co'ncil mem)ers5 4he statement )$ the North Korean Aorei!n Ministr$ spo:esman #as carried )$ the NorthFs o11icial Korean 8entral Ne#s &!enc$5 It acc'sed the 65S5 o1 leadin! e11orts to slap sanctions on North Korea5 4he statement said the ne# sanctions #o'ld onl$ ad2ance the timin! 1or North Korea to 1'l1ill pre2io's 2o#s to ta:e Ppo#er1'l second and third co'ntermeas'resP a!ainst its enemies5 It hasnFt ela)orated on those meas'res5 4he statement said North Korea Pstron!l$ #arns the 65N5 Sec'rit$ 8o'ncil not to ma:e another )i! )l'nder li:e the one in the past #hen it earned the in2eterate !r'd!e o1 the Korean nation )$ actin! as a #ar ser2ant 1or the 65S5 in ,-+.5P North Korea demanded the 65N5 Sec'rit$ 8o'ncil immediatel$ dismantle the &merican=led 65N5 8ommand thatFs )ased in Seo'l and mo2e to end the state o1 #ar that e?ists on the Korean Penins'la, #hich contin'es si? decades a1ter 1i!htin! stopped )eca'se an armistice, not a peace treat$, ended the #ar5 In anticipation o1 the resol'tionFs adoption, North Korea earlier in the #ee: threatened to cancel the ,-+/ cease=1ire that ended the Korean Mar5 North Korean threats ha2e )ecome more common as tensions ha2e escalated 1ollo#in! a roc:et la'nch )$ P$on!$an! in Decem)er and its third n'clear test on Ae)5 ,25 (oth acts de1ied three Sec'rit$ 8o'ncil resol'tions that )ar North Korea 1rom testin! or 'sin! n'clear or )allistic missile technolo!$ and 1rom importin! or e?portin! material 1or these pro!rams5 65S5 65N5 &m)assador S'san 9ice said the proposed resol'tion, to )e 2oted on at ,. a5m5 %S4 (,+.. M4), #o'ld impose some o1 the stron!est sanctions e2er ordered )$ the 6nited Nations5

4he 1inal 2ersion o1 the dra1t resol'tion, released Mednesda$, identi1ied three indi2id'als, one corporation and one or!anization that #o'ld )e added to the 65N5 sanctions list i1 the meas're is appro2ed5 4he tar!ets incl'de top o11icials at a compan$ that is the co'ntr$Fs primar$ arms dealer and main e?porter o1 )allistic missile= related eO'ipment, and a national or!anization responsi)le 1or research and de2elopment o1 missiles and pro)a)l$ n'clear #eapons5 4he s'ccess o1 a ne# ro'nd o1 sanctions co'ld depend on en1orcement )$ 8hina, #here most o1 the companies and )an:s that North Korea is )elie2ed to #or: #ith are )ased5 4he 6nited States and other nations #orr$ that North KoreaFs third n'clear test p'shed it closer to its !oal o1 !ainin! n'clear missiles that can reach the 65S5 4he international comm'nit$ has condemned the re!imeFs n'clear and missile e11orts as threats to re!ional sec'rit$ and a drain on the reso'rces that co'ld !o to North KoreaFs lar!el$ destit'te people5 4he dra1t resol'tion condemns the latest n'clear test Pin the stron!est termsP 1or 2iolatin! and 1la!rantl$ disre!ardin! co'ncil resol'tions, )ans 1'rther )allistic missile la'nches, n'clear tests Por an$ other pro2ocation,P and demands that North Korea ret'rn to the N'clear Nonproli1eration 4reat$5 It also condemns all o1 North KoreaFs on!oin! n'clear acti2ities, incl'din! its 'rani'm enrichment5 ('t the proposed resol'tion stresses the co'ncilFs commitment Pto a peace1'l, diplomatic and political sol'tionP and 'r!ed a res'mption o1 si?=part$ tal:s #ith the aim o1 den'clearizin! the Korean Penins'la Pin a peace1'l manner5P 4he proposed resol'tion #o'ld ma:e it si!ni1icantl$ harder 1or North Korea to mo2e aro'nd the 1'nds it needs to carr$ o't its illicit pro!rams and stren!then e?istin! sanctions and the inspection o1 s'spect car!o )o'nd to and 1rom the co'ntr$5 It #o'ld also )an co'ntries 1rom e?portin! speci1ic l'?'r$ !oods to the North, incl'din! $achts, l'?'r$ a'tomo)iles, racin! cars, and ;e#elr$ #ith semi=precio's and precio's stones and precio's metals5 &ccordin! to the dra1t, all co'ntries #o'ld no# )e reO'ired to 1reeze 1inancial transactions or ser2ices that co'ld contri)'te to North KoreaFs n'clear or missile pro!rams5 4o !et aro'nd 1inancial sanctions, North Koreans ha2e )een carr$in! aro'nd lar!e s'itcases 1illed #ith cash to mo2e illicit 1'nds5 4he dra1t resol'tion e?presses concern that these )'l: cash trans1ers ma$ )e 'sed to e2ade sanctions5 It clari1ies that the 1reeze on 1inancial transactions and ser2ices that co'ld 2iolate sanctions applies to all cash trans1ers as #ell as the cash co'riers5 4he proposed resol'tion also )ans all co'ntries 1rom pro2idin! p')lic 1inancial s'pport 1or trade deals, s'ch as !rantin! e?port credits, !'arantees or ins'rance, i1 the assistance co'ld contri)'te to the NorthFs n'clear or missile pro!rams5 It incl'des #hat a senior diplomat called 'nprecedented ne# tra2el sanctions that #o'ld reO'ire co'ntries to e?pel a!ents #or:in! 1or sanctioned North Korean companies5 4he dra1t also reO'ires states to inspect s'spect car!o on their territor$ and pre2ent an$ 2essel that re1'ses an inspection 1rom enterin! their ports5 &nd a ne# a2iation meas're calls on states to den$ aircra1t permission to ta:e o11, land or 1l$ o2er their territor$ i1 illicit car!o is s'spected to )e a)oard5 QQQ <ederer reported 1rom the 6nited Nations5 Aoster Kl'! in Seo'l contri)'ted to this report5 So'rce: http:>>ne#s5$ahoo5com>1'rio's=o2er=sanctions=n:orea=2o#s=n':e='s=.-22,/I3/5html

8oncentration 8amps and 8hild Sla1ery in #orth Korea

Shin Don$3hyuk !a%o1e"0 a Korean man 'ho defected from #orth Korea and sou$ht political asylum in South Korea0 escaped 8amp *- near Pyon$yan$0 #orth Korea. 8amp *- is a concentration camp for families 'hose loyalty to the PDear LeaderQ is Iuestiona%le. Shin Don$3hyuk 'as %orn and raised in 8amp *- and endured star1ation0 torture0 and sla1ery for (+ years %efore escapin$ from the concentration camp.

The Casual 'orrors of /ife in a North Korean 'ell
N%scape Arom 8amp ,3,D )$ (laine 7arden ($ *&N%4 M&S<IN Ne# Gor: 4imes P')lished: &pril ,,, 2.,2
Mhen (laine 7arden #rote his shoc:in! 2..E pro1ile o1 Shin Don!=h$': 1or 4he Mashin!ton Post, Mr5 Shin #as li2in! in Seo'l, So'th Korea, and alread$ a p')lished a'thor5 7e had #ritten J%scape to the "'tside Morld,K a 2..H Korean=lan!'a!e acco'nt o1 his horri1ic 'p)rin!in!5 Mr5 Shin #as )orn in a North Korean 1orced=la)or camp and then 1o'nd his #a$ to 1reedom5 4here #ere some pro)lems #ith pla$in! )ac: this acco'nt 2er)atim5 So Mr5 7ardenDs dramatic 1ront=pa!e article, JNorth Korean Prison 8amp %scapee 4ells o1 7orrors, Morries &)o't 4hose <e1t (ehind,K too: care to incl'de a disclaimer: JShinDs stor$ co'ld not )e independentl$ 2eri1ied, )'t it has )een 2etted and 2o'ched 1or )$ leadin! h'man=ri!hts acti2ists and mem)ers o1 de1ector or!anizations in Seo'l,K 4he Post article said5 6n1ort'natel$, the disclaimer t'rned o't to )e necessar$5 &s Mr5 7arden no# ac:no#led!es in J%scape Arom 8amp ,3,K his )l'nt, )est=sellin! )oo: a)o't Mr5 ShinDs li1e, Mr5 Shin had )'ilt his o#n memoir 'pon a !i!antic lie5 In his acco'nt Mr5 Shin claimed to ha2e )een a helpless innocent #itness to the e?ec'tion o1 his mother and )rother #hen Mr5 Shin #as onl$ ,35 7e had indeed )een helpless, and he had the tort're mar:s to pro2e it5 ('t, as Mr5 7arden disco2ered a)o't a $ear into the inter2ie#in! process 1or this )oo:, Mr5 ShinDs ori!inal acco'nt omitted a cr'cial detail: 7e #as responsi)le 1or the e?ec'tions5 7e had snitched to a prison !'ard a)o't an escape his mother and )rother #ere plannin!, :no#in! 1'll #ell that escape plans #ere p'nisha)le )$ death5 Mr5 Shin admitted to Mr5 7arden that he had made this trade=o11 to !et more 1ood and an easier ;o) at school5 &nd he said he had done it #itho't re!rets5 7e tho'!ht that his mother and )rother deser2ed to die5 JIn #ritin! this )oo:, I ha2e sometimes str'!!led to tr'st him,K Mr5 7arden #rites 'nderstanda)l$ in J%scape Arom 8amp ,35K Mr5 7arden tries to 1athom a cr$ptic, tro')led and not entirel$ s$mpathetic $o'n! man #hose circ'mstances lend themsel2es to e?a!!eration5 MhatDs more, the ne# )oo: 'ses dialo!'e )orro#ed 1rom Mr5 ShinDs disin!en'o's 2..H 2ersion5 J%scape Arom 8amp ,3K also incl'des simple line dra#in!s (as Mr5 ShinDs )oo: had) that !i2e the most tra'matic parts o1 his stor$ L tort're, imprisonment, maimin!, e?ec'tions L the loo: o1 action comics5 4he most )eni!n o1 these pict'res carries this caption: J8hildren in the camps sca2en!ed constantl$ 1or 1ood, eatin! rats, insects and 'ndi!ested :ernels o1 corn the$ 1o'nd in co# d'n!5K 9eaders ma$ #ell )e #on o2er )$ the sharp, declarati2e, $o'n!=ad'lt st$le o1 Mr5 7ardenDs ad2ent're #ritin!5 4he$ #ill respond to 'r!ent concern a)o't conditions in North Korean prison camps, #hich are no# 2isi)le 2ia satellite photo!raphs5 &nd most mis!i2in!s a)o't J%scape Arom 8amp ,3K #ill )e o't#ei!hed )$ the po#er o1 a 1ast, )r'tal read5 4his is not a 1amiliar prison camp stor$0 as Mr5 7arden points o't, Shin Don!=h$': is not %lie Miesel5 J od did not disappear or die,K Mr5 7arden #rites5 JShin had ne2er heard o1 him5K Mr5 Shin did not spend his imprisonment missin! lo2e, ;o$, ci2ilization or com1ort, )eca'se he had ne2er e?perienced s'ch thin!s5 &s the spa#n o1 a Jre#ard marria!eK L considered Jthe 'ltimate )on's 1or hard #or: and relia)le snitchin!K L he had no real 1amil$ ties5 4he )oo: sa$s that he re!arded his mother as a ri2al 1or 1ood and #as ri!ht to do so0 she once )eat him #ith a hoe 1or eatin! her l'nch5 &s a $o'n! child, he sa# schoolmates maimed or e2en :illed 1or minor trans!ressions and he learned to o)e$ the campDs totalitarian r'les5 M'ch o1 this )oo:Ds impact comes 1rom its nonstop parade o1 !hastl$ details5 Mr5 7arden #rites o1 ho# prisoners har2ested 1rozen h'man e?crement L chipped 1rom toilets L to ma:e 'p 1or North KoreaDs shorta!e o1 other 1ertilizer0 ho# eatin! rats co'ld help sta2e o11 pella!ra0 ho# a 1ormer North Korean &rm$ o11icer in another camp, despairin!, ;'mped do#n a coal mine sha1t, hopin! to die5

('t JShinDs miser$ ne2er s:idded into complete hopelessness,K Mr5 7arden #rites in t$picall$ plain, 1orthri!ht st$le5 J7e had no hope to lose, no past to mo'rn, no pride to de1end5 7e did not 1ind it de!radin! to lic: so'p o11 the 1loor5 7e #as not ashamed to )e! a !'ard 1or 1or!i2eness5 It didnDt tro')le his conscience to )etra$ a 1riend 1or 1ood5 4hese #ere merel$ s'r2i2al s:ills, not moti2es 1or s'icide5K Not e2en the peremptor$ choppin! o11 o1 part o1 Mr5 ShinDs middle 1in!er L an e2ent that #arrants onl$ t#o para!raphs in Mr5 7ardenDs parade o1 horrors L #as eno'!h to set Mr5 ShinDs escape plans in motion5 Mhat did it #as the arri2al o1 a #orldl$ prisoner #ho made him realize #hat he #as missin!5 J7e e?plained that the #orld #as ro'nd,K the )oo: sa$s o1 Par: Gon! 8h'l, the 1irst person to tell Mr5 Shin a)o't a North Korean cit$ called P$on!$an! and a)o't #hat it #as li:e to eat !rilled meat5 J7e 1antasized a)o't escapin! #ith Par: )eca'se he #anted to eat li:e Par:5K 4he escape pro2ides one o1 the )oo:Ds !risliest stories, #hich is sa$in! a lot5 (7int: J4he h'man )od$ is 'npredicta)le #hen it comes to cond'ctin! electricit$5K) &nd Mr5 Shin 1inds himsel1 o'tside the camp, alone5 J%scape 1rom 8amp ,3K 1ollo#s his steps to 8hina, then Seo'l, then 8ali1ornia and Seattle and on a!ain (he no# li2es in Seo'l and Mashin!ton), )'t it )ecomes less certain #ith each step 1or#ard5 *'st as Mr5 Shin, Ja scra#n$, inc'rio's and 1or the most part 1riendless child #hose one so'rce o1 certaint$ #as the !'ardsD lect'res a)o't redemption thro'!h snitchin!,K is not a model prisoner, his is not a model redemption5 4he )oo: ends on an 'ncertain note, #ith Mr5 ShinDs deli2erin! a slic:, care1'll$ prepared speech a)o't his o#n ordeal and the 'r!ent need to li)erate other North Korean prisoners5 JIn that speech, i1 not $et in his li1e, Shin had seized control o1 his past,K Mr5 7arden #rites ca'tio'sl$5 ('t J%scape Arom 8amp ,3K o11ers no eas$ ans#ers a)o't ho# Mr5 Shin can deal #ith a ne#l$ !'ilt$ conscience, a lac: o1 introspection, a chec:ered #or: histor$ and the di11ic'lt ad;'stment to post=tra'matic li1e5 7e had remar:a)le po#ers o1 end'rance a!ainst the to'!hest ph$sical torment5 4hose po#ers are )ein! tested still5

This article has been revised to reflect the following correction:

Correction: April 13, 2012 4he (oo:s o1 4he 4imes re2ie# on 4h'rsda$, a)o't J%scape Arom 8amp ,3: "ne ManDs 9emar:a)le "d$sse$ Arom North Korea to Areedom in the Mest,K )$ (laine 7arden, misidenti1ied the prisoner #ho tried to :ill himsel1 )$ ;'mpin! do#n a coal mine sha1t5 It #as Kim Gon!, a 1ormer North Korean &rm$ o11icer L not Shin Don!=h$':, the s');ect o1 the )oo:5
& 2ersion o1 this re2ie# appeared in print on &pril ,2, 2.,2, on pa!e 8H o1 the Ne# Gor: edition #ith the headline: 4he 8as'al 7orrors o1 <i1e in a North Korean 7ell5 Source: http:&&'''.nytimes.com&(.*(&.-&*(&%ooks&escape3from3camp3*-3%y3%laine3harden.html?pa$e'anted<all>=r<.

. sergeant surrenders after 50 $ears
By 6eor$e #ishiyama 8amp ama0 2apan Septem%er *(0 (..-

5S 4rmy Ser$eant 8harles 7o%ert 2enkins yesterday $a1e himself up at an 4merican army %ase in 2apan. !Picture: 4P" 5S 4rmy Ser$eant 8harles 7o%ert 2enkins $a1e himself up a 5S %ase in 2apan today to face char$es that he deserted to communist #orth Korea four decades a$o 'hile on patrol in South Korea. 9is surrender is a %i$ step to'ards resol1in$ a diplomatic headache for the 5nited States and close ally 2apan. Wearin$ a suit and tie0 the G-3year3old 2enkins $a1e a lon$ salute as he 'as recei1ed %y Lieutenant 8olonel Paul #i$ara at 8amp ama0 the 5S 4rmy;s headIuarters in 2apan 'est of the capital. SSir0 H;m S$t 2enkins0 and H;m reportin$0S he 'as Iuoted as sayin$ %y a 5S army statement. 5nlike some accused deserters thou$ht to %e at risk of tryin$ to flee0 2enkins 'as not put into handcuffs or le$ irons0 partly out of sensiti1ity to sympathy in 2apan for his 2apanese 'ife0 9itomi So$a. 2enkins met So$a in #orth Korea after she 'as kidnapped %y its a$ents in *)A, to help teach spies to speak 2apanese. /hey ha1e t'o #orth Korean3%orn dau$hters0 a$ed (* and *). SH hope 'e four can $o to Sado Hsland and li1e to$ether as soon as possi%le0S So$a told reporters early today0 referrin$ to the small north 2apanese island that is her home. So$a0 almost (. years 2enkins; Bunior0 'as allo'ed to return to 2apan t'o years a$o 'ith four other a%ductees0 %ut had to lea1e her family %ehind. 2enkins arri1ed in /okyo for medical care in 2uly after 2apan arran$ed for the family to %e reunited in 2akarta. Since then0 Prime Minister 2unichiro Koizumi has had to %alance the 5S desire to see 2enkins face court martial 'ith 2apanese pu%lic sympathy for his 'ife. Washin$ton says 2enkins0 a nati1e of 7ich SIuare0 #orth 8arolina0 slipped into #orth Korea one cold 2anuary ni$ht in *)G@ 'hile leadin$ a patrol near the Demilitarised one separatin$ the t'o Koreas and later Boined Pyon$yan$;s propa$anda machine. 2enkins had lied a%out his a$e to enlist at *@0 and said in a recent inter1ie' 'ith the ar !astern !conomic "e#ie$ that he 'anted to turn himself in to Sclear my conscienceS. 8har$ed 'ith desertion0 aidin$ the enemy0 encoura$in$ disloyalty and solicitin$ other ser1ice mem%ers to desert0 he has se1eral le$al options. Speculation has focused on a possi%le pre3trial deal in 'hich he 'ould plead $uilty to one or more char$es %ut offer to tell the 5S military 'hat he kno's a%out #orth Korea in e?chan$e for a punishment li$hter than the ma?imum of life in prison. 5S President 6eor$e W Bush is said to %e reluctant to $i1e 2enkins special treatment 'hile 4merican troops are fi$htin$ in HraI and ahead of #o1em%er;s presidential election.

But Koizumi0 'ho %acked the 5S3led 'ar in HraI and sent non3com%at troops there in the face of pu%lic hostility0 'ants So$a and her family to %e a%le to li1e to$ether in her homeland. 2enkins 'ill %e supplied 'ith 'hate1er he needs to resume acti1e duty0 includin$ a haircut and a uniform. 9is family 'ill %e treated like other soldiers; dependants and are e?pected to %e housed on the military %ase. Kno'n as SSuperS to his family0 the Bu$3eared 2enkins left school early and 'ashed cars at a Ford dealership %efore lyin$ a%out his a$e to enlist in the #ational 6uard 'hen he 'as *@. 9e later Boined the army. So$a 'as one of fi1e 2apanese a%ductees 'ho returned to 2apan in (..( after more than a Iuarter of a century in reclusi1e #orth Korea. 9er poise and a penchant for poetic e?pressions ha1e 'on the hearts of many 2apanese. 3 7euters http:&&'''.thea$e.com.au&articles&(..-&.)&**&*.)-A,)A+,A@*.html

The 0eluctant Communist )$ 8harles 9o)ert *en:ins #ith *im Arederic:5 8harles 9o)ert *en:ins is a 1ormer 65S5 &rm$ ser!eant #ho deserted his 'nit in So'th Korea in *an'ar$ ,-I+ )$ escapin! to North Korea 2ia the Demilitarized Zone5 8harles 9o)ert *en:ins li2ed in North Korea 1or 3. $ears and married a *apanese lad$0 *en:ins, his #i1e, and his t#o da'!hters no# li2e in *apan5

.eserter 4ecalls N. Korean =ell
($ Daniel Schorn This segment was originally $roa"cast on 1ct! 23# 2 4! In ,-I+, 8harles P9o)ertP *en:ins, an &merican soldier, did somethin! impossi)le to 'nderstand5 7e deserted to North Korea and !ot st'c: there5 Aor /- $ears, si? months and 1o'r da$s, he #as trapped in a )izarre Stalinist state L h'n!r$, s'11erin!, told )$ the !o2ernment ho# to li2e, #hat to read, and e2en #hen to ha2e se?5 Ne2er )e1ore has an &merican li2ed amon! the secreti2e North Koreans so lon! and escaped to tell the tale5 Correspondent Scott Pelley reports5
Mhen he deserted, *en:ins essentiall$ stepped o11 the #orld5 7e had not dri2en a car in 3. $ears0 he didnFt :no# #hat a (i! Mac #as5 &s 60 Minutes 1irst reported in 2..+, *en:ins told Pelle$ he had ne2er heard o1 the 8(S Ne#s pro!ram )'t hoped to !et his stor$ into /ife ma!azine, #hich stopped p')lishin! as a #ee:l$ in ,-H25 9o)ert *en:ins tells his stor$, an &merican 9ip @an Min:le #ho, one ni!ht, crossed a mine1ield into a ni!htmare5 P4hin:in! )ac: no#, I #as a 1ool5 I1 thereFs a od in the hea2en, he carried me thro'!h it,P said *en:ins5 P9o)ert, i1 od in hea2en carried $o' thro'!h it, $o' ended 'p in hell,P said Pelle$5 P4hatFs it5 Geah5 I !ot m$ p'nishment,P *en:ins replied, in a dra#l sho#in! his roots in North 8arolina, #here he !re# 'p in a lar!e )'t poor 1amil$5 *en:ins dropped o't o1 hi!h school and ;oined the militar$5 In ,-I3, he 2ol'nteered 1or a second to'r on the hostile )order )et#een North and So'th Korea5 7e #as a ser!eant, a sO'ad leader, )'t had )een thin:in! a)o't desertin! to the north5 "n a s')zero ni!ht, he do#ned ,. )eers and led his men on his last patrol5 PMell, I told them I heard somethin! and I #o'ld )e )ac: in a 1e# min'tes5 I #o'ld !o and chec: it o't5 &nd I le1t and I started #al:in!5 Started #al:in! north,P *en:ins recalled5 7e no# realizes that he had a)andoned his troops5 Mhat #o'ld he tell the men 1rom that sO'ad #atchin! the inter2ie#R PI apolo!ize 1or lea2in! them5 4he$ had 1aith that I #o'ld ta:e them thro'!h5 ('t I )etra$ed them,P said *en:ins5 7e told 60 Minutes he )etra$ed them and his co'ntr$ )eca'se, on the )order, he #as )ein! as:ed to lead more a!!ressi2e, pro2ocati2e patrols, and that scared him5 7e #as also hearin! his 'nit mi!ht ship o't to @ietnam5 Instead, he #al:ed thro'!h the ni!ht and s'rrendered to an astonished North Korean soldier5 *en:ins #as 23 $ears old5 *en:ins sa$s he :no#s he made a mista:e5 PI made a lot o1 mista:es in m$ li1e, ma$)e, )'t that #as the #orst mista:e an$)od$ e2er ma:e5 4hatFs 1or s're5P Mhat #as *en:ins thin:in!R *en:ins sa$s he #as no comm'nist s$mpathizer and ima!ined the North Koreans #o'ld send him to 9'ssia and the 9'ssians #o'ld trade him to &merica in some sort o1 a 8old Mar s#ap5 ItFs a nice plot 1or a no2el )'t not the script North Korea had in mind5 *en:ins ;oined the NorthFs collection o1 &merican &rm$ deserters5 &t the time, there #ere three others alread$ li2in! in North Korea5 7e shared a ho'se #ith <arr$ &)shier, *err$ Parrish and *ames Dresno:5 PDresno: told me, FGo'Fre here, $o'Fll ne2er lea2e,FP *en:ins said5 4hen, as no#, North Korea #as a totalitarian state strai!ht o't o1 the pa!es o1 eor!e "r#ell5 4he dictatorship o1 Kim Il S'n! imposed complete control o1 )od$ and mind5 Mhat did the 1o'r &merican soldiers do all da$ lon! in P$on!$an!R *en:ins sa$s the$ #ere 1orced to st'd$ the teachin!s o1 Kim Il S'n!5

Korean political o11icers called PleadersP 1orced the &mericans to st'd$ KimFs #ritin!s ei!ht ho'rs a da$ 1or se2en $ears5 4he$ memorized it in Korean, a lan!'a!e the$ didnFt 'nderstand5 &nd e2en no#, the #ords lie on his memor$ li:e a scar5 Mhile recitin! one o1 Kim Il S'n!Fs teachin!s in Korean 1or Pelle$, *en:ins had a pained loo: on his 1ace5 PIn #ords, I cannot e?press the 1eelin!s I ha2e to#ards North Korea, the harassment I !ot5 4he hard li1e,P he said5 &t one point, *en:ins #as assi!ned a #oman and ordered )$ the !o2ernment to ha2e se? #ith her t#ice a month5 P4he leaders almost tell her #hen to do it5 &nd I !ot in a )i! 1i!ht one time o2er it, )eca'se o1 one leader5 I told him itFs none o1 his )'siness: FI1 I #ant to sleep #ith her, she #ant to sleep, #e sleep5F FNo, t#o times a month,FP *en:ins said, recallin! the ar!'ment5 *en:ins sa$s he !ot the #orst )eatin! e2er 1or tal:in! )ac: to a leader5 7e sho#ed Pelle$ a scar #here he sa$s his teeth came thro'!h his lo#er lip5 ('t e2en that )eatin! #asnFt as )ad as the da$ someone noticed *en:insF tattoo #ith the #ords P65S5 &rm$P in:ed into his 1orearm )elo# crossed ri1les5 *en:ins sa$s the North Koreans held him do#n and c't o11 the tattoo #ith scissors and no anesthetic5 P4he$ told me the anesthetic #as 1or the )attle1ield,P *en:ins said5 PIt #as hell5P 7e #anted to )elie2e he #as still in the &rm$ )'t no# the North Koreans had c't the #ords ri!ht o't o1 his 1lesh5 PItFs reall$ in the details that $o' start to 'nderstand ;'st ho# )ad his li1e #as,P sa$s *im Arederic:, Time ma!azineFs 4o:$o )'rea' chie1, and co=a'thor o1 a )oo: *en:ins p')lished in *apan5 M'ch o1 the )oo: deals #ith *en:insF description o1 his str'!!le to s'r2i2e the per2asi2e po2ert$ o1 the North5 P7e ne2er had an$ heat5 "r, #ell, #hen #e had heat, $o' :no# #e had to sto:e the )oiler o'rsel2es,P sa$s Arederic:5 P7e had an apartment, )'t the toilet didnFt 1l'sh5 Go' had to 1l'sh it )$ hand5 &nd it didnFt reall$ ha2e a septic tan:, it had a pipe5 &n o'tlet pipe o't the )ac:, so rats #o'ld come 'p5P &nd consider, the &mericans #ere )ein! treated )etter than most North Koreans )eca'se the !o2ernment #as 'sin! them – posin! them in sta!ed propa!anda 1liers, 1orcin! them to teach %n!lish to militar$ cadets and #o'ld=)e spies5 *en:ins #as also ordered to act in the mo2ies5 In one 1ilm he pla$ed the e2il &merican Dr5 Kelton5 *en:insF 1amil$ !ot a cop$ o1 this mo2ie 1rom a reporter /2 $ears a1ter he disappeared5 PMhat did $o' sa$ #hen $o' sa# that 1ace on the screenRP Pelle$ as:ed *en:insF sister Pat 7arrell5 PIt #as the 1irst ra$ o1 hope that I had act'all$ had in all those $ears, that he is ali2e5 7e loo:ed #ell,P she recalled5 &nd )ac: in North Korea, *en:ins #as also to'ched )$ a ra$ o1 hope5 In ,-E., a1ter ,+ lonel$ $ears, his leaders )ro'!ht a 2,=$ear=old *apanese !irl to his door5 PMell, IFll p't it li:e this5 I loo:ed at her one time5 I #asnFt lettin! her !o,P said *en:ins5 She #as 7itomi So!a, and she had )een :idnapped in one o1 the most )izarre intelli!ence operations in modern histor$5 North Korea #as a)d'ctin! ordinar$ *apanese citizens and 1orcin! them to teach *apanese to North Korean spies5 In ,-HE, 7itomi #as :idnapped )$ North Korean a!ents on a road on Sado Island, *apan5 She #as sho2ed onto a )oat and disappeared5 No one in *apan :ne# #h$ or ho#5 So!a and *en:ins #ere 1rom t#o completel$ di11erent #orlds )'t he sa$s the$ had somethin! in common5 PShe #as a prisoner5 I #as a prisoner5 MeFre )oth the same5 Me )oth hated North Korea5 So thatFs reall$ a)o't the onl$ thin! $o'Fd sa$ #e had in common5P Mithin #ee:s the$ #ere married, a 'nion arran!ed )$ the !o2ernment the$ despised, )'t *en:ins sa$s it )loomed into a tr'e marria!e5 %ach ni!ht )e1ore !oin! to )ed in North Korea, *en:ins said !ood ni!ht to his #i1e in *apanese, rather than Korean5 7e did it, he tells Pelle$, to Premind her that sheFs still *apanese, that sheFs not Korean5 SheFs not o)li!ated to Korea5 She is *apanese and she spo:e to me in %n!lish, e2er$ ni!ht5 9e!ardless o1 ho# hard thin!s !ot, #e al#a$s st'c: as one5P 4he$ Pst'c: as oneP 1or 22 $ears, raisin! t#o da'!hters, Mi:a and (rinda5 4hen in 2..2, the completel$ 'ne?pected happened5

4o impro2e relations, the ne# dictator o1 North Korea, KimFs son, Kim *on! Il, admitted to *apanese Prime Minister *'nichiro Koiz'mi that North Korea had :idnapped ,/ *apanese citizens5 4he s'r2i2ors, incl'din! 7itomi, ret'rned home, #here she )ecame a national hero5 ('t *en:ins and the !irls sta$ed )ehind5 4he North didnFt #ant them to !o, and *en:ins :ne# that he #o'ld )e arrested )$ the 65S5 &rm$ 1or desertion i1 he le1t5 7e spent t#o more lonel$ $ears in North Korea, 'ntil there #as a diplomatic )rea:thro'!h and *en:ins decided that !oin! to prison #o'ld )e #orth it i1 he co'ld see his #i1e a!ain5 7itomi #as re'nited #ith *en:ins and their da'!hters in Indonesia5 In Septem)er 2..3, S!t5 *en:ins reported 1or d't$ at a 65S5 )ase in *apan5 It appears no deserter has e2er come )ac: a1ter )ein! !one so lon!5 *en:ins said it 1elt !ood to )e in 'ni1orm a!ain a1ter 3. $ears5 PAelt !oodR Mh$ soRP Pelle$ as:ed5 PI correct m$ mista:e5 I come )ac:,P *en:ins said5 P&nd Mi:a and (rinda, the$ had ne2er seen me, the$ ne2er sa# me in 'ni1orm and I didnFt thin: the$ e2er #o'ld5P 7e pled !'ilt$ to desertion and aidin! the enem$ and #as released 1rom the )ri! a1ter 2+ da$s5 PIF2e paid m$ de)t to societ$5 I donFt e?pect people to r'n 'p to me and h'! me and :iss me5 I donFt #ant them to,P said *en:ins5 &nd *en:ins does not thin: o1 himsel1 as a traitor5 PI1 I #as a traitor, I #o'ldnFt ha2e come )ac:5P Pelle$ as:ed *en:ins #hat amazed him the most a)o't the #orld since he le1t it in ,-I+5 7e had ne2er laid a hand on a comp'ter, m'ch less )een on the Internet5 7e told 60 Minutes he #as s'rprised there #ere so man$ #omen in the &rm$, that there #ere )lac: policemen, and, as he p't it, $o' canFt smo:e an$#here an$more5 *en:ins sa$s he had )een told a)o't the historic landin! o1 men o1 the moon5 PI #as told that )$ the Koreans, one o1 the o11icers5 4he$ #o'ldnFt sa$ #hat co'ntr$, )'t the$ said, F6na handa laFU some co'ntr$ landed on the moon5P 4oda$, *en:ins has landed on Sado Island, *apan, not 1ar 1rom the spot #here his #i1e #as :idnapped5 ('t )e1ore he came to the 1amil$ 1arm, he had to :no# that 7itomiFs lo2e 1lo#ed 1rom 1reedom, not sla2er$5 *en:ins 2ol'nteered to dissol2e the marria!e5 PI told her, FIn North Korea, itFs one thin!5 4his is *apan5 Go'Fre still $o'n!5 I1 $o' #ish 1or me to !o, IFll !o5F P ('t 7itomi said no5 &1ter 7itomi, there #as ;'st one other #oman in the #orld he needed to see: his mother5 Mhen he le1t 1or d't$ in So'th Korea, he told her he #o'ld )e )ac: in a $ear5 <ast s'mmer, *en:ins 2isited North 8arolina #here, at the a!e o1 -,, his mother, Pattie 8asper, had li2ed lon! eno'!h to see her son come home5 PGeah, I lo2e $o'5 U I didnFt thin: $o' #o'ld e2er !et here,P his mother said d'rin! the re'nion5 PIt #as hard, 2er$ di11ic'lt, 2er$ hard,P *en:ins tear1'll$ replied5 So'rce: http:>>###5c)sne#s5com>E/.,=,E+I.Q,I2=-+-3++5html

Kim hin-6o7 eoul urvivor 50 2ears after Commando !aid* Former /ssassin 8auds New President
By 4ndre' Salmon

Kim Shin3Bo S:E5L 3 9e 'as once dispatched to assassinate a South Korean president0 %ut Kim Shin3Bo 'as deli$hted at MondayDs inau$uration of conser1ati1e Lee Myun$3%ak in Seoul. P/here has %een somethin$ 'ron$ in our society0Q says Kim0 GA0 of the last *. years of li%eral rule in Seoul. PH %elie1e Lee 'ill defend freedom.Q /he sole sur1i1or of a #orth Korean commando sIuad tasked 'ith Pcuttin$ the throatQ of then3South Korean President Park 8hun$3hee in *)G,0 Kim0 today a Pres%yterian pastor0 is a fierce critic of the en$a$ement policy pursued %y the pre1ious t'o Seoul administrations. P#orth Korea has not %een Yen$a$ed0DQ he thundered at his office in a 8hristian retreat amon$ hills o1erlookin$ the frozen 9an 7i1er0 north of Seoul. P#othin$ has chan$ed in the re$ime or the military: South Korean support has only made the re$ime stron$erZQ Kim 9l-sung0s Commandoes 9e should kno'. Kim $re' up in a staunchly communist family in #orth Korea. 4t (-0 durin$ his military ser1ice0 he 'as selected for special forces. PH realized H 'as undertakin$ a re1olutionary mission0Q he said. PMy life 'as no lon$er $uaranteed.Q /rainin$ 'as $ruelin$. /hey learned 'eaponry0 na1i$ation0 parachutin$0 amphi%ious infiltration0 camoufla$e. Ene concealment tactic 'as to di$ into $ra1es and hide. PWe slept 'ith the %ones: Ht made you fearless0 and no%ody 'ould think of lookin$ for you in a $ra1eZQ /hey s'am ri1ers and ran up mountains. 8arryin$ +. kilo packs0 they ran at *( km&h in %roken country. Sometimes they 'ere star1ed0 and forced to eat roots0 snakes and fro$s. Some men lost toes0 fin$ers and e1en feet to frost%ite in 'inter. Martial arts 'ere emphasized: En his left hand and arm X PH 'as a southpa'ZQ 3 Kim still %ears scars from %reakin$ and knife fi$htin$. 9is first cross %order operation 'as to undertake a reconnaissance of a 5.S. radar installation. /he mission 'as successful: 9e returned 'ithout detection. 9is ne?t operation 'ould %e a different matter. "ission 9mpossi-le: *)G, 'ould pro1e the fiercest year of the 4sian 8old War. Hn Jietnam0 it 'ould %e marked %y the /et Effensi1e. Hn Korea0 the 5.S. spyship the Pue%lo 'ould %e seized. Before those e1ents0 in 2anuary0 Pyon$yan$Ds hi$h command planned an audacious operation to reunify the peninsula under communist rule 'ithin days. PHt had to %e a short3term 'ar0Q Kim said. PHn the Korean War0 #orth Korea could not 'in due to lack of money0 lack of resources. /he strate$y 'as to 'in %efore 5.S. aircraft from Ekina'a could arri1e. Ht had to %e a s'ift0 assymetrical attack.Q /he plan 'as to assassinate South Korean President Park 8hun$3hee. Media reports of his death0 Kim claims0 'ould si$nal other #orth Korean commando units to $o into action 3 %y lo'3le1el parachute landin$s0 amphi%ious infiltration0 and foot infiltration across the %order. Ministries and key 5.S. and South Korean military %ases 'ould %e attacked. Prisons 'ould %e opened0 se'in$ confusion. 8ommandoes 'ith special eIuipment 'ould take o1er %roadcastin$ stations and post offices. Pro3#orth Korean elements in the south 'ould rise on 2an ((0 and the headless $o1ernment 'ould collapse. PHt 'ould %e like a re1olution from 'ithin0Q said Kim. /he unit chosen to spearhead the operation 'as the crack *(-th Special Forces X KimDs unit. /hree assault teams 'ould attack the presidential Blue 9ouse0 in central Seoul. Kim0 a lieutenant at the time0 'ould lead a $roup that 'ould clear the first floor /he unitDs commander 'ould lead his team onto the second floor0 e?ecutin$ Park. /he third $roup 'ould pro1ide co1er. /hree men 'ould commandeer $eta'ay 1ehicles. PWe 'ere confident0Q Kim recalled. PWe kne' all a%out the Blue 9ouse defenseR 'e didnDt think much of their %ody$uards.Q 9nto the outh 4t .-:.. on 2anuary *,0 *)G,0 +* commandoes crossed the %order. !/he %order fence they cut is preser1ed to this day". /hey 'ore South

Korean uniforms and 'ere trained in Seoul accents X P/his is the %asis of $uerilla fi$htin$ZQ /hey remo1ed mines as they 'ent. /hey halted %efore a South Korean o%ser1ation post: Women 'ere $oin$ in: P/hey 'ere not 1ery alertZQ 8o1ered in 'hite sheets0 the assassins crossed the frozen HmBin 7i1er. Mo1in$ at ni$ht0 they a1oided patrols0 %ut lyin$ up on a forested hillside0 'ere disco1ered %y a $roup of poor lo$$ers. Kim su$$ested killin$ them 3 P%y the %ookQ 3 %ut his commander0 Kim 2on$3moon0 'ho had led se1en cross3%order operations0 let them free. P4t that point0 H thou$ht our mission 'ould fail0Q Kim said. 4fter dark0 the men mo1ed out. Before lon$0 they %ecame a'are of trucks and %uses mo1in$. /he lo$$ers had alerted the military. P/hey %locked the roads0 %ut they could not stop us0Q said Kim. P/hey thou$ht 'e 'ould mo1e at , km&h0 %ut 'e mo1ed at *( km&h. /hey %locked the roads %ehind us: We had already passed throu$hZQ Ht 'as freezin$. South Korean soldiers tasked 'ith huntin$ them lit fires0 $i1in$ a'ay their positions. /he commandoes easily a1oided them and crossed the Seoul rin$ road en masse. /hey laid up in the mountains o1erlookin$ the city. Belo' 'as a %us terminal. /he o%Becti1e 'as 'ithin reach. 6azin$ o1er the su%ur%s0 Kim had one surprise: Seoul0 'hich he 'as told 'ould %e %lacked out due to electricity shorta$es0 'as $litterin$. /he men hid their uniforms and dressed in 2apanese ci1ilian clothes they had carried 'ith them. /heir personnel 'eapons X automatic rifle0 +(. rounds0 *- $renades0 pistol0 da$$er X 'ere concealed in 'aist %ands0 and co1ered 'ith trench coats. /hus armed0 the assassins entered the city. Hn 'as 2anuary (*st0 *)G,. Firefight Seoul 'as cra'lin$ 'ith military and police. PWe 'ere stopped %y police. /hey said0 YWho are you?D We said0 Y8apital Hntelli$ence 8ommandZ We are on an operationZD /hey let us $o on.Q But at appro?imately *.:+.4M0 around (.. meters short of their o%Becti1e0 they 'ere challen$ed %y a local police chief. /his time their %luff did not 'ork: 9e demanded HD. /he commandoes dre' their 'eapons0 mo'in$ do'n the police officer and his Beep dri1er. /hen they attacked. /he Blue 9ouse0 ho'e1er0 had %een reinforced. Eutside its front $ate0 the commandoes ran into a defense platoon armed 'ith automatic 'eapons. 4 furious firefi$ht %roke out. Hncon$ruously0 a %us dro1e throu$h the crossfire. Ht 'as pepper3potted0 the 'omen and school children a%oard killed. /hen tanks rum%led up. /he commandoes had no 'ay to take on armor. /hey scattered. Most headed north. Kim %roke east. Suddenly he 'as surrounded. PH put my 'eapon do'n. H had a desire to li1e: HtDs the %asic instinct of humans.Q Ef KimDs unit0 t'enty nine 'ere hunted do'n and killed o1er nine days. Ene escaped. Si?ty ei$ht South Koreans and three 4mericans also died. 9nterrogation* ;efection* !eligion For one year0 Kim 'as interro$ated. #o 1iolence 'as used: /he South Koreans must ha1e realized that 'ould ha1e %een counter3producti1e: PH had hi$h self3esteemQ Kim said. 9e told his captors e1erythin$ they 'anted to kno'. /hen he 'as put on trial0 'here it 'as pro1en that his 'eapon had not %een fired. PHn the firefi$ht0 H only had one concern: /o sur1i1e.Q En *. 4pril0 *)A.0 he 'as freed to enter society. 9e found 'ork in construction and lectured to the SouthDs army on the #orthDs special troops. Hn Ecto%er0 he married a 8hristian 'ho had 'ritten to him 'hile in capti1ity. /he couple had t'o children. But life pro1ed difficult. 9e learned his parents had %een e?ecuted after his defection %ecame kno'n. Hn the market0 his 'ife 'as pointed out as the P'ife of the #orth Korean spy.Q 9is children faced trou%le at schoolR KimDs story 'as featured in te?t%ooks. 9e attempted suicide. En her %irthday in *),.0 his 'ife asked him to Boin her at church as his present to her. Kim consented. 8hristianity intri$ued him. 4s he learned more0 he found peace. Hn *))@0 he %ecame a pastor. /oday0 he preaches at a reli$ious retreat outside Seoul and counsels #orth Korean refu$ees in the South. 9e has authored four %ooks. Ene0 referrin$ to the fact that he can ne1er return home0 is entitled0 P/he Wild 6oose that 8annot Fly #orth.Q PH pray for %oth countries0Q he said. 9e hopes that President Lee 'ill take a tou$her line 'ith the #orth than his predecessors. Like many defectors0 he %elie1es that Seoul Phas %een dri1en0 e?ploited and used %y #orth Korea.Q 9e remains suspicions of Pyon$yan$0 'hich lacks hi$h3technolo$y military assets %ut retains dan$erous uncon1entional 'arfare capa%ilities. PHt took the South Korean 4rmy nine days to track do'n my unit: What 'ould they do if all the #orth Korean special forces came South?Q he asks. P/here are *..0... like usZ Enly 'hen all special force units are dis%anded can 'e say the #orth has $i1en up its intention to communize the South.Q 4nd that disastrous mission0 -. years a$o? PH try not to think a%out it0Q he said. PHt still fills me 'ith horror.Q :#DS Source: http:&&'''.armchair$eneral.com&forums&sho'thread.php?t<G*A,-

North Korean Fighter Pilot .e-ects to South With ;et
($ NI87"<&S D5 K9IS4"A P')lished: Ma$ 23, ,--I & North Korean &ir Aorce captain de1ected to So'th Korea toda$ in his MI =,- 1i!hter plane, settin! o11 air raid sirens )e1ore arri2in! on a So'th Korean air )ase #ith his aircra1t and a mo'ntain o1 intelli!ence a)o't the North Korean militar$5 4he incident lasted onl$ a)o't ,/ min'tes as the de1ector, 8apt5 <ee 8h'l So, raced to the Gello# Sea 1rom North Korea and then inland to#ard So'th Korea5 So'th Korean 1orces, 1earin! an attac:, set o11 air raid alarms in the #estern s')'r)s o1 Seo'l, the capital, and scram)led si? 1i!hters to intercept the Northern plane5 8aptain <ee dipped his #in!s, to si!nal that he #as not hostile, and the So'th Korean planes escorted him care1'll$ to an air )ase #here he landed and #as immediatel$ placed 'nder ti!ht sec'rit$5 PI co'ldnFt li2e 'nder the NorthFs s$stem an$ lon!er,P 8aptain <ee told a hand1'l o1 So'th Korean reporters #ho #ere allo#ed to tal: to him soon a1ter he landed5 4he de1ection, i1 !en'ine, #as the 1irst in ,/ $ears o1 a pilot #ith a plane5 4he MI =,- is an old model and is not e?pected to $ield ma;or ne# in1ormation to So'th Korean intelli!ence specialists, )'t 8aptain <ee is a rare so'rce o1 direct in1ormation on the a)ilities and preparedness o1 the North Korean &ir Aorce5 PItFs not ;'st a plane and a man, )'t in1ormation a)o't the state o1 troops in North Korea,P said a senior o2ernment o11icial in So'th Korea5 4he de1ection comes at a 2er$ delicate moment in inter=Korean relations5 North Korea, the last Stalinist state in the #orld, is s'11erin! 1rom economic disinte!ration and #idespread h'n!er, and some &merican o11icials #arn that the North co'ld stri:e o't a!ainst So'th Korea o't o1 desperation, )elie2in! that the alternati2e is internal collapse5 4he )order )et#een the Koreas remains the site o1 the !reatest massin! o1 enem$ troops in the #orld, and the 6nited States :eeps /H,... &merican troops in So'th Korea to deter a North Korean attac:5 4o red'ce the ris: o1 another Korean #ar, President 8linton and President Kim Go'n! Sam o1 So'th Korea met in the So'th last month and to!ether o11ered a ne# peace proposal to the North5 4he proposal, #hich North Korea has said it is still considerin!, calls 1or 1o'r=part$ peace tal:s in2ol2in! the t#o Koreas, the 6nited States and 8hina5 Some e?perts #arned toda$ that the de1ection #o'ld in1'riate North Korean leaders and mi!ht lea2e them less inclined to accept the peace proposal5 PIt #ill pro)a)l$ ma:e North Korean polic$ ma:ers more ner2o's a)o't contacts #ith So'th Korea, and the$ ma$ dra# )ac: 1or a little #hile,P said Kim K$'n! Mon, a 1ormer en2o$ to the 6nited Nations and the 6nited States5 North Korea had no comment toda$ on the de1ection5 De1ections 1rom North Korea are !ro#in! increasin!l$ common, tho'!h 's'all$ the$ are ci2ilians #ho come thro'!h third co'ntries5 & !ro#in! n'm)er ha2e )een dra#n 1rom the North Korean elite, in #hat ma$ )e a si!n o1 !ro#in! discontent e2en in the most pampered strat'm o1 North KoreanFs societ$5 P4his is another in the c'rrent series o1 de1ections )$ mem)ers o1 North KoreaFs esta)lishment,P another senior So'th Korean o2ernment o11icial said5 P4his is someone the North Korean leadership tr'sts5P 4o red'ce the ris: o1 de1ections, North Korea care1'll$ pic:s pilots #ho are tho'!ht to )e especiall$ relia)le politicall$ and #ho ha2e 1amil$ mem)ers the$ m'st lea2e )ehind5 In addition, the coc:pit radios o1 militar$ aircra1t are ri!!ed so that the$ cannot recei2e So'th Korean transmissions, ma:in! it impossi)le 1or a de1ectin! pilot to e?plain his p'rpose to So'th Korean pilots or So'th Korean !ro'nd control5 8aptain <ee lea2es his 1ather, his #i1e and t#o children )ehind in North Korea5 4here ha2e )een reports that mem)ers o1 de1ectorsF 1amilies are sometimes imprisoned or e?ec'ted, altho'!h on other occasions 1amil$ mem)ers ha2e a2oided se2ere p'nishment5

So'th Korea o11ers re#ards 1or de1ectors, altho'!h it has drasticall$ trimmed them recentl$, and a So'th Korean tele2ision station said 8aptain <ee mi!ht )e a)le to collect X/2.,... 1or landin! the MI =,- in So'th Korea5 &t the time o1 the last de1ection, in ,-E/, So'th Korean radar #as late in detectin! the intr'sion5 ('t the radar s$stems ha2e )een 'p!raded, and toda$ o2ernment o11icials said #ith some relie1 that 8aptain <eeFs plane had immediatel$ prompted an alert5 P4he So'th Korean intercept mission #or:ed per1ectl$,P said *im 8oles, an &merican spo:esman 1or the 6nited Nations 1orces in So'th Korea5 In another 'n's'al incident toda$, North Korea reportedl$ sent 1i2e na2al 2essels into So'th Korean=controlled #aters this mornin!5 Mhile s'ch intr'sions happen 1rom time to time, militar$ specialists said this in2ol2ed more )oats than an$ pre2io's s'ch incident5 4he episode )e!an, accordin! to an acco'nt )$ the So'th Korean De1ense Ministr$, #hen a)o't ,. North Korean na2al cra1t approached the maritime di2idin! line5 Ai2e o1 the )oats crossed o2er and remained a)o't 2. min'tes )e1ore )ein! chased )ac: )$ So'th Korean !'n)oats sent to the area5 No shots #ere 1ired5 North Korea o11ered a di11erent 2ersion o1 e2ents, assertin! that the So'th Koreans had ille!all$ in1iltrated #arships deep inside North Korean territorial #aters5 P4he in1iltration o1 the #arships is a deli)erate and premeditated pro2ocation aimed at intentionall$ a!!ra2atin! inter=Korean con1rontation and tension,P the North Korean statement declared5 So'rce: 4he Ne# Gor: 4imes

=o% North Korea Keeps #hem From Flying "%ay
No2em)er 23, 2.,.: In So'th Korea an air 1orce o11icer, <ee 8h'l=s', #as recentl$ promoted to colonel5 Mhat #as special a)o't this #as that ,3 $ears a!o <ee #as a captain in the North Korean &ir Aorce5 ('t he decided to de1ect, in his elderl$ Mi =,1i!hter, 1l$in! o't o2er the #ater, alon! the #est coast, to a So'th Korean air )ase5 <ee #as allo#ed to ;oin the So'th Korean &ir Aorce, #here he ser2ed as an e?pert, and instr'ctor, on ho# the North Korean air 1orce operated5 @er$ 1e# North Korean pilots ha2e de1ected li:e this5 4he onl$ other one !ot o't in ,-E/, also 1l$in! a Mi =,-5 4his is no accident5 4he North Koreans ta:e preca'tions to pre2ent this sort o1 thin!5 ('t other pilots ha2e tried an$#a$5 <ast &'!'st a North Korean Mi =2, ;et 1i!hter crashed in 8hina, 2.. :ilometers north o1 the )order5 4he pilot did not e;ect and there #as no 1ire a1ter the plane plo#ed into the !ro'nd (indicatin! it #as o't o1 1'el5) 8hina later reported that the aircra1t #ent o11 co'rse )eca'se o1 Pmechanical pro)lems5P ('t that does not e?plain #h$ the pilot did not tr$ to land or )ail o't5 & more li:el$ e?planation #as that the pilot #as tr$in! to de1ect (to 9'ssia, as 8hina tends to ret'rn de1ectors)5 4o a2oid that possi)ilit$, North Korea #arplanes are s'pplied #ith minimal 1'el 1or trainin! 1li!hts, and their e;ection seats are disa)led in peacetime5 "ther interceptors are :ept in readiness to chase do#n and destro$ de1ectors5 So to !et o't, pilots ha2e to e2ade all this scr'tin$, and 'se $o'r minimal 1'el to !et to someplace $o' #ill )e sa1e5 It isnFt eas$5 North Korean aircra1t are m'ch older than their So'th Korean co'nterparts, and their pilots !et m'ch less time in the air5 North Korea air com)at tactics do not emphasize initiati2e, an$#a$5 Increasin! economic pro)lems in the last decade ha2e 1'rther red'ced 1'el a2aila)le 1or pilot trainin!5 4h's most North Korean pilots are trained to carr$ o't s'rprise, and o1ten s'icidal, attac:s earl$ in an$ 1't're #ar #ith So'th Korea5 So'rce: http:>>###5strate!$pa!e5com>htm#>htlead>articles>2.,.,,235asp?

North Korean #urns $ver " :i>
"n 2, Septem)er ,-+/ a disenchanted North Korean pilot made a decision that chan!ed his li1e and &merican histor$5 <t No (prono'nced ro) K'm S': #as thro'!h #ith the North Korean !o2ernment and determined to ma:e a )rea: 1or 1reedom5 <t5 No #as a 1i!hter compan$ commander in the second 9e!iment o1 the North Korean PeopleFs &ir Aorce5 7e tho'!ht a)o't de1ection n'm)er o1 times )e1ore, $et co'ld not do it 'ntil his 'nit mo2ed so'th to S'nan &ir1ield o'tside o1 P$on!$an! a1ter the #ar #as o2er5 7e normall$ 1le# Mi =,+)is 9ed 3.E, )'t on that he 1le# a Mi =,+)is #ith the tactical n'm)er 9ed 2.+H5 7is re!'lar aircra1t had not arri2ed at S'nan $et5 N'm)er 2.+H #as normall$ 1lo#n in com)at )$ a pilot named Kim Dea=Soon5 It had )een one o1 the 1irst Mi s sm'!!led )$ rail )ac: into North Korea 1rom Manch'ria a1ter the cease=1ire and re=assem)led5 4he P2.+HP #as a recentl$ painted North Korean n'm)er, replacin! its ori!inal So2iet tactical n'm)er5 4he 1act that 2.+H #as a P)isP model, or ad2anced model o1 the Mi ,+, made it more desira)le 1or the &mericans5 Its @K=, en!ine had ,,... l)s more thr'st than the 9D=3+ en!ine o1 the earlier 2ersion, and had h$dra'lic ailerons5 It #as a real catch 1or the &ir 4echnical Intelli!ence 8enter to !et an 'pdated 2ersion o1 this ;et5 D'rin! his escape, <t No p'rposel$ allo#ed another pilot to ta:e o11 1irst5 4his #as the 1irst 1li!ht 1rom S'nan since the #ar ended, and it #as O'ite an honor5 4he other pilot readil$ accepted5 <t No hoped the 1irst pilot #o'ld ta:e his time and it #o'ld di2ert attention 1rom his planned escape5 7e 1le# as second aircra1t in the 1li!ht o1 three5 Near the end o1 his 1li!ht, No )ro:e to the so'th instead o1 landin! in S'nan5 It too: onl$ a)o't thirteen min'tes to ma:e a strai!ht approach5 7e made a do#n#ind landin! #ith A=EIs landin! on the same r'n#a$, scarin! the pilot to death5 7e par:ed alon!side an A=EI sittin! alert on the ramp5 7e ;'mped do#n and )e!an sha:in! hands5 &ltho'!h he did not :no# it at the time, the 6S o11ered X,..,... to the 1irst pilot to 1l$ a Mi =,+ to the so'th5 7e 1o'nd o't at a ne#s con1erence5 4he Mi #as partiall$ disassem)led )$ &ir 4actical Intelli!ence 8enter at Kimpo and 1lo#n in a 8=,23 to Kadena &(, ":ina#a to )e test=1lo#n5 P9"*%84 Z%4& )e!an5 4he 6S&A remo2ed the North Korean mar:in!s and replaced them #ith small 6S&A mar:in!s5 4he 6S pilots did ,, test 1li!hts, and p'shed the Mi pro)a)l$ harder that the 9'ssians e2er tested it5 4est en!ineers had to modi1$ some o1 the instr'mentation, $et 1o'nd the Mi 2er$ eas$ to #or: on5 &1ter the 1li!ht test at ":ina#a the aircra1t #as disassem)led and 1lo#n to Mri!ht=Patterson &A(, "hio, #here it #as thoro'!hl$ e?amined )$ &ir 4echnical Intelli!ence 8enter personnel )e1ore reassem)l$ and more 1li!ht=testin!5 4he photo sho#s #hat the ;et loo:ed li:e as it #as 1lo#n here at Mri!ht=Patterson5 4he lar!e 48I,I #as di11erent than the initial mar:in!s on ":ina#a5 9'mor has it that the P48P stood 1or the test pilot 4om 8ollinsF initials5 Since 8h'c: Gea!er #as the other main pilot, Mr5 Ken 9o#e (<t NoFs &mericanized name) )elie2ed it stood 1or P4om and 8h'c:YP So'rce: http:>>a2stop5com>ne#s>mi!5html

8hun$ 9yun 8hurch in Seoul0 7epu%lic of Korea !Photo: http:&&'''.flickr.com&photos&'estlothian&(-..++.))-"

4 church ser1ice takes place in Won 2u Methodist 8hurch in South Korea. 4n estimated *- million Koreans li1in$ in South Korea are de1out 8hristiansR an estimated -, million people li1e in South Korea. Koreans in #orth Korea 'ho are cau$ht readin$ the Bi%le or 'orshippin$ 6od are su%Bect to persecution and death %y the #orth Korean army and secret police. Korean 8hristians 'ho ser1ed or are ser1in$ as presidents of South Korea include Syn$man 7hee0 Cun Bo3seon !*)G.3*)G("0 Kim Coun$ Sam0 Kim Dae 2un$0 and Lee Myun$3%ak. !Photo: http:&&'''.%eckerath.com&en&ne's&ne's.htm"

4rlin$ton #ational 8emetery in 4rlin$ton0 Jir$inia. E1er ++0G.. 4merican soldiers died durin$ the Korean WarR may they rest in peace.

4om) o1 the 6n:no#n Soldier

>eneral .ouglas :ac"rthur<s Fare%ell Speech to Congress
"pril )'+ )'?) .r! 5resi"ent# .r! %peaker an" "istinguishe" mem$ers of the CongressI stand on this rostrum %ith a sense o- deep humility and great pride ( humility in the %a e o- those great architects o- our history %ho have stood here &e-ore me+ pride in the re-lection that this home o- legislative de&ate represents human li&erty in the purest -orm yet devised. 7ere are centered the hopes and aspirations and 1aith o1 the entire h'man race5 I do not stand here as ad2ocate 1or an$ partisan ca'se, 1or the iss'es are 1'ndamental and reach O'ite )e$ond the realm o1 partisan considerations5 4he$ m'st )e resol2ed on the hi!hest plane o1 national interest i1 o'r co'rse is to pro2e so'nd and o'r 1't're protected5 I tr'st, there1ore, that $o' #ill do me the ;'stice o1 recei2in! that #hich I ha2e to sa$ as solel$ e?pressin! the considered 2ie#point o1 a 1ello# &merican5 I address $o' #ith neither rancor nor )itterness in the 1adin! t#ili!ht o1 li1e, #ith )'t one p'rpose in mind: to ser2e m$ co'ntr$5 4he iss'es are !lo)al, and so interloc:ed that to consider the pro)lems o1 one sector o)li2io's to those o1 another is to co'rt disaster 1or the #hole5 Mhile &sia is commonl$ re1erred to as the !ate#a$ to %'rope, it is no less tr'e that %'rope is the !ate#a$ to &sia, and the )road in1l'ence o1 the one cannot 1ail to ha2e its impact 'pon the other5 4here are those #ho claim o'r stren!th is inadeO'ate to protect on )oth 1ronts, that #e cannot di2ide o'r e11ort5 I can thin: o1 no !reater e?pression o1 de1eatism5 I1 a potential enem$ can di2ide his stren!th on t#o 1ronts, it is 1or 's to co'nter his e11orts5 4he 8omm'nist threat is a !lo)al one5 Its s'ccess1'l ad2ance in one sector threatens the destr'ction o1 e2er$ other sector5 Go' cannot appease or other#ise s'rrender to comm'nism in &sia #itho't sim'ltaneo'sl$ 'nderminin! o'r e11orts to halt its ad2ance in %'rope5 (e$ond pointin! o't these !eneral tr'isms, I shall con1ine m$ disc'ssion to the !eneral areas o1 &sia555 Mhile I #as not cons'lted prior to the PresidentFs decision to inter2ene in s'pport o1 the 9ep')lic o1 Korea, that decision, 1rom a militar$ standpoint, pro2ed a so'nd one5 &s I sa$, it pro2ed a so'nd one, as #e h'rled )ac: the in2ader and decimated his 1orces5 "'r 2ictor$ #as complete, and o'r o);ecti2es #ithin reach, #hen 9ed 8hina inter2ened #ith n'mericall$ s'perior !ro'nd 1orces5 4his created a ne# #ar and an entirel$ ne# sit'ation, a sit'ation not contemplated #hen o'r 1orces #ere committed a!ainst the North Korean in2aders0 a sit'ation #hich called 1or ne# decisions in the diplomatic sphere to permit the realistic ad;'stment o1 militar$ strate!$5 S'ch decisions ha2e not )een 1orthcomin!5 Mhile no man in his ri!ht mind #o'ld ad2ocate sendin! o'r !ro'nd 1orces into continental 8hina, and s'ch #as ne2er !i2en a tho'!ht, the ne# sit'ation did 'r!entl$ demand a drastic re2ision o1 strate!ic plannin! i1 o'r political aim #as to de1eat this ne# enem$ as #e had de1eated the old5 &part 1rom the militar$ need, as I sa# it, to ne'tralize the sanct'ar$ protection !i2en the enem$ north o1 the Gal', I 1elt that militar$ necessit$ in the cond'ct o1 the #ar made necessar$ == (,) 4he intensi1ication o1 o'r economic )loc:ade a!ainst 8hina5 (2) 4he imposition o1 a na2al )loc:ade a!ainst the 8hina coast5 (/) 9emo2al o1 restrictions on air reconnaissance o1 8hinaFs coastal area and o1 Manch'ria5 (3) 9emo2al o1 restrictions on the 1orces o1 the rep')lic o1 8hina on Aormosa, #ith lo!istical s'pport to contri)'te to their e11ecti2e operations a!ainst the 8hinese mainland5 Aor entertainin! these 2ie#s, all pro1essionall$ desi!ned to s'pport o'r 1orces committed to Korea and to )rin! hostilities to an end #ith the least possi)le dela$ and at a sa2in! o1 co'ntless &merican and &llied li2es, I ha2e )een se2erel$ criticized in la$ circles, principall$ a)road, despite m$ 'nderstandin! that 1rom a militar$ standpoint the a)o2e 2ie#s ha2e )een 1'll$ shared in the past )$ practicall$ e2er$ militar$ leader concerned #ith the Korean campai!n, incl'din! o'r o#n *oint 8hie1s o1 Sta115

I called 1or rein1orcements, )'t #as in1ormed that rein1orcements #ere not a2aila)le5 I made clear that i1 not permitted to destro$ the enem$ )'ilt='p )ases north o1 the Gal', i1 not permitted to 'tilize the 1riendl$ 8hinese 1orce o1 some si? h'ndred tho'sand men on Aormosa, i1 not permitted to )loc:ade the 8hina coast to pre2ent the 8hinese 9eds 1rom !ettin! s'ccor 1rom #itho't, and i1 there #ere to )e no hope o1 ma;or rein1orcements, the position o1 the command 1rom the militar$ standpoint 1or)ade 2ictor$5 Me co'ld hold in Korea )$ constant mane'2er and at an appro?imate area #here o'r s'ppl$=line ad2anta!es #ere in )alance #ith the s'ppl$=line disad2anta!es o1 the enem$, )'t #e co'ld hope at )est 1or onl$ an indecisi2e campai!n #ith its terri)le and constant attrition 'pon o'r 1orces i1 the enem$ 'tilized his 1'll militar$ potential5 I ha2e constantl$ called 1or the ne# political decisions essential to a sol'tion5 %11orts ha2e )een made to distort m$ position5 It has )een said in e11ect that I #as a #armon!er5 Nothin! co'ld )e 1'rther 1rom the tr'th5 I :no# #ar as 1e# other men no# li2in! :no# it, and nothin! to me is more re2oltin!5 I ha2e lon! ad2ocated its complete a)olition, as its 2er$ destr'cti2eness on )oth 1riend and 1oe has rendered it 'seless as a means o1 settlin! international disp'tes5 Indeed, on the second da$ o1 Septem)er, ,-3+, ;'st 1ollo#in! the s'rrender o1 the *apanese nation on the )attleship .issouri, I 1ormall$ ca'tioned as 1ollo#s: 6.en since the $eginning of time ha(e sought peace! 7arious metho"s through the ages ha(e $een attempte" to "e(ise an international process to pre(ent or settle "isputes $etween nations! From the (ery start worka$le metho"s were foun" in so far as in"i(i"ual citi8ens were concerne"# $ut the mechanics of an instrumentality of larger international scope ha(e ne(er $een successful! PMilitar$ alliances, )alances o1 po#er, lea!'es o1 nations, all in t'rn 1ailed, lea2in! the onl$ path to )e )$ #a$ o1 the cr'ci)le o1 #ar5 4he 'tter destr'cti2eness o1 #ar no# )loc:s o't this alternati2e5 Me ha2e had o'r last chance5 I1 #e #ill not de2ise some !reater and more eO'ita)le s$stem, o'r &rma!eddon #ill )e at o'r door5 4he pro)lem )asicall$ is theolo!ical and in2ol2es a spirit'al recr'descence, an impro2ement o1 h'man character that #ill s$nchronize #ith o'r almost matchless ad2ances in science, art, literat're, and all material and c'lt'ral de2elopments o1 the past t#o tho'sand $ears5 It m'st )e o1 the spirit i1 #e are to sa2e the 1lesh5P ('t once #ar is 1orces 'pon 's, there is no other alternati2e than to appl$ e2er$ a2aila)le means to )rin! it to a s#i1t end5 MarFs 2er$ o);ect is 2ictor$, not prolon!ed indecision5 In %ar there is no su&stitute -or victory. #here are some %ho -or varying reasons %ould appease 4ed China. #hey are &lind to history/s clear lesson+ -or history teaches %ith unmista a&le emphasis that appeasement &ut &egets ne% and &loodier %ar. It points to no single instance %here this end has @usti-ied that means+ %here appeasement had led to more than a sham peace. Ai e &lac mail+ it lays the &asis -or ne% and successively greater demands until+ as in &lac mail+ violence &ecomes the only alternative. Mh$, m$ soldiers as:ed o1 me, s'rrender militar$ ad2anta!es to an enem$ in the 1ieldR I co'ld not ans#er5 Some ma$ sa$ to a2oid spread o1 the con1lict into an all=o't #ar #ith 8hina5 "thers, to a2oid So2iet inter2ention5 Neither e?planation seems 2alid, 1or 8hina is alread$ en!a!in! #ith the ma?im'm po#er it can commit, and the So2iet #ill not necessaril$ mesh its actions #ith o'r mo2es5 <i:e a co)ra, an$ ne# enem$ #ill more li:el$ stri:e #hene2er it 1eels that the relati2it$ in militar$ or other potential is in its 1a2or on a #orld#ide )asis5 4he tra!ed$ o1 Korea is 1'rther hei!htened )$ the 1act that its militar$ action is con1ined to its territorial limits5 It condemns that nation, #hich it is o'r p'rpose to sa2e, to s'11er the de2astatin! impact o1 1'll na2al and air )om)ardment #hile the enem$Fs sanct'aries are 1'll$ protected 1rom s'ch attac: and de2astation5 "1 the nations o1 the #orld, Korea alone, 'p to no#, is the sole one #hich has ris:ed its all a!ainst comm'nism5 4he ma!ni1icence o1 the co'ra!e and 1ortit'de o1 the Korean people de1ies description5 4he$ ha2e chosen to ris: death rather than sla2er$5 4heir last #ords to me #ere: 9:on;t scuttle the 5acific!< I ha2e ;'st le1t $o'r 1i!htin! sons in Korea5 4he$ ha2e met all tests there, and I can report to $o' #itho't reser2ation that the$ are splendid in e2er$ #a$5 It #as m$ constant e11ort to preser2e them and end this sa2a!e con1lict honora)l$ and #ith the least loss o1 time and a minim'm sacri1ice o1 li1e5 Its !ro#in! )loodshed has ca'sed me the deepest an!'ish and an?iet$5 4hose !allant men #ill remain o1ten in m$ tho'!hts and in m$ pra$ers al#a$s5

I am closin! m$ 1i1t$=t#o $ears o1 militar$ ser2ice5 Mhen I ;oined the arm$, e2en )e1ore the t'rn o1 the cent'r$, it #as the 1'l1illment o1 all m$ )o$ish hopes and dreams5 4he #orld has t'rned o2er man$ times since I too: the oath on the plain at Mest Point, and the hopes and dreams ha2e lon! since 2anished, )'t I still remem)er the re1rain o1 one o1 the most pop'lar )arrac:s )allads o1 that da$ #hich proclaimed most pro'dl$ that old soldiers never dieB they @ust -ade a%ay. &nd li:e the old soldier o1 that )allad, I no# close m$ militar$ career and ;'st 1ade a#a$, an old soldier #ho tried to do his d't$ as od !a2e him the li!ht to see that d't$5 ood=)$e5

5.S. 4rmy 6eneral Dou$las Mac4rthur0 former commander of 4llied forces0 first in World War HH and then in Korea0 $i1es his fare'ell address %efore the 5.S. Senate in Washin$ton0 D.8.0 5.S.4. on 4pril *)0 *)@*. President 9arry S. /ruman relie1ed 6eneral Mac4rthur of his command o1er differences in opinion on strate$y in Korea. !T 8E7BHS"

4BE5/ /9: 45/9E7: William P. Litynski ser1ed in the 5.S. 4rmy from Septem%er (..*3#o1em%er (..-0 primarily in the First 4rmored Di1ision in 6ermany !4pache /roop0 *3* 84J0 Budin$en"R he 'as deployed to HraI !near Ba$hdad" from 4pril (..+ until 2uly (..-. 9e attended 8rest1ie' 9i$h School in 8rest1ie'0 Florida from *))G3(... and $raduated in (.... 9e li1ed at Cokota 4ir Base0 2apan !5.S. 4ir Force %ase near /okyo" from *),A3 *))+. !9is mother is from 2apan0 and his $randfather 'as drafted t'ice %y the Hmperial 2apanese #a1y durin$ World War HH." William P. Litynski has tra1eled e?tensi1ely and has 1isited /okyo0 London0 Paris0 7ome0 Berlin0 Jienna0 Brussels0 Lu?em%our$ 8ity0 Munich0 Frankfurt am Main0 #e' Cork 8ity0 Washin$ton D.8.0 Boston0 Philadelphia0 8hica$o0 Seattle0 and Dallas. !:3mail: 'pl+*-[yahoo.com"

Chapter 5C o- the 1oo o- :atthe%+ King ;ames Dersion o- #he =oly 1i&le
,: &nd *es's #ent o't, and departed 1rom the temple: and his disciples came to him 1or to she# him the )'ildin!s o1 the temple5 2: &nd *es's said 'nto them, See $e not all these thin!sR 2eril$ I sa$ 'nto $o', 4here shall not )e le1t here one stone 'pon another, that shall not )e thro#n do#n5 /: &nd as he sat 'pon the mo'nt o1 "li2es, the disciples came 'nto him pri2atel$, sa$in!, 4ell 's, #hen shall these thin!s )eR and #hat shall )e the si!n o1 th$ comin!, and o1 the end o1 the #orldR C: "nd ;esus ans%ered and said unto them+ #a e heed that no man deceive you. +: Aor man$ shall come in m$ name, sa$in!, I am 8hrist0 and shall decei2e man$5 *: "nd ye shall hear o- %ars and rumours o- %ars: see that ye &e not trou&led: -or all these things must come to pass+ &ut the end is not yet. E: For nation shall rise against nation+ and ingdom against ingdom: and there shall &e -amines+ and pestilences+ and earthFua es+ in divers places. G: "ll these are the &eginning o- sorro%s. -: 4hen shall the$ deli2er $o' 'p to )e a11licted, and shall :ill $o': and $e shall )e hated o1 all nations 1or m$ nameFs sa:e5 ,.: &nd then shall man$ )e o11ended, and shall )etra$ one another, and shall hate one another5 ,,: &nd man$ 1alse prophets shall rise, and shall decei2e man$5 ,2: &nd )eca'se iniO'it$ shall a)o'nd, the lo2e o1 man$ shall #a? cold5 ,/: ('t he that shall end're 'nto the end, the same shall )e sa2ed5 ,3: &nd this !ospel o1 the :in!dom shall )e preached in all the #orld 1or a #itness 'nto all nations0 and then shall the end come5 ,+: Mhen $e there1ore shall see the a)omination o1 desolation, spo:en o1 )$ Daniel the prophet, stand in the hol$ place, (#hoso readeth, let him 'nderstand:) ,I: 4hen let them #hich )e in *'daea 1lee into the mo'ntains: ,H: <et him #hich is on the ho'setop not come do#n to ta:e an$ thin! o't o1 his ho'se: ,E: Neither let him #hich is in the 1ield ret'rn )ac: to ta:e his clothes5 ,-: &nd #oe 'nto them that are #ith child, and to them that !i2e s'c: in those da$sY 2.: ('t pra$ $e that $o'r 1li!ht )e not in the #inter, neither on the sa))ath da$: 2,: Aor then shall )e !reat tri)'lation, s'ch as #as not since the )e!innin! o1 the #orld to this time, no, nor e2er shall )e5 22: &nd e?cept those da$s sho'ld )e shortened, there sho'ld no 1lesh )e sa2ed: )'t 1or the electFs sa:e those da$s shall )e shortened5 2/: 4hen i1 an$ man shall sa$ 'nto $o', <o, here is 8hrist, or there0 )elie2e it not5 5C: For there shall arise -alse Christs+ and -alse prophets+ and shall she% great signs and %ondersB insomuch that+ i- it %ere possi&le+ they shall deceive the very elect. 2+: (ehold, I ha2e told $o' )e1ore5 2I: Mhere1ore i1 the$ shall sa$ 'nto $o', (ehold, he is in the desert0 !o not 1orth: )ehold, he is in the secret cham)ers0 )elie2e it not5 2H: Aor as the li!htnin! cometh o't o1 the east, and shineth e2en 'nto the #est0 so shall also the comin! o1 the Son o1 man )e5 2E: Aor #heresoe2er the carcase is, there #ill the ea!les )e !athered to!ether5 2-: Immediatel$ a1ter the tri)'lation o1 those da$s shall the s'n )e dar:ened, and the moon shall not !i2e her li!ht, and the stars shall 1all 1rom hea2en, and the po#ers o1 the hea2ens shall )e sha:en: /.: &nd then shall appear the si!n o1 the Son o1 man in hea2en: and then shall all the tri)es o1 the earth mo'rn, and the$ shall see the Son o1 man comin! in the clo'ds o1 hea2en #ith po#er and !reat !lor$5 /,: &nd he shall send his an!els #ith a !reat so'nd o1 a tr'mpet, and the$ shall !ather to!ether his elect 1rom the 1o'r #inds, 1rom one end o1 hea2en to the other5 /2: No# learn a para)le o1 the 1i! tree0 Mhen his )ranch is $et tender, and p'tteth 1orth lea2es, $e :no# that s'mmer is ni!h: //: So li:e#ise $e, #hen $e shall see all these thin!s, :no# that it is near, e2en at the doors5 7C: Derily I say unto you+ #his generation shall not pass+ till all these things &e -ul-illed. 7?: =eaven and earth shall pass a%ay+ &ut my %ords shall not pass a%ay. 7*: 1ut o- that day and hour no%eth no man+ no+ not the angels o- heaven+ &ut my Father only. /H: ('t as the da$s o1 Noe #ere, so shall also the comin! o1 the Son o1 man )e5 /E: Aor as in the da$s that #ere )e1ore the 1lood the$ #ere eatin! and drin:in!, marr$in! and !i2in! in marria!e, 'ntil the da$ that Noe entered into the ar:, /-: &nd :ne# not 'ntil the 1lood came, and too: them all a#a$0 so shall also the comin! o1 the Son o1 man )e5 3.: 4hen shall t#o )e in the 1ield0 the one shall )e ta:en, and the other le1t5 3,: 4#o #omen shall )e !rindin! at the mill0 the one shall )e ta:en, and the other le1t5 C5: Watch there-ore: -or ye no% not %hat hour your Aord doth come. 3/: ('t :no# this, that i1 the !oodman o1 the ho'se had :no#n in #hat #atch the thie1 #o'ld come, he #o'ld ha2e #atched, and #o'ld not ha2e s'11ered his ho'se to )e )ro:en 'p5 33: 4here1ore )e $e also read$: 1or in s'ch an ho'r as $e thin: not the Son o1 man cometh5 3+: Mho then is a 1aith1'l and #ise ser2ant, #hom his lord hath made r'ler o2er his ho'sehold, to !i2e them meat in d'e seasonR 3I: (lessed is that ser2ant, #hom his lord #hen he cometh shall 1ind so doin!5 3H: @eril$ I sa$ 'nto $o', 4hat he shall ma:e him r'ler o2er all his !oods5 3E: ('t and i1 that e2il ser2ant shall sa$ in his heart, M$ lord dela$eth his comin!0 3-: &nd shall )e!in to smite his 1ello#ser2ants, and to eat and drin: #ith the dr'n:en0 ?6: #he lord o- that servant shall come in a day %hen he loo eth not -or him+ and in an hour that he is not a%are o-+ +,: &nd shall c't him as'nder, and appoint him his portion #ith the h$pocrites: there shall )e #eepin! and !nashin! o1 teeth5

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