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2/14/2013

Ms. Johnson

Which Factors Affect the Rates of Reaction the Most

2AgNO3 (aq) + CuCl2 (aq) 2AgCl(s) + Cu(NO3)2 (aq)

Hypothesis: 1) Temperature: The increase of temperature will speed up the rate of reaction since the molecules have higher kinetic energy and thus will collide at a higher rate. 2) Concentration: A higher concentration means there are more molecules present to collide with thus there will be more collisions over a shorter period of time. 3) State: The addition of water to the copper chloride (going from a solid to an aqueous state) will allow for the copper and chloride ions to dissociate, therefore they will form new compounds more easily and thus speed up the reaction. AgNO3 C = 0.1 mol/L V = 10 mL N = 0.01 mol 0.01 x = 0.005 mol CuCl2 C = 0.1 mol/L v = 10 mL n = 0.01 mol 0.01 x 1/1 = 0.01 mol AgNO3 is the limiting reagent.

Materials: Part 1) 100 mL beaker Hot plate Stop watch 100 mL of 0.1 mol/L AgNO3 (aq) Thermometer Filter paper 2 100 mL graduated cylinders Goggles 30 mL of 0.1 mol/L CuCl2 (aq) Beaker mat

Part 2) 100 mL beaker Filter paper

2/14/2013 Part 3)

Jennifer Lye, Sourabh Das, Katherine Chien Stop watch 30 mL of 0.1mol/L AgNO3 (aq) 10 mL of 0.2 mol/L CuCl2 (aq)

Ms. Johnson

2 - 100mL graduated cylinders Goggles 10 mL of 0.1 mol/L CuCl2 (aq) 10 mL of 0.15 mol/L CuCl2 (aq)

100 mL beaker 2 100 mL graduated cylinders Goggles 10 mL of 0.1 mol/L CuCl2 (aq) Scoopula

Filter paper Stop watch 30mL of 0.1mol/L AgNO3 (aq) 2 g of anhydrous CuCl2 (s)

Procedure: Part 1) - Temperature 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Measure 10 mL of 0.10mol AgNO3 solution into a test tube Measure 10 mL of 0.10 mol CuCl2 solution in a graduated cylinder and heat to 30C. Add the CuCl2 solution into the test tube and let it react for 1 minute Filter the solution and measure the mass of precipitate (after it dries) Empty the beaker into the waste disposal unit and rinse Repeat step 1-5 for CuCl2 at 45C and 60oC using the hot plate to heat the solution

Part 2) Concentration 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Measure 10 mL of 0.10 mol AgNO3 solution into a test tube Measure 10 mL of 0.10 mol CuCl2 solution in a graduated cylinder Add the CuCl2 solution into the test tube and let it react for 1 minute Filter the solution and measure the mass of precipitate (after it dries) Empty the beaker into the waste disposal unit and rinse Repeat step 1-5 for 0.15 mol/L CuCl2 and 0.20 mol/L CuCl2

Jennifer Lye, Sourabh Das, Katherine Chien

Ms. Johnson

Measure 10 ml of AgNO3 into one of the graduated cylinders and pour into the first beaker Measure 1.34 g of CuCl2 (s) into the second beaker and add to the first beaker Add the anhydrous CuCl2 powder into the test tube and let it react for 1 minute Empty the beaker into the waste disposal unit and rinse Measure 10 ml of AgNO3 into one of the graduated cylinders and pour into the first beaker Measure 1.70 g of hydrated CuCl2 (s) into the second beaker and add to the first beaker Add the anhydrous CuCl2 powder into the test tube and let it react for 1 minute Measure 10 mL of 0.10 mol/L AgNO3 (aq) into its graduated cylinder and pour into the first beaker Measure 10 mL of 0.10 mol/L CuCl2 (aq) into the other graduated cylinder and add to the first beaker 10) Add the CuCl2 solution into the test tube and let it react for 1 minute 11) Empty the beaker into the waste disposal unit and rinse * Make sure station is clear before returning to your desk * Observations Part 1) 0.1 mol CuCl2(aq) to 0.1mol AgNO3(aq) Temperature (C) 30 45 60 Mass of ppt 0.07 0.14 0.14 0.488 0.977 0.977 mmol mmol/min 0.488/min 0.977/min 0.977/min

Part 2) CuCl2(aq) to AgNO3(aq) at room temperature Concentration (mol/L) 0.10 0.15 0.20 Mass of ppt 0.02 0.09 0.15 0.140 0.628 1.047 mmol mmol/min 0.140/min 0.628/min 1.047/min

Part 3) 0.1 mol CuCl2 to 0.1mol AgNO3 at room temperature State anhydrous solid (hydrated) aqueous Mass of ppt 0.18g 0.24g 0.12g 1.256 1.675 0.837 mmol mmol/min 1.256/min 1.675/min 0.837/min

2/14/2013 Observations

Jennifer Lye, Sourabh Das, Katherine Chien

Ms. Johnson

Analysis As can be seen from these graphs, although there are 3 data points, there is not sufficient data to make an accurate curve fit, however using these graphs Conclusion Can be improved in many ways: 1. more data points for each factor 2. choose better (numeric) factors i.e. conc. of AgNO3 instead of state which is not numeric 3. take time for reaction to visibly complete, then measure the total time it took: that way in the end you have equal masses but different times for each trial since we filtered, it took some time for the water to filter through and the reaction continued during this time. This time was unaccountable leading to errors. Errors: 1. since we dried the wet filter papers by heat at the end, some of the measured mass was that of the unreacted CuCl2, as the loss of its solvent made it recombine on the filter paper.