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Schenkeveld Reviewed work(s): Source: The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 1 (1992), pp. 129-141 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/639149 . Accessed: 12/04/2012 21:26
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unless in a figurative sense.. these latter words are found in the Oratio consol. Iff. however.C. v. Indeed. at least from the end of the Hellenistic period onwards. we may think that Galen here used a rhetorical device of vivid description.12 Kiihn).-KoVaarE ydp AEyov7ro0 passage. Finally. We may imagine some kind of fictional dialogue.'. There the congregation had heard a reading from Matthew 19. . and we hope to get this information from the rest of the book. The first O7Uade'/Ea. For. it is easy to put these into a literary context.. e. To take another example.and 1 Or. Jaeger). for Irdaa (Thrasyb. we do not yet know. that of a sermon in a church service..g. In both passages we have the same Greek expression -Kovaas (-ov'aaE) HAdrwovos Because of many parallels. you heard Plato saying that there is no specific name for the art which deals with the body'. and when we come to the excerpted text we shall interpret these words as a reference to what a few moments ago Thrasybulus has read. is a translation from the Greek in a treatise. in which out of two or more partners one reminds another of what a few minutes ago Plato had said to them about a particular subject. The book might be an historical novel by. what about a sentence like 'You heard our Lord saying "Suffer the little children "'? Now because of the reference to a well-known passage from the Bible.""AOcrE TracuataKTA.'.."..879. we are inclined to imagine a different context. to be discussed later. In this paper I shall first argue that very to a standard expression "iKovaa X AE•yovros. Mary Renault. When reading this Ieapt 4 rgXv-q) treatise. and their immediate context refers to a reading from the v dr(vavoayoEaV /lV EiK Tro Scripture:. they may well come from a patristic writing. by Galen and addressed to a certain roS co0.. and with our knowledge of the Classics we are sure that the book is not by a Classical author. 872-5 Galen has quoted passages from Plato's Republic and Gorgias which discuss the matter in question. We do not imagine that Jesus himself was present at that moment. in Pulcheriamby Gregory of Nyssa (ix. Whether Plato is still present or has left the room. I shall also argue that this expression is the proper Greek idiom for 'I have read in (e.465. Plato.g. we observe that at pp. e. I reduce it (Too Kvptov) AEyovoros. AAa 47v Irapafojatv E3. In order to strengthen my argument I shall look at the usage of well-known Greek verbs for reading. So much is clear. not a fictional dialogue.ayyEAUtQrov ro Kvptov. 7KOvaUa rot38 Eva 'OV70roS.. say. so we think. these words have been taken from. I think.14 and now the preacher reminds them of these words. although we may not yet know the book.g.l of this kind as simple indications that someone often we should interpret statements has read something in a book by X.D. written in the second century A. such as dvayLyvLaKELV. Because we know that Plato had died in 349/8 B.iV Thrasybulus: ~Kovaas 8jrfrov pr7LS HAd7WOvoS VyOV70 3gV aLV 8tov Ovo-ta 7r adoLta (sc.42 (i) 129-141(1992)Printedin GreatBritain ClassicalQuarterly 129 PROSE USAGES OF AKOYEIN 'TO READ' I When we encounter the following words: 'A few moments ago. if one prefers. or sermon.) Plato that. he could have said 'A few moments ago you read in Plato.
1907).g.5 The common denominator of all these is that the dYOV•ros. To a certain extent this was already done by Knox and his predecessors in the debate.g. M.&Ki-Koa. cit. act. 1920. Stahl. GRBS 9 (1968). there has been only some debate on the question whether silent reading was an almost unknown phenomenon. or moods. pp. random reading. For Classical Greek4 the semantic differences between the three phrases (IKovad to Kiihner-Gerth ii. especially in epistolary prose (? X-XI). II aor... with an IBYCUS computer. and help from colleagues produced passages from texts not on the TLG disk. J. Indices. ('KovUa). SCHENKEVELD show that these were not used to express the notion of 'I've read in Plato that. tenses participle is a statement ('that.. and 212f.. accordingly. cit. it will be evident that the reason why the locution 'K'ovaa X AYovTroS could have become the regular Greek idiom derives from the fact that in Antiquity reading aloud was the common way of reading.g. W. W.c. c.3 Instead of the first person sing. 5 . may be found. This debate came to an end when B. ' See e. repr.. See also the exchange of Letters to the Editor in TLS February-April 1991 with Ptol. whereas "jKovaa is very common. the preponderance of reading aloud is sufficient to explain the occurrence of the Greek idiom I am concerned with. gen. but always in the context of the problem of silent reading. and more selective for those of later centuries.. This fact no scholar doubts nowadays. 702f. 2 as the earliest explicit reference to silent reading. having failed to find pertinent examples there. op. von einer unmittelbaren. 1965). is fairly complete for texts from the fifth century B. and Goodwin. ? 2112 connects them with those in English between 'I see a house burning' and 'I see a house burn'. For Homer the situation is different.' Similar distinctions have been made by other scholars.substitution of the present tense by the aorist is possible but rare. H. Weir Smyth. acc. I shall also look briefly at the usage of KOvELtV alone in the sense of 'to read'. op. Goodwin. if it occurred. the traditional interpretation of several passages will be queried (? IX). indic... M. and rTvaAEyEt are according "AKOlELtv c.68: TrvoW AEyovoroS. inf. 421-35 with references to earlier discussions. A corollary of my argument will be that these statements cannot be used as proof that X was alive at the moment the 'hearer' was reading his words. Already by now. gr. II In the expression -qKovaa Xgen Ayovoros X stands for a person. von einer zwar nur mittelbaren.aKOvuaotat. et part.Syntax d.130 DIRK M. Jud. 1956). Greek Grammar (Cambridge. 1889. whether named explicitly or left anonymous.' (?? II-VIII). repr. ?? 884-6. et part. W. Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb(London. pp.D. klass. 5. but almost never 'Kovov). The present participle Ayovoros may be replaced by an analogous form of other verba dicendi. My search.2 Nevertheless. Kritisch-hist. c. Cf. Knox proved that silent reading was not unusual at all. Finally.') or refers to one ('this'). other persons. von einer nur als Geruch (durch H6rensagen) fibermittelten Kunde. or persons or personified things. ? 48 on the differences between the two tenses in this expression. At an early stage I decided not to look further at poetic texts. see e. caused amazement. which. Verbums 4 d. voice. Zeit (Heidelberg. 702ff. Mass. down to about the fourth century A. And none of them discussed texts containing the locution 'iKovaa X The corpus of texts I have investigated primarily consists of Greek prose writings present in the TLG. e. such as rroat'vLealGt.rwvaAEovTra. aber sicheren und begriindeten Wahrnehmung. and. the complement of the 2 ' Silent Reading in Antiquity'. Stahl. but no passive (dKOvW.
As a result. but also at home by a slave. when in fact a tragedy by him was being performed and Sophocles was among the audience in the theatre. law court. 54. or a character. strictly speaking. Reading aloud. However. 2. And any impressions about the author being alive and present at the moment of listening (= reading) are not well founded. D. classroom. are perception.. 399 rog OE&cLTpOLS AEyo/ S. Terms like point to the character of a 'Vortrag'. A special case is the performance of a play on the stage.8. Xgen AE'yovTo 4JqKOvaa accordingly. as we have seen.it is not. the locution also occurs in situations where X can only be said to speak by means of an intermediary who reads from his text. Then someone may say that he heard the author.PROSE USAGES OF AKOYEIN 131 construction with the genitive refers to direct perception without the help of an intermediary. for Galen addresses his treatise to Thrasybulus himself . ? 886. the remaining principal difference between (A) and (B) is that in (B) some writing of X is being read to an audience without X being present. X is not identical to the actual speaker.in contrast with those with an accusative. X is present (A). I accept these distinctions as valid. Rohde... the anagn6stes7 and at school by the teacher.5). Der griech.g.op. silent on this point. 1. I E.. I leave out of discussion any text bearing upon theatrical performances etc. pp. Given the neglect of the intermediary. theatre.'. X. the two constructions v. a set of lecture notes. A few pages later (556a) Plutarch has someone else say 'oarrvp 'Ivo-S r7'• fr. speaking. are twofold: X is identical to the actual speaker and. The enormous literary production of Pliny the Elder was possible only because while being read to by his lector he made annotations (Pliny the Younger. the speaker implies that at the moment of speaking and listening both X and the hearer are alive and present.g. 595f. Roman3(Leipzig. At a meeting of friends a poet may read his new poems.12. not only in a church service. Sera num. for example. 327-9 lists many texts on readings of new or old literary works. In all these situations we observe that. This explanation is valid. noted above. 1914). and 614f.)'. public debate. 8 E.7. after which words follows Euripides cdKOUOLvEV E70v Nauck2. as we have seen. Plut.. Cic. Commentators ad locc. vind. this intermediate person is being neglected in the presentation of the situation. Thus in Plut. Ep. cit.55). . indirect at leastaccording to Goodwin. Crass. but will show that a caveat must be added. Smp. 3. and he is not present either (B). Phil. or whatever. III For the moment we must conclude that in general the situations in which the phrase occurs. 548d a certain Patrocleas first says 8' -'ytavdKTrovv and goes on to quote a line from EKcraAaL dKOvwv E3ptrn'8ovAE'yovros the Orestes. Reading aloud to an audience is done in various situations. (type occurwithoutthe difference of direct 6 In Soph. Inside group (B) I now make a distinction between official and public reading in court. classroom etc. Att. When reading to himself the person who is reading aloud is identical to the listener. was common practice in Antiquity. 4. whether in "HKovaaXgen AEyov0ro private conversation. 8rpouoet 9 The latter clause is added because I have found no passages in which someone says that he heard Sophocles speaking.8 in court the clerk may read a law. Normally (e.4. However. church. there is an intermediary between the author (character) who is said to speak and the listener. In these cases the 'unmittelbare Wahrnehmung' Kiihner-Gerth are referring to turns out not to be as direct as they would have us believe.9 Because this paper focuses on cases of reading. the quotation from Galen will mean: 'A few moments ago you read in Plato that.6 means 'I heard X saying (something/that.
Other 14 editors often follow the same procedure in similar texts. for reasons of his own the hearer may pretend that he personally heard X speaking. followed by Od. Bas. J. (iii) The hearer himself read. 19. JTr. or listened to a reading by his slave. but it is impossible to decide whether e.992. Matters apparently get more complicated when the identification of X does not concern a human person but the hearer applies the method (common or literary) or personification of an inanimate thing. This question. the implythat in type (iii) the meaningis different meaning (semanticlevel) remainsthe same. V7TLKPU. and in Luc.132 DIRK M. whereupon a biblical quotation follows. Demosthenes. It whetherone prefersa literaltranslation to one dependson one's generalviewson translation. P. The interpretations do not change. in Isaiam v.20: iKovUa Y IV Any choice between the three interpretations in individual cases must depend on the context.12I add that in principle the same three interpretations apply to those passages where grammatical persons other than the first singular are the grammatical subject. when this has been done tEI'r hecontinues qLKOUaTE /LV KTA. 18. (B) (ii) The hearer listened to a public reading by a third person from a text written by X.g.494. or Jesus. when patristic authors present God. is immaterial.10 The main ground for making this distinction within (B) is that the peculiarity of the Greek idiom gets more pronounced in type (iii). even when X is dead at the time of the statement. " I do not from that in types (i) or (ii). ed. In Eccles.62). that X is identical. e.-P. for instance. the interpretation (pragmaticlevel) varies. 1939) puts a comma after Kvplov. d) 8tatdS 7TLSTOV "AAvv XP•)aU1jv t/EydAAvv KapV aaAaUEL. Caes. but to a character in a text written by an author Y. 506a dKOVELSt yap AEyolarls (sc. page and line.s r T-r r 7TPw7 7IKOCpC/EV TO?) BaaApELJv KTA. in Galen's text the actual reader is Thrasybulus or his anagn6stis. from a text written by X. The same personification occurs in Greg. 12 Of course. My definite three types of interpretation"1are now as follows: (A) (i) The hearer literally heard X saying something. Unless otherwise stated. of course. but not necessarily in the other types.19 PGM d. 20 rav aKov'wmUL Trv AEydVTWV. and reading done privately by and for oneself (type iii). 13 Patrologiae Graecae Cursus completus. Migne. 396. although in this way I suspect they hope to avoid the consequences of 'direct perception'. and I will give specific or general arguments for each classification suchas 'The kingbuiltthispalace'. also in rrpo•rq7ELSaL Greg. as speaking in and through the Bible. SCHENKEVELD ii). phrases account. but the question about 'AOTqvaOLI (23.167. Under interpretations (ii) and (iii) we have the subtypes (iib and iiib). I will return to it in Section IX.Cw VTO) VdOU v AyOVo709 dVSpES example in Plut. r7 rpdCbov X being alive is no longer relevant. Garrul. Naz. all references to Christian authors are by Migne volume. v.14 Kvpt'ovAE'yov709 -7TS EdrITOVduS. erroneously. for • E'pVKAE•a•9). Trevisan.g. xxxv. .wheretheactualbuilders arenot takeninto 10 Cf. Nyss. San Basilio Commento (Torino. For my subject this point is unimportant.49 PGM13) 7j OELaS C)KOvUGa AEyOQrT Fc cpacijs KTA. but this is a different matter. Enarr. As to the question whether X is implicitly presented as being alive. not to an author. In the latter case the actual reader may be a slave. it will be clear that in type (i) this is the case. In principle interpretations (i) and (ii) are easier to accept and therefore preferable to (iii). which is interpretative at the same time. first instructs the clerk in court to read out a law (AEytE Tov rair7a vdtov). (Or. too.
189. For these reasons.8). Gal.17Athanasius Alex.-Rad. (reporter) or with acc. a few lineslateron [. especially. also W. the explanation that Aelian refers to his reading is enough. B. the expression appears to be merely one among Aelian's various ways of introducing sources.Rose (Aristot. Nat.Though this commentary and others may well be based on lecture notes. he knows these sources through more recent ones.19Aelian often quotes from his works.9. 8.16 D. 38. 595-6.10. Very probably.18 . in general.8. Alim. Plut. 'Voces Paginarum'. This passage can be added to the list of texts quoted by J. Anim.PROSE USAGES OF AKOYEIN 133 under type (iii).1 (type (i). 1" Apparently the oldest example. 214ff.f. der gr. for the texts of Gregory of Nyssa alone offer more than 50 items.4. vi. "s Followed by Gen.24 Hence this is type (iii). 184.54. Ph.32. Schmid22it is one of several ways in which he imitates the style of Herodotus. IV ad Serap. 46. LSJ s.v.6 AlyvU~7 v KOdw EyodV70WV the statement implies that Aelian has read somewhere something about the Egyptians. 564. AE•Et. Antirrh. Nyss. in Int. for example :15 Type (i): S. c's d ai-rds 'Ap~aror6A-rl6 vAdeas pcw8to• EL KTA. Type (ii).90.AEyovro9 I could have expandedthe second group by innumerable passagestaken from. the Greek commentarieson Aristotle (CAG). 1" Cf. Hercher deletes ds A~y . Philologus 82 (1927). 2. My first example is Aelian. according to LSJ. 23 Hdt. 21 5. fac. their introductions suggest rather that they are written commentaries meant for private reading.' (Munich. Et Zacchaei. Balogh.8 Conybeare 1KOVE 70 IaaKc g EVAoyLcLs T70 MwaVcUws9 ypd'qovros' rTas Kal KTrA. Therefore.. When writing in De Demosthene on Plato's style Dionysius of Halicarnassus often dKov•W/LEv AyEt" and Ev• is a present to Ammaeus. 1" 17 Here the selection is very restrictive. Meth. 2o RE s.20 Us. Gesch. isg 'ApL•troTErjq b (7.7rr(9 ""Epywv yap KTA. Abbreviations here and further on.5. 25. 26.iroouylpatvovot r E:9T yiv ovtEVrtL.7 'AptaUTOrTovg~ O K JKOow A~yovoK dO7Tta •t 6p TOO rrTEAdyovs rV XctLWVO•dao• l•TEtAv mentions his sources.] EOLKEV bro8rlAoiv.. (report) occurs eleven times.11) and AE'yt (7. x.10. fragm.. cum inf.20 The phrase dKoiw X AEyovTro occurs in his work several times more..pavot Xvpoi3 .29ff. Conv. The choice between types (i) and (ii) is rather easy to make.] Iqat tJTpots o0o7w Herodotus uses the (7. xliiii.4.)..8 and 8. The Sound of Greek (Sather Lect. 768ff. iii 1. Stanford. Stacopdc. rather than that he has read books in Egyptian. 7. (c. However. as proof that in Antiquity writing aloud was common. Stihlin.2. 49. cf. 1967). I classify these passages under type (iii). Schmid-O.23 whereas it 'A7ToAAOwpos OEAEtE occurs in texts of authors who have no inclination to imitate Herodotus. ii. med. pp. 22 W. Greg.32.12). p. 160d a. Cf. We can easily imagine a TLS 7V v YLVET•atc TPOTGEWV TETO/rd-Vrat a y. 7. NtKavSpo AE'yEt (7.v. w A 24 In 7. 3 and note 14.21 and according to W. yap T7L ITOTE KatL Tap rTO~ Xpdvov~ lecture room and Ammonius lecturing there to his pupils and starting to read out a passage from De interpretatione. The treatise though we know 8t&idaKov7 KOU KOVO/ 70LEOa To 'ApLTrovTAovg.4 and 7 etc.140.598. 1913). of course). 253) keeps it. Dial. including aVTTO. Lit. Pseudo-Athanasius. i. Ep. . 'Hy"wvCo iv roE0 JapiavtKoi~ ydp [. iv 5. Athen.. like Ammon. Alexandros 100.560. •Kovra with a single genit. V The following uses can also be placed under type (iii).9). expression once only.
As to Cic. is recorded'.244-51.1 T v 'OAvEL7rrovL`Kav /OL 'ApXETrpdarov 7TaiLa E'Lis yEypa7rrra 4pErvos rrdOt the sense is 'read out theaVayVWTEr place where (the name of) the boy of A. the connotation of 'study. In an Appendix I give a list of references to more passages having the phrase under discussion and where the X is identified. 1011onwards. 524.Ind.S BLlov (sc.O' v8E'KaTos~ v iv 7v O6 Tro 'AptLro-rTAovU . 87. ii. 0.v. cf. MilangesHenriGregoire 2.246 + 246a (a 'Plusvers'!).K dvEyvw "Ocqlpov. Cic.134 DIRK M. Fac. 3a ThisusagefromAr. ad Att. a book (in the latter case often indicated by its title). 24. o. in Int. See (1950). Suet. audio dicentem cibi condimentumesse famem. 52 and Eq. ad loc. pp. when X stands for an author. whatis saidaboutAndronicus 25 I know one clear example. 115-26 (not listed in l'Annde phil. 938d JAA av . et d'Hist.3.5).28 and 10. (Ammon. v.5ff. aLELtov AE'yovTro 7TEpL 'Ir7ToTKpdovsVt 7dKoat ryv a7rTJv AEdyovo70 iv rTcit ai0ov rTE•L 7r the addressee is being asked to look up a Lv•EWE specific passage of ypdktkarft KrA. 2.14.i) ofteninsertsa 'reader'where theGreekhas EKaaro~. potionis sitim.3.). who 'reads'27 more than Aristarchus did. 3. morepassageswiththis construction. Trv 'Ap'a-rapXov dyairTwvaEt Kat Gavktd&wv.where Hippocrates. v. lego (II). after these words the dialogue character quotes Kpdirrros II.1. but has been composed for a private reader. Plin. But how does one translate these words into Greek? In Latin the expression legere apud X aliquid is usual.g. vrvyXdvw.v.27."9 In Greek the usual word for reading. dvaAyotiaL)'.. in orb. J. r7Tv In his Loebtranslation S. The philologist Theon is asked whether he does not know his Crates. Acad. Orientales et Slaves. 14. pore over' is often present. Hal.18ff.e. 2. ppvErlvEas) raTaOrLara 27 For dvaytywcKEWL 'to read' in the sense of 'to adopt a reading' see note 55. audio ii. Semine EV KTA. 425.. HEp' TOU•E 7ro0~ rpooqLFOL -ra voqLgara KCrA. qui voluptatem nullo loco numerat.2c gives 30 These have been discussed by P. such as o'K VEyvw 6 SEva G 'AAKaGov. Commentarieson Pindar. See also D..31In the relatively rare cases an author's name appears.94.. lun. 26 Cf. Ep.iv. 23 Gal. (followed by Snell).45. 20.6. Cic. such as a letter.28ff.26 and dvayVtymV3KEW Interesting because of its combination of dKOVELV is Plut.90 idque Socratem.g. Alex.a0 dvaytyvmUKEtw.). Strom.S. In Pi. CQ 30 (1980). when meaning to say that they have read something somewhere use the locution ifKovaa X AyovorogS? They could have said 'I've read in Homer that. 6TLAEyo?Lat.). SCHENKEVELD that Dionysius has given lessons in rhetoric (CV 22.1. oVKaKOVELS dvaytvwUKovro07. Chantraine in 'Les verbes grecs signifiant "lire" (dvayLyvwaKw. 335. 28 E. Crit.. but all thosewouldfall undermy type (i). e. VI Why do Greek writers. and see TLLs.. ii (Leiden. 10 W. Jul. Thus Apollonius Dyscolus records this sense when constructing a few examples with alvayLaLUKELV (Synt. as well as that of legere X. J. 'dvayLyvwaKw and Some .4and Luc.70i. 5. Verdenius.He explains the sense of the verb by Tioiv StavoLtKaraywvEu6atL For the 7TOLtLd7Twv. as its whole contents clearly show.96. Both this identification and the kind of writing or the context of the quotation preclude interpretations (i) and (ii).110 PGM.1. normally takes as its complement in the accusative something written. this book is not the written expression of oral lessons.Essays. Quint.' seem to be almost wholly absent. TLL s. p. Annuairede l'Inst.g. Allan.1 audi igitur me hoc dyorEVtE-rw dicentem see ? XI on the epistolary dialogue. 1. Ra. Aristotle) KaAol3vrog 7ivrog dKOv6caa.28I add that phrases such as audio (-vi) X dicentem (loquentem) which admit of the interpretation 'I've read in X that . De fin. 7rTEpl fr.25 For similar exhortations to read. D. '. a law.5. Clem.' of Rhodes. 239. de Philol.. Usher(Dion.5. 10. published in HAFKAPHEIA.but translates ourpassageby 'Let us hearhowhe speaks. aKOvatLEY Ovv rdTaAV EAOTOLO 70io OELUo BaKxvAlovo T. CognateWords'. 2 & airoi (sc.61. Ep..137. 1988).
Is. Cor. HIAdirwvoS ataLS'ova 37 Moreexamplesof this use of the singledativeinsteadof rrapd +dat. is the only instance of TrdAord 8 3 'Hald3ov Xp this verb in an expression of type (ii) or (iii). O•Tt KTA. whether uttered by himself. which words stand in the middle of a quotation from Isaiah. 1.g. not dvayLVaKELV. But I have found no texts with a form of dvaytyvoKELV which can serve as an equivalent of the Latin being to writings on the history of Attica. p. 248ff. 150. for &KpoUaT4r = 'reader' Plb. 30). 111. I owe the reference to H.. will be a consequence of their habit of reading aloud.AdyovraLv ds KTA. iii ('read through'.40 The usage may have been encouraged by the fact that e. 347.v.12. avEyvWKLWS vayXosg." Nor are there examples from Classical and Hellenistic prose with KTA. cf. R. Het Eerste Boek der Diatriben (Amsterdam.11 U. AP.1. not to one with dvayLyv*a•KELV. W.634. in English one can say 'Yesterday I read the passage where Plato says' but not 'Yesterday I heard Plato saying.34. the latter expression is. conv.PROSE USAGES OF AKOYEIN 135 same use cf. Plut.H.15.. Radt. On the whereas the equivalent locutions are usual other hand.13ff. Ep. (see Powell s.1 etc.-R. whereby the subject literally heard words spoken. F. Imit. 553f. 1 Cf. 3. Epict.. % voVL-ELV dKpoduGOatL AE'OVr70o KTA. only appear The verbs sense of 'to read'37but when they are accompanied by a complement. "OIr-qpos was common in all cases of AE'yEL 32 3 are sometimes used in the rrLmtAyEaaLa. ZPE 64 (1986).2.. 31. 724a KatroL OKW) VOL pUV7pqlOVEVELv an exact the reference is not 'ATTLKOES parallel. from Ascl.63 onwards). V phrase legere apud X aliquid.13 r7j WYaAluo(s wa7rEp dvE'yvw(LEv. 191 on modern examples. 606e1 if. 38 For dKpdaaLs = 'reading' cf. Hendrickson. 'Ancient Reading'. never an author's name.2 dvyvwv ydp Trov Ev OLTtKTA. 1.2. VH 2. Sometimes this connotation seems to be absent.35 'Huaa. ii). cit..' 'EmrTAE'yEat.v. For dvaAE•yEeaL see LSJ s. 9. forav 'Ot~4pov T6raLVE`TaLtEVTsx). Lys. Caes. iii (from Plato. 245. however. 711d arZwoios avaAEyovuL. Epictetus. p. Ap. Plut. dp-wgS (vrap&) IJAd-tWvt. to the Latin phrase is Greg. in Paus.21 and 413.Act.608. Cf.C.2 etc.' STov i refers to 'attend someone's (LSJs. a book. as we have seen. these only. Aeth.36. who lives perhaps beyond the sea.] -wva. but Chantraine. Stellwag. or [. 19. p. Or. Diss.10 and S. op. in this sense in Hdt. 8. Hld. etc. r70o~ D.15.. OrL KrA. by his slave or by anyone else. The reason why the Greeks adopted this manner of expression. for the interpretation 'to read and expound'.v.4 and Plut.. 1. 1933). 11. this always is a letter.. when one refers to the philosopher who died 349/48 B. and Mnemos. I have found no further examples. 3 Longin. Closer Naz. TrEpL 36 Marin. .'. as far as we can gather. 125. O67T dvay•yvoSUKELv from Plutarch onwards. Sera num. AE'yov-a.. For i?-rvyWyttenbach's conjecture in Plut. and for dKpOaciOaL= 'to read' Str. 40 See G. Dem. 3.v. 126 is right in calling 'tres douteuse'.. 210.In Greek. Garr. 1. Bas.2 etc. vXyIS. not 'the Attic writers'. KTA. dvaAyEaOaLt and 'VTvyXadvELv. Russellon Luc.g. pp. 214b3 onwards) and Chantraine's discussion (pp.the locution may be compared to our phrase. even for situations of silent reading. in Longinus 34. 44 xxxvi.). The transition from 'I directly heard Plato speaking' through 'I heard through my slave Plato speaking' to 'I heard through a text Plato speaking' is smooth enough to have caused the adoption of this phrase.38 An important conclusion to be drawn from this negative survey is that. Thus Schweighiuser. Qu. 12 Boissonade dvayLVwaKEL oUv rrap 'ApLaT0TAov ? 7CEv r• '-TO-7p lectures on. 513b. (n.1. 3 In P1. Th. Procl. 9. L. 10. Lys. e. As to cKpodaOaL. L.1. 4.21 and 22. Galen could not have written to Thrasybulus either S3rrov *dvEyvwos OT IA *dvyVwo in Latin and modern languages. 43 (1990).14.3 etc. like when 'we ask if you have heard from John.8. CJ 25 (1929). 122-6).4. the usual way of saying that one has read some statement in (the work of) an author. See also Allan (note 30). 9.vyq XdvELV see LSJ s.28 and 2 Ep. at least. 10ff. A. in D. Th.9 (Xpiatimrrov dvaytvWaKELV32 = legere et intelligere33).
andQu. 4' E. translatio ubi aliquidfuit. Med.2 classifies this passage as a case of 'contextos en que es imposible la audici6n directa'. In line with my method I shall again offer specific arguments for the adoption of interpretation (iii). 47C(tL 83Ej. figurative language? Thus LSJ s. Interpretation (ii b) seems preferable in the cases of Plut. 676cKalTro6Tr' E~7tLU iv Ei7rtv9 I do not exclude that these KTA. knows of the same claim but puts it differently: ~&Sq d rEtvw• Kal -r h trrapaOEoLgs 3dAE-rodT~ OTT. bKOtwii. cf. 7fKOvaa yco AEydvT•wvcbs. When X is left anonymous. 1985). 6-r7aY-p &1rl found in D. O K aKOVELS. Adam ad. 'v 3' Eyc(. for the reference is not to a performance in the theatre. D. in P. My first'case concerns the assertion that if Zeus speaks Greek he will do so in Plato's manner.R. 3-11. 178. 14. p. Ly. A survey of ancient theories on KaTrdXpqatcg may be found in J. p. Knox (eds.v. and Hendrickson42speaks of 'purely metaphorical usage'. E. Latin had a different way of expressing the notion my paper is concerned with. pp.-r6 yE'voSg.' The Diccionario Griego-Espajiol(DGE) s. 192 (note 40). 'Books and Readers in the Greek World'. Schuursma. Ancient theory distinguished from IE-rabopd as the case of usage of words in their non-proper sense KardXp-qaLs when the 'proper' words are unavailable. 26l'os• and there interpretation (iii) cKotuwwEva.43 VIII In all examples of the phrase Kovrtaa X AE'ovros I have discussed the X was identified by a personal name. Therefore.34 abusio est ubi nomen defuit. The and well expresses the living voice of is just as legitimate as present aKOvELS farlat. SCHENKEVELD references to what one has read. 121 says. 42 P. annotates -rdxa r0oiKLKE'pwvos. but this suggestion is wrong. An seni 789c oiKdcKOLOVUEv Ev KW?t•(t uT-patWTroVt V -L KwOVLy L tapyvpoV AEYOVr70 KrA.H. A. Cic. Dem. p.41At the same time one should note that although to all appearances the same habit of reading aloud was common on the Roman side. in order to formulate the notion of 'reading something in an author's work'. was necessary.g. si Graece loquatur.). is an opinion of philosophers: Quis enim uberior in dicendo Platone? Iovem sic aiunt philosophi.EL JrvOprrTWV 6 v ovi aii-w 3LaAE'yE-aL . Cic. 434.6.come under group (i). This. 407a70PwKvAt'ov ydp. loqui. 7TW9 The construction is the same as we .12ff. cdpEr-v aUKEyv. poetry in oral circulation. Dem. but the choice is more difficult. the same three interpretations (with their subtypes) are acceptable.i (Cambridge. yet speaketh. although passages might come cdKoaat AEyoV70ro under type (iii b).5 committed by ascribing to Cicero what Cicero himself had borrowed 4' And by the fact that authors of books with a claim to literary merit wrote these to be read aloud. comments: 'Phocylides. A KEXP-7Tat Iq ~aAAgWS scholiast ad loc. M.H. 8. being dead.v. For this reason it was possible to argue more cogently that the interpretations (ii) or (iii) were to the point. 67 KovaUad TroU 'yovros and P1. See also Knox (note 2). Brut.. loc. De poetica vocabulorumabusione apud Aeschylum (Amsterdam. 23.TroVi. 215c4 7 ~q roT'rd r70oqKOUaa EyoV70ro KTA. 24. Easterling and B. there is no doubt that E. 'flaaAEV'Sg OEO'S d-wv. W. . These glosses suggest that the Greek could have used a different expression.but then he makes the same error Plut. Tcs AE'yEL. Of course. iii. VII Shall we put this phrase under metaphorical.1 in the case of P1. 1932). conv.136 DIRK M. I prefer to speak of catachrestic language. Quint. Knox. The CambridgeHistory of Classical Literature. B. a KptLov.
One should of the use of JKO5ELV not forget.In his study on the development of Greek science G. pp. 1979). this would certainly be the case in Him. Hermog. may be thought to be impressive. even when unidentified. IX The first instance of a passage of type (iii) with a reference to unidentified persons seems to occur in the introduction of the Hippocratic treatise De natura hominis: OUTL9s pUv ELWGOEV 'KOVELY 7T'OUWT AlydV-Wv c4Lt JVBPW~rL'rIS Tj 5bUTOSi-j 7E. It cannot be excluded.KatL raUra fLEv ypd"o 7rTEpL TroU"wV. ypdaCw./ELa 3S /Iav'TEUaooat. Walsdorff.W j7 LOS 03 6 A dyos dKOVaLEtV OdKOUv • 70TU7TE /EV 0 EKEL7MTr r7Tt'pLKi7V au-r"). Tab. for the i same view recurs in Cebes. for the statement that follows. F. 49ff.g. has a long pedigree. Later on.public debates on medical matters were being organized. Die antiken Urteile iiber Platons Stil (Bonn. When Dio Chrysostomus. Further examples. Id. The reason why he chose not to do so will be related to matters of style and literary genre.24ff. but I prefer to think that Dionysius repeats what he has read somewhere.•7 the text has references to disputes between philosophers (vi. of course. that already Hippocrates in connection with his activities as an author uses the verb e. with a short defence where necessary.2. for that is claimed to be an extempore speech.31 Arnim) ycW EKovad TroyAEov-ros.PROSE USAGES OF AKOYEIN 137 from others.32. may have led an author to make his particular choice. it would have been pedantic to name the philosophers you had consulted for a specific statement. B 34 D. Moreover. Eloc.420.C. O7Tt 38 dp Uc'aO(ta aUTr(v. Dionysius' phrasing shows that Cicero cannot be his source. 1927).4. v. Studies in the Origin and Development of Greek Science (Cambridge. moreover. a lay audience was present. :f•rIKEL.g. e. 4 Cf. cidrTA'yovatv). He died before Dionysius reached Rome. says fKovUad 7Tr ~ 6 o0WV This view 7LSKdOUIOS VUEWS~ Adyov. Naz. In orations. 2tly(y. ii. Reason and Experience.2 -4ydp ci2poav'q ro~s dvOpAwroLs 6arLv. where. 8•KE I am defending in this paper is one of the reasons. why classical interpretation Magic. tells us.6ff. For these passages. of course. 4 * . 3. I think. pp. not think of a personal oral communication but of a report on his reading. ypdEw.K. 40 xxxvi. one suspects that the author could have mentioned his source by name as well.4 (see Appendix).Ka'Ayw 7TOLazUTa ETEpa.11.44 7T T7TEpL TLVO7jV Greg. will be found in the second part of the Appendix. 2. R. that Dionysius heard this view from persons alive at that time.76ff. 9. In inscr. quoted by Demetr. E. each with its reference to what someone has read somewhere and where we can point to a parallel text. a scholiast ad IKovaa i6v uOq~SV hAyOV70SKTA. Walsdorff has made a good case for the view that this opinion of Plato's style derives from the circle of Philo of Larissa. 12 'EKaTa'osg MtA-atosg w• EIvOEUrTaL the of of the OL C0s Neglect possibility 'reading' dAOE'a Edeva. Or. OTL Ldto0 UTL-v vtLKpdS 80LWV 3LE ivOpw•ros.45Because in line 3 Lloyd identifies the treatise as a 'lecture'.1. Nyss. for example.46 I also think of the introductory words of ar1. more than a dry statement that you found your story in one particular book. however.21 'Eyco 3E rootai7ra iv ov ypd•stv.30. The same conclusion will do for Greg. 92ff. it is found already in Democritus. 74.. Interpretation (iii) is quite possible. 15 line (e. Or. F. Lloyd takes this passage as the starting point for his argument that at the end of the fifth or the beginning of the fourth century B. is found in a work of Gregory Thaumaturgus. TLVOS loc. who died before the other Gregory was born. Prorrh.g. T aE Hecataeus. tells us we need (Or. But other reasons. Thus. psalm. to take another example.1-3 Littre). At another time a direct reference to a host of witnesses.
1 and 5. Oral Tradition and Written Record in Classical Athens (Cambridge.): 'p'oyv 3aa 38a KivTa. pp. Rosalind Thomas. Further research on oral tradition and literacy will have to take into account these linguistic data.it must havebeen writtendown laterto be readby others.2ff. 31. pp. V. 7To. 174. A 51 Commentary on the Platonic Clitopho (Amsterdam.48 (see ? X). 51 and 61 on UKorTRv. Mass. as it were. Harris.4. I stress my point that an occurrence of the verb JdKOvEtv is not an immediate proof for oral communication. 1980). of course. Socrates) TrEpt KGal Should one take these words as an assertion that at olKovo/as LtaAEyoiL'vov. W 77v TTEpL KTA. Kroll) Proclus tells us that on the occasion of Plato's birthday he gave a lecture on Plato's treatment of Homer and poetry in the Republic.51 the more so because to read was to hear at the same time.47However. as true and reliable. 1981).1. In the sixth essay (i. the argument about Proclus' personal attendance at a lecture of Syrianus has become even less convincing. that one should be cautious in accepting Xenophon's further statements about his personal experiences with Socrates. 1.50 not to return to Athens until after Socrates' death. Mass. Somewhat in line with the foregoing is the interpretation of a passage from Proclus' commentary on Plato's Republic. e. 1974). 52 p. From this point of view we may now look at what Xenophon says in Oec. 1989). those in Mem.. The second interpretation.' Now that we have come across a whole array of similar passages which require the 'reading' interpretation. 27f. 2. although it cannot be proved or disproved. A.] KaOG7YEVyEoIos Ko(. note 12 the possibility was mentioned that someone is pretending that he heard a person saying something.69. e.g. 47 At any rate.1. He is now writing this lecture down. 'KovUa S ' 7roTE a3o170i(sc. Anderson. Xenophon (London.48 In Section III. on thislinguistic 48 Nothingpertinent aspectin E. 4 Socrates did not leave any writings.g. One reason is that examples of my locution requiring interpretation of type (iii) are not found before the Hellenistic period. another is the following consideration.52In a note she says: 'Notice IqKOv'aatLEv. Ancient Literacy (Cambridge. . R. &ararta [. Slings.if it was a publiclecture. Nevertheless. 162 c) can speak of "hearing" Xenocrates who lived in the time of Augustus. For it has been proved that some of Socrates' remarks concern Cyrus the Younger and thus 'refer to the period after Xenophon had left Athens'. seems likely to correspond to the truth.Prefaceto Plato(Cambridge.a/IEv oTorWv &EAG•o(LEV Anne to a lecture by that Sheppard interprets these words as a reference /ovov Syrianus Proclus had attended.for which one may compare Ebopdv in Hdt.138 DIRK M. K. Studies on 5th and 6th Essays of Proclus' Commentary on the Republic (G6ttingen. 1989). A consequence of this interpretation is. SCHENKEVELD scholars are nowadays conditioned. also taking into account the opinions of his teacher Syrianus (71..20ff. therefore subtype (iii b). Julian (Or. The Socratic dialogues offered to Xenophon the opportunity to present as a result of personal observation what he knew about Socrates secondhand. 1963) and his later publicationsand neither in W. I am very much inclined to accept the former interpretation and to suppose the use of a literary fiction. to detect everywhere in the fifth and fourth century signs of oral culture. Havelock. See for this matter of Socratic dialogues by Aeschines and others also S. but the word may not be as significant as it looks at first sight. rightly stresses the coexistence of oral and literate modes of thought in the fourth century but is sometimes too careful to accept as preferable interpretations of reading. one time •otLdSE heard Socrates these or Xenophon personally uttering (type (i)) think that he has read them somewhere (type (iii b)49))?Under the first interpretation the assertion cannot be true. p. 1... v. Lloyd may well be right in his interpretation for we have no comparably early parallel of use of type (iii). 50 J.
E. Heres. it is that of 'personification'. . dKOVE.54 I do not distinguish between cases in which dKOVEtv governs an author's name in the genitive or a book (mostly) in the accusative. LKo7rand similar words which I interpret as referring to reading. Pan. d KOdELV roi 292. Ar. but this use is very common from S. 1.53 In the third part of the Appendix I list a select number of passages with forms of dKOUELV. 57 Kl. Grundziige griech. i.12 onwards. iv) but only point out that this usage occurs much earlier than LSJ (Jul. IvopdcI 53 r's 55 I am not concerned here with the use of dKO'Etv in the technical sense of 'to understand. take in a certain sense' (LSJ s. For. 223 quotes The use of cdKOvEtv the view of Artemon that a letter is otor o7 ETrEpov ftaAdyov. in Ep. Eloc. 168 Tls yap o0K O TEV q 7 7WV T0 Ko•rKOE KTA. Ep.6(ol dKOtOVTE•) &l 'AOrlvaio dJKOaavr7E (sc. Pax 593. G. although for dKovaU7rov they give texts from Strabo. nor Isocr.55The list is restricted to examples from Classical and Hellenistic authors (with one exception). the others he just scanned (irTopi). L. 7KOVcLaaEV.438. Nyss.48: Croesus had sent for responses from KTA.PROSE USAGES OF AKOYEIN 139 X In this connection we should remember that adKOvEWL without a participle construction is often used in the context of 'reading by oneself'.iv dKOUaEUGaL trap' aavrT KrA.16. it is true. 10). M.58 dlKoaacSL 'oWVj1S OVoK But in all the instances where Libanius writes to his addressee 7Kovaa. Demetr.. Then. which prove that at times Libanius bears in mind the written character of a letter and.. dlKovov.2St' rTLUTOAwCv dKodaag.-r6m. Or.4. Tpayp66o6aUKdaWv AJ tovvaot 'A6pdarTov [. See also Ph. 56 See note 38 for similar passages with dKpodaOat etc. 1970). 58 Cf. and 47ff. If there is a literary fiction here. but in those cases we had to do with statements such as in Greg. 7.. has traced this view in other authors.1 (see Appendix) where the author tells his correspondent what he had read. 1. 344. or similar terms. 2. T 7s ErTatroA77s) (the letter was read out 5 Not so Thuc.3 o0"vi'6EpEs raacv rE'T L 74patLd-rOWV a ta 7jV KrA. starting from the idea of a letter as part treating here the use of CdKO6ELV of a conversation on paper a Greek may easily tend to stress this aspect by means of In foregoing sections I sometimes took my examples from letters. and his conclusion that it was widespread makes one hesitate about in letters. countless times after the arrival of a and 12. Brieftopik (Munich.E.1 he begins: Aa/LyCv aov r Tv •EirturoA7'iv jArn7ov . p.] av. does not keep to the fiction of a discussion by letter.v. Solon 25. Nor is it difficult to interpret the statement in Lib. 22. Further.147a) and DGE (Athenaeus and Galen) suggest.200) comes next.g. the verb dKOUELV.16 o0 OK' to the audience. 80 6 ES r' EKZJEAkV I7KOVUE and dKo'4 in this sense in Hendrickson also referred to the use of o0 aKoVovrES Polybius. many oracles. cf. The earliest occurrence is in the Derveni Papyrus. pp.1 and Plut. 978. whereas the title of Tdv 7ToL/iaTwv s Chrysippus' 7Ep t TO e7T (D. He does not tIpos 7ro0 wholly agree with Artemon and accepts as a letter's essential trait 'die Schriftlichkeit des Gesprichs zwischen •tAot'. 944. 27ff.27.and tells his correspondent that he did not find the message he had expected. Hendrickson (see note 40) accepted this interpretation for Herodotus 1. For dvaytyv. Ep.56 XI in letters deserves a separate discussion.1-2(dKo7). 28.13.57 Thraede. These come in the first place from the passages quoted. Elem. consequently. 4. Leg.L. Thraede. Alleg. shall we think of afapon de parler and imagine that he deliberately maintains the code of a conversation ? There are some indications to the contrary.59 and Gal. Ep.aUKEtv in the sense of 'to adopt a reading' both dictionaries refer to Sch. 7.
xii. 527a.. 400.g.214 and Eurip. according to Ps. mor. Gall. Aet. (I) With identification of the source DIRK M. Enn.331. et Call. Presumably the need for such a device was met by the expression 7)KOvaa K-•A. Za. Hist. but with the possible exception of Hippocrates and Xenophon (? IX). Id.674. (the reference is to LXX.3. Nevertheless.76. 2. 1075.14 Rabe and many others from CAG. Procl. Philo. etc.228. 2.1iv dy•Aaaa.12). 70 Taking E7ay &KoUaar roETTpaypIEvov.266. Ober Sprache und Stil des Diodoros von Sizilien (Lund. Conscr.140 DIRK M. Phlp. interpretations (i) and (ii) of the latter expression are found from the fifth century onwards (? IV). loss of texts may colour this picture and it is not unreasonable to suppose that especially the loss of scholarly texts from the Hellenistic period influences my results.10 (with an E. together. In this connection the observation is relevant that in Classical prose there are no examples of either dvaytyvoWaKELV 07r which report the content of the reading.38. Epp. 832e Caecilius (fr.59 r tells a funny story. in Euc. Palm. X orat.1.1. Jul. fr.1. S. 756d. (7rapdX) LK-•A.38. cf.60 XII Looking back at the foregoing sections one will observe a chronological difference = 'to read' and that of 'IKovaaX AyovoroScoming under between the use of dKOvEwV interpretation (iii).1. like the Platonic oWKU•At8E•W TC•9 (? VI). 2. Rabe (a statement which.1.7. Loc. Charito. 99 Ofenloch) had made).E. 5. aff. thus also acquiring an easy means of combining the reference to their source with the content of what it said. NA 5. 1955). 8) Ka't7~ pLytTarov in Ep. II.g.H.. Or.1. 10.5 and 1400. Of course.9f.113. 28. 443b. •jaO7v. 49. 1533. viii. 11.g.162c.409. 14. 109).1. Vit. Plot. X A yovroS. . 956. Chaer. that all these indications I think e.. Gal. aff. 45 xxxvi. 14. 8.44. Hermog. av'l SE Ea-o pyp. 2. OK dKOVEtL. 6. Cf.3. etc. m. Virt. 535.25 (with reference to passages from Sophocles and Thucydides).11. . 1320. 61 For similar examples see e.1.9. p.22. Sachindex s. Anat. 662. Theodor. ling.1 and Sacr. iv. Greg. 1. adm. Epp. Sat. The former use is attested from Herodotus onwards (? X). viii. in Cat. 14 (two quotations from Homer. 879.2. with a more complex construction. Luc. 904. J. Conf. Olymp. Ael. only a few or dKO6ElV Krt-A. 929. Amsterdam APPENDIX Further examples of type (iii). interpretation (iii) with its reference to reading occurs from the end of the Hellenistic period only (? V). Greg. p. Nyss. Adhort.4ff.1 he letter Libanius replies with words like dKOvUaas 0 [. id.11ff. Or. which he introduces thus: yW .38. 20 (followed by a quotation from Hesiod.v.34 Wenkebach.17. AR 1. 59 60 . 2. Cupid. (II) Without identification D.1. Graec. Vrije Universiteit. Plut. provisionally I think it safer to assume that Hellenistic prose writers felt a need for greater precision61 and therefore widened the range of the expression. Contra Arrianos xxxvi. ii.28.].-Plut.. Op.. 695. Sacr. 324. SCHENKEVELD In Ep.16. Usu part. Luc.3 Raeder. Virg.11 respectively). P. 171.3 6LKOVE (followed by an anecdote) the interpretation 'read' is obvious.1. Amat. 365. Naz. SCHENKEVELD Str. 'Analytischer Tendenz'.3.
pp. EN 1095b8.696.148. may have meant his remark as such. consequently. Polyb. dKOUELV St. Ep. Lg. the plural tLAoUadotL KaL vuaKoAa(vovut of type (iii). 52. and Philostr. to a real 64 K1.4 Colonna (for which see my article in CQ 41 (1991). iv. p.).16 (ii. 3. I'Ancienne Medecine (Paris. Basil on Greek Literature (London. Laus Odyss.op. 46. I do not quote from Plut.4. 138 Garzya. 74. But it is not easy to distinguish or a teacher.A Commentary 65 'This may reflect on thePhaedrus Hendrickson. also referring to the survey in A. In Ad iuv. Kritiken 67.233-4 Foerster). Him. z. 1. 268c.64I put here four more passages but cannot cite parallels: Phld.233. Festugiere.takes these words as a reference occasion. Arist. is found also in Muson. R.S.. This exegesis. . pp. cit.2 (1894). but quotes enough parallels for the view mentioned by Synesius to make my plausible.v. whose acquaintance B. Morepositively op. p.8. Alc. 629b.33. de Vries. Thraede. now with the same lesson. Gal. 1948).11. 314ff. Ruf. 40). I owe this reference Bibliogr. (III) Examples of ciKoliELv = 'to read' P1.67 62 In his edition in the Sources Chretiennes 119. or that of another author. (note 57). 28. Ep. 261b. Stud.PROSE USAGES OF AKOYEIN 141 opinion parallels to which are given by Aubineau62).4. xx-xxvii. way to an interpretation comments for theirstimulating Club' in Amsterdam of the 'Hellenisten I thankthe members on an earlierdraft. 1964).2. I am convinced that in 37a 7TTovTapdT7ovTra points the 7apa Tois dLtAoUd6OL dKOtOVTESOC KTA. Asmus63). s. G. D. p. Rose unter Dornen. has not been considered at all. However. 5.1 = viii.25 (d. cit. 2. to V. Wilson. 21 (Prog.26. 19.a paedagogus. Or. Chr. form. and. 235b-c.'ThusG. D. 1975). p.13. Wilson thinks that the -rt of line 25 'may refer to the famous rhetorician and writer Libanius. 66 67 situationswhereone of in the senseof 'reading'also. P6schl (ed.24 Kayser).66Like previous commentators.63. in Lib. pO rrTOLT)/70 aOEv dvSp to the behaviour moral of mentions the Basilius Odysseus' exegesis tdvotcav) Phaecians (Od.3 and Epict.)..-J.H. althoughit seems obvious that he will use those where they read by themselves. I take these parallels from the commentary of N.135ff. and. 180ff. 189. 122. had probably [sic] made in Constantinople.s 8' •yW TLVOS'IjKOUaa 8ELVOO Ka7Tal. 10. ant. 63 In Theol. D.is supposedto readfroma book to the boys from the two fathers.' The possibility that Basilius only read Libanius' work. 1969). X. 6. Phdr. 1. (note of Plato(Amsterdam. Foet.65 275a.1 (for parallels I refer to the article of I. 95. Quomodo adul. Mem. 516. Hippocrate. Bildersprache(Heidelberg. Or. and Syn.and the Editorof thisjournalfor his suggestions. be it with a different moral. pp. u. 8. Id.ad loc. J.16ff.15 Kemke. interpretation the ancienthabitof readingaloud. CV 25.6. I 112b. Ep. Mus.
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