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Chapter 6 Teacher Communication Skills You should be able to explain: the importance of communication skills for teachers compare

mpare and contrast verbal and non-verbal skills Analyse and identify non-verbal behaviour communication practiced in Malaysias multicultural society Understand the elements of verbal skills The importance of oral communication in the cultural friendly classroom environment Element of politeness in communication

6.0 Introduction The art of communication involves listening and speaking as well as reading and writing. Teachers are proficient communicators as they receive information understand and synthesi!e it and e"press themselves in simple and effective ways that help pupils learn effectively. They make e"cellent teachers because they are able to transmit knowledge skills and values at the same time when they communicate their love respect and care towards their pupils. They also help to motivate and mould them to be better citi!ens. #.$ Communication %ommunication means sending a message either in verbal or non-verbal b someone on the other side and place a response !rom the message receiver. Effective communication means a message is clearly received by the recipient. A message received should be understood by the listener &receiver' under any circumstances. (enerally communication is human interaction in sharing ideas thoughts and feelings whether through verbal and non-verbal methods. )owever if an obstruction occurs in the communication the message to be conveyed failed its communication goals. *t is pointed out that a message can arrive to the receiver either through the spoken word or the word through symbols and body language that allows the receiver to interpret the purpose of the message such as when the teacher put his inde" finger to the lips the pupils receive the message as an indication ask them to stop talking. The fact is other than verbal skills pupils capture non-verbal skills that motivate them to convey a message. *n fact non-verbal skills e"plain more clearly the purpose of the e"pression of words. 6." Communication important to teachers

Teaching and learning activities in a classroom is more effective when a teacher make communication preparations before implementing a teaching plan. Teachers should not only be well versed in delivering the message but to be need smart to interpret and analyse the messages sent by their pupils. Teachers not only manage teaching and learning in the classroom also cover other daily matters involving many parties and issues. +elivery of educational content do not rely solely on the content of the lesson presented by the teacher. Teaching is effective when the delivery and its implementation is well understood by the pupils. ,et us for a moment imagine a teacher that uses the same syllabus assisted by the same te"tbooks and the same guides but why face lots of differences in his pupils performance and their behaviourTeachers must be aware that pupils who from different ethnic and backgrounds will at an early stage find it difficult to understand message in a language that a teacher uses is not their mother tongue &or home language'. )ence teachers must be sensitive and should ensure that they are able to convey the message which is understood and accepted by pupils. *n ensuring a culture-friendly classroom environment a 170

teacher cannot forget all that verbal and non-verbal skills are important factors that ensure teachers managing a classroom of different ethnic pupils.

The importance of communication skills among teachers cannot be taken for granted by teachers. *n fact lack of communication skills hinders learning and teaching activities and rapport between the teachers with parents and the general community at large.

Teachers play many roles in and out of school environment. The following are some of the roles they play where the importance of communication is seen an important element that has an impact on public perception towards an effective teacher. 6."." Teacher Teacher.s teaching with better communication skills to disseminate knowledge to pupils. This is true as the communication between teachers and pupils is an important factor that influence the learning process. A teacher that is able to communicate effectively with his pupils is aware of the environment and pupils background knows the best communication strategies to reach them and to ensure teaching goals be achieved. Thus its safe to say that teacher.s ability to communicate determines pupils interest in learning and doing better in academic performance. /oolfolk &011$233' states teachers are able to maintain pupils. interest in learning as well as to develop their ability in mastering knowledge and skills learned if teachers are always aware of pupils. learning environment. *n this regard 4ygotsky &$56#' argues that the role of teachers in delivering information reminders and encouragement to pupils at the appropriate time and situation is one of a pupils learning centre. 7ole can only be fulfilled if the teacher is able to communicate with pupils in a way that smoothly and successfully motivate pupils in learning.

6.".# $ducators Teachers are educators. *t is an important role in educating and moulding them into a perfect human being as laid by the 8ational Education 9hilosophy also in line with the e"pectations of parents community and country. As trained educators teachers become good role-models as they are closer to with pupils. 7esearch indicates that caring teachers who e"press concern for pupils and act as confidants role models and mentors can contribute to children.s capacity to overcome personal vulnerabilities and environmental adversities &/ang )aertel : /alberg $55;'. Thus teachers way of communicating affects pupils. Every action verbal or non-verbal is observed by the pupils. This should cause us to find that there are teachers who are able to control the classroom and overcome discipline problems than some teachers that are unable to control the class and have their lessons disrupted.

6.".% &gents o! Change Teachers are agents of change< They can influence the pupils to change from being la!y to being hardworking motivated and e"cel in their studies. A teacher who lack communication skills cannot change the pupils. *nstead will find problems like pupils skipping classes apart from 171

other disciplinary problems in the classroom. As agents of change the ability of teachers to e"plain the importance of a change from being a la!y person to hardworking will somehow help many rural and poor interior pupils who may =ust feel too complacent with their present status. As agents of change it is not easy for teachers to open the minds of their pupils who are accustomed to a life of faith and culture that live in. Teachers who teach in rural schools should be aware that as an agent of change they have a duty to help to impart knowledge to their pupils that help them to accept the changes as well as improve their living standards. Teachers need communication strategies that best suit their pupils. They need to in=ect fresh enthusiasm for a change by using best communication strategies that they know that help influencing young minds to accept changes that will bring lots of positivity in their lives. Teachers need to master communication skills to be able play an important role in school and in local community where they live and work. Teachers need to build strong and healthy rapport and relationship with the local community. *ts a known fact that relationship between teacher and community helps in teacher imparting knowledge to their pupils in school. This happens to be true when pupils realise that their teachers are close and have access to their parents. 9upils will strive to do well in education as well as to stay away from any possible problems. This will eventually be a positive factor for pupils to be attentive in schools. Therefore it is important that teachers utilise a variety of communication strategies to influence parents minds to accept any changes that happen for the betterment of their children in schools. Teachers being caring and effective communicators can act in concert to strengthen the effects of education to enhance pupils success in learning. /hen there are positive relationships among parents and teachers its a great likelihood of positive outcomes for pupils to imitate the positive relationship with their peers who come from different ethnic backgrounds.

*t is not surprising to find some communities lag behind in terms of education and economic progress due to poor communication and out of touch with the latest developments in the country. These groups of people have refused to seek and ac>uire knowledge that could help them to be better off than before. Teachers can help the community in matters relating to hygiene healthy eating habits cooperation and respect and diligent.

6.".' (eaders Teachers as classroom managers and community leaders need to have good communication skills. (ood and effective communication skills helps them to be accepted as leaders in their chosen fields. As the classroom manager the teacher plays a role by meeting with the parents and talk to them about their child.s progress in school. According to the ?anuary @eiger &011A' the teacher with parents can help solve the pupils problem in the school. Teachers contact parents by telephone or have face to face meeting to discuss the development of pupils. %ommunication skills affect how parents view teachers role in leadership. Bchool and classroom leaderships do affect school achievement. This can be seen for schools that successfully establish collaborative relationships with parents and the community we see tremendous progress and achievements made by their pupils in their studies. This involves everyone in the school from the administration down to the non-academic staff of the school to interact with the children.s parents.

6.".) Social *elations &gent A teacher is the driving force for developing social relationships among pupils. As a driving force they must play their role effectively by conducting activities that encourage social interaction among pupils from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. An e"cellent good teacher has got communication skills that help create awareness of common and widely accepted Malaysian values that instil a sense of unity among the pupils and the community at large. 172

(oodfellow and ,amy &$555' says social relations model provides e>ual opportunities to its members to get involved to communicate and give each member a chance to participate and play a role. Therefore roles played by teachers in a classroom teaching and learning activities re>uires them to master communication skills to enable each message is effectively relayed and receive accurately among the pupils. 6.".6 +oderator Teachers play an important role as moderator in e"plaining something that to be accessed by pupils during their learning. Cor an e"ample pupils should be made aware of the importance of school attendance and the importance of learning to write and read as encouragement to them to be very hardworking in school. The description and the approach should be modified to suit pupil differences and their learning styles. Teachers need to be able to identify and then employ different forms of communication skills to communicate with pupils from different levels. Cor e"ample ,evel * pupils and ,evel Two pupils have different levels of language grasp and vocabulary. Teachers should use simple language and communication skills when dealing with Dear one and a two pupils compared to Dear E or year ; pupils who may understand better because of the e"perience and being longer in the school.

A teacher is also a moderator to parents and the community. Teacher.s ability to communicate with parents will build a better understanding with the parents on the school process and the present education system. Cor e"ample teachers should know how to e"plain the reasons for Teaching Bcience and Mathematics in English &99BM*' is repealed. Fn 3 th Beptember 01$E The Ministry of Education launched Malaysia Education Glueprint 01$E-0103 as a guide for education e"cellence for coming thirteen years in an effort to ensure pupils are given >uality education regardless of their level and background. *t is clear that the teachers must be able to e"plain these changes made in an effort to further strengthen the education for the benefit of the pupils and also to the country. The teachers depends on their communicative skills to communicate these changes to the parents and the community. )owever if the teacher is unable to so in an effective way the public will blame authorities for the childs failure in the school.

6.# $lements in Communication Skills %ommunication skills consists some basic elements. Among the elements that must be mastered in communication skills are listening ability to convinceH attract listeners verbal skills pronunciations and intonations clear communications and verbal and non-verbal cues & body language gestures and symbols'. 6.#." (istening Skills Effective communication begins in a classroom with listening skills. A teacher should allow pupils to speak what they like and share with teachers and their peers. A child learns to e"press ideas and views with Iself-talk. when they meet people as they begin to establish friendship and begin to interact and talk. At school children talk to their teachers. /e see the child does not feel afraid shy or embarrassed to have a conversation with their teacher who is at ease to accommodate these pupils. Collowing are some practical ways that shows teachers are good listeners2 Allow pupils to tell a story or talk something about their ideas until the child is satisfied what he has shared with others. )ave eye contact with pupils to show that you are interested to what they have to say. Teachers need to attend to pupils who are still young. They may not understand why teachers are busy and loaded with various responsibilities apart from teaching. )owever it is not appropriate for an e"cuse not to treat and attend pupils who want to tell a story or in need of something else. 173

+o not cut the conversation short even if the pupils would have made mistakes or their conversation doesnt leads anywhere. *nstead listen attentively what is being spoken by the pupil&s'. *f there is confusion on the facts teachers can correct them in an acceptable manner.

Jeep an open minded when listening to their pupils and avoid being pre=udice against pupils of different background and levelK need to be understanding and positive to the differences between pupils without looking down on them. Teachers should not monopoli!e teaching and learning activities &teacher centred' but should instead encourage pupils to be active in classroom activities like discussion role playing dialogues and debates. Teachers who are skilled in communication will always be able to successfully encourage pupils to take part in class activities.

6.#.# Skills to &ttract (isteners Teachers who are loved by the pupils. They are funny and have interesting ways of teaching. Fn the other hand there are dull teachers and make pupils not participating in classroom activities. There are some who nags. Bimilarly during talks held there is a speaker that can keep audiences interested for hours instead of boring speakers will cause the audience to feel sleepy. The greatness of a person in the communication will result in the other party not only tired but the message from the talkHcommunication is lost. A teacher who is great in communicating should have following characteristics to attract pupils to participate in activities prepared for them2 Use humour as laughter can make pupils feel comfortable while teaching and learning is carried out in the classroom. 9upils feel uncomfortable in school if they are too shackled with many rules during directed activities in a classroom. Teachers who are less concerned are not sensitive to the desire and needs of pupils who are always looking for fun. )owever do not overdo it. *dentify pupils. interest and relate it to the lessons in the class. This will make pupils to be interested in learning. Cor e"ample using T4 series like LBtar TrekM or favourite cartoon characters with space science. 9rovide opportunity for pupils to present their views and ideas. This will result in pupils being more interested in learning something new as they feel it comes from themselves. They would also feel that they are understood by their teacher< Always allow pupils to >uestion during lessons as they learn by asking what they dont know. Teachers who refuse to entertain >uestions from pupils will only cause them to lose interest and indulge in distracting others from learning as well. 6.% ,erbal Skills

Teachers must work to create a conducive classroom environment that encourages pupils to develop their verbal ability. 4erbal skills occurs in various activities like conversation e"pression of feelings ideas and e"changing their views. Teachers need to master communication skills in dealing with. Teachers must be e"cellent listeners. (ive pupils positive comments to develop pupils positive self-esteem. 6.' Teacher-s .ral Skills Gandura &$5AA' has stated that pupils learn through imitation as is illustrated during his famous bobo doll e"periment in $5#$. %hildren develop their social skills through social interaction with others when they begin to practice everything that is imitated from those around them especially from their parents and teachers. )ence teachers should have e"cellent verbal skills and the ability to speak effectively apart from utilising best teaching strategies in classroom.

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6.'." Correct /ronunciation The correct pronunciation of a word is important in verbal skill. Malaysian teachers face pupils who hails from a variety of ethnicity and backgrounds. They need to connect with these pupils through language especially the Gahasa Malaysia as the medium of instruction in the schools. Thus teachers pronunciation should be clear and accurate regardless of the sub=ect they are teaching to ensure pupils are not confused. This is consistent with the concept of .language across the curriculum.. *n the Malay language the use of raw language is very necessary to avoid dialect being used in teaching and learning situations in the classroom. Bimilarly when teachers teach English as second language in Malaysia they must pronounce words clearly and correctly to ensure that pupils are capable of mastering the language. *n addition to English and Malay language pupils at the school are given the opportunity to learn their own mother tongue such as %hinese Tamil *ban and Jada!an-+usun language. Teachers face multiple challenges teaching in special need schools which involves pupils of impaired hearing or having learning disabilities and rehabilitation. There are children who are categori!ed deaf can still be taught with verbal skills which in turn can be driven to master the reading skill. This group is not fully deaf. Thus the teachers should be able to establish a relationship with them and pronounce the words clearly and encourage them to speak. Cor this group the teacher plays the role of a caring attitude. This is where teachers communication skill is paramount. 6.'.# Clear and Structured Communication A messageHideas can only be understood when presented clearly with properly constructed sentences. Teachers e"planation must take into account the pupils level and their background and language knowledge. Belection of the appropriate words make things easier for them to understand and the message listened with interest. Cor children inappropriate and misleading words does not help them to understand what teacher wants to teach. +ont beat around the bush but go direct to the point and e"plain in simple terms. )owever this is different when teachers communicate with colleagues or parents. Teachers need to master >uestioning skills answering to e"plain something to the pupils. These skills can be seen from the sentence structure whether the message conveyed is clear and organised. 6.'.% Intonation *ntonation is about how we say things rather than what we say. /ithout proper intonation it.s impossible to understand the e"pressions and thoughts that go with words. ,isten to somebody speaking without paying attention to the words2 the .melody. you hear is the intonation. Teachers need to know how to ad=ust voice intonation when interacting with the pupils. *ntonation of speech should be adapted to the conte"t and the purpose of the conversation. /hen teachers failed to control pupils verbally teachers will start using other means to control them for e"ample using a ruler which is knocked over the table to make the pupils >uiet or pay attention to the teacher. )owever if teachers have good communication skills they do not have to rely on other means to e"ert their control over the pupils. Teachers need to know how to throw their voice according to the conte"t and situation. They may raise or soften their voice when necessary. Collowing are some of the ways a teacher can increase the effectiveness of their intonation2 Enthusiastic when delivering a messageH meaning to his pupils. Cor e"ample when teachers emphasise the importance of seeking knowledge teachers should be vigorously encourage and make pupils aware of the need and the importance of seeking knowledge. Avoid using a flat voice tone &Monotone' - its boring. 175

Use high and low voice to convey message. Teachers can learn to use different tones in communication to show their appreciation in the classroom. Cor e"ample * say the word .bananas. - firstly with an . interested. intonation &varied tone'K then . uninterested. &flat'. 9upils can identify the two and describe the difference. There are no rules or formulas to it teachers need to learn and build their calibre as they go along in their teaching career.

6.) 0on-,erbal Skills 8on-verbal communications include facial e"pressions the tone and pitch of the voice gestures displayed through body language &kinesics' and the physical distance between the communicators &pro"emics'. These non-verbal signals can give clues and additional information and meaning over and above spoken &verbal' communication. 8onverbal skills is communication process that involves sending messages through a variety of ways without using words. The importance of non-verbal behaviour in a society becomes important especially for people who prioriti!e the features of politeness when a message is more effective. The message is easily communicated through non-verbal behaviour. Teachers need to master the knowledge of the cultural background of different ethnic groups in Malaysia. *nability to master the knowledge and skills of teacher communication can affect teaching and learning in the classroom. Teachers need to understand the culture of an ethnic to play an important role in dispensing knowledge to their pupils. This is true for teachers who are placed in rural areas for e"ample in indigenous communities or in remote areas of Babah and Barawak. To enable teachers to foster a friendly and close relationship with the pupils and the local community teachers need to learn and try to understand the purpose and meaning of a message conveyed through non-verbal behaviour. Teachers need to understand the elements of non-verbal behaviour to enable them to create a classroom environment which culture friendly. The knowledge and skills needed by teachers are an important asset in building a cohesive society. Through their knowledge and their skill possessed teachers are able to e"plain and understand pupils cultural diversity and different forms of communications in Malaysian society. Teachers need to know and understand taboos in relation to each ethnics they encounter in their work place. These taboos must be respected and adhered to. 8on-verbal communication is e"tensive and involves every human wherever they are. Cor e"ample you may be placed on duty in a remote area of the 9enan community in Barawak. Therefore you do not understand their spoken language but you can still communicate with them through non-verbal communication including with a smile and gifts. Gehaviour is also a part of non-verbal communication that needs to be mastered by the teacher.

8on-verbal communication can be divided into several forms. These includesK Gody Movements &Jinesics' 9osture Eye %ontact 9aralanguage %loseness or 9ersonal Bpace &9ro"emics' Cacial E"pressions and 9hysiological %hanges. Cor discussion purposes we may select certain areas in relation to Malaysian conte"t. )owever you are encouraged to read further from the internet or do research in your local libraries on nonverbal communication. 6.)." 1od (anguage Gody language may consist of gestures or body movements that give meaning or signal of something posture or body position eye contact and stares facial e"pressions the distance between the speakers to the listener position and touch. Bome ethnics have body language that 176

convey different messages and have different values. Understanding the practice of the people on this matter varies and teachers should make a point to understand them. *t helps to be understanding and tolerant and avoid misunderstandings. Gody language has three ma=or roles helping people deliver messages without utterance replacing the role of verbal language convey meaning more effectively and To convey the emotions and feelings that are sometimes not able to be spoken through the words.

Gody language e"ists in all cultures but do not necessarily have the same meaning. Cor e"ample the Malay community have different sitting arrangement for male and females. The men sit cross-legged while the women sit bersimpuh. Beating of men and women is different too2 men usually sit on the porch or in the front of the house while women sit in the space near the kitchen or at back of the room. *n the eastern culture there is a difference between the status and position of women and men that e"plain each gender have different tasks and roles. NE"tra reading at the end of this chapterO

*n everyday communication you can detect other people2s !eelings through !acial expressions. Cor e"ample if her face sour nature shows he is not happy not happy and there.s something boring or bothered. /rinkled face reflects someone is in a state of wondering about something that is not sure or maybe even he was surprised. Bimilarly if the sweet face with a smile it reflects the nature of friendliness cheerfulness and =oy. As a teacher you should avoid facial e"pressions because the other party is not happy and distracted.

3estures or bod movements also have a different interpretation. Teachers should be careful to avoid using the wrong gestures pupils interpret gestures in clusters according to their cultural understanding. Cor the ma=ority of the East pointing toward something by using your inde" finger is considered impolite fingers are used to show a thumb. 4ids usuall hunch their bodies slightl when crossing in front of or behind the elderly people. %rossing in front of or behind the elderly is considered bad manners e"cept by bending the body that carries messages that by passed respect for their elders. *n the Malay community young people will be shaking hands and kissing an adult hand as a symbol of respect for the elderly. Although most people today accept the practice shaking hands as a way of showing friendship but the practice is limited in Muslim society that does not allow men shake hands with women. *t is forbidden in *slam for opposite se" to touch one another. 9upils should be e"plained about dos and donts that is practiced in our communities and the application of values respect and understanding.

Touch also has a deep meaning in the community. Cor e"ample a mother caressing her childs head or hair is seen as a symbol of love but in a classroom situation it raises the possibility of unhappiness because for some people holding the head is unacceptable behaviour. Bimilarly if a male teacher caressing the head or hair of his female pupils it will certainly raise issues. 7ubbing or patting pupils backHshoulders could be a sign of hospitality and to motivate pupils to do their best. )owever its not advisable due to culture and also it may invite problems. *t is suitable for male teacher doing that to his male pupils but not to a female pupil. ,ikewise a female teacher may do so to her preschool pupils regardless of gender as the pupils are young and they see her motherly affection. $ e contact is important part in communicating. *n some culture it is known that elderly person or parents avoid staring directly into the face because it may be treated as rude or speaking against the elderly. Fn the other hand there is also a belief that if children look down when an 177

elderly person is speaking it is a sign of disrespect or hatred. *n situations like this the teachers certainly will be confused with the behaviour that is practiced. *f there is a difference in the value of a similar behaviour then teachers need to regularly apply the universality and accepted values in creating e>uality and solidarity. 7ead further on eye contact practiced by different ethnics in Malaysia. *dentify accepted norms dos and donts. 9resent and discuss your findings in classroom. Each community has its own way to greet and welcome one. +iscuss with your classmates about non-verbal behaviour of each ethnicity in Malaysia when someone say hello and welcome. 6.).# +essages via S mbols and &rte!acts Every culture has treasures and artefacts as national heritage and culture. There are artefacts that play a role in conveying messages and gel as easily accepted by society. 4erbal skills are also associated with the symbol. A community has a symbol which has hidden meanings. Teachers should understand the meaning of symbols used within an ethnic community and the community where they are posted. This will help them to understand avoid confusion and violate local customs and beliefs. Cor e"ample among the *ndian community the girls will wear saffron powder during menstruation. Teachers need not asking anything related to it to avoid embarrassing the pupils. *n *ndian society tying .thali. on brothers wrist by the sister in ceremony called .7akhi. is a symbol of brotherhood and love that is practiced in their community. .Thali. is also a symbol of the bond between husband and wifeK which is worn around the neck by her husband on their wedding day. Bimilarly the *ban beads =ewellery beads used as a necklace or on body is the epitome of lu"ury and privilege. Cor the Malays betel-leaf bo" is the epitome of intimacy and friendship and custom which is part of things presented during engagement ceremonies. /hile for the %hinese tea is the epitome of intimacy and closeness that is served by the new bride and groom to their parents. The bride in the %hinese community is covered with red umbrella to show the blessings to be received in marriage. *nstead they will wear black dress or attach black ribbons sewn on the arm to indicate that they had =ust lost a close and loved one. Glack colour for some people is the symbol of grief. Fnce we understand the meaning of the emblem we will be careful in mi"ing in the community. Buch understanding encourages a harmonious social relations because of the mutual understanding of mutual respect. *n addition clothing is also a form of non-verbal communication when worn which bring particular meaning or message. )ow to dress up is e>ually important in life. /ear clothes that fits the cultural practices and beliefs of a community is important. A non-Muslim female teacher working in a school in a Malay ma=ority village must be able to choose the right clothes either at school or while in interacting in the community. Dour clothing style can be a form of being accepted or re=ected by the communities where you serve. Teachers need to be aware local sensitiveness regarding clothing. Dour image depends how you dress up in the school and while being involved in community activities. Teachers must have the skills and knowledge on choice of colours for their clothing that are suitable for work and to the local customs and beliefs. Avoid unnecessary attraction =ust because of wrong choice of clothing which may invite misunderstandings. 6.).% +usic Music is a powerful means of communication. *t provides a means by which people share emotions intentions and meanings even though their spoken languages may be mutually incomprehensible. *t can also provide a vital lifeline to human interaction for those who has special 178

needs make other means of communication difficult. There is a staggering amount of human diversity on our planet. /e might not always understand each others traditions customs and beliefs but the one thing that has the ability to transcend everything is music. *t is a very deep-rooted and valid cultural e"pression. Cor e"ample in the *ban community the sounds of music instruments on the wedding night can bring good or bad sign. *n another community having music instruments &or a band' during funeral is a sign of respect rather than =oy. *n the Malay community weddings are celebrated with music and songs. )owever a funeral is conducted in a modest and >uiet manner as a form of respect. 6.6 T pe o! language 5also kno6n as language ad7ust8 Type of language is associated with the characteristics of appropriate use of language and conte"t of language to the events. ,anguage level is also determined according to language and the appropriateness of event receiver or listener message. )aliday &$5AE' divides into threedimensional grammar the topic of discourse delivery strategy and presentation style. There are two forms of grammar the usual grammar and specific grammar. The difference between the two forms of grammar lies in the selection of vocabulary grammar and style of delivery. The type of language Ad=ustable ordinary language is the language used in normal conditions less use of compensation no technical =argon and easy to understand. /hile specific grammar is ad=ustable to specific areas. Abdullah )assan &$55A' divides grammar into several types namelyK general technical legal religious poignancy classic creative children and advertising. Teachers need to select the appropriate type of language and level to suit pupils. E"ample teachers should choose a simple language when speaking or dealing with Dear Fne pupil. Assuming that teachers choose a level that is higher than what can be comprehended most likely the teachers teaching not understood. Teachers can begin to introduce pupils to the appropriate grammar through math science religious studies. )owever the use of grammar should focus on the appropriate use of the term with the sub=ect as the most basic e"posure and understanding to pupils. Fnce the pupils progresses teachers can higher learning content with an increasing to higher level of vocabulary. /e avoid use bombastic vocabulary with Dear Fne pupil however as they grow older and have better grasp of language and more e"perience teachers may use different types of words to increase pupils knowledge. Teacher communication skills can be debateable when teachers are not able to vary the type language used in classroom. %ommon language that teachers use must be suitable and ad=ustable to preschool pupils and ,evel Fne pupils. Teachers can use higher vocab and comple" sentence structure when teaching pupils of higher levels. Ad=ustable children.s language has features as follows2 4ocabulary consisting of the root concrete nouns verbs and ad=ectives. The number vocabulary words are less than vocabulary used by adults. A limited use of prefi" and suffi"es to form abstract words for childrens level Bentence structure consists of simple active sentence. Bymbolic language and the flowery language is avoided

6.9 /oliteness in Communication (or courteous language) According to Kamus Dewan &;th Edition' polite manners means language or character that is polite and courteous. /e mean the description 179

of polite manners politeness tact and subtlety or character. *n a broader conte"t politeness does not refer courteous language it refers nonverbal aspects such as behaviour face mimic and voice tone. ,akoff &$5A3' defined politeness as a treatment to reduce friction in an interaction. Craser and 8olan &$56$' state that it occurs when the conversation politeness used by speakers and listeners in order to maintain a harmonious relationship while communicating. Grown and ,evinson &$56A' e"plains that modesty is considered as an effort to reduce the action in the face of threats to the listener conversation. %ourteous act or speech means speaking good or refined or cultured either orally or in writing. Asmah )=. Fmar &0111' describes the courteous language to relate to the everyday use of language that does not cause annoyance anger and feel offended from the listener. 6.9." /oliteness and teacher Teacher politeness means the procedure custom or habit that occurs in society. 9oliteness is the rule of conduct prescribed and agreed upon by a certain group of people to modesty is thus a prere>uisite that agreed by the social behaviour. Thus the effort to develop good manners among pupils starts with politeness e"hibited by the teacher first. Teacher politeness can be seen in terms of social and communication between teachers and pupils teachers and peers teachers and the school management and teachers. relationships with the local community. Gased on professional development in teaching politeness can be divided into three namely2 i. ii. iii. Modesty dress %ourteous behaviour %ourteous language

Teachers need to dress modestly. +ress eti>uette refers to the use of clothing fashion clothes and make-up. Teachers should be decently dressed according to the dress code prescribed in the 7ules of +iscipline for civil servant of Malaysia. Teachers cannot dress that stimulates others especially in terms of different se"es dressed in a see-through e"ample &transparent' showing parts of the body mini blouse too high or too ripped. (source; http://bkree66.blogspot.com/201 /0 /isu!kesantunan!guru.html" All these will influence the young minds therefore be it male or female teachers they should always be smart and casual in their dressing to avoid any unwarranted comments to may smear the good name of the profession. %ourteous behaviour refers an act or gesture in the face of a teacher in a particular situation. Cor e"ample2 parents who come to deal or to discuss about their child will be offended if the teachers do not show patience or show displeasure. Teachers should pro=ect friendliness image give sweet and sincere smile and greeting in the form of praise is the politeness aspect of attention for someone who is knowledgeable and praiseworthy morals. Teachers become good role models for their pupils. Teachers should keep their words by practicing good manners and language that is polite and appropriate. %ourteous language reflected in the means of communication whether in verbal or how to speak. /hen communicating the teacher should take into account cultural norms. ,anguage should be adapted to the cultural elements that e"ist in the community. The words or the language used should be appropriate to the situation when communicating. Teachers who are unable to properly use courteous language may be regarded as a pompous arrogant indifferent selfish not cultured but not cultured. %ourteous language should be mastered by teachers for teachers through this modesty will find out2 180

i. /hat should be spoken at the time and circumstancesii. +iversity of languages should be used in certain situations. iii. /hen and how to turn conversation started. iv. )ow to organi!e volume when communicating. v. )ow attitude and body language when communicating vi. /hen should remain silent and terminate the conversation. To keep the image of the profession every teacher must adhere to professional ethics teaching ethics ethical behaviour and ethical public service &Abd. 7ahim 011A' Teachers need to understand local culture and taboos. Cor instance the teacher will not necessarily be said to be polite when the teacher ignores taboos practiced by his friends from a different ethnic group. Cor e"ample during the fasting month Muslims fast. *t will be impolite for non-Muslim teachers to eat and drink in front of their Muslim friends or a Muslim pupils. Teachers need to practice social skills and educate the non-Muslim pupils to respect their Muslims friends who are fasting. Bimilarly if a Muslim teacher provides food to pupils during the open day in class or in the school he should consider the types of food served to pupils. Cor e"ample the *ndian pupils. Bome *ndians pupils and teachers for that matter are vegetarian. Fthers need to be sensitive to these matters and provide food suitable for vegetarians. Teachers need to manage themselves and practice mannered behaviour at all times. They also need to master language politeness covering matters such as the selection of the use of nouns and system calls speaking in the conte"t of strategy using grammatically correct sentences and sentence structure that is smooth and clear. Teachers need to be a role model using proper language and avoid improper language at all cost. Cor e"ample teachers who let pupils use the pronoun .you. referring to teachers. Teachers need to know the speaking style and the strategies used to his pupils according to the conte"t and situation of communication. /hen pupils does something wrong they should be reprimanded with right strategy to ensure that understand their mistakes and do not bear a grudge with the teacher. *f teachers do not use the right strategies pupils will not be aware of the offense committed and cause more problems in the classroom. Teacher.s ability to use polite language through the right words gentle voice intonation not in angry tone or being emotional. Teachers are less hostile when skilled in controlling their mood. Teachers who use abusive language are emotionally upset but there is teachers that lost his temper then slapped pupils. 9upils are human too and want to be respected and treated like everyone else even when they make mistakes< )arsh words that cause pupils to feel shame and lose self-confidence should be avoided. This is where politeness must be mastered by teachers to ensure perfection in communication. http://www.pro#ectlearnet.org/tutorials/teaching$positi%e$communication.html

6.:

Communication problems !aced b teachers

Bome pupils may feel too uncomfortable to communicate well in class. %ommunication is vital to the learning process. Establishing a strong system of communication in the classroom means identifying types of communication problems and working to minimi!e their effects on a pupil.s education. /orking to integrate pupils with different communication problems into the general classroom will benefit them in the long-term. ". (anguage 1arriers ,anguage barriers become a communication problem in multicultural classrooms. Goth pupils and teachers can become frustrated trying to 181

understand each other. *n schools that have a large population of a specific ethnic group teachers and pupils need to work to overcome these barriers. #. +edical Issues ; <isorders /e also have pupils who have problems include clarity voice >uality and language fluency. These problems can be relatively minor such as stuttering or the result of a more advanced medical disorder such as cerebral palsy. Gy enlisting help to work with these types of pupils teachers enable them to participate more effectively alongside their peers giving them a greater sense of achievement and pride. %. $mbarrassment Emotional issues often have a notable effect on pupils learning. A pupil often will not raise his hand to answer a >uestion ask a >uestion or participate in a class discussion. )e Hshe could be too embarrassed that others doesn.t understand and or think other pupils dont have problems< A fear of being teased for not having the right answers can prevent a pupils from learning effectively too. Teachers can prevent pupils from feeling embarrassed by creating a safe classroom environment. Always have activities that allow pupils to socialise and encourage mutual respect among them. ;. ,istening Garriers Effective listening is one of the most important factors in classroom communication. Take the time to listen to what the other person is saying. /hen someone is speaking you should not be thinking of your ne"t response. 8egative emotions may occur when certain words or body language is used. A teacher must also take care to keep emotional reactions to a minimum and focus on what the speaker is saying. Futside noise such as telephones email or construction noise can sometimes make listening difficult. This outside noise should be minimi!ed in the classroom. 3. /erception 1arriers 9erception may be a barrier to effective communication in the classroom. +ifferent people may receive and hear the same message but interpret it differently. 9aying attention to detail is also important. *mportant aspects can be missed by not covering a sub=ect in depth. A teacher should also learn to focus on both positive and negative aspects of a conversation. Gy having a distorted focus a teacher may only focus on the negative aspects of a conversation. #. .ral 1arriers %ommunication barriers in the classroom may e"ist if oral communication is not clear. %ommunication only occurs when the listener hears and understands your message in the way you meant for it to be received. Bome problems in oral communications include using words with ambiguous meanings. The teacher must make sure the pupils clearly understand the meanings of words. Another problem in oral communications is using generali!ations and stereotypes. %lassroom communication should be specific to the topic and without bias. A teacher must also take caution not to make a premature conclusion before she has all the facts about a topic or situation. Cinally a teacher must overcome any lack of self-confidence and deliver the message with assertiveness and clarity. A. Cultural 1arriers %ultural differences can be a barrier to effective communications in the classroom. *t is possible for both a teacher and a pupil to have predisposed ideas about behaviour based on what the other person.s culture is. Messages are often misunderstood if they are delivered in a way that is unfamiliar to the pupil.s culture. *t is important to dispel assumptions or biases based on cultural differences in a classroom. 182

6. /upil Con!idence 9upils. beliefs about their abilities can greatly affect their academic achievement. Those who lack self-confidence won.t try as hard in the classroom because they imagine their failure is imminent so they see no reason to try. 9upils who don.t believe they can achieve and don.t receive the proper encouragement will most certainly fail as they become more disengaged with their own learning. To help pupils build selfconfidence give them activities they can successfully complete. *n addition use scaffolding techni>ues through which you offer varying levels of support until the pupil is able to complete the task on his own. 5. /upil Interest ,earning can only occur when pupils are engaged and interested in the lesson and the information they.re learning. To keep pupils interested plan lessons that keep them active such as group activities presentations and e"periments. +on.t use the same lesson format every dayK a daily lecture or group discussion can become boring very >uickly. %reate diverse lesson plans that keep your pupils surprised and interested. ,earning is also enhanced when pupils are personally invested in the sub=ect they.re learning. *nvolve pupils in lessons by discovering their interests and encouraging them to take part in planning lessons and activities. (et feedback from pupils to discover what they learned and whether or not they found the learning e"perience en=oyable. Use this feedback to make changes to your lesson planning. "0. /upil =ome $nvironment /hile pupil instruction takes place in the classroom a pupil.s home environment has a huge impact on academic achievement. 9upils who come from families of low socioeconomic status often face particular challenges that may be as dire as not having their basic needs of food and shelter met. 9arents in these families find it difficult to provide support for their children due to increased work schedules or lack of knowledge. %hildren of diverse backgrounds may also face language and cultural learning barriers. To help bridge the gap between school and home teachers should strive to initiate open communication with parents through letters phone calls and conferences. /henever possible provide help and encouragement for pupils in need.

"". Classroom +anagement A classroom that.s loud and disorderly can create a barrier for pupil learning. 9upil misbehaviour and outbursts force teachers to deviate from the lesson to deal with the disturbance hindering pupil concentration and comprehension. (ood classroom management can end bad behaviour before it begins and offers both pupils and the teacher direction for discipline to ensure the unwanted behaviour doesn.t continue. )ave a clear plan for managing your classroom and discuss the rules and the conse>uences for breaking your rules at the beginning of the year. %ommunicate your reasoning behind each ruleK pupils are more likely to follow them if they understand why they.re necessary. Ask your pupils for feedback on the rules and listen to their concerns. 9ost your rules in the classroom and refer to them as often as necessary. These practices will help you avoid fre>uent classroom disruptions.

"#. Teacher $xpectations A teacher.s e"pectations of her pupils can create a barrier to pupil learning. *f you don.t believe a particular pupil is capable of achieving a certain goal then you may not provide the support necessary for him to do it thereby unconsciously ensuring that he doesn.t. /hile it.s impossible for teachers to go into a teaching e"perience without preconceived notions a teacher who fosters open communication and understanding with her pupils will learn to base her instruction on facts rather than perceived e"pectations. 183

=o6 to *educe 1arriers to $!!ective Communication %ommunication can be difficult sometimes even between highly articulate people whose intentions are good. *t is not easy to understand this until the barriers to communication are considered. Garriers can come in many forms. Bome are e"ternal some internal and others cultural. Understanding that barriers e"ist and that they can interfere with effective communication can be the key to overcoming them. These b arriers to communication can present in many diverse forms. /hether they are due to cultural physical emotional ethical or moral differences overcoming these communicative hurdles is important to making positive progressive steps in effective teaching and learning in a classroom setting. Gecoming ob=ective and goal oriented can help you to overcoming communication barrier. Collowing are some e"amples that you can practice in overcoming communication barriers in your classroom. &a' ,isten actively to your pupils. This is not always as obvious or easy as it sounds especially if you are handling E1 pupils needs at one time. )owever try to see the world from their point of view. *t is said that people listen to other people.s words but e"pect others to listen to their feelings. Try spending more time listening to your pupils than talking all the time in the classroom. &b' Address physical barriers to communication from the outset. 7educe noise and ensure that privacy is maintained. Make your pupils comfortable and able to see each other without physical barriers such as desks getting in the way. Tiredness hunger thirst and an uncomfortably hot or cold environment will inhibit effective communication. &c' ,earn and understand your pupils cultural differences. ,anguage differences are an obvious barrier but can be overcome either by improving your own language skills or trying to understand the local dialect or language used by your pupils. +evelop an understanding of other cultural differences such as attitudes to touching and gender issues as these can cause misunderstandings not only with pupils but also the general community where you are working. &d' Avoid the use of =argon as this can erect an instant barrier putting yourself in a dominant position let alone not being understood by your pupils< Avoid language that is confrontational or =udgmental. +o not use statements such as LDou are stupid< PK instead say L*t makes me feel proud that you are attempting to do better than yesterday. Thats great. Q.L This moves the emphasis away from blame and is less likely to make your pupils to become defensive and or withdraw themselves away from learning activities. &e' 9inpoint problematic areas for improvement. 9ersonal integrity and sincere honesty will have to work hand-in-hand in this portion of overcoming communication barriers as you will have to resolutely identify problems. 8ote if communication is based on a sense of common misunderstanding generali!ation or even lack of empathy. After identifying personal areas where improvement should be made you can begin to eliminate barriers separating you from true understanding with your pupils. &f' 7emove distractions when communicating. *n the age of technology devices that are meant for communication such as mobile telephones computer tablets etc. can actually be a distraction from it. Try to remove these distraction from the presence of communication so that your and pupils attention can be fully directed to teaching and learning activity in a classroom. &g' 7espect the boundaries of your pupils. 7emember to avoid interrupting them as they speak to ask >uestions or sharing ideas. This will help dissolve tension that may be a barrier to communication through showing respect. Avoid =umping to conclusions or finishing pupils sentences and allow them to e"press their thoughts unmolested. Cocusing on the issue at hand rather than your pupil can also help you to overcome your own preconceptions that may hinder communication in a classroom. &h' 9ractice fle"ibility in communication. 9resenting yourself as an e>ual rather than a superior than your pupils to can put them at ease. This will mean they are more likely to be comfortable sharing their ideas in a calm setting freely. ,earn to ad=ust to separate situations 184

by adapting as they unfold. Gy recogni!ing pupils verbal and non-verbal signals while ad=usting your own behaviours it will allow you to adapt to changes in classroom more efficiently. Curther reading 2 1. http2HH marvinmarshall. comHfilesHpdfHteachers Rmatter. pdf 2. http2HHwww.edchange.orgHmulticulturalHpapersHbuildingblocks.html

&ctivit : Asses the following websiteK %ommunication 9roblems in the %lassroom at http2HHwww.ehow. comHinfoRA56E;$#Rcommunication-problemsclassroom. htmlS i"!!$!Ai 9t8i0 *dentify communication problems faced by teachers in their classroom. Buggest five practical ways to overcome these barrier in enhancing and implementing effective teaching and learning in a multi-cultural classroom. sourceK http2HHwww.nettarius.comHservicesHverticalsHedusplashHpainpointsHembarrassment.pdf Conclusion

*n this chapter have been discussed with comprehensive and detailed topics related to communication skills among the teachers. Bome aspects of verbal and non-verbal skills were discussed and how communication skills are crucial to the teachers on the =ob and the role of teachers. Also discussed are the characteristics of the communication and the implications if less teachers communication skills. Bpeaking and listening skills are emphasi!ed as a key aspect of communication. 4arious issues hit the teachers and the school as a result of lack of communication skills teachers. This chapter also discussed matters relating to grammar teacher communication skills to ensure full and complete and unwavering aspects that are evaluated in terms of politeness and modesty speaking not speak. *e!erences >sed Education blueprint in line with Unesco.s2 +9M . 8ew Btraits Times downloaded from http2HHwww.nst.com.myHlatestHeducation-blueprint-inline-with-unesco-s-dpm-$.E#A3#3Si"!!0gfJTUgy( on EH5H01$E. (oleman +aniel &$55#'. Emotional intelligence2 /hy it matter more than *U. Gloomsburry ,ondon. (oleman +aniel &$555'. /orking with Emotionalk *ntelligence. Gantam 8ew Dork. Mok Boon Bang &011#'. Education Btudies&Theme $'2 Educational 9sychology. Multi-media. EB7esources Bdn. Ghd. 9uchong. 7obiah Bidin &$55E'. %lassroom Management. Juala ,umpur2 Ca=ar Gakti Bd. Ghd. Bocial ,earning Theory at http2HHwww.learning-theories.comHsocial-learning-theory-bandura.html downloaded on EH5H01$E /ang M.%. )aertel (.+. : /alberg ).?. &$55;'. Educational resilience in inner cities. *n M.%. /ang : E. (ordon &Eds.' Educational resilience in inner-city America2 %hallenges and prospects &pp. ;3-A0'. )illsdale 8?2 Erlbaum. /ang. Margaret %. and +. )aertel. 5 V017elationships.pdf on 0H5H01$E. 8 .Teacher *elationships. downloaded at http2HHmsan.wceruw.orgHresourcesHTeacher

/ractice ?uestions 185

$. A teachers verbal and non-verbal communication is essential to form a dynamic relationship between a teacher and his pupils. /ith the skills the teacher will be able to produce creativity in teaching and learning. a. +escribe five problems teachers should avoid that can affect the effectiveness of communication in a classroom. b. +iscuss five implications on pupils if a teacher fails to implement an effective communication in his teaching and learning.

(lossary gestures *t is a form of communication which has movement of the hands or body but it.s also a movement that has some meaning idea opinion intention or emotion behind it. Cor e"ample the gestures o& an orator; a threatening gesture. Bpecial words or e"pressions that are used by a particular profession or group and are difficult for others to understand. 8on-verbal communications include facial e"pressions the tone and pitch of the voice gestures displayed through body language &kinesics' posture eye contact paralanguage closeness or personal Bpace &9ro"emics' facial E"pressions and physiological changes. &ural refers to the act of hearing a sound or listening to speech while oral refers to the act of speaking aloud. Bimilarly teachers who lecture to their classes are relying on aural instruction since it re>uires the pupils to listen to the information. *n a classroom setting a pupil would give an oral report by standing in front of the class and reading the report out loud. /hether aural or oral is correct depends on a person.s point of view. *f one is listening to the sound then aural is the proper word. *f one is talking then oral is correct. A communication structure is the pattern of interaction that e"ists in every social system. *t is an act of conveying messages ideas or feelings through the use of mouth W a main way of communicating face-to-face. Among the key components of the verbal communication are words sound speaking and language.

=argon 8on-verbal

Fral and Aural skills

Btructured communication 4erbal

$ @ T*& *ea di ng ma ter i a l Bource2 http2HHwww.skillsyouneed.comHipsHnonverbal-communication.html 7esearch work has identified the different categories of body movement that are detailed below with each category describing the purpose they commonly serve2 $mblems: (estures that serve the same function as a word are called emblems. Cor e"ample the signals that mean .FJ. .%ome here<. or the hand movement used when hitch-hiking. )owever be aware that whilst some emblems are internationally recognised others may need to be interpreted in their cultural conte"t. 186

Illustrators: (estures which accompany words to illustrate a verbal message are known as illustrators. Cor e"ample the common circular hand movement which accompanies the phrase .over and over again. or nodding the head in a particular direction when saying .over there.. &!!ect <ispla s: These are facial e"pressions or gestures which show the emotions we feel. These are often unintentional and can conflict with what is being said. Buch e"pressions give strong clues as to the true emotional state of a person. *egulators: (estures used to give feedback when conversing are called regulators for e"ample head nods short sounds such as .uh-huh. .mm-mm. and e"pressions of interest or boredom. 7egulators allow the other person to adapt his or her speech to reflect the level of interest or agreement. /ithout receiving feedback many people find it difficult to maintain a conversation. &daptors: 8on-verbal behaviours which either satisfy some physical need such as scratching or ad=usting uncomfortable glasses or represent a psychological need such as biting fingernails when nervous. Although normally subconscious adaptors are more likely to be restrained in public places than in the private world of individuals where they are less likely to be noticed. Adaptive behaviours often accompany feelings of an"iety or hostility.

/osture 9osture can reflect people.s emotions attitudes and intentions. 7esearch has identified a wide range of postural signals and their meanings such as2 .pen and Closed /osture: Two forms of posture have been identified Iopen and Iclosed which may reflect an individual.s degree of confidence status or receptivity to another person. Bomeone seated in a closed position might have hisHher arms folded legs crossed or be positioned at a slight angle from the person with whom they are interacting. *n an open posture you might e"pect to see someone directly facing you with hands apart on the arms of the chair. An open posture can be used to communicate openness or interest in someone and a readiness to listen whereas the closed posture might imply discomfort or disinterest. +irroring: 8otice the way a loving couple relate to each other. Dou might like to observe a close relationship in person or on television. Dou will see that the partners. postures will match as if one partner is a mirror reflection of the other. Cor e"ample if one partner drapes an arm over the back of a chair this might be replicated in the other person.s position. *f one partner frowns it could be reflected in the other partner.s facial e"pression. This .mirroring. indicates interest and approval between people and serves to reassure others of interest in them and what they are saying.

$ e Contact Eye contact is an important aspect of non-verbal behaviour. *n interpersonal interaction it serves three main purposes2 To give and receive !eedback 2 ,ooking at someone lets them know that the receiver is concentrating on the content of their speech. 8ot maintaining eye contact can indicate disinterest. %ommunication may not be a smooth process if a listener averts their eyes too fre>uently. To let a partner kno6 6hen it is their 2turn2 to speak 2 This is related to the above point. Eye contact is more likely to be continuous when someone is listening rather than speaking. /hen a person has finished what they have to say they will look directly at the other person and this gives a signal that the arena is open. *f someone does not want to be interrupted eye contact may be avoided. To communicate something about a relationship bet6een people 2 /hen you dislike someone you tend to avoid eye contact and pupil si!e is often reduced. Fn the other hand the maintenance of positive eye contact signals interest or attraction in a partner.

/ara-language 9ara-language relates to all aspects of the voice which are not strictly part of the verbal message including the tone and pitch of the voice the speed and volume at which a message is delivered and pauses and hesitations between words.

187

These signals can serve to indicate feelings about what is being said. Emphasising particular words can imply whether or not feedback is re>uired. Closeness and /ersonal Space 5/roxemics8 $ver culture has di!!erent levels o! ph sical closeness appropriate to di!!erent t pes o! relationshipA and individuals learn these distances !rom the societ in 6hich the gre6 up. *n today.s multicultural society it is important to consider the range of non-verbal codes as e"pressed in different ethnic groups. /hen someone violates an .appropriate. distance people may feel uncomfortable or defensive. Their actions may well be open to misinterpretation. *n /estern society four distances have been defined according to the relationship between the people involved the study of personal space is termed proxemics. The four main categories of pro"emics are2 *ntimate +istance &touching to ;3cm' 9ersonal +istance &;3cm to $.0m' Bocial +istance &$.0m to E.#m' 9ublic +istance &E.Am to ;.3m' These four distances are associated with the four main types of relationship - intimate personal social and public. Each of the distances are divided into two giving a close phase and a far phase thus making eight divisions in all. *t is worth noting that these distances are considered the norm in Bestern Societ 2 Intimate <istance: 7anges from close contact &touching' to the .far. phase of $3-;3cm. *n Gritish society it tends to be seen as an inappropriate distance for public behaviour and as mentioned above entering the intimate space of another person with whom you do not have a close relationship can be e"tremely disturbing. /ersonal <istance: The .far. phase of personal distance is considered to be the most appropriate for people holding a conversation. At this distance it is easy to see the other person.s e"pressions and eye movements as well as their overall body language. )andshaking can occur within the bounds of personal distance. Social <istance: This is the normal distance for impersonal business for e"ample working together in the same room or during social gatherings. Beating is also importantK communication is far more likely to be considered as a formal relationship if the interaction is carried out across a desk. *n addition if the seating arrangements are such that one person appears to look down on another an effect of domination may be created. At a social distance speech needs to be louder and eye contact remains essential to communication otherwise feedback will be reduced and the interaction may end. /ublic <istance: Teachers and public speakers address groups at a public distance. E"aggerated non-verbal communication is necessary if effective communication is to occur. Bince subtle facial e"pressions are lost at this distance so clear hand gestures are often used as a substitute. ,arger head movements are also typical of an e"perienced public speaker who is aware of changes in the way body language is perceived at longer distances.

>nderstanding these distances allo6s us to approach others in non-threatening and appropriate 6a s. /eople can begin to understand ho6 others !eel about themA ho6 the vie6 the relationship andA i! appropriateA ad7ust their behaviour accordingl . As you can see non-verbal communication is an e"tremely comple" yet integral part of overall communication skills. /eople are o!ten totall una6are o! the non-verbal behaviour the use. A basic awareness of these aspects of communication strategies over and above what is actually said can help to improve interaction with others. Jnowledge of these signs can be used to encourage people to talk about their concerns and can lead to a greater shared understanding.

http2HHwww.ourpacificocean.comHmalaysiaRaspectsHinde".htm *ntroduction Malaysia is a multi-racial country consisting predominantly of three races2 the Malays or Gumiputera &9rinces of the Boil' the %hinese and the *ndians. Although the multi-racial aspect may not in itself be anything unusual the uni>ue feature here is that these three ethnic groups can live side by side &and they have been doing so for a long time now' yet still keep their own separate and individual identities. )owever the Malay culture is generally accepted as a norm in MalaysiaK their traditions culture and eti>uette in particular. 188

Malaysian culture today is a healthy mi" of five distinct cultures - its own indigenous culture as well as *slamic %hinese *ndian and /estern cultures. A Malaysian can safely say that they are very proud to have such a rich and uni>ue blend of traditions and cultures. There may be countless things to observe but this is what makes Malaysians truly the people of Malaysia2 a people from different ethnic religious and cultural backgrounds who all have a healthy respect for each other. The usual Malay way when entertaining people of both se"es is that the men will be invited to sit together and the ladies will be invited to sit together i.e. the opposite se"es are segregated. The more modern Malays would probably do away with this sort of segregation but a hostess may segregate only the older Malays and leave the younger ones to mingle &not a general norm'. Although there are no rules for the men please note that the following are not the correct ways of sitting down in a Malay house2 /ith your legs crossed with our legs placed straight in front of your body and s>uatting. The proper way of sitting for ladies &Malay style' is as follows2 you would sit with your two legs neatly tucked against your seated body &left or right side is fine' with the feet facing awa' from people &as much as possible'. *f you can somehow manage it tuck your feet under the hem of your dress. %rossing the legs at the knees is considered rude in front of older Malay people and is absolutely forbidden in front of senior Malay royalty < Cor further reading for Malay custom go to 2 http2HHwww$.sarawak.com.myHorgHhornbillHmyHswkHborneoHmalaysH http2HHkheru011#.i6.comHE+UE$1#H#RkemahiranRkomunikasiRguru.htm 1uilding 1locks: The Cirst Steps o! Creating a +ulticultural Classroom by ,arri Cish of Biena %ollege

+iscovering diversity takes creativity e"tra effort diligence and courage on the teacher.s part. Thus &merican public schools have rarely offered an enthusiastic welcome for student difference. )owever a multicultural classroom must thrive on these differences and use them as a foundation for growth and development. +ifferences command work resolution openness and understanding. Teachers who address these differences and add them to the curriculum will succeed in creating a multicultural classroom that will advance the educational goals of all students. The following essay discusses some of the very basic elements of a multicultural classroom and a brief reflection on observations made at )ackett Middle Bchool in Albany 8ew Dork. Teachers in multicultural classrooms must be open to their students and put !orth the e!!ort needed to get to kno6 their students inside and outside o! class. *f a teacher is hesitant about being open the class will reciprocate and the students will become estranged from one another and the teacher. *n order to be open teachers must be interested in their students fearless willing to try new and different things sure of themselves in order to avoid taking things personally and non-=udgmental of his or her students &%anning $5#'. Also openness is not making assumptions and being prepared for the une"pected &%anning $55'. *n the Me"ican-American culture children are accustomed to hugging kissing or touching &arm s>uee!ing or rubbing the back of' figures of authority. %hristine %anning &author of L(etting Crom the Futside *n2 Teaching Me"ican Americans /hen Dou Are an .Anglo.L' writes of her e"perience L* noticed that students touched my hand or arm while talking to me. * was feeling uncomfortable with this until it occurred to me that touching might be a cultural behaviorL &$5A'. %anning.s initial close-mindedness toward the touching could.ve caused an awful situation especially because the students were doing their best to be absolutely respectful. After discussing the students. behavior with a fellow teacher %anning learned that the students were showing her respect and in no way trying to make her feel uncomfortable. Many cultures have many different mores and folkways. Teachers must be open to what the students are doing and find out why they do what they do. This openness will create communication in the class which will ultimately develop into a classroom that is learning understanding and culturally fluent. *n addition to openness teachers must kno6 the learning patterns o! the students in their class. Teachers must understand the learning patterns of the students who grew up in a culture other than their own. *sraeli children for e"ample are taught to readily critici!e an instructor who they feel is saying something that is incorrect while 4ietnamese children will not say a word during class unless called upon to 189

regurgitate memori!ed material &?ones $1'. Btudents from *srael differ greatly from students from 4ietnam which may create a culture clash in the classroom. 4ietnamese students will think the *sraeli students are rude brash unnerving and e"tremely obno"ious. *n fact the teacher may find that they feel the same way about the overly critical *sraeli students. )owever if the teacher knows that *sraeli students tend to critici!e their professors and is open to the fact that they do this because it is socially encouraged and acceptable in the *sraeli school system than the teacher can calmly e"plain to the students that while critical thinking is wonderful it is not okay to openly critici!e the teacher in front of the entire class on a consistent basis. Therefore read=usting the participation structure of the classroom in a calm and professional manner. 4ietnamese students can be hard for a teacher to understand and grow accustomed to as well. *f a teacher uses instructional methods like group discussion student presentations and tries to activate students as they lecture the teacher may become frustrated disenchanted and may even think that 4ietnamese students are below average students with below average intelligence. This is not the case 4ietnamese students are taught to sit listen and recite memori!ed information. Btudents in 4ietnam do not participate in the class and believe everything that the instructor says is absolutely true. Teachers who open themselves up to cultural difference will effectively handle culture clash while teachers who assume that *sraeli students are rude and 4ietnamese students are dumb will close communication in the classroom and destroy any hope of having a multicultural classroom. The best way to handle culture clash is to be openA kno6ledgeableA and not be a!raid to talk about the cultural di!!erences in class no matter 6hat discipline the teacher is teaching &?ones $0'. An open teacher will create an open class and an open class will have open lines of communication that will create a positive and beneficial learning environment for everyone. ,anguage difference is another ma=or issue that teachers must address when establishing a multicultural classroom. A teacher 6ho tries to learn the native tongue o! her or his studentsA i! onl a 6ord or t6oA 6ill conve respect !or the culture o! his or her students and increase their potentiall su!!ering sel!-esteem &9ere! $30'. *ntroducing the language or culture of all students in the class into the curriculum will communicate that students of that culture are important &9ere! $3E'. )owever a teacher should not assume that a L,atinolookingL student grew up in the ,atino culture and knows about it. Many times ,atino students &and other students from different races and ethnicities' will have grown up in the same culture as all the other students who grew up in America &unfortunately this culture is most often known as the Lt.v. cultureL that is taking over American households'. Therefore teachers should not rely on L,atino-lookingL students for information about the ,atino culture. *f you are teaching a unit on ,atino culture ask the students out of class whether or not they can contribute to the lesson and do not be surprised of they tell you that they do not know anything about ,atino culture. Thirdly do not Lgo overboardL and bring up the ,atino culture in every class =ust to make the ,atino students feel better this will only embarrass them. 9erhaps the biggest fault of a te"tbook that contains information from European-American perspective whether good or bad is that it will suggest to students that the European-American culture is the most important culture and that %aucasians are somehow superior to other cultures. %ertainly this is not true but in the immediate past and even today our educational system is sending this message to students across America. Multicultural classrooms incorporate content from different cultures E4E7D+AD so that all cultures are considered valuable and wonderful. *n order to establish a respect for other cultures in the classroom teachers must move be ond Dmulticultural momentsD or pseudomulticulturalism &Miller 66'. %elebrating Glack )istory month is a great e"ample of a multicultural moment that many teachers incorporate into their curriculum once a year. 8ot only do Glack )istory units presented e"clusively in Cebruary hinder the ability for teachers to cover a wide range of cultures at the same time creating this type of curriculum sends a message to students that Glack )istory is separate from and inferior to European )istory. This is true because Glack )istory will only be discussed once a year &Glack )istory Month' and it will be discussed separate from the chronological order that is used when discussing European )istory &most of the time'. )oward M. Miller suggests that one very simple way for A,, teachers to add multicultural ideas and content to his or her curriculum is to build a classroom librar o! multicultural literature &Miller 66'. 8o matter what sub=ect you teach you can build a library of books by andHor 190

about different cultures. A math book written by an African-American man or woman will send good messages to a population of students that has seen math books that e"clusively features the writing style and craftsmanship of a European-American. *ncorporating multicultural literature in to the class is very important if teachers do not do this they will fall into a trap of buying Lthe book that has always been usedL or La book that is good enough.L Thoughts like those will lead teachers to a sad day when they.re packing up all their books on the last day of school and suddenly they reali!e that they have been sending a message to their students that only /hite people e"ist in Math. This is the message that many students are getting today no matter if they are /hite Glack Asian and )ispanic etc... that teachers must do away with. Teachers who own literature by authors form different backgrounds is great but it is not enough. True multicultural activities must be ongoing and integrated dail in both in!ormal and !ormal activities . (loria Goutte and %hristine Mc%ormick suggest si" basic principles for teachers to use when evaluating their culturally diverse classroom these are L$' building multicultural programs 0' showing appreciation of differences E' avoiding stereotypes ;' acknowledging differences in children 3' discovering the diversity within the classroom #' avoiding pseudomulticulturalismL &$;1'. Bhowing appreciation of differences is very important because a teacher who does not show appreciation of all the differences in their class will not get the chance to attempt any of the other five principles. Teachers need to pay attention to their verbal and nonverbal language when he or she responds to students who speak differently. Cor e"ample if a child reads L+ere go the stoman L the teacher should avoid interrupting the student to provide the correct English version. *nstead the teacher should thank the student for reading and then model the correct English version when she or he speaks. )owever the most important thing to remember about all classrooms is the premise that every child is uni>ue. All children are different and beautiful in their own way no one student should feel e"cluded from the class especially if the reason they feel they are e"cluded is based on race ethnicity or color. Teachers need to show the color of our world every time they enter a classroom whether math science art or physical education. An important step in teaching children to be comfortable with their cultural background and essentially themselves is to encourage and value their input in a small group o! other students. This has to do with the organi!ation of the classroom and the development of lesson plans. /hen grouping students teachers should put students from differing backgrounds together. The term Ldiffering backgroundsL refers to &in general' two types of students from two different learning styles. Btudents who are from a sociali!ed culture that prioriti!es group achievement cooperation obedience and respect toward authority tend to be e"ternally motivated dependent on praise and reinforcement from significant others and more responsive to a socially oriented curriculum. %ountries that teach using a social structure and curriculum include *srael (ermany and *taly. /hile students who are from cultures that emphasi!e individualism assertiveness personal initiative and material well-being &4ietnam ?apan United Btates' tend to be analytical competitive impersonal and task-oriented &?ones $;'. Although it is imperative that students be considered on an individual basis students will &to varying degrees' tend to be more like one category than the other. (rouping socially oriented children with children who are task-oriented and impersonal allows the teacher to confront e"plore and celebrate difference. An accomplished teacher should be able to create pro7ects !or a group o! students !rom di!!erent backgrounds that 6ill re?uire students to 6ork togetherA there!ore allo6ing each student to be an important part o! the group and learn in!ormation through the interaction o! the group. ,esson plans that can do this and interest students will become invaluable for teachers to possess as the need for teachers to become culturally fluent continues to grow. )ackett Middle Bchool located in Albany 8ew Dork is one of the most diverse schools in the Albany area. The student population is mi"ed between students of ,atino African-American European-American Asian and Me"ican-American descents. /hile observing a team of Ath grade students on the dates of Cebruary 0A 0110 through March $ 0110 * found their attempts to create multicultural classrooms noble and >uite good but the potential for improvement is immense. The first and most striking observation * made were the percentage of /hite students to the percentage of students of colour in the honours and LslowL classes. *n the LhonoursL group there are thirteen /hite children and only eight students that are of a different race. The LslowL class on the other hand is comprised of two /hite students and nineteen students of different races &mostly ,atino and African-American'. %learly there are some ine>uities in the evaluation process. The /hite students are probably receiving better grades because the make-up of the LhonorsL and LslowL classes are determined by the students. averages. )owever as a teacher or an administrator one must look at why the /hite students are receiving better grades. *s the evaluation 191

process !air to all races and ethnicitiesE The evaluation process is too complicated and lengthy to observe in three days but if some data and observations were made at )ackett Middle Bchool over a long period of time investigation will probably show that the evaluation process favours the %aucasian students. Along the same lines the two days * spent tutoring children in *.B.B. opened my eyes to another possible bias at )ackett. All the students &$# total' in *.B.B. on both days were of either African-American or Me"ican-American descent including the teachers. *n a school that has such a large population of /hite students why are none of them in *.B.B. while si"teen students of colour were currently serving time in L*n Bchool Buspension.L A long investigation would be needed to find out if there is a bias among the teachers who send the students to *.B.B. but the evidence that * gathered on my brief observation is mildly alarming. Teachers at )ackett are doing a great =ob of using multicultural literature and the other basic principles listed earlier in this paper. /hile * observing Mrs. Anderson.s English class the LhonoursL class was reading The )ouse on Mango Btreet by Bandra %isneros which is a story about a )ispanic girl named Esperan!a and her search for identity while growing up in a town of mi"ed races. )owever * saw no math science or history books written by authors of colour while * was a )ackett. This is a huge step in creating a multicultural classroom that all teachers can do. Additionally putting students into bi-racial groups is an area where )ackett needs some improvement. *n science class the students sit two per table and only one table in the whole classroom of twenty-three students &fourteen /hite and nine African or Me"icanAmericans' was comprised of a /hite student and a student that is either African or Me"ican-American. Also in an English class with a similar ratio of /hite students to students of colour Mrs. Anderson split the class into groups and only one group was comprised of students of different races and it was the Lwho.s ever leftL group. %reating multicultural classrooms is a growing priority for all teachers and administrators. This includes restructuring classroom evaluation and punishment techni>ues but more importantly it includes embracing difference and opening up the classroom for communication. Bchools like )ackett Middle Bchool in Albany 8ew Dork are making vast improvements in this area but more still needs to be done. This is a colourful world let us the future teachers make sure that we paint our classrooms with these colours every single day.

Borks Cited Goutte (loria B. and %hristine Mc%ormick. LAuthentic Multicultural Activities2 Avoiding 9seudomulticulturalism.L %hildhood Education #6 &$550'2 $;1-;;. %anning %hristine. L(etting from the Futside *n2 Teaching Me"ican Americans /hen Dou Are an .Anglo..L )igh Bchool ?ournal A6 &$553'2 $53-013. ?ones %harlotte M. 9ractical Applications of Multicultural %ommunication Theory in the %lassroom Betting. Typed version of speech given at the Annual Meeting of The /estern Bpeech %ommunication Association &Cresno %A Ceb. $#-$5 $563'. Ja!emek Crancis E. LAfrican ,iterature in the Becondary English ,anguage Arts %lassroom.L English ?ournal 6; &$553'2 53-$10. Miller )oward M. LGeyond .Multicultural Moments. &Middle (orund'.L English ?ournal 6# &$55A'2 66-51. 9ere! Bamuel A. L7esponding +ifferently to +iversity.L %hildhood Education A1 &$55;'2 $3$-3E. Tomic Alice +. C. L%hallenges and 7ewards in the Mi"ed %ulture %lassroom.L %ollege Teaching ;; &$55#'2 #5-AE.

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