THE INFLUENCE OF MICROCLIMATE AND EXISTING CONTAMINATION

ON THE PERIODONTAL
LUPULESCU TEODORA EVA1, COJOCARU IOANA2, MORARIU STELIAN3
ANGELA CODRUŢA PODARIU4, URTILĂ EMIL5 COVRIG VALERIA6
1. University of Medicine and Pharmacy „Victor Babes“ Timisoara, teaching assistant
Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, Arad.
2. University of Medicine and Pharmacy „Victor Babes“ Timisoara, student.
3. University of Medicine “Vasile Goldiş” Arad.
4. Department of Preventive, Community Dentistry and Oral Health, Faculty of
Dentistry,University of Medicine and Pharmacy „Victor Babes“ Timisoara, Romania.
5. Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy
„Victor Babes“ Timisoara Romania.
6. Department of Dental Prosthetics, University of Medicine “Vasile Goldiş” Arad
ABSTRACT
The problem of microclimate influence and the contamination on the periodontal
represents a much less studied domain. This domain is at the border between the
pathology of professional and dental diseases. In different branches of industrial activity
an important number of people are exposed to special conditions of caloric radiation,
electromagnetic or substances as: plumb, chromium, cadmium, iron, arsenic, or silica.
The oral manifestations in contaminant poisoning represent a gate of the toxins in the
human body and are the place of early manifestations of general diseases. Symptoms
such as: gingival line, periodontitis or gingival inflammations can be characteristic signs
of alarm and often occur early, a long time before the general symptoms.

Key words: contamination, microclimate, periodontal, stomatitis, plumb

Correspondence to:
Lupulescu Teodora Eva,
Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, Arad
Adress: com.Tudor Vladimirescu, M Eminescu nr.60, ARAD
Phone: 0745063958
E-mail address: teodora_lupulescu@yahoo.com

1

The annual research in the air-spatial domain. as the presence of favorable conditions can cause functional and morphological manifestations at different organs and systems. and also the use of speed devices in various branches of science and engineering have opened up tremendous opportunities for the use of radio-electronics. cosmic rays. in some circumstances. toxic substances penetration into the human body over the allowed limits. different sex with seniority in work from 5 to 20 2 . barometric pressure drop. agricultural.INTRODUCTION The dependence of living organisms to the environment is reported from the ancient times. which involves determining the negative effects of radio waves made by the human body. MATERIAL AND METHOD The occupational disease study involving a great difficulty that comes from both firms operating analyze subjects and are not interested in providing casework illnesses and diseases in which are involved several organs and affected systems. light. The widespread use of devices equipment in national economy and development of devices industry led to a situation where large groups of persons are exposed to radio waves in the microwave band. radio navigation. and the desire for profit made for the human exposure that produces or consumes these products to be more varied in contamination. In this regard. The salivary flow decreases in volume. and the development of preventive and protective measures. television. there were issues of paramount industrial hygiene. electromagnetic radiation. either decreased overall body strength exhibit. humidity. toxic fumes. The degree of exposure depends on the length and concentration of pollutants. The explosive development in radioelectronics and its widespread penetration in different sectors of the economy (radio communication. including the oral cavity. The complexity of industrial technologic processes. During a long-term exposure to harmful substances. Physical agents acting on organisms can be divided in two big categories: • Natural physical environments including: heat. toxic substances. noise. the microbial germs forming the oral plaque cannot be removed in normal conditions. toxic substances. development of automation and communication. electromagnetic radiation. a therapeutic action on the human body. cold. and becomes more viscous and more acid and therefore is no longer easily self-cleaning of food debris. radar. radio astronomy etc. • Artificial physical environments include: air pollution. At the subjects analyzed are superimposed the direct action of harmful substances simultaneously with the irritation type of noxious agents or the microclimate. the processes leading to development of multiple caries and inflammatory type periodontitis. setting the maximum permissible exposure levels. atmospheric pollution among these after the dental exam a group of 48 subjects of different age. The study of this radiation led to the belief that radio waves in the microwave band can have both pathogenic effects and. noise. such as metals and non-metals. The study that we conducted in collaboration with the Department of Occupational Diseases Hospital of Arad Municipality was carried out on 284 subjects working in conditions of exposure to harmful action of toxic fumes. radio-spectroscopy.) led to a situation where the number of people who come into contact with microwave radiation is increasing with each passing year. The occurrence of such oral events portends either increased oral intake of toxic.

Table and graphic no. and also the support of the mangers. road construction industry. The subjects were evaluated in natural light. clothing industry. in write and signed. Before starting this study the subjects were informed about its purpose and their consent were obtained.years coming from businesses which are exposed to various toxins. Were not included in the study the subjects who have not given their consent or they did not received it from the manger. presented dental disorders associated with professional illnesses. construction industry of machinery parts. disposable dental mirror) with detailed examination of dental and periodontal affected areas. trade and services) 3 . and the suspects were explored with the probe to determine the contours and the surface defects.1 Distribution of sujects by gender SUBJECTS WOMEN 284 88 MEN 196 SUBJECTS REVIEW women 21% men 79% Statistically the number of men enrolled in this study is higher because they were subject to study in the small and medium companies (wood processing industry. Were visually inspected. It was necessary obtaining the permission of the company manger to develop the research. forceps. Diagnosis was made by comparison with standard images after from medical point of view was familiar with the injuries as defined by the authors. The clinical exam was performed by a single dentist with dental instruments (probe. The natural light or artificial was used according to the examination conditions.

Table no. 2 Seniority of subjects 1year-5years 76 5years-10years 49 10years-15years 148 15years-20years 11 total 284 LENGTH OF WORK 148 160 140 120 100 76 80 49 60 40 11 20 0 1year-5years 5years-10years 10years-15years 15years-20years Regarding the working years. It is noted due to economic difficulties of the free market that the number of companies resists in time without changing the profile is less and therefore the number of those that have seniority in the area is reduced with 4% (the ones with seniority 15 years – 20 years). 3 The predictor level of the microclimate and occupational contamination VARIABLE GENDERS MEN WOMEN SENIORITY 1-5 years 5-10 years 10-15 years 15-20 years LABOR CONDITIONS Pb Cu Hg Se Phosphates Acrylic Stress Physical exhaustion Radiations No of SUBJECTS PERCENTAGE % 284 196 88 69% 31% 148 76 49 11 52% 27% 17% 4% 108 75 9 17 38 29 241 209 56 38% 29% 3% 6% 13% 10% 85% 74% 20% 4 .Table and graphic no. the ones with age from 1 years and 5 years is very high 52% because exists a high migration of labor.

6% 8.3% 77.9% 33.8% 1.3% 45.3% 22.7% 43% 20.3% 39.2% TREATMENT EMERGENCY CONSERVATIVE 2 2 1 2 6 5 2 1 8 1 10 2 7 11 5 16 7 5 5 21 2 1 3 2 145 110 46 29 Figure 1.1% 16. tartaric deposits teeth. hyper chrome dental deposits Table no. 6 5 .3% 6. 4 Oral manifestations and their degree of addressability at the specialized treatment VARIABLE No SUBJECTS % Congestive buccal mucosa with glossy aspect Edematous gingival mucosa Ulcerated gingival mucosa True periodontal pockets False periodontal pockets Periodontal abscess Spontaneous gingival Caused gingival Gingival retractions Gingival hypertrophy Teeth with tartaric deposits Gingival lizereu Hyper chrome dental deposits Simple caries Complicated dental caries Extractions 2 4 3 19 4 11 16 37 24 12 46 5 8 362 171 694 0.1% 50% 25% 95.Vicious positions LIVING CONDITIONS >1000 lei <1000lei EDUCATIONAL LEVEL >10 classes <10 classes 197 7% 125 159 44% 56% 72 212 25% 75% Table no.5% 8. periodontal abscess.

thus worsening the situation.08%) and much smaller percentage marginal periodontitis with atrophic aspect (8.33% 27.1%) (chewing.Dental maxillary apparatus diseases at the analyzed subjects VARIABLE Necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis Medium intensity stomatitis Easy stomatitis Congestive form Catarrhal form Ulcerative form Marginal chronic profound periodontitis with atrophic appearance Superficial marginal chronic periodontitis Periodontal abscess Glossitis No SUBJECTS 1 9 % 2.16% 2. in case of a stomatitis with medium intensity and much rare as necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis. gingival papillae congestion as purple-red color. 6 . Regarding the periodontal marginal lesions. medium intensity stomatitis RESULTS Generally the symptoms and manifestations at the dental-maxillary apparatus that we have found during the course development and we have shown in the tables from above falls among those described in the specialized literature.33%). Gingival lisereum present only in 5 cases was determined by the presence of tartaric blocks favorable in the retention areas (dental or prosthetic ingrowth iatrogenic).08% 8. Gingival bleeding caused at chewing or brushing make them to stop the oral hygiene. The most common oral lesions at the bucal mucosa were detected in the form of spontaneous gingival bleeding (33. frequently occurs gingival stomatitis. as necrotic ulcerative stomatitis. scarlet with Pb. tooth brushing). with fake periodontal pockets and sometimes periodontal abscess (22.6% 4. having different colors depending on the type of contamination. These manifestations were found at the subjects that work in medium with environmental exposure at Hg. As a clinical manifestations I frequently met gingival swelling. The features is that due to the chronic exposure to work experience of over 10 years.08% Figure 2: marginal atrophic periodontitis. commonly encountered are superficial marginal gingivitis and periodontitis (27. grey. periodontal abscess. Pb.75% 6 2 1 4 13 11 1 12. the patients accuses sensation of gum itching.08% 22. black with Hg or green with Cu.3%) and especially challenging (77.08% 18.92% 2.9%). Cu. Subjectively.

Xu X (2003) Correlation between periodontal status and biting ability in Chinese adult population. A. deep chronic marginal periodontitis either it is shallow or profound it takes clinical forms by early involution of periodontal towards the age of the subject. Oxford University Press. Entomol.Morita M. Daniel. 8: 329Ð335. the consciousness of properly wearing the protection equipment. 5. D. The relationship between vegetative habitat type and tick abundance and distribution in Cherokee Co. and J. 1971. Kimura T. Ecological dynamics of tick-borne zoonoses. Zhou R. J. Watanabe T. Jolanki R. radiation.. Oklahoma. Mather [eds. statistically I ascertain that the number of simple caries (43%) or complicated (20. Yang J. Fukushima M. J.From clinical observations that we conducted in this study. establishment of preventive measures. Van der Bilt A (1993) Comminution of two artificial test foods by dentate and edentulous subjects. 2. Dusba´bek. longer working hours. J Oral Rehabil 29. Med. Howell. 1994. age. dental hygiene. New York.Kanerva L. they can be a warning signal.]. Exposure to pollutants has does not have a cariogenic effect. The occupational risks are unavoidable in many professions. except for acute intoxication. CONCLUSIONS We can say with certainty that the mechanism of periodontitis occurrence in exposures to pollutions and microclimate influences is extremely complex and depends heavily to the prior exposure dental status.3%) is no higher at this one’s than at the subjects non-exposed. 4. those who often neglect or ignore wearing protective equipment.Semtner. I. Employers should be guided by the dictum “to be occupational productive. heat variations and light intensity). 91Ð138. False-negative patch test reactions due to a lower concentration of a patch test substances then declared. Micrometeorological and microhabitat factors affecting maintenance and dissemination of tick-borne diseases in the environment.” Must be remembered that each technology can exert a direct negative impact on the recipient and his family. Slagter AP. Must always be a balance between maximum and minimum benefits without affecting in any way the health. P.. E. 7 . and F. 42: 219-99. Sonenshine and T. It is clear that despite numerous technical progress there are still many risks of occupational illnesses. pp. Hair. Contact Dermatitis 2000. 3. Estalender T. Regarding the dental lesions at the subjects exposed to a toxic environment. working years in the environment. In D. should be healthy. 97-186. The ecology and behavior of the lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae). Bosman F. N. Yamashita F. Nishi K. M. DISSCUSIONS Oral manifestations at contaminant exposure and micro-climate variations we have found that although are not in a first place of a general symptomatology. but irritant action of superimposed pollution (stress. Alanko K.. that indicates a decrease in overall body strength. J Oral Rehabil 30. We ascertain that toxic work environment for the subjects group 1 year – 5 years is not a decisive factor in the onset of disease. REFERENCE 1. E.

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